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Sample records for academic environment lay

  1. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  2. Polluted environment and cold weather induce laying gaps in great tit and pied flycatcher.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2010-02-01

    We studied the occurrence of laying gaps in free-living populations of the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, and the great tit, Parus major, in a pollution gradient of a copper smelter in south-west Finland. Laying gaps were 2.8 times more common in F. hypoleuca than in P. major. The probability of laying gaps was highest in the heavily polluted zone and lowest in the unpolluted zone for both bird species. Cold weather at the time of laying increased the number of laying gaps in both species, but in P. major this effect was most pronounced in the heavily polluted environment. In the most heavily polluted environment the laying gaps were more likely to occur near the beginning of the laying sequence in both species. The laying gap probability increased with increasing laying date in P. major but not in F. hypoleuca. We suggest that the increased number of laying gaps in the polluted environment results from limited Ca availability and the interference of heavy metals with Ca metabolism in laying females. PMID:19784674

  3. Creating environments that foster academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Tippitt, Michelle Pixley; Ard, Nell; Kline, Juanita Reese; Tilghman, Joan; Chamberlain, Barbara; Meagher, P Gail

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies related to academic dishonesty within the nursing student population have been published; however, little has been written in the nursing literature regarding academic integrity and means of promoting this value. In addition to the many short-term solutions to prevent cheating and dissuade academic misconduct that are offered, solutions that promote long-term affective changes underlying the acquisition of academic integrity are needed. This article provides a context for discussions related to academic integrity, explores issues facing faculty when dealing with this challenge, and offers short-term and long-term strategies for creating environments that foster academic integrity. PMID:19753858

  4. Building a Definition of Irritability From Academic Definitions and Lay Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Paula C.; Holtzman, Susan; Cunningham, Shannon; O’Connor, Brian P.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    The current work builds a definition of irritability from both academic definitions and lay perspectives. In Study 1, a quantitative content analysis of academic definitions resulted in eight main content categories (i.e., behaviour, emotion or affect, cognition, physiological, qualifiers, irritant, stability or endurance, and other). In Study 2, a community sample of 39 adults participated in qualitative interviews. A deductive thematic analysis resulted in two main themes. The first main theme dealt with how participants positioned irritability in relation to other negative states. The second dealt with how participants constructed irritability as both a loss of control and as an experience that should be controlled. The discussion integrates the findings of both studies and provides a concise, but comprehensive definition. PMID:27134650

  5. Acoustical Environment for Academic Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie, L.J.

    Discussion of the parameters governing noise control and room acoustics are followed by a demonstration on how to achieve a good acoustical environment. Topics emphasized include--(1) design and control objectives, (2) noise sources and propagation, (3) reverberation parameters, (4) noise control factors and parameters, and (5) sound systems. Also…

  6. The Marketing Concept in an Academic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rešetová, Kvetoslava

    2013-01-01

    Universities, as subjects of the academic environment, are institutions with the priority of education and research. The task of the marketing concept in the academic field is to communicate with all important target groups to support a stronger position and their perception of the school. The aim of the intervention is to increase the prestige, improve awareness, support positive attitudes, and present successful results in all areas of activity. This means creation and protection of a positive image, which enables higher interest of all target groups and secures better awareness about it.

  7. Science Laboratory Environment and Academic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladejana, Francisca; Aderibigbe, Oluyemisi

    2007-12-01

    The study determined how students assess the various components of their science laboratory environment. It also identified how the laboratory environment affects students' learning outcomes. The modified ex-post facto design was used. A sample of 328 randomly selected students was taken from a population of all Senior Secondary School chemistry students in a state in Nigeria. The research instrument, Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) designed and validated by Fraser et al. (Sci Educ 77:1-24, 1993) was administered on the selected students. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Product Moment Correlation. Findings revealed that students could assess the five components (Student cohesiveness, Open-endedness, Integration, Rule clarity, and Material Environment) of the laboratory environment. Student cohesiveness has the highest assessment while material environment has the least. The results also showed that the five components of the science laboratory environment are positively correlated with students' academic performance. The findings are discussed with a view to improving the quality of the laboratory environment, subsequent academic performance in science and ultimately the enrolment and retaining of learners in science.

  8. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae contamination in the poultry house environment during erysipelas outbreaks in organic laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Helena; Bagge, Elisabeth; Båverud, Viveca; Fellström, Claes; Jansson, Désirée S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment and from potential carriers (i.e. insects and mice) during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by polymerase chain reaction compared with selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One farm was represented by isolates from laying hens only, and one of these isolates differed in one PFGE band from the others. Different banding patterns were observed for isolates from laying hens and manure on one farm. On the remaining two farms, the isolates from the house environment and laying hens were identical but differed between farms. Outbreaks reoccurred in the next flock on two of the farms, and different PFGE types were isolated from consecutive flocks. Our results suggest an external source of infection, which would explain the previously reported increased risk of outbreaks in free-range flocks. Contaminated manure and dust may represent sources of transmission. For the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical typing results were in agreement but, since the type strain of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was typed as E. rhusiopathiae using MALDI-TOF MS, further studies into this method are needed.

  9. The New Academic Environment and Faculty Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Binder, Renée; Friedli, Amy; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena

    2016-02-01

    Faculty members are expected to abide by codes of conduct that are delineated in institutional policies and to behave ethically when engaging in scientific pursuits. As federal funds for research decrease, faculty members face increasing pressure to sustain their research activities, and many have developed new collaborations and pursued new entrepreneurial opportunities. As research collaborations increase, however, there may be competition to get credit as the first person to develop ideas, make new discoveries, and/or publish new findings. This increasingly competitive academic environment may contribute to intentional or unintentional faculty misconduct. The authors, who work in the Dean's Office at a large U.S. medical school (University of California, San Francisco), investigate one to two cases of alleged misconduct each month. These investigations, which are stressful and unpleasant, may culminate in serious disciplinary action for the faculty member. Further, these allegations sometimes result in lengthy and acrimonious civil litigation. This Perspective provides three examples of academic misconduct: violations of institutional conflict-of-interest policies, disputes about intellectual property, and authorship conflicts.The authors also describe prevention and mitigation strategies that their medical school employs, which may be helpful to other institutions. Prevention strategies include training campus leaders, using attestations to reduce violations of institutional policies, encouraging open discussion and written agreements about individuals' roles and responsibilities, and defining expectations regarding authorship and intellectual property at the outset. Mitigation strategies include using mediation by third parties who do not have a vested academic, personal, or financial interest in the outcome. PMID:26488567

  10. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E; Janczak, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  11. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  12. School Environment and Academic Achievement of Standard IX Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…

  13. The academic environment: the students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Divaris, K; Barlow, P J; Chendea, S A; Cheong, W S; Dounis, A; Dragan, I F; Hamlin, J; Hosseinzadeh, L; Kuin, D; Mitrirattanakul, S; Mo'nes, M; Molnar, N; Perryer, G; Pickup, J; Raval, N; Shanahan, D; Songpaisan, Y; Taneva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, S; West, K; Vrazic, D

    2008-02-01

    Dental education is regarded as a complex, demanding and often stressful pedagogical procedure. Undergraduates, while enrolled in programmes of 4-6 years duration, are required to attain a unique and diverse collection of competences. Despite the major differences in educational systems, philosophies, methods and resources available worldwide, dental students' views regarding their education appear to be relatively convergent. This paper summarizes dental students' standpoint of their studies, showcases their experiences in different educational settings and discusses the characteristics of a positive academic environment. It is a consensus opinion that the 'students' perspective' should be taken into consideration in all discussions and decisions regarding dental education. Moreover, it is suggested that the set of recommendations proposed can improve students' quality of life and well-being, enhance their total educational experience and positively influence their future careers as oral health physicians. The 'ideal' academic environment may be defined as one that best prepares students for their future professional life and contributes towards their personal development, psychosomatic and social well-being. A number of diverse factors significantly influence the way students perceive and experience their education. These range from 'class size', 'leisure time' and 'assessment procedures' to 'relations with peers and faculty', 'ethical climate' and 'extra-curricular opportunities'. Research has revealed that stress symptoms, including psychological and psychosomatic manifestations, are prevalent among dental students. Apparently some stressors are inherent in dental studies. Nevertheless, suggested strategies and preventive interventions can reduce or eliminate many sources of stress and appropriate support services should be readily available. A key point for the Working Group has been the discrimination between 'teaching' and 'learning'. It is suggested that

  14. The Relationship between Academic Dishonesty and College Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvers, Kim; Diekhoff, George M.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 280 undergraduates in two liberal arts colleges examined the relationship between college classroom environment, academic cheating, and the neutralization (justification) of cheating. Results suggest classroom environment is a significant situational variable in academic dishonesty, with both attitudes and behavior being related to…

  15. Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.

  16. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2009-01-16

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change.

  17. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

  18. Academic Radiology in the New Healthcare Delivery Environment

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Aliya; Yu, John-Paul J.; Kansagra, Akash P.; von Fischer, Nathaniel; Costa, Daniel; Heller, Matthew; Kantartzis, Stamatis; Plowman, R. Scooter; Itri, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing concerns over the rising cost of health care are driving large-scale changes in the way that health care is practiced and reimbursed in the United States. To effectively implement and thrive within this new health care delivery environment, academic medical institutions will need to modify financial and business models and adapt institutional cultures. In this paper, we review the expected features of the new health care environment from the perspective of academic radiology departments. Our review will include background on Accountable Care Organizations, identify challenges associated with the new managed care model, and outline key strategies—including expanding the use of existing information technology infrastructure, promoting continued medical innovation, balancing academic research with clinical care, and exploring new roles for radiologists in efficient patient management—that will ensure continued success for academic radiology. PMID:24200477

  19. Science Laboratory Environment and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladejana, Francisca; Aderibigbe, Oluyemisi

    2007-01-01

    The study determined how students assess the various components of their science laboratory environment. It also identified how the laboratory environment affects students' learning outcomes. The modified ex-post facto design was used. A sample of 328 randomly selected students was taken from a population of all Senior Secondary School chemistry…

  20. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.

  1. Relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    The relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement of 777 Grade 6 children located in 41 learning environments was explored. Questionnaires were used to tap learning environment perceptions of children, their academic engagement, and their ethnic-cultural background. The basis of the learning environment questionnaire was the International System for Teacher Observation and Feedback (ISTOF). Factor analysis indicated three factors: the teacher as a helpful and good instructor (having good instructional skills, clear instruction), the teacher as promoter of active learning and differentiation, and the teacher as manager and organizer of classroom activities. Multilevel analysis indicated that about 12% of the differences in engagement between children was related to the learning environment. All the mentioned learning environment characteristics mattered, but the teacher as a helpful, good instructor was most important followed by the teacher as promoter of active learning and differentiation.

  2. Emerging Trends in Science Education in a Dynamic Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avwiri, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging Trends in Science Education in a Dynamic Academic Environment highlights the changes that have occurred in science education particularly in institutions of higher learning in southern Nigeria. Impelled by the fact that most Nigerian Universities and Colleges of Education still adhere to the practices and teaching methodologies of the…

  3. Academic Environments in Detail: Holland's Theory at the Subdiscipline Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattuca, Lisa R.; Terenzini, Patrick T.; Harper, Betty J.; Yin, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of change in colleges and universities often consider faculty support a key influence on the success of academic reform efforts. Scholars, however, have given relatively little attention to the role of disciplinary environments (e.g., culture, values, and habits of mind) on educational innovation and change. Using data from 1,272 faculty…

  4. Academic Risk-Taking in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Linda Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Within Higher Education, the social nature of learning may no longer equate to in-person interactions. Technology provides various interaction options and changes the learning environment. The challenge for instructors of courses in the area of teacher education is to understand the nature of academic risk-taking associated with blended learning…

  5. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  6. Effects of genetic origin and social environment on behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, K A; Rodenburg, T B; Van Reenen, C G; Koopmanschap, R E; De Vries Reilingh, G; Engel, B; Buist, W G; Komen, H; Bolhuis, J E

    2011-08-01

    Purebred laying hen lines of White Leghorn (WL) origin have been found to be more flighty and to show more feather pecking than lines of Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin. It has been found, however, that when RIR birds were housed together with WL birds, RIR birds became more flighty and those mixed groups developed more feather damage than pure-line cage-housed groups. It is unknown, however, whether this effect of social environment is accompanied by changes in stress-related behavior and neurophysiological activity, which are assumed to be associated with increased feather damage. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of genetic origin (WL or RIR) and social environment (mixed or pure groups) on behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning. Monoamine functioning was measured by brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine turnover. Furthermore, correlations between 5-HT turnover in the brain and peripheral measures of 5-HT in the blood were calculated. Experimental birds, housed either with other birds from the same genetic origin (pure groups) or with both RIR and WL birds (mixed groups) from hatching onward, were subjected to a manual restraint test at 47 wk of age. The WL birds struggled less during restraint and had higher dopamine and 5-HT turnover levels after restraint than did RIR birds. The WL birds also showed higher levels of platelet 5-HT uptake than did RIR birds. No effects of social environment were found. Blood and brain 5-HT measures were found to be correlated, with correlations ranging from 0.34 to 0.57, which seems to offer opportunities for less invasive peripheral indicators of 5-HT activity. In conclusion, genetic origin, but not social environment, affected the behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning in laying hens. PMID:21753196

  7. Method and apparatus for simultaneous trenching and pipe laying in an arctic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hazlegrove, B.M.; Roberts, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for simultaneously trenching and laying submarine pipeline within the bed of a body of water covered with an ice mass, comprising a vehicle capable of advancing over an ice mass in the direction of a pre-assembled pipeline to be laid; means for creating a slot-like opening of indeterminate length in the ice mass, ahead of the advancing vehicle; a submersible dredging means for excavating a submarine trench in the bed of the body of water, into which the pipeline is to be laid; a support means for carrying and deploying the dredging means, the support means having a longitudinally aligned slot, and having a first end pivotally connected to the vehicle and a second, submersible end which carries the dredging means; means pivotally secured to and extending between the vehicle and an intermediate portion of the support means for raising and lowering the support; and pipeline means having a surface component, a submerged component and an entrenched component.

  8. A mathematical model of foraging in a dynamic environment by trail-laying Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Ramsch, Kai; Reid, Chris R; Beekman, Madeleine; Middendorf, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Ants live in dynamically changing environments, where food sources become depleted and alternative sources appear. Yet most mathematical models of ant foraging assume that the ants' foraging environment is static. Here we describe a mathematical model of ant foraging in a dynamic environment. Our model attempts to explain recent empirical data on dynamic foraging in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr). The ants are able to find the shortest path in a Towers of Hanoi maze, a complex network containing 32,768 alternative paths, even when the maze is altered dynamically. We modify existing models developed to explain ant foraging in static environments, to elucidate what possible mechanisms allow the ants to quickly adapt to changes in their foraging environment. Our results suggest that navigation of individual ants based on a combination of one pheromone deposited during foraging and directional information enables the ants to adapt their foraging trails and recreates the experimental results. PMID:22575583

  9. The Effects of an Academic Environment Intervention on Science Identification among Women in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Betz, Diana E.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Academic environments can feel unwelcoming for women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Two studies examined academic environments of female undergraduates majoring in STEM fields at a university in the United States. In Study 1, we compared women in STEM who are in a welcoming environment to those in a traditional STEM…

  10. Reproduction in Risky Environments: The Role of Invasive Egg Predators in Ladybird Laying Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sarah C.; Pell, Judith K.; Blount, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive environments are variable and the resources available for reproduction are finite. If reliable cues about the environment exist, mothers can alter offspring phenotype in a way that increases both offspring and maternal fitness (‘anticipatory maternal effects’—AMEs). Strategic use of AMEs is likely to be important in chemically defended species, where the risk of offspring predation may be modulated by maternal investment in offspring toxin level, albeit at some cost to mothers. Whether mothers adjust offspring toxin levels in response to variation in predation risk is, however, unknown, but is likely to be important when assessing the response of chemically defended species to the recent and pervasive changes in the global predator landscape, driven by the spread of invasive species. Using the chemically defended two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, we investigated reproductive investment, including egg toxin level, under conditions that varied in the degree of simulated offspring predation risk from larval harlequin ladybirds, Harmonia axyridis. H. axyridis is a highly voracious alien invasive species in the UK and a significant intraguild predator of A. bipunctata. Females laid fewer, larger egg clusters, under conditions of simulated predation risk (P+) than when predator cues were absent (P-), but there was no difference in toxin level between the two treatments. Among P- females, when mean cluster size increased there were concomitant increases in both the mass and toxin concentration of eggs, however when P+ females increased cluster size there was no corresponding increase in egg toxin level. We conclude that, in the face of offspring predation risk, females either withheld toxins or were physiologically constrained, leading to a trade-off between cluster size and egg toxin level. Our results provide the first demonstration that the risk of offspring predation by a novel invasive predator can influence maternal investment in toxins within

  11. Reproduction in Risky Environments: The Role of Invasive Egg Predators in Ladybird Laying Strategies.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sarah C; Pell, Judith K; Blount, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive environments are variable and the resources available for reproduction are finite. If reliable cues about the environment exist, mothers can alter offspring phenotype in a way that increases both offspring and maternal fitness ('anticipatory maternal effects'-AMEs). Strategic use of AMEs is likely to be important in chemically defended species, where the risk of offspring predation may be modulated by maternal investment in offspring toxin level, albeit at some cost to mothers. Whether mothers adjust offspring toxin levels in response to variation in predation risk is, however, unknown, but is likely to be important when assessing the response of chemically defended species to the recent and pervasive changes in the global predator landscape, driven by the spread of invasive species. Using the chemically defended two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, we investigated reproductive investment, including egg toxin level, under conditions that varied in the degree of simulated offspring predation risk from larval harlequin ladybirds, Harmonia axyridis. H. axyridis is a highly voracious alien invasive species in the UK and a significant intraguild predator of A. bipunctata. Females laid fewer, larger egg clusters, under conditions of simulated predation risk (P+) than when predator cues were absent (P-), but there was no difference in toxin level between the two treatments. Among P- females, when mean cluster size increased there were concomitant increases in both the mass and toxin concentration of eggs, however when P+ females increased cluster size there was no corresponding increase in egg toxin level. We conclude that, in the face of offspring predation risk, females either withheld toxins or were physiologically constrained, leading to a trade-off between cluster size and egg toxin level. Our results provide the first demonstration that the risk of offspring predation by a novel invasive predator can influence maternal investment in toxins within their

  12. Reproduction in Risky Environments: The Role of Invasive Egg Predators in Ladybird Laying Strategies.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sarah C; Pell, Judith K; Blount, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive environments are variable and the resources available for reproduction are finite. If reliable cues about the environment exist, mothers can alter offspring phenotype in a way that increases both offspring and maternal fitness ('anticipatory maternal effects'-AMEs). Strategic use of AMEs is likely to be important in chemically defended species, where the risk of offspring predation may be modulated by maternal investment in offspring toxin level, albeit at some cost to mothers. Whether mothers adjust offspring toxin levels in response to variation in predation risk is, however, unknown, but is likely to be important when assessing the response of chemically defended species to the recent and pervasive changes in the global predator landscape, driven by the spread of invasive species. Using the chemically defended two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, we investigated reproductive investment, including egg toxin level, under conditions that varied in the degree of simulated offspring predation risk from larval harlequin ladybirds, Harmonia axyridis. H. axyridis is a highly voracious alien invasive species in the UK and a significant intraguild predator of A. bipunctata. Females laid fewer, larger egg clusters, under conditions of simulated predation risk (P+) than when predator cues were absent (P-), but there was no difference in toxin level between the two treatments. Among P- females, when mean cluster size increased there were concomitant increases in both the mass and toxin concentration of eggs, however when P+ females increased cluster size there was no corresponding increase in egg toxin level. We conclude that, in the face of offspring predation risk, females either withheld toxins or were physiologically constrained, leading to a trade-off between cluster size and egg toxin level. Our results provide the first demonstration that the risk of offspring predation by a novel invasive predator can influence maternal investment in toxins within their

  13. Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Different Learning Environments: Academic and Self-Concept Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisolm, Terrence Ranier

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) perform poorly both academically and behaviorally, and this performance tends not to improve over time. There is a need to understand the effect of learning environments on the academic achievement and self-concept of this population. In this quantitative, archival study, academic achievement…

  14. Managing Online Presence in the E-Learning Environment: Technological Support for Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades the use of E-learning technology increased to such an extent that the role of the traditional academic has been forced to change. Focusing on academics' views, this study examines their interactions in the E-learning environment and whether online learning applications have increased academic workload (Eynon, 2005;…

  15. Evaluating Academic Workplaces: The Hyper-Expansive Environment Experienced by University Lecturers in Professional Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Pete; Smith, Caroline; Ilhan Beyaztas, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Academic developers need to understand the situated workplaces of the academic tribes they are supporting. This study proposes the use of the expansive--restrictive workplace learning environment continuum as a tool for evaluation of academic workplaces. The tool is critically appraised through its application to the analysis of workplace…

  16. Parental perceptions of the impacts the built environment has on young children׳s health: a qualitative examination and lay assessment amongst residents in four Scottish communities.

    PubMed

    Teedon, Paul; Gillespie, Morag; Lindsay, Kate; Baker, Keith

    2014-07-01

    The built environment is important for children׳s health and development. Qualitative research in four communities in Scotland explored with groups of parents of young children their lay perceptions of their local environment with specific reference to its impact upon their children׳s health. Valuing most strong supportive communities; good quality public spaces and social housing, parents׳ key concerns included anti-social behaviour, incivility and a range of locally-specific concerns. As knowledgeable key gatekeepers to children׳s use of home environments and public spaces, parent׳s qualitative lay input is important for the development of children׳s effective use of outdoor spaces and the built environment over the long term.

  17. Parental perceptions of the impacts the built environment has on young children׳s health: a qualitative examination and lay assessment amongst residents in four Scottish communities.

    PubMed

    Teedon, Paul; Gillespie, Morag; Lindsay, Kate; Baker, Keith

    2014-07-01

    The built environment is important for children׳s health and development. Qualitative research in four communities in Scotland explored with groups of parents of young children their lay perceptions of their local environment with specific reference to its impact upon their children׳s health. Valuing most strong supportive communities; good quality public spaces and social housing, parents׳ key concerns included anti-social behaviour, incivility and a range of locally-specific concerns. As knowledgeable key gatekeepers to children׳s use of home environments and public spaces, parent׳s qualitative lay input is important for the development of children׳s effective use of outdoor spaces and the built environment over the long term. PMID:24747878

  18. Effect of Blended Learning Environment Model on High School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar; Demirkol, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the students' academic performance by comparing the blended learning environment and traditional learning environment. It has been observed whether there is a significant difference between the academic achievement grade dispersions and the male-female students' grades. The study has been carried out in Diyarbakir…

  19. Fools, Facilitators and Flexians: Academic Identities in Marketised Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Employing the interdisciplinary field of health inequalities as a case study, this paper draws on interviews to explore subjective accounts of academic identities. It finds widespread acceptance that academia is a market place in which research-active careers require academics to function as entrepreneurs marketing ideas to funders. Beyond this,…

  20. Dishonesty in Academic Environments: The Influence of Peer Reporting Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald L.; Trevino, Linda Klebe; Butterfield, Kenneth D.

    2001-01-01

    Student codes of conduct often encourage or require students to report observed acts of academic dishonesty. This research investigated the influence of such requirements on academic dishonesty and the peer reporting of such dishonesty. Results suggested that stronger requirements generally lead to more reporting and less cheating. However, the…

  1. Digital Course Materials: A Case Study of the Apple iPad in the Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Andrea H.; Bush, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    The newness of the iPad device creates a phenomenon unique and unstudied in the academic environment. By merging the innovations of electronic text, e-reader, and multi-modal functionality, the iPad tablet device can act as an e-reader providing digital course materials as well as a range of other supplementary academic applications. This…

  2. Multicultural Environments of Academic versus Internship Training Programs: Lessons to Be Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Heather J.; Krumm, Angela J.; Gonzales, Rufus R.; Gunter, Kensa K.; Paez, Karen N.; Zygowicz, Sharon D.; Haggins, Kristee L.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology training programs have a responsibility to train multiculturally competent psychologists. Predoctoral interns were surveyed to compare the multicultural environment of academic and internship programs. Internship programs were perceived as more multicultural than were academic programs. Factors contributing to differences are examined,…

  3. Different Fit Perceptions in an Academic Environment: Attitudinal and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yixuan; Yao, Xiang; Chen, Kun; Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether students perceive three different types of fit in an academic environment (i.e., interest-major [I-M] fit, demands-abilities [D-A] fit, and needs-supplies [N-S] fit) and whether these factors predict important academic and well-being criteria using a Chinese student sample. Results from confirmatory factor analyses…

  4. A Case Study into the Writing of Chinese Postgraduate Students in a UK Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This case study explores the problematic issues in academic writing of three Chinese postgraduate students studying in UK academic environment. It aims to attempt to identify mismatches in lecturer and postgraduate student expectations and to understand the reasoning behind these mismatches from the students' perspective. This study was carried…

  5. A New School: How We Plan to Create the Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of planning the academic environment at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine are described. Focus is on planning sequence, recruitment, staffing, facilities, curriculum, student and faculty scholarship, department organization, and priorities in decision-making. (LBH)

  6. Employment of Disabled Persons in the Academic Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    Academic libraries are the cornerstones of universities in providing information resources for the students and staff of the university. Indirectly, they may be instrumental in the development of beliefs and attitudes regarding the employment of disabled people. In 1998, the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducted a study into the status and…

  7. The Competitive Environment of Academic Productivity and the Academic Research Enterprise in the Case of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the various problems related to the given title from four sections. Section "Social function of the academic research enterprise (ARE)" focuses on three problems: Framework of the research on the ARE; Functions of the graduate school in the ARE; and Centers of learning and Japanese ARE. Section "Structure of ARE" discusses…

  8. Academic and Social Support Critical to Success in Academically Rigorous Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    To ensure that more American students attend college and are prepared to participate in a global economy, secondary schools have increased academic rigor and raised standards. By emphasizing vertical alignment of courses from preschool through college, secondary schools can help close the expectation gap that exists between high school and college…

  9. Task-focused behavior mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and students' academic performance.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks. PMID:24532054

  10. Academic Performance of Students without Disabilities in the Inclusive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruth, Jason D.; Woods, Melanie N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of inclusion on secondary students by focusing on the performance of students without disabilities in the inclusive environment compared to their performance in a segregated environment. Many studies exist demonstrating the positive impact of the inclusive environment on the performance of students with disabilities.…

  11. Predicting academic performance of dental students using perception of educational environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansari, Asim A; El Tantawi, Maha M A

    2015-03-01

    Greater emphasis on student-centered education means that students' perception of their educational environment is important. The ultimate proof of this importance is its effect on academic performance. The aim of this study was to assess the predictability of dental students' grades as indicator of academic performance through their perceptions of the educational environment. The Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire was used to assess dental students' perceptions of their educational environment at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, in academic year 2012-13. Aggregate grades in courses were collected at the end of the semester and related to levels of perception of the five DREEM domains using regression analysis. The response rate was 87.1% among all students in Years 2-6. As the number of students perceiving excellence in learning increased, the number of students with A grades increased. Perception of an environment with problems in the atmosphere and social life increased the number of students with D and F grades. There was no relation between any of the DREEM domains and past academic performance as measured by GPA. This study concludes that these students' academic performance was affected by various aspects of perceiving the educational environment. Improved perception of learning increased the number of high achievers, whereas increased perception of problems in atmosphere and social life increased the number of low achievers and failing students.

  12. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p < .001] and year 3 [R2Δ of 0.28, F(1,169) = 76.80, p < .001]. Learning environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3.  The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Conclusions Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception. PMID:27570912

  13. Why students leave engineering and built environment programmes when they are academically eligible to continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nazeema; Kloot, Bruce; Collier-Reed, Brandon I.

    2015-03-01

    The retention of students to graduation is a concern for most higher education institutions. This article seeks to understand why engineering and built environment students fail to continue their degree programmes despite being academically eligible to do so. The sample comprised 275 students registered between 2006 and 2011 in a faculty of engineering and the built environment, who were academically eligible to continue, but failed to register for their studies the following academic year. The sociological notions of structure and agency were used to make sense of the data. The findings suggest that some students had control over their decision to leave and some students' decisions were dominated by various structural factors. The outcome of the study is helpful in terms of suggesting what actions can be taken in order reduce the number of students leaving in good academic standing.

  14. Are Academic Behaviors Fostered in Web-Based Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mary Jo

    This study investigated the following research questions: (1) Does the use of a shared, intranet environment improve learner problem-solving ability in science? (2) Does the use of a shared, intranet environment increase learner metacognitive reflection? and (3) Do gender differences emerge with the use of a shared, intranet science environment…

  15. The relationships among Taiwanese adolescents' perceived classroom environment, academic coping, and burnout.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2015-06-01

    Although academic pressures are regarded as a primary source of stress among students in Asian countries, there has been paucity of research on the effects of classroom settings providing structure and peer support on Asian adolescents' use of coping strategies and academic burnout. The present study was intended to address this issue. Three hundred seventy-four 8th Grade Taiwanese students completed a self-reported survey that assessed their perceived classroom structure along with peer support, academic coping, and burnout. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that the full mediation model was well supported by the empirical data. Students' use of coping strategies played a mediational role in relationships between perceived classroom environment and academic burnout. Perceived classroom structure and peer support impact students' choices of coping strategies significantly. Their use of academic coping, in turn, exerted significant influences on burnout experiences. Additionally, students' academic coping and burnout experiences varied with different levels of perceived classroom structure and peer support. Students who perceived higher levels of classroom structure and peer support tend to adopt engagement and support-seeking coping when faced with academic challenges. Moreover, these students displayed lower levels on the indicators of academic burnout.

  16. Laying the Foundation for Successful Non-Academic Writing: Professional Communication Principles in the K-5 Curricula of the McKinney Independent School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Marlea

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, K-5 students' writing has had a primarily academic aim--to help students master concepts and express themselves. Even if students take a professional writing course later, they typically do not have the opportunity to practice--over the long period of time mastery requires--the non-academic writing skills they will be required to…

  17. Managing information in the academic medical center: building an integrated information environment.

    PubMed

    Fuller, S; Braude, R M; Florance, V; Frisse, M E

    1995-10-01

    The strategic importance of integrated information systems and resources for academic medical centers should not be underestimated. Ten years ago, the National Library of Medicine in collaboration with the Association of Academic Medical Centers initiated the Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) program to assist academic medical centers in defining a process for addressing deficiencies in their information environments. The authors give a brief history of the IAIMS program, and they describe both the characteristics of an integrated information environment and the technical and organizational structures necessary to create such an environment. Strategies some institutions have used to implement integrated information systems are also outlined. Finally, the authors discuss the role of librarians in integrated information system design.

  18. The relationship between corn particle size and thermoregulation of laying hens in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Morais Oliveira, Vanessa Raquel; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; de Melo Silva, Aurora; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors affecting egg production. One way to improve egg production is physical processing of the feed ingredients, allowing for better utilization of nutrients. In this study, the relationship between the corn particle size, measured as the geometric mean diameter (GMD), and thermoregulation was evaluated by determining the effect of the GMD on performance, egg quality, and physiological responses. Feed intake, eggshell quality (weight and thickness), rectal temperature (T R), respiratory rate (R R), and surface temperature (T S) were recorded in sixty 20-week-old naked neck laying hens that were fed corn of different particle sizes. Ambient temperature (T A) was also recorded during the trial. The GMD of corn particles was determined using a screens granulometer, resulting in sizes of 605, 1,030, and 2,280 μm. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a completely randomized design showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of GMD on feed intake, shell weight, and shell thickness. The ANOVA performed by the least squares method showed a highly significant effect (P < 0.01) of GMD on T R and R R. T A, categorized into three classes (24.0-26, 26.1-28.9, and 29.0-31.0 °C), had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on T R and T S. The interaction between the GMD of corn particles and the T A classes was not statistically significant. Coarser corn particles cause an increase in the rectal temperature of naked neck hens, and these birds increase their respiratory rate to dissipate excess metabolic heat. This increase in the respiratory rate causes a decrease in the eggshell quality. PMID:24696031

  19. The relationship between corn particle size and thermoregulation of laying hens in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Morais Oliveira, Vanessa Raquel; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; de Melo Silva, Aurora; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors affecting egg production. One way to improve egg production is physical processing of the feed ingredients, allowing for better utilization of nutrients. In this study, the relationship between the corn particle size, measured as the geometric mean diameter (GMD), and thermoregulation was evaluated by determining the effect of the GMD on performance, egg quality, and physiological responses. Feed intake, eggshell quality (weight and thickness), rectal temperature ( T R), respiratory rate ( R R), and surface temperature ( T S) were recorded in sixty 20-week-old naked neck laying hens that were fed corn of different particle sizes. Ambient temperature ( T A) was also recorded during the trial. The GMD of corn particles was determined using a screens granulometer, resulting in sizes of 605, 1,030, and 2,280 μm. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a completely randomized design showed a significant effect ( P < 0.05) of GMD on feed intake, shell weight, and shell thickness. The ANOVA performed by the least squares method showed a highly significant effect ( P < 0.01) of GMD on T R and R R. T A, categorized into three classes (24.0-26, 26.1-28.9, and 29.0-31.0 °C), had a significant effect ( P < 0.01) on T R and T S. The interaction between the GMD of corn particles and the T A classes was not statistically significant. Coarser corn particles cause an increase in the rectal temperature of naked neck hens, and these birds increase their respiratory rate to dissipate excess metabolic heat. This increase in the respiratory rate causes a decrease in the eggshell quality.

  20. The relationship between corn particle size and thermoregulation of laying hens in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Morais Oliveira, Vanessa Raquel; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; de Melo Silva, Aurora; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors affecting egg production. One way to improve egg production is physical processing of the feed ingredients, allowing for better utilization of nutrients. In this study, the relationship between the corn particle size, measured as the geometric mean diameter (GMD), and thermoregulation was evaluated by determining the effect of the GMD on performance, egg quality, and physiological responses. Feed intake, eggshell quality (weight and thickness), rectal temperature (T R), respiratory rate (R R), and surface temperature (T S) were recorded in sixty 20-week-old naked neck laying hens that were fed corn of different particle sizes. Ambient temperature (T A) was also recorded during the trial. The GMD of corn particles was determined using a screens granulometer, resulting in sizes of 605, 1,030, and 2,280 μm. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a completely randomized design showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of GMD on feed intake, shell weight, and shell thickness. The ANOVA performed by the least squares method showed a highly significant effect (P < 0.01) of GMD on T R and R R. T A, categorized into three classes (24.0-26, 26.1-28.9, and 29.0-31.0 °C), had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on T R and T S. The interaction between the GMD of corn particles and the T A classes was not statistically significant. Coarser corn particles cause an increase in the rectal temperature of naked neck hens, and these birds increase their respiratory rate to dissipate excess metabolic heat. This increase in the respiratory rate causes a decrease in the eggshell quality.

  1. Telecommuting Academics within an Open Distance Education Environment of South Africa: More Content, Productive, and Healthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tustin, Deon Harold

    2014-01-01

    Outside an academic setting, telecommuting has become fairly popular in recent years. However, research on telecommuting practices within a higher education environment is fairly sparse, especially within the higher distance education sphere. Drawing on existing literature on telecommuting and the outcome of a valuation study on the success of an…

  2. Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship of the physical environment to high school students' academic achievement, 60 students participated in an experiential career exploration program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center while 108 students participated in a traditional careers program. Tests indicated the former group improved more in career choice…

  3. Creating High Challenge/High Support Academic Environments through Constructive Alignment: Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Helen; Richardson, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Higher education needs to provide challenging yet supportive learning environments catering for students with diverse academic needs. There is also an emphasis on using student-driven outcome measures to determine teaching effectiveness. How can these measures be used to reflect upon and evaluate teaching initiatives? Using an undergraduate…

  4. The Academic Trajectories of Children of Immigrants and Their School Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2008-01-01

    Data from approximately 14,000 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Kindergarten Cohort were analyzed to examine the associations between children's immigrant status and their academic trajectories from kindergarten to 3rd grade, with particular attention to the effects of school environments. Growth curve modeling results…

  5. Personal Learning Environments (PLE) in the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallego, Maria Jesus; Gamiz, Vanesa Maria

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to analyze the elements that compose the PLE of pre-service teachers and to determine whether the composition of these environments is related to academic achievement in a course on Information and Communication Technologies in Education. The hypothesis is that a PLE with more components is related to a higher…

  6. Relations between Student Perceptions of Their School Environment and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gietz, Carmen; McIntosh, Kent

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student perceptions of their school environment (specifically, safety and inclusion in the school, experiences being bullied, and clear expectations for behaviour) and their relation with academic achievement at the school level. Participants were students in 969 elementary schools and 73 middle schools who took part in a…

  7. A Changing Sense of Place: A Case Study of Academic Culture and the Built Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Petrovic, John E.; Ginocchio, Lou

    2012-01-01

    This case study of faculty and student transition into a newly renovated academic building examines the implications of the built environment upon the professional practice and relationships of faculty and students in higher education. The authors argue that material surroundings communicate in ways that reinscribe the neoliberal order, yet often…

  8. Teaching/Research Relations in Departments: The Perspectives of Built Environment Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Bridget; Jenkins, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the perceptions of built environment academics in four post-1992 universities in the UK on teaching/research relations. Whilst set in particular departments, institutions and disciplines, it addresses issues that are of central concern worldwide. This study indicates that securing effective teaching/research…

  9. Exploring the Relationships between Students' Academic Motivation and Social Ability in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chia-Chi; Tsai, I-Chun; Kim, Bosung; Cho, Moon-Heum; Laffey, James M.

    2006-01-01

    This research explicates the construct of social ability and describes the relationship between students' academic motivation and social ability in online learning environments. Findings reveal perceived peers social presence, perceived written communication skills, perceived instructor social presence, comfort with sharing personal information,…

  10. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  11. Students' Perceptions of the Academic Environment and Approaches to Studying in British Postgraduate Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on student learning in higher education has identified clear associations between variations in students' perceptions of the academic environment and variations in their study behaviour. This study investigated a general theoretical model linking students' demographic characteristics, perceptions and study behaviour with measures…

  12. Incremental Validity of Thinking Styles in Predicting Academic Achievements: An Experimental Study in Hypermedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the incremental validity of thinking styles in predicting academic achievement after controlling for personality and achievement motivation in the hypermedia-based learning environment. Seventy-two Chinese college students from Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, took part in this instructional experiment. The…

  13. Academic Help-Seeking in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Randa A.; Sowan, Azizeh K.; Nassar, Yahya H.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares actual help-seeking frequencies across online and face-to-face learning environments. It also examines strategies enacted by nursing students when they faced academic difficulties, reasons for help-seeking avoidance, and the relationship between the frequency of asking questions and achievement. Participants were nursing…

  14. The Inadequacy of Academic Environment Contributes to Inadequate Teaching and Learning Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quasim, Shahla; Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at the inadequacy of academic environment as an indicator contributing to the inadequate teaching and learning situation in Pakistan. The main focus is to look into the low proficiency of students in the subject of English at secondary school level. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed from the literature concerned and The…

  15. Learning Environments at Higher Education Institutions: Relationships with Academic Aspirations and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shwu-yong Liou

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated university students' perceptions of their institutions' learning environments, and related those perceptions to students' academic aspirations and satisfaction with their universities. A sample of 12,423 juniors at 42 universities in Taiwan was used to confirm the validity and reliability of the instrument: CUEI-S. The…

  16. Architecture Students' Perceptions of Their Learning Environment and Their Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatayo, Adedapo Adewunmi; Aderonmu, Peter A.; Aduwo, Egidario B.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have agreed that the way in which students perceive their learning environments influences their academic performance. Empirical studies that focus on architecture students, however, have been very scarce. This is the gap that an attempt is filled in this study. A questionnaire survey of 273 students in a school of architecture in Nigeria…

  17. Why Students Leave Engineering and Built Environment Programmes When They Are Academically Eligible to Continue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Nazeema; Kloot, Bruce; Collier-Reed, Brandon I.

    2015-01-01

    The retention of students to graduation is a concern for most higher education institutions. This article seeks to understand why engineering and built environment students fail to continue their degree programmes despite being academically eligible to do so. The sample comprised 275 students registered between 2006 and 2011 in a faculty of…

  18. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  19. What Academic Administrators Should Know To Attract Senior Level Faculty Members to Online Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoni, D. L.; Tesone, Dana V.

    2003-01-01

    Presents findings of a focus group study used to design a survey instrument for applications in future studies to determine factors of influence that inspire senior faculty members to participate in course delivery through online learning environments (OLE). Concludes with discussion points to encourage academic administrators to consider the…

  20. Student Perceptions of E-Learning Environments, Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Keisha Casan Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Student perceptions of e-learning are potential causes of student dropout in online education. The social cognitive theoretical view was used to investigate the relationship between perceived e-learning environments, self-regulated learning (SRL), and academic performance in online education. This mixed methods study used a quantitative…

  1. Managing Information in the Academic Medical Center: Building an Integrated Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sherrilynne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A program designed by the National Library of Medicine and the Association of American Medical Colleges to help academic medical centers develop appropriate information systems is described. The characteristics of such an integrated information environment, technical and organizational structures necessary for creating it, and the librarian's role…

  2. Use of E-Books in an Academic and Research Environment: A Case Study from the Indian Institute of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuradha, K. T.; Usha, H. S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the use and usability of e-books from the perspectives of users in an academic and research environment. Design/methodology/approach: This study involved an e-mail questionnaire to survey researchers in the academic and research environment of the Indian Institute of Science regarding their use…

  3. The relationship between academic performanceand pilot performance in a collegiate flight training environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carolyn A.

    While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.

  4. Becoming the Harvard man: person-environment fit, personality development, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Harms, P D; Roberts, Brent W; Winter, David

    2006-07-01

    The continuity and change of the needs and evaluations of the college environment and person-environment fit (PE fit) with the college environment were studied in a 4-year longitudinal study of students (N = 191). Perceptions of the environment changed more dramatically than corresponding self-perceived needs. PE fit demonstrated moderate levels of consistency over the 4-year span, but no significant increases in mean levels were found over time. Antecedents to PE fit in the college environment included both intelligence and openness to experience. Outcomes associated with PE fit included changes in personality traits linked to openness to experience and higher academic achievement. The implications of the findings for personality development and the relationship of PE fit to successful outcomes are discussed.

  5. Regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck laying hens in a semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Domingos, Hérica Girlane Tertulino; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck hens that were subjected to different temperatures in a semi-arid environment. The surface temperature was measured in four body regions (face, neck, legs and feathered area) of 60 Naked Neck hens. The following environmental variables were measured at the center of the shed: the black globe temperature (T G ), air temperature (T A ), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (R H ). The T A was divided into three classes: 1 (24.0-26.0 °C), 2 (26.1-28.9 °C) and 3 (29.0-31.0 °C). An analysis of variance was performed by the least squares method and a comparison of the means by the Tukey-Kramer test. The results showed a significant effect of T A class, the body region and the interaction between these two effects on the surface temperature. There was no significant difference between the T A classes for the face and neck. The legs and feathered area showed significant differences between the T A classes. Regarding the effect of body regions within each T A class, there was a significant difference among all regions in the three T A classes. In all T A classes the neck had the highest average followed by the face and legs. The feathered area showed the lowest average of the different T A classes. In conclusion, this study showed that there are regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck hens, with the legs acting as thermal windows. PMID:22689146

  6. Regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck laying hens in a semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Domingos, Hérica Girlane Tertulino; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck hens that were subjected to different temperatures in a semi-arid environment. The surface temperature was measured in four body regions (face, neck, legs and feathered area) of 60 Naked Neck hens. The following environmental variables were measured at the center of the shed: the black globe temperature ( T G ), air temperature ( T A ), wind speed ( U) and relative humidity ( R H ). The T A was divided into three classes: 1 (24.0-26.0 °C), 2 (26.1-28.9 °C) and 3 (29.0-31.0 °C). An analysis of variance was performed by the least squares method and a comparison of the means by the Tukey-Kramer test. The results showed a significant effect of T A class, the body region and the interaction between these two effects on the surface temperature. There was no significant difference between the T A classes for the face and neck. The legs and feathered area showed significant differences between the T A classes. Regarding the effect of body regions within each T A class, there was a significant difference among all regions in the three T A classes. In all T A classes the neck had the highest average followed by the face and legs. The feathered area showed the lowest average of the different T A classes. In conclusion, this study showed that there are regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck hens, with the legs acting as thermal windows.

  7. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  8. Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…

  9. A strategy for developing future academic leaders for South Africa in a resource-constrained environment.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, Umesh G; Bobat, Raziya A; Pillay, Sandy; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    A key challenge in addressing the shortage of health care workers in resource-constrained environments is ensuring that there is optimal academic capacity for their training. South Africa's University of KwaZulu-Natal has placed academic and research capacity building at the heart of its program with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative in a program called ENhancing Training and REsearch capacity and Expertise (ENTREE). The program aims to increase the quantity, quality, and retention of health care graduates. It is premised on the basis that research capacity development will lead to an increase in teachers who will be essential to improving the quality and quantity of health care workers needed to meet South Africa's health challenges. This is being achieved through four components of the program: (1) infusion of the undergraduate program with research modules; (2) attraction of academically talented students in the middle of their undergraduate program into a parallel track that has research capacity as its major thrust; (3) attraction of qualified health care personnel into a supported PhD program; and (4) providing strong research ethics training and mentorship. A significant proportion of the program is being executed in rural training sites, to increase the probability that trainees will return to the sites as mentors.

  10. A Strategy for Developing Future Academic Leaders for South Africa in a Resource-Constrained Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lalloo, Umesh G.; Bobat, Raziya A.; Pillay, Sandy; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in addressing the shortage of health care workers in resource-constrained environments is ensuring that there is optimal academic capacity for their training. South Africa’s University of KwaZulu-Natal has placed academic and research capacity building at the heart of its program with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) in a program called ENhancing Training, REsearch Capacity, and Expertise (ENTREE). The program is premised on the basis that research capacity development will lead to an increase in teachers who will be essential to improving the quality and quantity of health care workers needed to meet South Africa’s health challenges. This is being achieved through four components of the program: (1) infusion of the undergraduate program with research modules; (2) attraction of academically talented students in the middle of their undergraduate program into a parallel track that has research capacity as its major thrust; (3) attraction of qualified health care personnel into a supported PhD program; and (4) providing strong research ethics training and mentorship. A significant proportion of the program is being executed in rural training sites, to increase the probability that trainees will return to the sites as mentors. PMID:25072580

  11. The academic trajectories of children of immigrants and their school environments.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2008-11-01

    Data from approximately 14,000 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Kindergarten Cohort were analyzed to examine the associations between children's immigrant status and their academic trajectories from kindergarten to 3rd grade, with particular attention to the effects of school environments. Growth curve modeling results indicated that most children of Latin American origin improved their reading and math scores faster than non-Hispanic White children, thus narrowing their initial score gap and sometimes even surpassing White children by 3rd grade. In contrast, although they maintained higher reading and math scores, children from East Asia and India showed decreasing scores over time, which tended to narrow their initial score advantage over non-Hispanic White children. School-level factors accounted partially for these differences. Particularly in terms of the academic trajectories, children of Latin American origin responded more to school-level factors than did children of Asian origin, who responded more to child and family background, with the exception of children from Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos, who responded more to school-level factors. Simulation results point to the importance of school resources for the academic trajectories of children of immigrants. PMID:18999323

  12. Development of a prediction model on the acceptance of electronic laboratory notebooks in academic environments.

    PubMed

    Kloeckner, Frederik; Farkas, Robert; Franken, Tobias; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Documentation of research data plays a key role in the biomedical engineering innovation processes. It makes an important contribution to the protection of intellectual property, the traceability of results and fulfilling the regulatory requirement. Because of the increasing digitalization in laboratories, an electronic alternative to the commonly-used paper-bound notebooks could contribute to the production of sophisticated documentation. However, compared to in an industrial environment, the use of electronic laboratory notebooks is not widespread in academic laboratories. Little is known about the acceptance of an electronic documentation system and the underlying reasons for this. Thus, this paper aims to establish a prediction model on the potential preference and acceptance of scientists either for paper-based or electronic documentation. The underlying data for the analysis originate from an online survey of 101 scientists in industrial, academic and clinical environments. Various parameters were analyzed to identify crucial factors for the system preference using binary logistic regression. The analysis showed significant dependency between the documentation system preference and the supposed workload associated with the documentation system (p<0.006; odds ratio=58.543) and an additional personal component. Because of the dependency of system choice on specific parameters it is possible to predict the acceptance of an electronic laboratory notebook before implementation.

  13. Differential Patterns of Change and Stability in Student Learning Outcomes in Holland's Academic Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The findings of this study show wide variation in the learning patterns of college students in the academic environments of Holland's theory and, more importantly, that such variability differs based on the level of "consistency" or "inconsistency" of the environments. Differences in the learning patterns of students in "consistent" academic…

  14. The Mediator Effects of Imagination between Learning Environment and Academic Performance: A Comparison between Science and Engineering Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ming-Chieh; Chiang, Chenwei; Liang, Chaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to examine the mediator effects of imagination between learning environment and academic performance, and (2) to compare differences between the environment--imagination--performance structural models of science and engineering majors. A survey was administered at eight universities across…

  15. Academic English Teaching for Postgraduates Based on Self-Regulated Learning Environment: A Case Study of Academic Reading Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…

  16. Conditions That Promote the Academic Performance of College Students in a Remedial Mathematics Course: Academic Competence, Academic Resilience, and the Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Cecile Mary

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have postulated that math academic achievement increases student success in college (Lee, 2012; Silverman & Seidman, 2011; Vigdor, 2013), yet 80% of universities and 98% of community colleges require many of their first-year students to be placed in remedial courses (Bettinger & Long, 2009). Many high school graduates are…

  17. Teaching Strategies and Gender Based Learning Environments: How They Relate to Self-Efficacy, Participatory Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…

  18. Quality of Social and Physical Environments in Preschools and Children's Development of Academic, Language, and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations between quality of social and physical environments in preschools and children's development of academic, language, and literacy skills, and the extent to which preschool quality moderated the associations between child risk and development. Participants were a diverse sample of 540 four-year-old children in…

  19. An Investigation of Selected Predictors of Nontraditional Student Academic Performance in Different Learning Environments: Personal Characteristics, Stressors, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The current study employed a secondary statistical analysis on the 2007 National Study on Nontraditional Students Survey data to investigate whether personal characteristics, student perceived stressors, and social support could predict academic performance of nontraditional students enrolled in three different learning environments in terms of…

  20. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychological Security of School Environment, Emotional Development and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Gombe Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…

  1. The Classroom Environment: A Major Motivating Factor towards High Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, Comfort O.; Adesua, Veronica O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of the classroom environment as a motivating factor in enhancing the academic performance of secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey type. The population of this study comprises all students of senior secondary schools in South West Nigeria which consist of Lagos, Ogun,…

  2. Use of Digital Resources in an Academic Environment: A Qualitative Study of Students' Perceptions, Experiences, and Digital Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matusiak, Krystyna K.

    2010-01-01

    The use of information resources for teaching and learning in an academic environment is undergoing a dramatic transformation. The development of digital technologies and the growth of the Internet have changed the format as well as the dissemination methods of scholarly resources. Digital libraries have been created as part of the transition from…

  3. The Link between Harsh Home Environments and Negative Academic Trajectories Is Exacerbated by Victimization in the Elementary School Peer Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a prospective investigation focusing on the moderating role of peer victimization on associations between harsh home environments in the preschool years and academic trajectories during elementary school. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls) who we recruited as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal…

  4. College Seniors' Plans for Graduate School: Do Deep Approaches Learning and Holland Academic Environments Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ribera, Amy K.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which college seniors' plans for graduate school are related to their tendency to engage in deep approaches to learning (DAL) and their academic environments (majors) as classified by Holland type. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, we analyzed responses from over 116,000 seniors…

  5. The Nature and Impact of Changes in Home Learning Environment on Development of Language and Academic Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…

  6. Study of the Effect of Education and Academic Environment on Emotional Intelligence on Accounting Students in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mahdi; Zadeh, Mohammadreza Abbas; Ghaderi, Alireza; Tabasi, Alaleh Zhian

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the relation between education and academic environment on emotional intelligence of accounting students in state and non-state universities in Iran. In order to collecting data Bar-on emotional intelligence test and SCL 90 questionnaire administrated among 476 students in different subjects including…

  7. Influence of Learning Environment on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics: A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Yobe State-Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamaki, Timothy Ado

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of learning environment on students' academic achievement in mathematics at senior secondary school level. Thus the study investigated some components of learning environment and their possible influence on students' academic achievement in mathematics. A sample of 337 randomly selected SS II…

  8. Academic Integrity in Honor Code and Non-Honor Code Environments: A Qualitative Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe; Butterfield, Kenneth D.

    1999-01-01

    Survey data from 4,285 students in 31 colleges and universities indicates students at schools with academic honor codes view the issue of academic integrity in a fundamentally different way than do students at non-honor code institutions. This difference seems to stem from the presence of an honor code and its influence on the way students think…

  9. Scholarly Use of E-Books in a Virtual Academic Environment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Pervaiz; Brogan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    From a fledgling technology with no proven business models, electronic books (e-books) have grown in importance usurping traditional formats as an acquisitions budget line in many academic library contexts. Business models include purchase, subscription, and pay per use. In academic and research libraries, web based e-book delivery is the dominant…

  10. Testing the Psychometric Features of the Academic Intellectual Leadership Scale in a University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslu, Baris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a scale for measuring the level of academics' intellectual leadership, test the scale by examining the influence of their personal and institutional characteristics, and then investigate the relationship of academic intellectual leadership (AIL) to communication, climate, and managerial flexibility…

  11. Lay or Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Barbara R.

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: LEVEL: High school and college. AUTHOR'S COMMENT: Many would like to abandon the distinction between "lay" and "lie," but I still receive enough questions about it to continue teaching it. Finding that students did not believe me when I taught them to substitute "recline" for "lie," because "The rug…

  12. Nurture net of nature: Re-evaluating the role of shared environments in academic achievement and verbal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan

    2015-07-01

    Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods - that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes. PMID:26004471

  13. Nurture Net of Nature: Re-Evaluating the Role of Shared Environments in Academic Achievement and Verbal Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan

    2016-01-01

    Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods – that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes. PMID:26004471

  14. Nurture net of nature: Re-evaluating the role of shared environments in academic achievement and verbal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan

    2015-07-01

    Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods - that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes.

  15. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  16. Defining "faculty" in academic medicine: responding to the challenges of a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Block, Steven M; Sonnino, Roberta E; Bellini, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Academic medicine in the United States is at a crossroads. There are many drivers behind this, including health care reform, decreased federal research funding, a refined understanding of adult learning, and the emergence of disruptive innovations in medicine, science, and education. As faculty members are at the core of all academic activities, the definition of "faculty" in academic medicine must align with the expectations of institutions engaged in patient care, research, and education. Faculty members' activities have changed and continue to evolve. Academic health centers must therefore define new rules of engagement that reflect the interplay of institutional priorities with the need to attract, retain, and reward faculty members. In this Commentary, the authors describe and explore the potential effects of the changing landscape for institutions and their clinical faculty members. The authors make a case for institutions to adapt faculty appointment, evaluation, and promotion processes, and they propose a framework for a standardized definition of "faculty" that allows for individual variability. This framework also provides a means to evaluate and reward faculty members' contributions in education, research, and clinical care. The authors propose a deliberate national conversation to ensure that careers in academic medicine remain attractive and sustainable and that the future of academic medicine is secure. PMID:25406611

  17. The relationship between environment, efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement of low-income African American children in special education.

    PubMed

    Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.

  18. Using a Virtual Learning Environment to Develop Academic Writing with First Year Dance Students: Facing the Challenge of Writing through Digital Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ben; Thoms, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses research into the facilitation of academic writing for first year dance students using images, emails and the forum of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Taking place over several weeks in the early part of the academic year and within a core module entitled Personal and Professional Development in the single honours Dance…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Computer-Based Learning Environments, Their Attitude towards Business Statistics, and Their Academic Achievement: Implications from a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, ThuyUyen H.; Charity, Ian; Robson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of computer-based learning environments, their attitude towards business statistics, and their academic achievement in higher education. Guided by learning environments concepts and attitudinal theory, a theoretical model was proposed with two instruments, one for measuring the learning environment and…

  20. Building Sustainable Academic Research in a "Teaching and Learning" Intensive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrams, Steve; Betts, Tony; Carton, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Academic research is increasingly interdisciplinary, inter-institutional and international. In this context, creating and maintaining the balance in the nexus between research, teaching and learning and industry interaction is central to the operation and reputation of a university-level institute. In seeking sustainability, the perennial…

  1. The Semantic Environment of Higher Education: Language in the Academic Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Nancy M.

    1978-01-01

    Focuses on the semantic effects of collective bargaining in higher education, attempting to determine what the semantic reactions are to the language of the labor union as used by unversity faculty and to the language of industrial management as used by academic administrators. (GT)

  2. Internationalisation of Higher Education: Integrating International Students into Canadian Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao; Chase, Mackie

    2011-01-01

    Fuelled by globalisation, the internationalisation of higher education in Canada is happening at a rapid pace. One manifestation of internationalisation is the increasing enrolment of international graduate students in Canadian institutions. Many of these students face challenges and barriers in integrating into Canadian academic environments…

  3. The Effects of Using PBWorks in a Hybrid Collaborative Class Environment on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdullah Y. A. A. A.

    2011-01-01

    E-learning plays an important role in higher education, especially with the appearance of web 2.0. The study investigated the effects of using PBWorks, as a free web 2.0 wiki, on students' academic achievement, and students' attitudes toward collaborative learning. The study was designed as an experimental study. There was comparison between two…

  4. The School Environment and Adolescent Well-Being: Beyond Academics. Research Brief. Publication #2008-26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Pilar; Brown, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents spend a large proportion of their day in school or pursuing school-related activities. While the primary purpose of school is the academic development of students, its effects on adolescents are far broader, also encompassing their physical and mental health, safety, civic engagement, and social development. Further, its effects on all…

  5. From Mentoring to Monitoring: The Impact of Changing Work Environments on Academics in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, John; Gordon, Sue; Schuck, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Universities in many western nations are experiencing increasing performance measures for academic accountability. This paper maps the pitted pathway that has led Australian universities from mentoring to monitoring and from performance enhancement to performance evaluation, and reviews implications for teaching and learning in higher education.…

  6. Factors Challenging and Supporting Scholarly Activity for Academic Staff in a Regional Australian University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John; Bowling, Alison; Griffiths, Jean; Blair, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    With expectations of academic staff to achieve high quality teaching and research outputs as performance measures it is timely to explore how staff perceive they are being supported to meet these ends. This article presents findings of a multi-method study that explored influences impacting on the quality and quantity of scholarly activity being…

  7. Assigned Leaders in Unionized Environments: Coping with the Economic Recession and Its Aftermath in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adriene

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…

  8. Alien Environments or Supportive Writing Communities? Pursuing Writing Groups in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasternak, Donna L.; Longwell-Grice, Hope; Shea, Kelly A.; Hanson, Linda K.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the impetus for joining and maintaining writing groups in academe. The authors consider the motivations and purposes for organizing and forming such groups. Revealing the complexities of writing both as profession and in pursuit of the profession, they analyze their experiences as collaborative writers. They examine the…

  9. Understanding the Relationship between Undergraduate Housing Environments and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between where undergraduate students live and their academic, math, and verbal self concepts. Students living in on-campus residence halls, a campus-affiliated apartment community, within walking distance to campus, and within driving distance to campus completed the Self-Description Questionnaire III (SDQIII)…

  10. Impact of the Changing Environment on Academic Library Administration: Conflicts, Incongruities, Contradictions and Dichotomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary

    1995-01-01

    The application of business skills and practices to the operation of academic libraries is becoming popular. Management skills will be useful as increased information production and technological complexity are being offset by shortages in resources and labor. To avoid conflict, managers must focus on teamwork, quality, customer service,…

  11. Socialization of Junior Researchers in New Academic Research Environments: Two Case Studies from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the modes of research training in two Finnish academic research centres, where research is project based, application oriented and externally funded. In particular, the article asks what duties, skills and qualities are considered appropriate for people in different positions (PhD student, post-doctoral researcher,…

  12. Assessing the Contribution of a Constructivist Learning Environment to Academic Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy for learning, which refers to students' beliefs in their capabilities to regulate their own learning, could determine students' motivation and academic achievement and, therefore, is significant in the learning process. This study examined how educational efforts based on constructivist theory were associated with the…

  13. Medical laboratory science and nursing students’ perception of academic learning environment in a Philippine university using Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare the perception of the academic learning environment between medical laboratory science students and nursing students at Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines. Methods A cross-sectional survey research design was used to measure the perceptions of the participants. A total of 341 students from the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Natural Sciences, and the School of Nursing answered the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) instrument from April to May 2016. Responses were compared according to course of study, gender, and year level. Results The total mean DREEM scores of the medical laboratory science students and nursing students did not differ significantly when grouped according to course of study, gender, or year level. Medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domains ‘perception of learning’ and ‘perception of teaching.’ Male medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domain ‘perception of learning’ among second year students. Medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domain ‘perception of learning.’ Nursing students identified 7 problem areas, most of which were related to their instructors. Conclusion Medical laboratory science and nursing students viewed their academic learning environment as ‘more positive than negative.’ However, the relationship of the nursing instructors to their students needs improvement. PMID:27649901

  14. Preparing Academic Medical Centers for the Clinical Learning Environment Review: Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative IV Outcomes and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Markova, Tsveti; Polis, Rachael L.; Peters, Marguerite; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Driven by changes to improve quality in patient care and population health while reducing costs, evolvement of the health system calls for restructuring health professionals' education and aligning it with the healthcare delivery system. In response to these changes, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) encourages the integration of health system leadership, faculty, and residents in restructuring graduate medical education (GME). Innovative approaches to achieving this restructuring and the CLER objectives are essential. Methods: The Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative (NI) IV provided a multiinstitutional learning collaborative focused on supporting GME redesign. From October 2013 through March 2015, participants conducted relevant projects, attended onsite meetings, and participated in teleconferences and webinars addressing the CLER areas. Participants shared best practices, resources, and experiences. We designed a pre/post descriptive study to examine outcomes. Results: Thirty-three institutions completed NI IV, and at its conclusion, the majority reported greater CLER readiness compared with baseline. Twenty-two (88.0%) institutions reported that NI IV had a great impact on advancing their efforts in the CLER area of their project focus, and 15 (62.5%) reported a great impact in other CLER focus areas. Opportunities to share progress with other teams and the national group meetings were reported to contribute to teams' success. Conclusion: The NI IV learning collaborative prepared institutions for CLER, suggesting successful integration of the clinical and educational enterprises. We propose that national learning collaboratives of GME-sponsoring health systems enable advancement of their education mission, leading ultimately to better healthcare outcomes. This learning model may be generalizable to newfound programs for academic medical centers

  15. Lay obligations in professional relations.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M

    1985-02-01

    Little has been written recently about the obligations of lay people in professional relationships. Yet the Code of Medical Ethics adopted by the American Medical Association in 1847 included an extensive statement on "Obligations of patients to their physicians'. After critically examining the philosophical foundations of this statement, I provide an alternative account of lay obligations in professional relationships. Based on a hypothetical social contract and included in a full specification of professional as well as lay obligations, this account requires lay people to honor commitments and disclose relevant information. Ethically, the account assumes that all parties in lay-professional relationships should be given equal consideration and respect in determining rights and obligations. Factually, it assumes that the treatment of many illnesses and injuries required collaboration and cooperation among lay persons and health professionals, that medical resources and personnel are limited, and that medicine, nursing, and related health professions, are, in MacIntyre's sense, practices.

  16. Roles of managers in academic health centers: strategies for the managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kristina L

    2002-03-01

    This article addresses survival strategies of academic health centers (AHCs) in responding to market pressures and government reforms. Using six case studies of AHCs, the study links strategic changes in structure and management to managerial role performance. Utilizing Mintzberg's classification of work roles, the roles of liaison, monitor, entrepreneur, and resource allocator were found to be used by top-level managers as they implement strategies to enhance the viability of their AHCs. Based on these new roles, the study recommends improving management practices through education and training as well as changing organizational culture to support management decision making and foster the continued growth of managers and their AHCs.

  17. [Preschool familial environment and academic difficulties: A 10-year follow-up from kindergarten to middle school].

    PubMed

    Câmara-Costa, H; Pulgar, S; Cusin, F; Dellatolas, G

    2016-02-01

    The persistence of academic difficulties from childhood through adulthood has led researchers to focus on the identification of the early factors influencing children's subsequent achievement in order to improve the efficient screening of children who might be at risk of school failure. The foundations of academic achievement can be accurately traced back to the preschool years prior to children's entry in formal schooling and are largely influenced by environmental determinants. Importantly, some environmental conditions act as early risk factors undermining children's later academic achievement due to the well-established relation between underachievement and exposure to moderate to high levels of environmental risk. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the longitudinal effects of environment-level factors (sociodemographic and family characteristics) and early risk exposure at kindergarten on children's subsequent academic achievement at the end of middle school (grade 9). The sample of analysis comprised 654 kindergarteners aged 5-6 years (2001-2002 school year) followed through the end of middle school when they were aged 14-15 years (2010-2011 school year). At kindergarten, assessment included questionnaire-based measures of sociodemographic and family background characteristics. These included an original set of information pertaining to family background including parental nationality, education level, history of reading difficulties, type of early childcare, family situation, family size, and language-based bedtime routines, as well as individual-level factors such as children's first language, medical history, language delay, birth weight, age of walking onset, and gestation period. At grade 9, outcome measures were composed of children's results in the national evaluations performed at the end of middle school ("Diplôme National du Brevet"), or history of repetition for a second year of the same class. The results indicated that all family

  18. Nature, Nurture, and Perceptions of the Classroom Environment as They Relate to Teacher-Assessed Academic Achievement: A Twin Study of Nine-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Plomin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research has examined children's perceptions of the classroom environment as related to academic achievement, genetically sensitive designs have not been employed. In the first study of its kind for the primary school classroom environment, data were collected for 3,020 pairs of nine-year-old identical and fraternal twin pairs in…

  19. Genetic Interactions with Prenatal Social Environment: Effects on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Dalton; Rauscher, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies report gene-environment interactions, suggesting that specific alleles have different effects on social outcomes depending on environment. In all these studies, however, environmental conditions are potentially endogenous to unmeasured genetic characteristics. That is, it could be that the observed interaction effects actually…

  20. Eduscape: The Effects of Servicescapes and Emotions in Academic Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Victoria K.; Daunt, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual and empirical studies on the impact of physical environments in educational settings are lacking. In comparison, consumption environments research has a rich history. In this paper we bring together these two research streams to develop (Study 1) and test (Study 2) an "Eduscape" model of the effects of emotions and…

  1. The Effect of a Shared, Intranet Science Learning Environment on Academic Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mary Jo

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a shared, Intranet learning environment on problem-solving ability and reflective metacognition. Subjects were 78 9th and 10th grade biology students from three public high schools in Texas. Research focused on the following questions: (1) Will the use of a shared, Intranet environment improve learner…

  2. Academic Standards in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  3. Perspectives on statistics education: observations from statistical consulting in an academic nursing environment.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Matthew J; Schmiege, Sarah J; Cook, Paul F

    2014-04-01

    Statistics knowledge is essential for understanding the nursing and health care literature, as well as for applying rigorous science in nursing research. Statistical consultants providing services to faculty and students in an academic nursing program have the opportunity to identify gaps and challenges in statistics education for nursing students. This information may be useful to curriculum committees and statistics educators. This article aims to provide perspective on statistics education stemming from the experiences of three experienced statistics educators who regularly collaborate and consult with nurse investigators. The authors share their knowledge and express their views about data management, data screening and manipulation, statistical software, types of scientific investigation, and advanced statistical topics not covered in the usual coursework. The suggestions provided promote a call for data to study these topics. Relevant data about statistics education can assist educators in developing comprehensive statistics coursework for nursing students.

  4. Asian American women in science, engineering, and mathematics: Background contextual and college environment influences on self-efficacy and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Kristen E.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine, for undergraduate women of various Asian American ethnic backgrounds, the influence of background contextual and college environment factors on their sense of academic self-efficacy and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Social cognitive career theory and its critiques provided a theoretical foundation for relationships from past performance, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and college environment variables (compositional diversity, racial climate, gendered climate, academic peer support), to academic self-efficacy and achievement. Data were collected through an online survey. Instrumentation included the scales of Language, Identity, and Behavioral Acculturation; Gender Discrimination; Faculty and Classroom Behavior; Interactions with Peers; and Academic Milestones Self-efficacy. The participants were 228 Asian American undergraduate women in STEM at a large public, doctoral research extensive university on the east coast; the response rate was 51%. In three MANOVAs for nine social cognitive career variables, four ethnic groups (East, South, Southeast, and Multi-ethnic Asian American) significantly differed only on socioeconomic status. In path analysis, the initial model was not a good fit and was rejected. The model was respecified through statistical and theoretical evaluation, tested in exploratory analysis, and considered a good fit. The respecified model explained 36% of semester GPA (achievement) and 28% of academic self-efficacy. The academic achievement of Asian American women in STEM was related to past performance, background contextual factors, academic self-efficacy, academic peer support, and gendered climate. The strongest direct influence on achievement was academic self-efficacy followed by past performance. The total effect of Asian acculturation on achievement was negative and the total effect of American acculturation on achievement was not

  5. A Systems Engineering Framework for Implementing a Security and Critical Patch Management Process in Diverse Environments (Academic Departments' Workstations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hadi

    Use of the Patch Vulnerability Management (PVM) process should be seriously considered for any networked computing system. The PVM process prevents the operating system (OS) and software applications from being attacked due to security vulnerabilities, which lead to system failures and critical data leakage. The purpose of this research is to create and design a Security and Critical Patch Management Process (SCPMP) framework based on Systems Engineering (SE) principles. This framework will assist Information Technology Department Staff (ITDS) to reduce IT operating time and costs and mitigate the risk of security and vulnerability attacks. Further, this study evaluates implementation of the SCPMP in the networked computing systems of an academic environment in order to: 1. Meet patch management requirements by applying SE principles. 2. Reduce the cost of IT operations and PVM cycles. 3. Improve the current PVM methodologies to prevent networked computing systems from becoming the targets of security vulnerability attacks. 4. Embed a Maintenance Optimization Tool (MOT) in the proposed framework. The MOT allows IT managers to make the most practicable choice of methods for deploying and installing released patches and vulnerability remediation. In recent years, there has been a variety of frameworks for security practices in every networked computing system to protect computer workstations from becoming compromised or vulnerable to security attacks, which can expose important information and critical data. I have developed a new mechanism for implementing PVM for maximizing security-vulnerability maintenance, protecting OS and software packages, and minimizing SCPMP cost. To increase computing system security in any diverse environment, particularly in academia, one must apply SCPMP. I propose an optimal maintenance policy that will allow ITDS to measure and estimate the variation of PVM cycles based on their department's requirements. My results demonstrate that

  6. Software engineering in medical informatics: the academic hospital as learning environment.

    PubMed

    Prins, H; Cornet, R; van den Berg, F M; van der Togt, R; Abu-Hanna, A

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, the revised course Software Engineering has been implemented in the Medical Informatics curriculum at the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam. This 13 weeks, full-time course consists of three parts: internship, theory and project. All parts are provided in problem-oriented manner with special attention for relevant skills such as project management, documentation and presentation. During the internship, students observe how health care professionals at several hospital wards work and how information supply is organized. In the theory part, students study concepts and methods of software engineering by means of case descriptions and self-directed learning. During the project, they apply their acquired knowledge to an observed, clinical information problem and complete several stages of the software engineering process. Evaluation by inquiry showed that, compared to other courses, students spent more time, and distributed their time more evenly, during the whole period of the course. In conjunction with theory, a combination of internship and project in a hospital seems to provide a surplus value compared to a practical in a computer laboratory. The integration of software theory, clinical practice and problem-based approach, contributed to the enthusiastic, intensive and realistic way students learned in this important topic that might be chosen as a future profession. PMID:15460769

  7. Software engineering in medical informatics: the academic hospital as learning environment.

    PubMed

    Prins, H; Cornet, R; van den Berg, F M; van der Togt, R; Abu-Hanna, A

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, the revised course Software Engineering has been implemented in the Medical Informatics curriculum at the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam. This 13 weeks, full-time course consists of three parts: internship, theory and project. All parts are provided in problem-oriented manner with special attention for relevant skills such as project management, documentation and presentation. During the internship, students observe how health care professionals at several hospital wards work and how information supply is organized. In the theory part, students study concepts and methods of software engineering by means of case descriptions and self-directed learning. During the project, they apply their acquired knowledge to an observed, clinical information problem and complete several stages of the software engineering process. Evaluation by inquiry showed that, compared to other courses, students spent more time, and distributed their time more evenly, during the whole period of the course. In conjunction with theory, a combination of internship and project in a hospital seems to provide a surplus value compared to a practical in a computer laboratory. The integration of software theory, clinical practice and problem-based approach, contributed to the enthusiastic, intensive and realistic way students learned in this important topic that might be chosen as a future profession.

  8. An Alternative Model of Multimedia Development: Small Projects within an Academic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Sue; McMahon, Mark

    This paper reports on a project at Edith Cowan University (Australia) in which a multidisciplinary team designed and created a self-paced learning environment for students to learn about share valuation and investment, with a focus on the inclusion of features that would motivate students to use and engage with the program. The resultant program,…

  9. Academic Accreditation of Work-Based Learning in the Construction Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLernon, Tim; Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of work-based learning (WBL) to the education of construction students. The research draws on the experiences of part-time students and students on sandwich courses in a School of the Built Environment. The sandwich courses include a year in industry as the penultimate year of a four-year programme. This WBL…

  10. Meaningful Engagement in Facebook Learning Environments: Merging Social and Academic Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jenny; Lin, Chun-Fu C.; Yu, Wei-Chieh W.; Wu, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different learning environments between interactive Facebook instructional method and non-Facebook instructional method for undergraduate students. Two outcome dimensions were measured: student grades and learning engagement. A pre-test-posttest control group experimental design was used. The experimental…

  11. The Study Experiences of the High Achievers in a Competitive Academic Environment: A Cost of Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmo, Ivar; Samara, Akylina

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is a case study that explores the study experiences and possible costs of success for the students accepted into the professional program in psychology at the University of Bergen in Norway. In this highly competitive environment, between 500 and 1000 students compete for 36 places during the introduction year. The study is based…

  12. Bringing Academics on Board: Encouraging Institution-Wide Diffusion of e-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Dawn; Burnett, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Rapid advances in educational and information communications technology (ICT) have encouraged some educators to move beyond traditional face to face and distance education correspondence modes toward a rich, technology mediated e-learning environment. Ready access to multimedia at the desktop has provided the opportunity for educators to develop…

  13. Comparison of Students' Perceptions of Their Teaching-Learning Environments in Three Professional Academic Disciplines: A Valuable Tool for Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Katajavuori, Nina; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored differences in students' perceptions of their teaching-learning environments in three professional academic disciplines at the University of Helsinki, using a modified version of the Experiences of Teaching & Learning Questionnaire. A total of 426 first-year students from the Faculties of Law, Pharmacy and Veterinary…

  14. Relationships among Individual Task Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Use and Academic Performance in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberly; Narayan, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategy use and academic performance. Participants were 96 undergraduate students working on projects with three subtasks (idea generation task, methodical task and data collection) in a blended learning environment. Task self-efficacy was measured with…

  15. Autonomy Supported, Learner-Controlled or System-Controlled Learning in Hypermedia Environments and the Influence of Academic Self-Regulation Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorissen, Chantal J. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learning in three different hypermedia environments that either support autonomous learning, learner-controlled learning or system-controlled learning and explores the mediating role of academic self-regulation style (ASRS; i.e. a macro level of motivation) on learning. This research was performed to gain more insight in the…

  16. A Study of Home Environment, Academic Achievement and Teaching Aptitude on Training Success of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, Sunita; Siddiqui, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary intend of the study was to explore the relationship of Arts, Science and Commerce stream and training success and the influence of Home Environment, Academic Achievement and Teaching Aptitude on training success of ETE trainees. The study analyzed the numerical data from a survey of 380 teacher trainees of three DIETs of Delhi, India.…

  17. Testing Two Path Models to Explore Relationships between Students' Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment, Approaches to Learning and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the relationships between students' experiences of the teaching-learning environment and their approaches to learning, and the effects of these variables on academic achievement. Two three-stage models were tested with structural equation modelling techniques. The "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for…

  18. The Effectiveness of Self-Regulated Learning Scaffolds on Academic Performance in Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined research on the effects of self-regulated learning scaffolds on academic performance in computer-based learning environments from 2004 to 2015. A total of 29 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis with a total sample size of 2,648 students. Moderator analyses were performed using a…

  19. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  20. Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Soler, Juan J; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup; Galván, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute a serious threat to viability of many organisms. Because growth of most bacteria is favored by humid and warm environmental conditions, earlier reproducers in seasonal environments should suffer less from the negative consequences of pathogenic bacteria. These relationships, and the effects on reproductive success, should be particularly prominent in predators because they are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms from sick prey. Here, we presented and tested this hypothesis by sampling bacteria on adult and nestling goshawks Accipiter gentilis. We predicted that early breeders and their offspring should have fewer bacteria than those reproducing later during the breeding season. Adult goshawks with a high abundance of Staphylococcus on their beak and claws were easier to capture and their laying date was delayed. Moreover, goshawks that laid their eggs later had offspring with more Staphylococcus on their beaks and claws. The strength of the association between laying date and bacterial density of nestlings was stronger during the warm spring of 2013, when nestlings suffered from a higher abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Hatching failure and fledging failure were more common in nests with a higher abundance of Staphylococcus independently of the number of years occupied, laying date, and age of the female nest owner. These findings imply that timing of reproduction may be under the influence of pathogenic bacteria. Because early breeding goshawks produce more recruits than later breeders, our results suggest a role for pathogenic bacteria in the optimal timing of reproduction. PMID:25937910

  1. Providing a setup and opportunities for better training of postdoctoral research fellows in an academic environment.

    PubMed

    Ghayur, Muhammad N

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of young researchers come from different parts of the world every year to take up postdoctoral (postdoc) research fellowship positions in the developed countries. In the US alone, there were 48,601 postdocs in the year 2005 working in different labs in the fields of science, health and engineering. Many pursue this option for lack of other alternatives. Expectedly, these individuals face a lot of difficulties in making this transition from being a student to becoming an employee of an institution. Many institutions are prepared to make this transition and period of stay easy for their fellows while others are not equipped at all. The presence of a postdoc office (established by an institution) or an association (formed by the fellows) can be of immense help to postdocs. Additionally, the availability of institutional professional development and leadership programs can also help to nurture and polish postdoc fellows into future faculty members and valuable members of the community at large. To name a few, these professional development programs can focus on communication and presentation skills, medical education, teaching and learning, bioethics and mentorship. There is an urgent need to address some or all of these issues so that better training environment and opportunities are available to this group of postdoc fellows.

  2. Among friends: the role of academic-preparedness diversity in individual performance within a small-group STEM learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students differently. We use data from 5367 university students nested within 1141 science, engineering, and mathematics learning groups and use a regression analysis to estimate the effect of group diversity, measured in two ways, on course performance. Our results indicate that academic-preparedness diversity is generally associated with positive learning outcomes, that academically less-prepared students derive greater benefit, and that less-prepared students fare best when they are not alone in a group of highly prepared students. Implications for teaching and small-group facilitation are addressed.

  3. 1.1 Student selection and the influence of their clinical and academic environment on learning.

    PubMed

    Gaengler, Peter; De Vries, Johann; Akota, Llze; Balciuniene, Irena; Berthold, Peter; Gajewska, Maria; Johnsen, David; Urtâne, Ilga; Walsh, Laurence; Zijlstra, Alies

    2002-01-01

    Student selection and recruitment play a vital role in the successful outcome of dental education. To identify key issues and practices in selection and recruitment, the group assessed current processes, philosophies and practices from a range of different educational systems, although it was not possible to gather data from all countries or continents within the timeframe provided. Furthermore, the group explored the effect of the educational learning environment on the successful outcome of teaching dental students. It is clear that a wide variety of practices and philosophies exist and are used in different parts of the world. Measuring the success of any given process used for student selection remains a challenge. In some parts of the world, certain practices have become an integral part of the tertiary educational system, and have been applied in a similar way by many or all of the dental schools in that country. In other countries, methods vary from one dental school to another, often reflecting differences in the structure and philosophy of the educational system. There was great variation in the combinations of selection criteria used and in student recruitment strategies. However, it was clear that there was much to be gained by learning from the experiences of other dental schools in student selection. Lessons learned, best practices and philosophies used and supporting value systems proved to be very helpful for benchmarking the processes used. In the discussion of student selection, a number of important questions were raised which deserve further thought and reflection both in the ongoing debate and as part of the ever-changing world of dental education. Important new matters that require more debate and research include: a) ethical issues, including the nature of funding from the student perspective, and the concern that in some regions dentistry may become a profession only for the elite or wealthy students. b) Health standards of students entering

  4. Dental school faculty and the academic environment from 1936 to 2011: familiar features in a new context.

    PubMed

    Drisko, Connie L; Whittaker, Lynn Page

    2012-01-01

    From its first issue in 1936 until today, no subject has been more central to the work published in the Journal of Dental Education (JDE) and to dental education itself than the dental school faculty. William Gies's vision in 1926 of the professionalization of dental educators was key to the professionalization of dental education. His focus on the need to develop these teachers as both instructors and researchers established the model by which a "dental educator" became a distinct professional, different from a dentist who happens to teach. This article for the seventy-fifth anniversary issue of the JDE thus starts from the obvious but not always acknowledged point that faculty members are central to the entire enterprise of dental education and relate to change over time as both cause and effect. Whether the profession today is evolving to incorporate new science and curricular models or becoming more interprofessional or meeting the needs of diverse patient populations or adopting new educational methodologies and technologies, developments in these areas will have a direct impact on the way individual faculty members do their jobs. To give a taste of the rich variety published over the past seventy-five years, the first section touches briefly on three significant types of research regarding faculty as exemplified by articles published in the JDE. These three are faculty development, educational methodologies, and faculty recruitment and retention. The second section addresses an increasingly important area of research: faculty members' perceptions of the academic work environment. After considering some trends that will affect this environment over the next decade, the article concludes with additional reasons the JDE is a valuable resource for faculty members in dental schools and allied and advanced dental education programs. PMID:22262551

  5. Dental school faculty and the academic environment from 1936 to 2011: familiar features in a new context.

    PubMed

    Drisko, Connie L; Whittaker, Lynn Page

    2012-01-01

    From its first issue in 1936 until today, no subject has been more central to the work published in the Journal of Dental Education (JDE) and to dental education itself than the dental school faculty. William Gies's vision in 1926 of the professionalization of dental educators was key to the professionalization of dental education. His focus on the need to develop these teachers as both instructors and researchers established the model by which a "dental educator" became a distinct professional, different from a dentist who happens to teach. This article for the seventy-fifth anniversary issue of the JDE thus starts from the obvious but not always acknowledged point that faculty members are central to the entire enterprise of dental education and relate to change over time as both cause and effect. Whether the profession today is evolving to incorporate new science and curricular models or becoming more interprofessional or meeting the needs of diverse patient populations or adopting new educational methodologies and technologies, developments in these areas will have a direct impact on the way individual faculty members do their jobs. To give a taste of the rich variety published over the past seventy-five years, the first section touches briefly on three significant types of research regarding faculty as exemplified by articles published in the JDE. These three are faculty development, educational methodologies, and faculty recruitment and retention. The second section addresses an increasingly important area of research: faculty members' perceptions of the academic work environment. After considering some trends that will affect this environment over the next decade, the article concludes with additional reasons the JDE is a valuable resource for faculty members in dental schools and allied and advanced dental education programs.

  6. Characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs and their perceptions of the academic work environment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Marie A; Zinskie, Cordelia D; Keskula, Douglas R; Thompson, Ana Luz

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs in the United States. A mail questionnaire was sent to program administrators for distribution to faculty. Program response rate was 89.7 percent (26/29), and full-time faculty response rate was 68.3 percent (114/167). The percentage of dental hygiene faculty who are at the associate or assistant professor ranks was similar at 35.1 percent and 34.2 percent, respectively. Forty percent of faculty are not on a tenure track, and 38.6 percent are tenured. The faculty who responded to this survey were almost exclusively white (93.9 percent) and female (95.6 percent), and their average age was 50.2 years. Faculty reported several areas of dissatisfaction with the academic work environment, including lack of time available for student advisement, class preparation, and keeping current in field, as well as concerns about heavy workload and inadequate compensation. A majority of the respondents (56 percent [39/70]) indicated that they plan to retire from the labor force in ten years or less. Three conclusions may be drawn from the findings of this study: 1) there is a lack of diversity within the dental hygiene faculty, which currently consists primarily of white females with few underrepresented minorities and males; 2) if trends persist, there will be a noticeable shortage of dental hygiene educators in the future as faculty move toward retirement without equivalent numbers of younger individuals joining the ranks of the faculty; and 3) there is a lack of published information regarding dental hygiene faculty characteristics. To address the potential academic workforce shortage, we make two recommendations based indirectly on the findings of this study: 1) the American Dental Association should include more information on dental hygiene faculty characteristics in its existing annual survey of all accredited programs; and 2) the number of

  7. Characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs and their perceptions of the academic work environment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Marie A; Zinskie, Cordelia D; Keskula, Douglas R; Thompson, Ana Luz

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs in the United States. A mail questionnaire was sent to program administrators for distribution to faculty. Program response rate was 89.7 percent (26/29), and full-time faculty response rate was 68.3 percent (114/167). The percentage of dental hygiene faculty who are at the associate or assistant professor ranks was similar at 35.1 percent and 34.2 percent, respectively. Forty percent of faculty are not on a tenure track, and 38.6 percent are tenured. The faculty who responded to this survey were almost exclusively white (93.9 percent) and female (95.6 percent), and their average age was 50.2 years. Faculty reported several areas of dissatisfaction with the academic work environment, including lack of time available for student advisement, class preparation, and keeping current in field, as well as concerns about heavy workload and inadequate compensation. A majority of the respondents (56 percent [39/70]) indicated that they plan to retire from the labor force in ten years or less. Three conclusions may be drawn from the findings of this study: 1) there is a lack of diversity within the dental hygiene faculty, which currently consists primarily of white females with few underrepresented minorities and males; 2) if trends persist, there will be a noticeable shortage of dental hygiene educators in the future as faculty move toward retirement without equivalent numbers of younger individuals joining the ranks of the faculty; and 3) there is a lack of published information regarding dental hygiene faculty characteristics. To address the potential academic workforce shortage, we make two recommendations based indirectly on the findings of this study: 1) the American Dental Association should include more information on dental hygiene faculty characteristics in its existing annual survey of all accredited programs; and 2) the number of

  8. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  9. The Importance of Home Environment and Parental Encouragement in the Academic Achievement of African-Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codjoe, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational experiences of African-Canadian youth. Traditionally, researchers have tended to emphasize the poor academic performance of Black students, or issues and problems related to their academic failure, or to stereotype them as loud, lazy, criminal, athletic, deprived, dangerous, and deviant. In contrast, this…

  10. Instructional change in academic departments: An analysis from the persepctive of two environment-focused change strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quardokus, Kathleen M.

    Numerous reports demand changes in college and university teaching practices. This is especially true for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. STEM stakeholders are concerned about student retention within STEM majors, as well as the lack of sufficient graduates with the knowledge to advance these fields. A common conclusion of these reports is that teaching practices must change. Although these calls for change have occurred for decades, STEM fields have yet to experience widespread change. Thus, there is a need for more effective change strategies. Recently, researchers have suggested that effective change strategies should focus on changing the environments of academic departments. This is in contrast to most commonly-used change strategies that focus on individual instructors. Environmentfocused change strategies have two main varieties: those that have a goal of implementing prescribed outcomes, and those that expect the outcomes to emerge from the change process. Yet, little is known about how to enact environment-focused change strategies. The goal of this research is to provide guidance for change agents and researchers by analyzing a large-scale change initiative from the perspective of two environment-focused change strategies: Kotter's eight-stage leadership process (prescribed) and complexity leadership theory (emergent). This analysis was guided by two research questions. 1. Within the context of a higher education change initiative, how is the change process described from the perspectives of two distinct leadership theories? 2. How do these descriptions frame problems and solutions associated with change? Each change strategy identified different activities as contributing to change as well as different missed opportunities. For example, when the change vision was not communicated effectively, the eight-stage leadership process indicated that the involvement of the department chair was needed, while complexity

  11. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  12. The Influence of Social Class on Academic Outcomes: A Structural Equation Model Examining the Relationships between Student Dependency Style, Student-Academic Environment Fit, and Satisfaction on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between college students' social class and their academic outcomes. A structural equation model was proposed, hypothesizing that a student's socioeconomic status (SES) is related to their motives for attending college, thus influencing their perception of fit at the university, their…

  13. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI

  14. Sustaining supply of senior academic leadership skills in a shortage environment: a short review of a decade of dental experience.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa; Tennant, Marc

    2014-06-01

    For the past decade, and expected for the next decade, Australia faces a significant health workforce shortage and an acute maldistribution of health workforce. Against this background the governments at both national and state level have been increasing the training places for all health practitioners and trying to redress the imbalance through a strong regional focus on these developments. Dentistry has been an active participant in these workforce initiatives. This study examines the increasing demand for academics and discusses the existing pathways for increase, and also examines in detail the advantages of a sustainable, shared-model approach, using dentistry as a model for other disciplines. Three non-exclusive pathways for reform are considered: importation of academics, delayed retirement and the shared resource approach. Of the various solutions outlined in this review a detailed explanation of a cost-effective shared model of senior academic leadership is highlighted as a viable, sustainable model for ameliorating the shortage.

  15. Planning Perspectives by Academic, Business, Lay, and Teacher Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Margaret E.; Dionne, Jean-Paul

    The cognitive processes of planning operationalize many of the metacognitive abilities necessary for transfer of knowledge. A telephone survey of 30 adults and Delphi methodology were used to explore the vocabulary and content of the mental representations of the nature and function of planning as perceived by experts in cognitive psychology…

  16. Native American Student Perceptions of the Cultural Environment and Factors for Academic Success at the University of South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grignon, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the high retention rates for Native American students in 2009 and 2008 in the two semesters at the University of South Dakota, there is a need to know the Native student perceptions of factors for their academic success. Native professors and administrators would benefit to know this information to continue to make improvements in…

  17. A Web-Based EFL Writing Environment as a Bridge between Academic Advisers and Junior Researchers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2013-01-01

    In the age of "publish or perish," publishing academic journal articles is a must, not only for professors but also for graduate students in Taiwan. Increasingly, Taiwanese research universities are requiring masters and PhD students to write theses and dissertations in English, with an added caveat for PhD students to publish two or more articles…

  18. Academic Integrity in the Business School Environment: I'll Get by with a Little Help from My Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kenneth J.; Davis, Richard; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of academic dishonesty has been increasing throughout the past few decades. Past research has indicated that business students cheat more than their peers in other disciplines across the university. And, of particular concern to marketing educators, the current research finds that marketing majors cheat significantly more than their…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation While Learning in a 1:1 Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, Joan M.

    2014-01-01

    1:1 Laptop initiatives continue to grow throughout Nebraska schools. There are many questions regarding their effectiveness in improving student learning, justifications for expenses, and the process to guide such an initiative. The purpose of this case study was to explore students' perceptions of academic self-efficacy and self-regulation while…

  20. The Influence of the College Environment and Student Involvement on First-Year Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocksdale, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the self-beliefs of college students--in particular, academic self-concept--has been suggested as one way to enhance college student success. However, the literature on the influence of college often does not clearly identify nor effectively assess the type of self-belief being investigated, and little remains known as to how and when…

  1. Pushing a Stone up a Hill: A Case Study of the Working Environment of South African Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoi, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    South African higher education has been experiencing profound and vigorous transformations in the post-apartheid era. At the same time, global trends toward competition and employment equity contribute to the complexities of the country's higher education environment. These global and local developments combine to impact the working environment of…

  2. Academic Practice in Transition: Hidden Stories of Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, Deborah; King, Sharron

    2009-01-01

    Academic work is becoming increasingly restrictive and controlled as tertiary institutions move towards a more corporate managerialistic mode of operating. This paper uses a narrative lens to explore the ways in which academic staff make sense of this new environment. In particular, it compares academic staff's stories of their worklife with the…

  3. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  4. Douglass Rationalization: An Evaluation of a Team Environment and a Computer-Based Task in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denda, Kayo; Smulewitz, Gracemary

    2004-01-01

    In the contemporary library environment, the presence of the Internet and the infrastructure of the integrated library system suggest an integrated internal organization. The article describes the example of Douglass Rationalization, a team-based collaborative project to refocus the collection of Rutgers' Douglass Library, taking advantage of the…

  5. Academic Library Services in Virtual Worlds: An Examination of the Potential for Library Services in Immersive Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jenna; Porter, Marjorie; Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on libraries is abundant with articles about the uses and the potential of new interactive communication technology, including Web 2.0 tools. Recently, the advent and use of virtual worlds have received top billing in these works. Many library institutions are exploring these virtual environments; this exploration and the…

  6. Student Academic Self-Concept and Perception of Classroom Environment in Single-Sex and Coeducational Middle Grades Mathematics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kombe, Dennis; Che, S. Megan; Carter, Traci L.; Bridges, William

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present findings from a study that investigated the relationship between all-girls classes, all-boys classes, and coeducational classes on student mathematics self-concept and student perception of classroom environment. Further, we compared responses of girls in all-girls classes to girls in coeducational classes and responses…

  7. Interaction of Students' Academic Background and Support Levels in a Resource-Based Learning Environment on Earth's Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Wing Mui Winnie; Kong, Siu Cheung

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to study how a resource-based learning environment (RBLE) helps primary students develop better understanding of the Earth's movement. One objective of the study is to establish an RBLE by creating authentic contexts, selecting appropriate resources, designing relevant tools and adopting necessary scaffolds. The other objective…

  8. Promoting Positive Academic Dispositions Using a Web-Based PBL Environment: The GlobalEd 2 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Boyer, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional design approach for promoting student learning, understanding and knowledge development in context rich settings. Previous PBL research has primarily focused on face-to-face learning environments, but current technologies afford PBL designers the opportunities to create online, virtual, PBL…

  9. Genetic Interactions with Prenatal Social Environment: Effects on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 16026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Dalton; Rauscher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Caspi et al. (2002, 2003), Guo et al. (2008a), and Pescosolido et al. (2008) all claim to have demonstrated allele-by-environment interactions, but in all cases environmental influences are potentially endogenous to the unmeasured genetic characteristics of the subjects and their families. Thus, gene-gene interactions cannot be ruled out as an…

  10. Impact of Hazardous Materials on Man and the Environment: A Summer Institute with Academic Year Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjeldsen, Chris K.

    This report focuses on three 11-day summer institutes on "The Impact of Toxic and Hazardous Materials on Humans and the Environment" conducted for 90 secondary school science teachers over the course of three summers at Sonoma State University, California. These summer institutes were all followed up with in-service days during the following…

  11. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  12. Building an open academic environment - a new approach to empowering students in their learning of anatomy through 'Shadow Modules'.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan L; Moxham, Bernard J; Rutherford, Stephen M

    2014-03-01

    Teaching and learning in anatomy is undertaken by a variety of methodologies, yet all of these pedagogies benefit from students discussing and reflecting upon their learning activities. An approach of particular potency is peer-mediated learning, through either peer-teaching or collaborative peer-learning. Collaborative, peer-mediated, learning activities help promote deep learning approaches and foster communities of practice in learning. Students generally flourish in collaborative learning settings but there are limitations to the benefits of collaborative learning undertaken solely within the confines of modular curricula. We describe the development of peer-mediated learning through student-focused and student-led study groups we have termed 'Shadow Modules'. The 'Shadow Module' takes place parallel to the formal academically taught module and facilitates collaboration between students to support their learning for that module. In 'Shadow Module' activities, students collaborate towards curating existing online open resources as well as developing learning resources of their own to support their study. Through the use of communication technologies and Web 2.0 tools these resources are able to be shared with their peers, thus enhancing the learning experience of all students following the module. The Shadow Module activities have the potential to lead to participants feeling a greater sense of engagement with the subject material, as well as improving their study and group-working skills and developing digital literacy. The outputs from Shadow Module collaborative work are open-source and may be utilised by subsequent student cohorts, thus building up a repository of learning resources designed by and for students. Shadow Module activities would benefit all pedagogies in the study of anatomy, and support students moving from being passive consumers to active participants in learning.

  13. A Comparison of Role/Task/Environment Stress Experienced By Beginning Academic and Career-Technical Teachers in Southwestern Ohio Career-Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Timothy F.

    This study investigated whether academic or career-technical teachers perceived greater role, task, and environmental stress in a career center setting. Participants were academic and career-technical teachers employed by a career center schools district in southwest Ohio. A total of 24 academic and 50 career-technical teachers, all of whom had…

  14. Lay REC members: patient or public?

    PubMed

    Staley, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice.

  15. Nursing Faculty and Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cecilia E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient information exists regarding the process influencing faculty decisions, specifically in the area of maintaining academic integrity in an online environment. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and decision-making process of nursing faculty related to maintaining academic integrity in an online environment. The…

  16. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters. PMID:23960109

  17. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters.

  18. What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  19. Academic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  20. Academic Jibberish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about academic jibberish. Alfie Kohn states that a great deal of academic writing is incomprehensible even to others in the same area of scholarship. Academic Jibberish may score points for the writer but does not help research or practice. The author discusses jibberish as a career strategy that impresses those…

  1. THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED, TENNESSEE CONFERENCE (5TH, MEMPHIS, MARCH 22, 23, AND 24, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LUCITO, LEONARD J.; OWENSBY, NONA E.

    THE GOALS OF THE CONFERENCE WERE TO AROUSE THE INTEREST OF COMMUNITIES IN TENNESSEE AND THE MID-SOUTH IN THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED, TO INFORM BOTH PROFESSIONAL AND LAY PEOPLE ABOUT CURRENT THEORY AND PRACTICES IN THIS AREA OF EDUCATION, TO SUGGEST SPECIFIC PILOT PROJECTS FOR LAY GROUPS SUBJECT TO THE APPROVAL OF THEIR BOARDS OF EDUCATION, AND TO…

  2. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  3. Children's Perceptions of the Classroom Environment and Social and Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Contribution of the "Responsive Classroom" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Laura L.; Nishida, Tracy K.; Chiong, Cynthia; Grimm, Kevin J.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the contribution of the "Responsive Classroom" (RC) Approach, a set of teaching practices that integrate social and academic learning, to children's perceptions of their classroom, and children's academic and social performance over time. Three questions emerge: (a) What is the concurrent and cumulative relation between…

  4. Faculty and Student Perceptions of Academic Cheating and the Influence of Achievement Motivation with Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Sheree Christine

    2013-01-01

    There are many components contributing to academically dishonest behaviors and with improvements in technology, methods for cheating have expanded to web-based classrooms. This study focuses on academically dishonest behaviors in online and face-to-face (F2F) course formats in an attempt to better understand the impact of cheating in these two…

  5. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management.

  6. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management. PMID:26527703

  7. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  8. Identifying Teaching Groups as a Basis for Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Academic development recognizes the strengths of communities, such as communities of practice or learning communities, in providing academics with supportive environments for the development of teaching. The problem academic development faces is that not enough academics are involved in these communities. Instead of trying to interest academics in…

  9. Skill Standards for Open Cut Pipe Laying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for utility construction in a format that uses scenarios to provide a picture of the construction process under consideration. The scenarios provide a general description of the pipe laying and utility construction process. An introduction describes use and benefits of skill standards. Section 2 presents…

  10. Connector screenings for J-Lay operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wink, R.E.

    1991-03-01

    The Offshore Supervisory Committee of the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association has initiated a program to identify mechanical connectors which could be utilized in the J-Lay method of offshore pipeline construction. The J-Lay method offers advantages over the more conventional S-Lay method in deep water because the method imposes much lower stresses in the pipe during installation. A combination of loads are applied to mechanical connectors when they are used in J-Lay operations. They include the following: (1) Internal Pressure, (2) Tension, (3) Bending, (4) Torsion. To ensure the mechanical connectors will hold up to individual or combinations of the above loads, a test program was conducted. Two connectors were tested from the following four manufacturers: (1) Interlock -- Seal Lock GS, (2) LTV -- Ty Multiseal, (3) Reflange -- C Con II, (4) Tuboscope -- Crimp-Kote. The pipe used in the testing was 8--5/8 inch O.D. {times} .438 wall API 5LX-52.

  11. Laying Out of a Practical Air Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, V S; Carroll, T

    1922-01-01

    Unfortunately the problem of laying out an air route has been approached by all who give it consideration as one of the hardest tasks in the world. Whereas, as a matter of fact, a very serviceable air route can be laid out with an absolute minimum of ground work.

  12. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six…

  13. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  14. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers.

  15. Academic Performance of Native and Immigrant Students: A Study Focused on the Perception of Family Support and Control, School Satisfaction, and Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Miguel A.; Godás, Agustín; Ferraces, María J.; Lorenzo, Mar

    2016-01-01

    The international assessment studies of key competences, such as the PISA report of the OECD, have revealed that the academic performance of Spanish students is significantly below the OECD average. In addition, it has also been confirmed that the results of immigrant students are consistently lower than those of their native counterparts. Given the context, the first objective of this work is to observe the variables (support, control, school satisfaction, and learning environment) which distinguish between retained and non-retained native and immigrant students. The second objective is to check, by comparing the retained and non-retained native and immigrant students and separating the two levels, in order to find out which of the selected variables clearly differentiate the two groups. A sample of 1359 students was used (79.8% native students and 20.2% immigrant students of Latin American origin), who were enrolled in the 5th and 6th year of Primary Education (aged 10–11 years) and in the 1st and 2nd year of Secondary Education (aged 12–13 years). The measurement scales, which undergo a psychometric analysis in the current work, have been developed in a previous research study (Lorenzo et al., 2009). The construct validity and reliability are reported (obtaining alpha indices between 0.705 and 0.787). Subsequently, and depending on the results of this analysis, inferential analyses are performed, using as independent variables the ethno-cultural origin and being retained or not, whereas, as dependent variables, the indices referring to students' perception of family support and control, as well as the assessment of the school and learning environment. Among other results, the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [F(1, 1315) = 4.67, p < 0.01] interaction should be pointed out, indicating that native non-retained subjects perceive more control than immigrants, as well as the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [F(1, 1200) = 5.49, p < 0

  16. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  17. Transforming Academic Practice through Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the fast changing university, how are academics to grow the capacity to cope with continual change and what can academic/faculty developers do to assist them? The paper first establishes the context of higher education as a challenging environment. It then reviews ideas about scholarship and explores the application of these…

  18. The Role of Academic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-02-01

    Increasingly, new science and technology are expected to solve the nation's current economic malaise. Unfortunately, virtually no industrial laboratories are devoted to anything close to basic research, which, historically, has been the source of many of the innovations on which industry has flourished in the past. For example, a number of industrial laboratories contributed significantly to our basic understanding of polymer science and, in the course of doing so, made better and more useful plastics. The strength of the American system of higher education has always been basic research, which is also the cornerstone of the process of graduate education. Before World War II, academic research was the vehicle by which advanced students learned advanced skills--both cognitive and manipulative. It was the structure devised to produce exemplary scientists who could then apply their skills in a number of different kinds of environments; the research results produced were generally of only secondary interest. Now, the academic research establishment has evolved into the source of the "strategic," "relevant," or "targeted" research that will solve the nation's economic problems. As expectations in this regard grow higher, guidelines are bound to become even more specific. Excessive over-direction of basic research activities can have the effect of throttling down the very industry-building discoveries that are so eagerly sought. From one point of view, targeted academic research often goes in the wrong direction. While it is true that most academic research starts off in some direction, it often does not finish going in that direction. The work that stands behind theses and dissertations often bears little resemblance to the problem that was defined when the student began his/her research. Almost every paper that is written as the result of a piece of academic research is either unsophisticatedin itsdetails or irrelevant, in spite of the initial hopes and promises. That

  19. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  20. Academic Decathlon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    This position paper from the Research, Evaluation, and Accreditation Committee of the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA) presents a description of the Academic Decathlon program and offers recommendations for improving the program and ways that ACSA can assist the program. The description of the Academic Decathlon, a ten-event…

  1. Reframing Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolman, Lee G.; Gallos, Joan V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Reframing Academic Leadership," the authors offer higher education leaders a provocative and pragmatic guide for: (1) Crafting dynamic institutions where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts; (2) Creating campus environments that facilitate creativity and commitment; (3) Forging alliances and partnerships in service of the mission;…

  2. Bilingualism and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…

  3. The Academic Chairperson's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; And Others

    This book champions the importance of chairing an academic department (or division) and focuses attention on the strategies "excellent" chairs use in building a positive work environment for faculty and releasing individual faculty potential. The framework is based on human, organizational, and career development; systems theory; and interpersonal…

  4. Lay Theories of Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

  5. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  6. Making primarily professional terms more comprehensible to the lay audience.

    PubMed

    Goryachev, Sergey; Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Browne, Allen C; Divita, Guy; Keselman, Alla; Leroy, Gondy; Figueroa, Rosa

    2008-11-06

    Certain texts, such as clinical reports and clinical trial records, are written by professionals for professionals while being increasingly accessed by lay people. To improve the comprehensibility of such documents to the lay audience, we conducted a pilot study to analyze terms used primarily by health professionals, and explore ways to make them more comprehensible to lay people.

  7. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  8. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  9. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen.

  10. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  11. Early Parenting Beliefs and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Ling, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the association between parenting style and children's academic achievement, but the specific mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The development of skills that lay the foundation for academic success might be found in early parent-child interactions that foster language competence. Early negative…

  12. Effective and Less Effective Junior Schools in France: A Longitudinal Study on the School Environment Variables Influencing the Student's Academic Achievement, Study Skills, and Socio-Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisay, Aletta

    National assessments of student academic achievement in various subjects and grades are conducted each year in France. However, there is no formal evaluation of student performance in various cross-curriculum domains, such as study skills, self-image, interest in learning, cooperative attitudes, social competence, or civic knowledge and values.…

  13. A Study on Learners' Perceptional Typology and Relationships among the Learner's Types, Characteristics, and Academic Achievement in a Blended E-Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Young

    2012-01-01

    This study explores and describes different viewpoints on blended e-Education by using Q methodology to identify students' perspectives and classify them into perceptional types. It is also designed to examine possible relationships among learner's perceptional type, characteristics (i.e., academic self-efficacy, interest in blended e-Education,…

  14. Children's perceptions of the classroom environment and social and academic performance: a longitudinal analysis of the contribution of the Responsive Classroom approach.

    PubMed

    Brock, Laura L; Nishida, Tracy K; Chiong, Cynthia; Grimm, Kevin J; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E

    2008-04-01

    This study examines the contribution of the Responsive Classroom (RC) Approach, a set of teaching practices that integrate social and academic learning, to children's perceptions of their classroom, and children's academic and social performance over time. Three questions emerge: (a) What is the concurrent and cumulative relation between children's perceptions of the classroom and social and academic outcomes over time? (b) What is the contribution of teacher's use of RC practices to children's perceptions and social and academic outcomes? (c) Do children's perceptions of the classroom mediate the relation between RC teacher practices and child outcomes? Cross-lagged autoregressive structural equation models were used to analyze teacher and child-report questionnaire data, along with standardized test scores collected over 3 years from a sample of 520 children in grades 3-5. Results indicate a significant positive relation between RC teacher practices and child perceptions and outcomes over time. Further, children's perceptions partially mediated the relation between RC teacher practices and social competence. However, the models did not demonstrate that child perceptions mediated the relation between RC practices and achievement outcomes. Results are explained in terms of the contribution of teacher practices to children's perceptions and student performance.

  15. Comparing Satisfaction, Life-Stress, Coping and Academic Performance of Counselling Students in On-Campus and Distance Education Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Gencic, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Distance education students are confronted with a range of additional challenges as part of their tertiary study experience. A quantitative approach was used to identify the challenges they face, their relative levels of satisfaction, coping strategies, and academic performance. Two hundred and ninety-five students (64 male and 231 female)…

  16. The Relation of Classroom Environment and School Belonging to Academic Self-Efficacy among Urban Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Susan D.; Wernsman, Jamie; Rose, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 149 low-income, ethnically heterogeneous, fourth- and fifth-grade students completed self-report surveys in the fall and spring of 1 academic year. We examined classroom climate (satisfaction, cohesion, friction, task difficulty, and competition) and school belonging in relation to language arts and math and science self-efficacy,…

  17. Future's Learning Environments in Health Education: The Effects of Smart Classrooms on the Academic Achievements of the Students at Health College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevindik, Tuncay

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of smart classrooms on the academic achievement of the nursing students. The sample of the research included 66 Health College students in Elazig. The sampling group was randomly chosen from second year students of Nursing and Midwife Education. The research was carried out with experimental…

  18. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity1 quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six hour-and-a-half weekly sessions. Students are mostly retired or semi-retired adults like me. Most are college educated, but with little or no formal physics education.

  19. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  20. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  1. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Bain, M M; Nys, Y; Dunn, I C

    2016-06-01

    In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production. One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the "long life" layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird's physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied. The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens. The "long life" layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  2. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Bain, M. M.; Nys, Y.; Dunn, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production.One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the “long life” layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird’s physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied.The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens.The “long life” layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  3. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Bain, M M; Nys, Y; Dunn, I C

    2016-06-01

    In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production. One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the "long life" layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird's physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied. The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens. The "long life" layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint.

  4. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. PMID:26160501

  5. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  6. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  7. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  8. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  9. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  10. Effects of dietary L-isoleucine on laying performance and immunomodulation of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2016-10-01

    Isoleucine may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with a lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance and the immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible isoleucine levels during the peak production period. A total number of 400 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens per replicate (4 cages / replicate; 80 hens / treatment). L-isoleucine was added to the experimental diet (14% CP) containing synthetic amino (methionine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine) by zero, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding to 0.54%, 0.64%, 0.74%, 0.84, and 0.94% digestible isoleucine, respectively. At the end of the experiment (wk 40), dietary isoleucine did not affect laying performance or egg quality. Serum albumin concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Serum free isoleucine and lysine increased (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Digestible dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). There was no significant (P > 0.05) response of excess digestible isoleucine level on the serum level of IgG, IgA, or IgM. In addition, dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), or interleukin (IL-2 and IL-6) in the ileum. Also, expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA, sIgA mRNA, and IL-1β mRNA were not changed (P > 0.05) by excess digestible isoleucine level. Furthermore, excess digestible isoleucine level did not change mRNA expression of ileal tight junction protein (claudin-1 and occludin). No effect occurred when isoleucine was supplemented, suggesting that it is

  11. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  12. Perch width preferences of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Duchateau, L

    2009-07-01

    1. In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate short perches differing in width were placed in the test cages. In each experiment 12 groups of 4 hens were filmed during day and night. The behaviour and location of the hens were recorded and whether the nest box affected hen distribution over the perches was investigated. 2. During daytime, in EXP-2P, there was an increase in perch use with increasing perch width. Hens spent less time on perches of 1.5 cm wide compared to perches of 9.0 and 10.5 cm wide. In EXP-7P, the 1.5-cm wide perch was also used the least (but only the difference with 4.5-cm wide perches was statistically significant) but perch use did not increase linearly with perch width. During the night, there were no significant perch width preferences in either experiment. 3. The percentage of active behaviours (preening, walking, drinking, pecking at hen) versus passive behaviours (standing, sitting, sleeping) did not differ significantly according to perch width. 4. In EXP-7P, there was a trend for perch use to decrease with greater distances to the nest box in the morning. 5. A perch width of 1.5 cm is not recommended for laying hens. For wider perch widths, results were equivocal: they tend to support rather than challenge the widespread use of 4.5-cm wide perches in commercial units.

  13. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin C; Worley, Julie L

    2015-06-01

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction. PMID:25948689

  14. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying

    PubMed Central

    Touchon, Justin C.; Worley, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction. PMID:25948689

  15. Hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of waiting areas: the role of patient characteristics on atmospherics in one academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Wang, Mu-Chia; Liao, Wei-Tsen; Lu, Jui-Heng; Sun, Pi-hung; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Breen, Gerald-Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examines hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of the outpatient waiting areas in one medical center. The relationship of patient characteristics and their perceptions and needs for the outpatient waiting areas are also examined. Method The examined medical center consists of five main buildings which house seventeen primary waiting areas for the outpatient clinics of nine medical specialties: 1) Internal Medicine; 2) Surgery; 3) Ophthalmology; 4) Obstetrics-Gynecology and Pediatrics; 5) Chinese Medicine; 6) Otolaryngology; 7) Orthopedics; 8) Family Medicine; and 9) Dermatology. A 15-item structured questionnaire was developed to rate patient satisfaction covering the four dimensions of the physical environments of the outpatient waiting areas: 1) visual environment; 2) hearing environment; 3) body contact environment; and 4) cleanliness. The survey was conducted between November 28, 2005 and December 8, 2005. A total of 680 outpatients responded. Descriptive, univariate, and multiple regression analyses were applied in this study. Results All of the 15 items were ranked as relatively high with a range from 3.362 to 4.010, with a neutral score of 3. Using a principal component analysis' summated scores of four constructed dimensions of patient satisfaction with the physical environments (i.e. visual environment, hearing environment, body contact environment, and cleanliness), multiple regression analyses revealed that patient satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas was associated with gender, age, visiting frequency, and visiting time. Conclusion Patients' socio-demographics and context backgrounds demonstrated to have effects on their satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas. In addition to noticing the overall rankings for less satisfactory items, what should receive further attention is the consideration of the patients' personal characteristics when

  16. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  17. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  18. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  19. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  20. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  1. Lay navigator model for impacting cancer health disparities.

    PubMed

    Meade, Cathy D; Wells, Kristen J; Arevalo, Mariana; Calcano, Ercilia R; Rivera, Marlene; Sarmiento, Yolanda; Freeman, Harold P; Roetzheim, Richard G

    2014-09-01

    This paper recounts experiences, challenges, and lessons learned when implementing a lay patient navigator program to improve cancer care among medically underserved patients who presented in a primary care clinic with a breast or colorectal cancer abnormality. The program employed five lay navigators to navigate 588 patients. Central programmatic elements were the following: (1) use of bilingual lay navigators with familiarity of communities they served; (2) provision of training, education, and supportive activities; (3) multidisciplinary clinical oversight that factored in caseload intensity; and (4) well-developed partnerships with community clinics and social service entities. Deconstruction of healthcare system information was fundamental to navigation processes. We conclude that a lay model of navigation is well suited to assist patients through complex healthcare systems; however, a stepped care model that includes both lay and professional navigation may be optimal to help patients across the entire continuum.

  2. A new pipelaying experience -- Piggyback to dual lay

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Guinard, M.

    1995-12-31

    On the British Gas North Morecambe Development Project in 1993, the derrick-lay barge DLB 1601 used a dual lay operation. A 3 inch {O} pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36 inch {O} pipeline for the shore pull operation and then separated to follow a dual lay for the offshore section. Transformation for piggyback laying mode to the dual lay mode was performed making use of a newly developed transition operation. This paper reports the challenges which had to be met to ensure a successful outcome. Results of various engineering studies are first presented. The set-up and observations of the (onshore) prototype testing are then described. Lastly, the special measures taken for the transition operation and certain field observations during the installation phase are briefly discussed. It is believed that the information presented in this paper will be of use to other similar projects in the future.

  3. Lay Conceptions of Sexual Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; LaFrance, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Bisexual people are often implored to "pick a side," implying that bisexuality is both more controllable and less desirable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. Bisexual people's status as a social group perceived to fall between a traditionally advantaged group and a traditionally disadvantaged group may have the potential to clarify lay conceptions of sexual orientation. We examined participants' views of groups varying in sexual orientation by randomly assigning participants (including heterosexual men and women as well as gay men and lesbian women) from four samples to evaluate heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual targets (N = 1379). Results provided strong evidence for the previously untested theoretical argument that bisexuality is perceived as less stable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. In addition, participants low in Personal Need for Structure rated female (but not male) bisexuality as relatively stable, suggesting that a preference for simple, binary thinking can partially explain a negative conception of an ostensibly "intermediate" identity. Bisexual targets were perceived as falling between heterosexual and homosexual targets in terms of gender nonconformity, and less decisive, less monogamous, and lacking in positive traits that were associated with homosexual targets. In sum, views of bisexual people were both more negative than and qualitatively different from views of gay men and lesbian women. We discuss the results as an illustration of the complex ways that perceivers' attitudes can differ depending on which target groups they are considering, suggesting that intergroup bias cannot be fully understood without attending to social categories viewed as intermediate. PMID:26597649

  4. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  5. Environmental and Genetic Factors Determine Whether the Mosquito Aedes aegypti Lays Eggs without a Blood Meal

    PubMed Central

    Ariani, Cristina V.; Smith, Sophia C. L.; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Short, Katherine; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. This may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. Autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. We found that 3.2% of females in a population of Ae. aegypti from Kenya were autogenous. Autogeny was strongly influenced by temperature, with many more eggs laid at 28°C compared with 22°C. Good nutrition in larval stages and feeding on higher concentrations of sugar solution during the adult stage both result in more autogenous eggs being produced. The trait also has a genetic basis, as not all Ae. aegypti genotypes can lay autogenously. We conclude that Ae. aegypti requires a favorable environment and a suitable genotype to be able to lay eggs without a blood meal. PMID:25646251

  6. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  7. Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ERα and ERβ. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low

  8. The influence of diet quality on clutch size and laying pattern in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, J.L.; Krapu, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the effect of diet quality on variation in the seasonal pattern of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) reproduction. Twenty wild-strain hens, consisting of 10 sibling pairs, were maintained in captivity. One sib of each pair was fed an enriched diet, and the other was fed wheat. The wheat diet resulted in reduced clutch size, egg size, laying rate, number of nesting attempts, and total eggs laid. Diet did not affect laying initiation, duration, or the seasonal pattern of change in clutch and egg size with each renest. We believe the variation and pattern observed are adaptations to a highly variable prairie environment where the probability of reproductive success decreases as the season progresses.

  9. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on laying hen performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, J.W.; Reece, F.N.; Lott, B.D.

    1982-09-01

    In periods of extremely cold weather, energy conservation in a pit-type laying house usually results in a restricted ventilation rate and an increase in air pollutants particularly ammonia. Results show that 200 ppm ammonia for 17 days causes a significant loss in percent egg production and the hens lose a significant amount of weight with a reduced feed intake. Although not satisfactory, it appears that lesser amounts of ammonia (100 ppm) can be tolerated for short periods without an immediate drastic loss in laying performance if a choice has to be made between frozen waterers and cold stress versus atmospheric ammonia in the laying house.

  10. Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

  11. Academic Planning in Response to Community Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, G. Ronald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The changing role of the academic institution in relation to its environment is reviewed in terms of student constituents, white collar employees, geographic neighborhood, and professionals. An "androgogical" rather than "pedagogical" approach to community knowledge development and transfer, and ways for university planners to make academe more…

  12. Moral Reasoning, Academic Dishonesty, and Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; LeBrasseur, Rolland

    2012-01-01

    This study links moral reasoning, academic dishonesty, and business students. Undergraduate business students (N = 1357) from eight Ontario (Canada) universities responded to a survey to express their perceptions and expectations of their academic environment and the variables that can help them to understand what is morally right and what is…

  13. Artist Academics: Performing the Australian Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn; Wright, David; Blom, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on creativity and innovation as the backbone of Western knowledge economies, the presence of the creative arts within universities remains problematic. Australian artist academics who seek a balance between their artistic and academic lives work within a government-directed research environment that is unable to quantify;…

  14. Flipped Instruction: An Investigation into the Effect of Learning Environment on Student Self-Efficacy, Learning Style, and Academic Achievement in an Algebra I Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiginton, Barry Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized an explanatory mixed-methods research design to investigate the effect of learning environment on student mathematics achievement, and mathematics self-efficacy, and student learning style in a ninth grade Algebra I classroom. The study also explored the lived experiences of the teachers and students in the three different…

  15. The Effects of Project APPLE (Autistic Preadolescent Proactive Learning Environments) on Academic, Behavioral, and Transitional Needs of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayce, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the effects of Project APPLE, an intervention created by the researcher and supported by the Guide to Project APPLE, a handbook which provided research-based teaching strategies, modificaitons to the learning environment, and transitional supports for students with ASD, and the teachers with whom their care and education is…

  16. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  17. The use of adaptable automation: Effects of extended skill lay-off and changes in system reliability.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to examine how skill lay-off and system reliability would affect operator behaviour in a simulated work environment under wide-range and large-choice adaptable automation comprising six different levels. Twenty-four participants were tested twice during a 2-hr testing session, with the second session taking place 8 months after the first. In the middle of the second testing session, system reliability changed. The results showed that after the retention interval trust increased and self-confidence decreased. Complacency was unaffected by the lay-off period. Diagnostic speed slowed down after the retention interval but diagnostic accuracy was maintained. No difference between experimental conditions was found for automation management behaviour (i.e. level of automation chosen and frequency of switching between levels). There were few effects of system reliability. Overall, the findings showed that subjective measures were more sensitive to the impact of skill lay-off than objective behavioural measures.

  18. Effect of different lay-ups on the microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of neutron shielding fibre metal laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuelong; Tang, Xiaobin; Hu, Yubing; Li, Huaguan; Tao, Jie

    2016-07-01

    A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups, composed of stacking layers of AA6061 plates, neutron shielding composite and carbon fibre reinforced polyimide (CFRP), were fabricated using hot molding process in atmospheric environments. The microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of the NSFMLs were evaluated, respectively. The results indicated that the NSFMLs possessed good mechanical properties owing to the good interfacial adhesion of the components. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the NSFMLs increased with the numbers of lay-ups, while the elongation to fracture exhibited obvious declining tendency. Flexural strength and modulus of the NSFMLs were improved obviously with the increasing of stacking layers. Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs decreased obviously with increasing the number of lay-ups, owing to the increase of 10B areal density. Besides, the effect of carbon fibres on the neutron shielding performance of the NSFMLs was also taken into consideration.

  19. The use of adaptable automation: Effects of extended skill lay-off and changes in system reliability.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to examine how skill lay-off and system reliability would affect operator behaviour in a simulated work environment under wide-range and large-choice adaptable automation comprising six different levels. Twenty-four participants were tested twice during a 2-hr testing session, with the second session taking place 8 months after the first. In the middle of the second testing session, system reliability changed. The results showed that after the retention interval trust increased and self-confidence decreased. Complacency was unaffected by the lay-off period. Diagnostic speed slowed down after the retention interval but diagnostic accuracy was maintained. No difference between experimental conditions was found for automation management behaviour (i.e. level of automation chosen and frequency of switching between levels). There were few effects of system reliability. Overall, the findings showed that subjective measures were more sensitive to the impact of skill lay-off than objective behavioural measures. PMID:27633244

  20. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  1. Organic matrix morphology and distribution in the palisade layer of eggshells sampled at selected periods during lay.

    PubMed

    Fraser, A C; Bain, M M; Solomon, S E

    1998-05-01

    1. 1 cm2 pieces of eggshells from a commercial battery flock were plasma etched to remove the outer shell membranes. 2. They were decalcified using EDTA (200 g/l, pH 6.9 to 7.0) in paraformaldehyde (20 g/l) and 25% gluteraldehyde (20 ml in 0.98 l) in phosphate buffer, then prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. 3. Light microscopy revealed a differential distribution of matrix material within all 3 regions of the palisade layer at the beginning of lay. 4. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a more even distribution of matrix at the beginning of lay, although morphological differences were observed. At the end of lay all 3 regions showed an increase in % matrix and vesicles/10 cm2 of micrograph compared to the middle and beginning of lay periods. 5. It is hypothesised that matrix vesicles are involved in the regulation of the physiochemical environment within the forming eggshell and that the decline in shell quality associated with the end of lay is related to a concomitant change in matrix quality.

  2. Science and the lay perspective: lay people's involvement in assessing tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, Katharina

    2014-10-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a scientific field that will have an influence on our daily lives. It has the potential to revolutionize medical treatments, but it has also an impact on our human image and is associated with potential risks and ethical aspects. Among the publicly controversial issues are embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, cloning, uncertainties regarding risks and informed consent issues. To maintain public confidence in the science of TE, a good solution is public dialogues with patients and other interested lay people that gives the public the chance to independently evaluate TE issues and build their own opinion based on information from different perspectives. The article describes public participation projects in TE on stem cell research and gene therapy and presents the case study of the EU-Gene Activated Matrices for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration on Arthritis (GAMBA) panels, a dialogue with patient and citizen panels in three European countries. In the GAMBA panels, lay participants assessed the basic research project aimed at finding ways of healing osteoarthritis through a matrix composed of adult stem cells, gene vectors, nanoparticles, and biomaterials. The results of the dialogues in different countries, such as Denmark, Japan, Ireland, Switzerland, and Germany, are compared and the evaluation criteria for high quality dialogues are presented, including multiperspectivity, openness of results, a clear mandate, impartial facilitation of the panels, and transparency.

  3. Building an open academic environment – a new approach to empowering students in their learning of anatomy through ‘Shadow Modules’

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jonathan L; Moxham, Bernard J; Rutherford, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning in anatomy is undertaken by a variety of methodologies, yet all of these pedagogies benefit from students discussing and reflecting upon their learning activities. An approach of particular potency is peer-mediated learning, through either peer-teaching or collaborative peer-learning. Collaborative, peer-mediated, learning activities help promote deep learning approaches and foster communities of practice in learning. Students generally flourish in collaborative learning settings but there are limitations to the benefits of collaborative learning undertaken solely within the confines of modular curricula. We describe the development of peer-mediated learning through student-focused and student-led study groups we have termed ‘Shadow Modules’. The ‘Shadow Module’ takes place parallel to the formal academically taught module and facilitates collaboration between students to support their learning for that module. In ‘Shadow Module’ activities, students collaborate towards curating existing online open resources as well as developing learning resources of their own to support their study. Through the use of communication technologies and web 2.0 tools these resources are able to be shared with their peers, thus enhancing the learning experience of all students following the module. The Shadow Module activities have the potential to lead to participants feeling a greater sense of engagement with the subject material, as well as improving their study and group-working skills and developing digital literacy. The outputs from Shadow Module collaborative work are open-source and may be utilised by subsequent student cohorts, thus building up a repository of learning resources designed by and for students. Shadow Module activities would benefit all pedagogies in the study of anatomy, and support students moving from being passive consumers to active participants in learning. PMID:24117249

  4. Climate change related to egg-laying trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Sparks, Timothy H.

    1999-06-01

    Analysis of 20 species of UK breeding birds over a 25-year period found a long-term trend towards earlier egg-laying. Further studies have correlated such trends with spring temperatures (one species) or the North Atlantic Oscillation (three species). We have studied a data set spanning 57 years and find that laying date is related to temperature or rainfall for 31 of 36 species (86%), and that 53% of species show long-term trends in laying date over time, of which 37% can be statistically accounted for by changes in climate. These data provide evidence for the large-scale impact of rising temperatures on wildlife. Our analysis of a UKCIP98 national-level climate scenario predicts that average laying dates will be even earlier for 75% of species by the year 2080.

  5. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. EXTENSION OF SHEAR RUNOUT TABLE INTO SHIPPING BUILDING, WHICH LAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTENSION OF SHEAR RUNOUT TABLE INTO SHIPPING BUILDING, WHICH LAY PERPENDICULAR TO 8" MILL. VIEW LOOKING NORTH INCLUDES NEW BOLD PRODUCT SHEARS, STOPS LENGTH GAUGES, AND BUNDLING CRADLES. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Freedom of Expression? It's Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Louis

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational environment in Japan since World War II. Assesses both elementary and secondary levels of education, and evaluates the psychology of dependence as a factor in the lack of freedom of expression in academic settings. Delves into the external and internal structure of Japanese cultural society. (CCM)

  8. Academic Librarians in the Breach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aby, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the short- and long-term challenges of academic librarians in an increasingly hostile environment, and the ways in which these challenges reflect the broader struggles of faculty and professionals. What they are experiencing across the country--in the context of corporatization, the elimination of collective bargaining, and…

  9. The Power of Academic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Milton

    2006-01-01

    American higher education is caught in an unparalleled environment in which traditional political partisanship is affecting issues such as academic freedom, student access, and international competition. The country's million or so faculty members constitute a huge national resource, and if they worked together they could become a powerful voice…

  10. South Asian participation in clinical trials: the views of lay people and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hussain-Gambles, Mah; Atkin, Karl; Leese, Brenda

    2006-07-01

    There is little UK-based empirical research on South Asian participation in clinical trials. The predominantly US literature rarely engages with mainstream debates about ethnicity, diversity and difference. This study was prompted by a lack of knowledge about how South Asian people perceive trial involvement and the risks and benefits involved. Face to face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals (consultants, GPs, nursing staff, academics, non-medically trained trial co-ordinators, LREC and MREC members) and 60 South Asian lay people (20 Indians, 20 Pakistanis and 20 Bangladeshis) who had not taken part in a trial. The study took place in the Leeds and Bradford areas of England. It was found that lay South Asian attitudes towards clinical trial participation focused on similarities rather than differences with the general UK population, suggesting that the relevance of ethnicity should be kept in perspective. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials, and awareness was a correlate of social class, education and younger age. Lay factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials included: age; language, social class; feeling of not belonging/mistrust; culture and religion. Approachable patients (of the same gender, social class and fluent in English) tended to be 'cherry picked' to clinical trials. This practice was justified because of a lack of time, resources and inadequate support. South Asian patients might be systematically excluded from trials due to the increased cost and time associated with their inclusion, particularly in relation to the language barrier. Under-representation might also be due to passive exclusion associated with cultural stereotypes. The paper concludes by applying the theoretical framework of institutional racism as a means of making sense of policy and practice. At the same time, caution is advocated against using ethnicity as the only form of

  11. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-08-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens' movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the 'dark' observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the 'light' observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  12. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L. M.; Makagon, M. M.; Swanson, J. C.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens’ movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the ‘dark’ observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the ‘light’ observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  13. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  14. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-11-27

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely.

  15. Sequential piggyback, dual lay used for Irish Sea pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Guinard, M.

    1995-09-04

    Piggyback and dual pipe lay were used sequentially for the first time in 1993 aboard the lay vessel DLB 1601 in the North Morecambe project, Block 110/2a of the Irish Sea. Development was by British Gas Exploration and Production Ltd. A 3-in. OD pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36-in. pipeline for the offshore pull operation and then separated in an unconventional transition operation for dual lay for the offshore section. Detailed engineering studies along with well developed installation procedures resulted in successful pipelaying. Increasing complexities of laying, trenching, and burying offshore pipelines suggest the techniques used in the North Morecambe project will find further applications. In fact, McDermott International Inc.-ETPM Services (U.K.) Ltd. (MET), which executed the North Morecambe project, developed the techniques further in 1994 for the Liverpool Bay development of Hamilton Oil Co. In that project, DLB 1601 laid in dual lay tow 3-in. pipelines in a bundle with a 20-in. pipeline. This first of two articles on the North Morecambe project discusses its background an engineering, primarily for the piggyback and dual lay phases. The conclusion covers the innovative transition operation and reports shore-testing results and observations.

  16. Preliminary findings exploring the social determinants of Black males' lay health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Johnson, Darin M; Rego, Maria Isabel; Schofield, Kandyce; Amponsah, Alethea; Graham, Louis F

    2012-01-01

    The unequal discussion of Black males' health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males' lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men's health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of 44 years (SD = 14.5). The narratives represented a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors, ranging from intrapersonal attitudes, interpersonal experiences to discussions about community and public policy injustices. Five prominent themes emerged: (a) lack of chronic disease awareness, (b) fatalism, (c) fear and anxiety of academic-medical settings, (d) hyperactive masculinity fatigue, and (e) the gay-straight divide. The term Tired Black Male Health syndrome was coined in the forum. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of culturally relevant strategies for improving Black male community health engagement. PMID:22105065

  17. The weaker sex? Exploring lay understandings of gender differences in life expectancy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate

    2008-09-01

    Despite increasing interest in gender and health, 'lay' perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, 'macho' constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their 'provider' role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. 'gender as structure' versus 'gender as performance', 'gender as difference' versus 'gender as diversity'.

  18. Restructuring Revisited: Changing Academic Structures in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, John

    2012-01-01

    In a rapidly changing external environment, for many universities, restructuring of the academic organisation is the most important leadership challenge. In this article, the author provides an analysis of academic restructuring in UK universities. Using the "Commonwealth Universities Yearbook", he looked at the changes in academic structures…

  19. Challenges of Academic Listening in English: Reports by Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jinyan

    2005-01-01

    Academic listening plays an important role in an ESL university student's academic success. Research in EAP has begun to show that ESL students have difficulty in English academic listening at American universities. Chinese students, who are from a different educational system and cultural environment, experience particular challenges in English…

  20. Resilience Does Not Predict Academic Performance in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Avilan, Rosa Ivette Guzman; Cruz, Juan Jose Bazaldua; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated resilience in an academic environment as it relates to academic success or failure. This work sought to assess resilience in regular and remedial students of gross anatomy during the first and second semesters of medical school and to correlate this personal trait with academic performance. Two groups of students were…

  1. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  2. Effect of excess dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on excreta moisture of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Rose, S P; Wells, R G; Pirgozliev, V

    2000-12-01

    1. Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium or phosphate on the water intake and excreta moisture of laying hens. A fifth experiment examined the effect on these variables of increasing amounts of 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate) and the interactions with 2 levels of dietary phosphorus. 2. All experiments involved individually caged laying hens fed on diets varying in 1 or 2 minerals in replacement for washed sand. The experimental diets contained mineral concentrations that either met or exceeded the expected requirement of the hens. The diets were given for a 7 or 8 d feeding period and food and water intakes were measured and excreta were collected for the last 48 h of each feeding period. These data were corrected for evaporative water loss to the environment during the collection period. 3. Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus gave linear increases (P<0.001) in the water intake of the laying hens and linear increases (P<0.01) in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of the excreta by 9.04 (+/- 1.57), 11.95 (+/- 2.02) and 5.59 (+/- 0.31) g/kg (+/- standard error) for sodium, potassium and phosphorus, respectively. Increasing concentrations of dietary calcium did not significantly affect the water intakes or excreta moisture levels of the laying hens. 4. The fifth experiment showed that, although there was a sodium x phosphorus interaction (P<0.05), the effects of the 2 mineral additions were approximately additive. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in water intakes or excreta moisture contents due to the 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate).

  3. The Relationships among Academic Attitudes, Psychological Attitudes, and the First-Semester Academic Achievement of First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…

  4. Designing the Framework Conditions for Assuring Academic Standards: Lessons Learned about Professional, Market, and Government Regulation of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D.; Beerkens, Maarja

    2013-01-01

    The new demands of mass systems of higher education and the emerging environment of global academic competition are altering the traditional institutions for assuring academic standards in universities. As a consequence many nations are experimenting with new instruments for academic quality assurance. Contemporary government control of academic…

  5. Predicting Student Persistence in Adult Basic Education Using Interaction Effects among Academic Self-Efficacy and Students Participation and Academic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujack, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    Academic self-efficacy is associated with academic success; the more positive or stronger the individual's academic self-efficacy, the more likely the individual will be successful in an academic environment. Prior research by Bandura (1989, 1993, 1997) suggested that self-efficacy influences not only activity choice but also the degrees to…

  6. Evaluation of dietary calcium requirements for laying Longyan shelducks.

    PubMed

    Xia, W G; Zhang, H X; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    To establish the dietary Ca requirements for laying ducks during their peak laying period, 5 Ca levels (2.8, 3.2, 3.6, 4.0, and 4.4%) were used, and laying performance, eggshell quality, serum variables, and bone quality were examined. A total of 1,620 Longyan shelducks with similar BW at 20 wk of age were fed for 13 wk in 5 treatment groups, each with 4 replicates of 81 birds. Dietary Ca increased egg production and egg mass (linear, P<0.01) and reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR), but egg weight was not affected. Dietary Ca level did not affect eggshell properties or any reproductive organ index except for shell weight (highest with the 4.0% Ca diet, P<0.05). Serum concentrations of Ca and calcitonin increased with dietary Ca level (linear, P<0.01), and a quadratic response (P<0.01) was seen in alkaline phosphatase activity; the highest values were in ducks fed the 3.6% Ca diet. Tibial fresh weight was affected by dietary Ca (linear and quadratic, P<0.05) with tibiae from the 2.8% Ca ducks weighing less than those from ducks fed any other Ca level. Other tibial measurements were unaffected by dietary Ca. According to the regression model, the Ca levels required for laying Longyan shelducks during their peak laying period are 3.4 and 3.2% for maximal serum alkaline phosphatase activity and tibial fresh weight, respectively. The results showed that diets containing 3.2 to 3.6% Ca provide for superior productive performance and bone quality in laying Longyan shelducks during their peak laying period. PMID:26467016

  7. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  8. [Exploration on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoqing

    2010-03-01

    For exploration on the academic thought on processing of Chinese herbal medicine the basic theory and methods, textual research of the scientific of Zhang Zhongiing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was summarized, and the historical significance on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was analyzed. Regarded Zhang Zhongjing is the ancestor of processing of Chinese herbal medicine to lay the theoretical foundation on processing of Chinese herbal medicine for later.

  9. Egg-Laying Defective Mutants of the Nematode CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Carol; Tsung, Nancy; Horvitz, H. Robert

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated 145 fertile mutants of C. elegans that are defective in egg laying and have characterized 59 of them genetically, behaviorally and pharmacologically. These 59 mutants define 40 new genes called egl, for egg-laying abnormal. Most of the other mutants are defective in previously identified genes. The egl mutants differ with respect to the severity of their egg-laying defects and the presence of behavioral or morphological pleiotropies. We have defined four distinct categories of mutants based on their responses to the pharmacological agents serotonin and imipramine, which stimulate egg laying by wild-type hermaphrodites. These drugs test the functioning of the vulva, the vulval and uterine muscles and the hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), which innervate the vulval muscles. Mutants representing 14 egl genes fail to respond to serotonin and to imipramine and are likely to be defective in the functioning of the vulva or the vulval and uterine muscles. Four mutants (representing four different genes) lay eggs in response to serotonin but not to imipramine and appear to be egg-laying defective because of defects in the HSNs; three of these four were selected specifically for these drug responses. Mutants representing seven egl genes lay eggs in response to serotonin and to imipramine. One egl mutant responds to imipramine but not to serotonin. The remaining egl mutants show variable or intermediate responses to the drugs. Two of the HSN-defective mutants, egl-1 and her-1(n695), lack HSN cell bodies and are likely to be expressing the normally male-specific program of HSN cell death. Whereas egl-1 animals appear to be defective specifically in HSN development, her-1(n695) animals exhibit multiple morphological pleiotropies, displaying partial transformation of the sexual phenotype of many cells and tissues. At least two of the egl mutants appear to be defective in the processing of environmental signals that modulate egg laying and may define new

  10. The emotional wellbeing of lay HIV counselling and testing counsellors.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha; Mabota, Princess

    2015-01-01

    The HIV testing, treatment and care programme of the South African public healthcare system depends on HIV counselling and testing (HCT) that is primarily delivered by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT counsellors working at the City of Tshwane clinics were assessed. Additionally, five focus group discussions were conducted. The results showed that HCT counsellors reported average emotional wellbeing, high levels of emotional exhaustion and depression. They had a sense of personal accomplishment and positive coping skills. The results revealed that they may have difficulty dealing with clients' emotional distress without adequate training and supervision. This creates a dilemma for service delivery. In the light of the important role they play in service delivery, the role of the lay HCT counsellor needs to be reconsidered. HCT should develop as a profession with specific training and supervision to develop their emotional competencies to conduct effective counselling sessions.

  11. Revisiting the Persisting Tension Between Expert and Lay Views About Brain Death and Death Determination: A Proposal Inspired by Pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Brain death or determination of death based on the neurological criterion has been an enduring source of controversy in academic and clinical circles. The controversy chiefly concerns how death is defined, and it also bears on the justification of the proposed criteria for death determination and their interpretation. Part of the controversy on brain death and death determination stems from disputed crucial medical facts, but in this paper I formulate another hypothesis about the nature of ongoing controversies. At stake is a misunderstood relationship between, on the one hand, the nature of our lay (or our "manifest image") views about death and, on the other hand, the nature of scientific insights (and related conceptual refinements) into death and its determination (the "scientific image"). The misunderstanding of this relationship has partly anchored the controversy and continues to fuel it. Based on a perspective inspired by pragmatism, which stresses the positive contribution of science to ethical and policy debates but also challenges different forms of scientism in science and philosophy found in foundationalist interpretations, I scrutinize three different stances regarding the relationship between lay and scientific perspectives about the definition of death: (1) foundational lay views, (2) foundational expert views, and (3) co-evolving views. I argue that only the latter is sustainable given recent challenges to foundationalist interpretations. PMID:26626067

  12. Revisiting the Persisting Tension Between Expert and Lay Views About Brain Death and Death Determination: A Proposal Inspired by Pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Brain death or determination of death based on the neurological criterion has been an enduring source of controversy in academic and clinical circles. The controversy chiefly concerns how death is defined, and it also bears on the justification of the proposed criteria for death determination and their interpretation. Part of the controversy on brain death and death determination stems from disputed crucial medical facts, but in this paper I formulate another hypothesis about the nature of ongoing controversies. At stake is a misunderstood relationship between, on the one hand, the nature of our lay (or our "manifest image") views about death and, on the other hand, the nature of scientific insights (and related conceptual refinements) into death and its determination (the "scientific image"). The misunderstanding of this relationship has partly anchored the controversy and continues to fuel it. Based on a perspective inspired by pragmatism, which stresses the positive contribution of science to ethical and policy debates but also challenges different forms of scientism in science and philosophy found in foundationalist interpretations, I scrutinize three different stances regarding the relationship between lay and scientific perspectives about the definition of death: (1) foundational lay views, (2) foundational expert views, and (3) co-evolving views. I argue that only the latter is sustainable given recent challenges to foundationalist interpretations.

  13. Academic Boards: Less Intellectual and More Academic Capital in Higher Education Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A historically informed analysis of the academic board or senate in Australian universities, and in the wider higher education environment, particularly the UK, indicates that the role and function of academic boards has fundamentally changed in the past 30 years. Within the context of universities being repositioned to serve global knowledge…

  14. Academic Staff Workloads and Job Satisfaction: Expectations and Values in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Don; Meyer, Luanna H.; Paewai, Shelley

    2006-01-01

    University academic staff do complex work in an increasingly demanding environment. Traditionally, universities have defined the role of academic staff according to the three domains of teaching, research, and service, with primary emphasis placed upon the teaching and research aspects and secondary emphasis upon service or administration. Recent…

  15. Academic Faith Integration: Introduction to a New Section within "Christian Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaak, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The following article lays out the rationale and vision for a new section of "Christian Higher Education" focused on academic faith integration. The section editor provides a brief history of this central aspect of Christian higher education, including some of the opportunities, challenges, and critiques expressed within the scholarly…

  16. Perceptions of Neutrality through a Post-Colonial Lens: Institutional Positioning in Canadian Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuetherick, Brad; Ewert-Bauer, Tereigh

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether neutrality is possible in academic development invites us to explore the particular place of academic development in our institutions and how academic development is positioned in our particular national and institutional environments. This paper, which reports on a small pilot study of how Canadian academic development is…

  17. Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jonathan Bart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate Index…

  18. Effects of Blackboard on EFL Academic Writing and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fageeh, Abdulaziz; Mekheimer, Mohamed Amin A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to recognize the pedagogical effects of Blackboard as a computer-mediated communication (CMC) environment for teaching academic writing and improving students' attitudes toward academic writing. Learners' interactions in the CMC environment of Blackboard were analyzed via a controlled descriptive design to examine how students…

  19. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  20. A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott

    2012-12-01

    Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals' retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients' comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and 23 subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician's findings during a patient's visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents.

  1. Laying the Foundation for Literacy: An Anti-Bias Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Defines an anti-bias curriculum as accepting the legitimacy of children's home languages, acknowledging all attempts at communication, and promoting active involvement of traditional, extended, and non-traditional families. Examines anti-bias education, language, and literacy. Identifies six tenets of anti-bias educators. Advocates laying the…

  2. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  3. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  4. 211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE CAPITAL OVERLOOK, 1931. NOTE THE BEGINNING OF BITUMINOUS TYPE OF TEMPORARY PAVEMENT TO ALLOW FOR SETTLEMENT IN HYDRAULIC FILL AREAS. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  5. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  6. "Picturing" Lay Ministry: Photovoice and Participatory Group Spiritual Gifts Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefz, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…

  7. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. 18.701 Section 18.701 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony §...

  8. The First Weeks of School: Laying a Quality Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Jane; Burrell, Louise

    Based on the view that the first weeks of school lay the foundation for the remainder of the year, this book uses an ethnographic approach to present the story of one teacher and the classroom she constructed during the first weeks of school. The book's introduction explores beliefs about children and teaching and a view of theory and practice…

  9. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  10. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  11. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  12. Wheat middlings as an alternative feedstuff for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Sunde, M L; Cook, M E

    1992-06-01

    Three long-term experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of using wheat middlings (WM) for laying hens and to study the responses of six strains of commercial laying hens fed WM diet. In Experiment 1,320 layers maintained in floor pens were fed diets containing 45% WM with .25 or .75% salt, or 89% WM with .25% or 1.5% salt. Salt supplementation did not show any beneficial effect on egg production. Hen-day egg production by hens fed the 45% WM diet was significantly higher for hens fed 45% WM than for those fed the 89% WM diet (79 versus 67.5%, 44-wk period). Feed, limestone, and water intakes were increased by the 89% WM diet. Yolk color, Haugh units, hen livability, and reproductive parameters were not different among the dietary treatments. In Experiments 2 and 3, laying hens from six commercial strains (four strains each experiment, 240 hens per strain) were maintained in laying cages in each year, and fed either a corn and soybean meal (CSM) or a 25% WM diet. Results show that neither diet nor strain had effects on hen-day egg production; however, egg weights from Strains A, C, and F were heavier than those from Strains B, D, and E. Feed intakes and feed utilizations were similar among the s trains. The 25% WM diet increased egg weight, feed intake, and feed utilization compared with the CSM diet. Livability of hens was 93.8 to 97.5% and was not affected by either strain or diet. It is concluded that commercial strains of laying hens can be fed diets containing 25 to 45% WM and still have normal hen-day egg production although feed utilization will be poorer.

  13. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    MedlinePlus

    ... RFC Newsletter - Physiatry in Motion Discussion Forums FileShare Libraries Membership Directory About AAP President's Message Mission & Strategic ... children('.slide-panel.notactive').removeClass('notactive'); autoPlay();}); }); Your Academic Home for Physiatry The Association of Academic Physiatrists ( ...

  14. Success of Academic Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskill, Victor P.

    1971-01-01

    The process of readmission of academically troubled students should be subjected to extensive critical analysis. The human resources represented by the college academic dropout, often overlooked in the past should be reclaimed and channeled into productive areas. (Author)

  15. Academic physiatry. Balancing clinical practice and academic activities.

    PubMed

    Grabois, M

    1992-04-01

    The need for continued and diversified growth of both scholarly and clinical activities within academic physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) departments is discussed with reference to the demands placed on academic departments by the various components of their mission, such as administration, clinical service, education and research. The expansion and improvement of clinical services should include the following components: program development, resources needed, finances required and marketing. Clinical subspecialization of faculty and solid affiliation with nonacademic hospitals and rehabilitation facilities is essential for academic PM&R. The faculty should include three categories: clinical faculty, clinical-research faculty and research faculty. Adequate financial resources must comprise an appropriate balance of academic funds, clinical income and grant sources. Clinical funds will play a greater role as other sources of funds diminish. Any practice plan must recognize the equality of the differing faculty members' practices, whether their interests are clinical, educational or research-oriented. The expansion and intensification of clinical programs by academy PM&R departments could increase competition in the medical community. Sensitivity to the perceptions of other practitioners and institutions, careful planning and cooperation will help the field grow and improve levels of care for the patients we serve in light of the changing medical care environment.

  16. Faculty Development in a Changing Academic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Clyde H.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional model for medical faculty development is inadequate in the face of shrinking government support, changes in biomedical research, changes in reimbursement systems, loss of respect for medical professions, and radical changes in the structure of the health care delivery system. Implications of changes in the health care system for…

  17. Management Skills in a Changing Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elaine; Maier, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Administrators who are gifted in dealing with problems arising from growth may not have the personality or skills to handle problems of retrenchment. This article considers the kind of personality and resume that a board of trustees should look for in choosing an administrator to lead an institution through the current and anticipated educational…

  18. Spread of academic success in a high school social network.

    PubMed

    Blansky, Deanna; Kavanaugh, Christina; Boothroyd, Cara; Benson, Brianna; Gallagher, Julie; Endress, John; Sayama, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Application of social network analysis to education has revealed how social network positions of K-12 students correlate with their behavior and academic achievements. However, no study has been conducted on how their social network influences their academic progress over time. Here we investigated correlations between high school students' academic progress over one year and the social environment that surrounds them in their friendship network. We found that students whose friends' average GPA (Grade Point Average) was greater (or less) than their own had a higher tendency toward increasing (or decreasing) their academic ranking over time, indicating social contagion of academic success taking place in their social network.

  19. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept. PMID:25344993

  20. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  1. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.

  2. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  3. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  4. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  5. Bridges to Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornowich, Barbara Bernstein; Nelson, Anthony

    The materials comprise the curriculum for an introductory course in academic writing for limited English proficient adult or college students. The guide is intended for the upper end of a survival language skills course or the lowest end of an academic developmental writing sequence. The curriculum instructs students on academic life and assists…

  6. Pre-laying climatic cues can time reproduction to optimally match offspring hatching and ice conditions in an Arctic marine bird.

    PubMed

    Love, Oliver P; Gilchrist, H Grant; Descamps, Sébastien; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Bêty, Joël

    2010-09-01

    Individuals breeding in seasonal environments are under strong selection to time reproduction to match offspring demand and the quality of the post-natal environment. Timing requires both the ability to accurately interpret the appropriate environmental cues, and the flexibility to respond to inter-annual variation in these cues. Determining which cues are linked to reproductive timing, what these cues are predicting and understanding the fitness consequences of variation in timing, is therefore of paramount interest to evolutionary and applied ecologists, especially in the face of global climate change. We investigated inter-annual relationships between climatic variation and the timing of reproduction in Canada's largest breeding population of Arctic common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in East Bay, Nunavut. Warmer spring temperatures predicted both earlier mean annual laying dates and the earlier ice-free conditions required by ducklings for post-natal growth. Warmer springs had higher variation in this temperature cue, and the population laying distribution became increasingly positively-skewed in warmer summers, potentially indicating that more low-quality females had the opportunity to commence laying in warmer years. Females that timed laying to match duckling hatching just prior to fully ice-free conditions obtained the highest duckling survival probability. Inter-annual data on repeated breeding attempts revealed that the individuals examined show a similar degree of laying flexibility in response to climatic variation; however, there was significant individual variation in the absolute timing of laying within an average year. This work sheds light on how reproductive timing is related to and influenced by variation in local climate and provides vital information on how climate-related variation in reproductive timing influence a fitness measure in an Arctic species. Results are especially relevant to future work in polar environments given that global

  7. Perception of Lay People Regarding Determinants of Health and Factors Affecting It: An Aggregated Analysis from 29 Countries

    PubMed Central

    ZAHRA, Aqeela; LEE, Eun-Whan; SUN, Li-Yuan; PARK, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the perception of lay people regarding determinants of health at global level and factors affecting it. Methods: Data was collected from International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and World Bank website. Multilevel regression analysis was done and lay people’s perception regarding health behavior, environment, poverty and genes as health determinants was assessed. Various socio demographic factors were used as independent variables. Results: The highest percentage of people agreed environment as determinant of health. An inverse relationship was observed between GNI quartiles and an individual’s agreement with poverty, health behavior, and environment as health determinant. There was a significant negative association of females with health damaging behavior (P<0.05) and positive association with environment and genes (P<0.05) as health determinants. Elderly people agreed with poverty as determinant of health (P<0.05). GNI was negatively related to environment (P<0.05) and poverty (P<0.05) as health determinant. Conclusion: The common public is now becoming aware of a broadened concept of health and people belonging to different backgrounds have different perceptions regarding determinants of health. Our results show that highest percentage of people agreed with environment as determinant of health, which is consistent with scientific view of increased burden of disease, caused by environmental factors. Thus, tailored health programs and policies that address an individual’s specific problems are likely to induce a change in behavior and attitude, hence decreasing the disease burden. PMID:26811813

  8. Songbirds do not create long-term stores of calcium in their legs prior to laying: results from high-resolution radiography

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, R.; Winkler, D. W.; Graveland, J.; Batterman, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    We prepared high-resolution radiographs of the leg bones of three passerine species using X-rays at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), which allows imaging with exceptionally high contrast and resolution. In studies of living Tree Swallows before and after laying and in studies of Brown-headed Cowbirds and Great Tits collected before, during or after laying, there is no evidence of calcium storage in the leg bones. By contrast, Great Tit nestlings raised in environments with extremely low calcium availability exhibited calcium deprivation in the development of their leg bones.

  9. Egg morphology, laying behavior and record of the host plants of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851), a new alien species for Europe (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisabetta; Stroiński, Adam; Lucchi, Andrea

    2015-11-17

    The exotic planthopper, Ricania speculum (Ricaniidae) was recently detected in Liguria, in northern Italy, and recorded as a first alert for Europe. The first morphological description of eggs and laying behavior are given. Eggs are inserted into the woody tissue of a wide range of different host plants in such a unique manner among native and alien planthoppers of Italy that it can be used to describe the prevalence and diffusion of the species in new environments, though in the absence of juveniles and/or adults. In addition, the paper lists the host plants utilized for egg laying and describes the eggs.

  10. Critical Connections: Health and Academics

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Basch, Charles E; Wentzel, Kathryn R; Wechsler, Howell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework as a way to address health-related barriers to learning. METHODS A literature review was conducted on the association between student health and academic achievement. RESULTS Most of the evidence examined the association between student health behaviors and academic achievement, with physical activity having the most published studies and consistent findings. The evidence supports the need for school health services by demonstrating the association between chronic conditions and decreased achievement. Safe and positive school environments were associated with improved health behaviors and achievement. Engaging families and community members in schools also had a positive effect on students' health and achievement. CONCLUSIONS Schools can improve the health and learning of students by supporting opportunities to learn about and practice healthy behaviors, providing school health services, creating safe and positive school environments, and engaging families and community. This evidence supports WSCC as a potential framework for achieving national educational and health goals. PMID:26440816

  11. The relationship between lay and technical views of Escherichia coli O157 risk.

    PubMed

    Strachan, N J C; Hunter, C J; Jones, C D R; Wilson, R S; Ethelberg, S; Cross, P; Williams, A P; MacRitchie, L; Rotariu, O; Chadwick, D

    2011-07-12

    Here, we bring together and contrast lay (accessible primarily through social science methodologies) and technical (via risk assessment and epidemiological techniques) views of the risk associated with the Escherichia coli O157 pathogen using two case study areas in the Grampian region of Scotland, and North Wales. Epidemiological risk factors of contact with farm animals, visiting farms or farm fields and having a private water supply were associated with postcode districts of higher than average disease incidence in the human population. However, this was not the case for the epidemiological risk factor of consumption of beef burgers, which was independent of disease incidence in the postcode district of residence. The proportion of the population expressing a high knowledge of E. coli O157 was greatest in high-incidence disease districts compared with low-incidence areas (17% cf. 7%). This supports the hypothesis that in high-disease-incidence areas, residents are regularly exposed to information about the disease through local cases, the media, local social networks, etc. or perhaps that individuals are more likely to be motivated to find out about it. However, no statistically significant difference was found between high- and low-incidence postcode districts in terms of the proportion of the population expressing a high likelihood of personal risk of infection (10% cf. 14%), giving a counterintuitive difference between the technical (epidemiological and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA)) and the lay assessment of E. coli O157 risk. This suggests that lay evaluations of E. coli O157 risk reflect intuitive and experience-based estimates of the risk rather than probabilistic estimates. A generally strong correspondence was found in terms of the rank order given to potential infection pathways, with environment and foodborne infection routes dominating when comparing public understanding with technical modelling results. Two general conclusions

  12. Submarine optical fiber cable: development and laying results.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Yabuta, T; Negishi, Y; Iwabuchi, K; Kawata, O; Yamashita, K; Miyajima, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the structural design, trial production, and laying results for submarine optical fiber cables that can be deployed in shallow seas between islands and/or channel crossings without repeaters. Structural design methods for the submarine optical fiber cable are proposed, which take into consideration suppressing cable elongation under tension and excess loss under hydraulic pressure. This paper describes good laying results for the cable using this structural design method. The average loss for single-mode fibers was 0.72 dB/km, and the average loss for multimode fibers was 0.81 dB/km for a 10.2-km long cable operated at 1.3-microm wavelength.

  13. An analysis of lay medicine: fifteen years later

    PubMed Central

    Elliott-Binns, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Five hundred patients were asked what advice they had received before attending the doctor's surgery. The results were analysed and compared with an identical survey carried out in 1970. There have been few changes in the frequency and nature of lay advice over the last 15 years, with women still being the chief source of informal advice; the advice from men was generally to go to the doctor. Pharmacists play an increasing role and television is mentioned three times more often as a source of information in 1985 than 1970. Home doctor books are more up to date and are used more frequently. Self-care and lay advice remain important sources of medical care, suggesting that health education is a matter of priority. PMID:3668902

  14. Submarine optical fiber cable: development and laying results.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Yabuta, T; Negishi, Y; Iwabuchi, K; Kawata, O; Yamashita, K; Miyajima, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the structural design, trial production, and laying results for submarine optical fiber cables that can be deployed in shallow seas between islands and/or channel crossings without repeaters. Structural design methods for the submarine optical fiber cable are proposed, which take into consideration suppressing cable elongation under tension and excess loss under hydraulic pressure. This paper describes good laying results for the cable using this structural design method. The average loss for single-mode fibers was 0.72 dB/km, and the average loss for multimode fibers was 0.81 dB/km for a 10.2-km long cable operated at 1.3-microm wavelength. PMID:20372546

  15. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  16. Female Sexuality in Thai Discourses about Maechii ('lay nuns').

    PubMed

    Muecke, Marjorie

    2004-05-01

    By examining competing discourses about women who are maechii (or 'lay nuns') in Buddhist Thai society, this paper demonstrates that, although maechii vow to be celibate, social constructions of their role are grounded in sexuality. The discourses examined are those of the Buddhist canon and Sangha (Order of Monkhood), the Thai Maechii Institute, the mass media, and the government. The analysis is supplemented with field observations and interviews with monks, maechii, and lay persons. Findings suggest that maechii comprise an ambiguous category linguistically, Buddhistically, and in terms of their sexuality. Case studies of the founders of nunneries conducted in ChiangMai indicate that maechii leaders have been resisting the prevalent views that most maechii are social misfits, yet also are capable of undermining monks' celibacy and, by extension, the larger social order. The analysis contributes to the understanding of the interconnectedness of gender and sexuality in contemporary Thai society.

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  2. Lay voices on allergic conditions in children: parents' narratives and the negotiation of a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Sonja Olin

    2004-04-01

    Allergic conditions can be seen as an increasing as well as debated health problem in Western societies, but lay notions and experiences of these conditions are still not fully understood. As much attention is given to prevention of allergic conditions in early childhood, for example as medical advice to parents of young children, it is of particular interest to look at lay understandings of allergic conditions in childhood. This study, carried out in Sweden, explores understandings of child allergy, drawing on interviews with parents of children under 6 years, in a period when the children are medically assessed. The interviews are analysed as illness narratives, with a focus on how the parents explain the child's illness. The analysis reveals a complex pattern. The parents on the one hand refer to a shared knowledge about causes to allergic conditions, such as factors in the physical environment, family life-style and genetic causes. On the other hand, this knowledge is re-appropriated and intertwined with the parents' own experiences of allergic conditions in the process of making sense of the illness in their own child. In their stories, the parents link a potential allergic condition in the child to their own identities as allergic or non-allergic persons and to their family illness history. Child allergy is in this sense constructed as a "family condition". PMID:14759677

  3. A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals’ retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients’ comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and twenty-three subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician’s findings during a patient’s visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents. PMID:22925723

  4. 52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PREMOULDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PRE-MOULDED CONCRETE BLOCK) OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 10, 1900. THE BLOCK IS BEING PLACED ON ONE OF THE MONOLITHIC TAIL RACE (TAIL PIT) BASES. VON SCHON MAY BE THE THIRD PERSON FROM THE RIGHT IN THE CENTER OF THE PICTURE (IN THE GRAY SUIT). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. Erysipelas in laying hens is associated with housing system.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, H; Nyman, A-K; Fellström, C; Wallgren, P

    2013-07-01

    Following the change from conventional cages to non-cage housing systems and furnished cages, which in Sweden was finalised by 2005, problems caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae increased in laying hen flocks. This study aimed to investigate possible associations between housing systems for laying hens and outbreaks of erysipelas. Also, sera from 129 flocks in different housing systems, collected during 2005-2007, were analysed for the presence of antibodies to E rhusiopathiae using an indirect ELISA test. Antibodies were detected in all housing systems. The mean flock absorbance values from free-range flocks were significantly higher than corresponding values from other housing systems. Data on the Swedish laying hen population were compared with the recorded number of erysipelas outbreaks during 1998-2011. Outbreaks occurred on 15 farms with indoor litter-based systems (n=87 farms in 2011). No outbreak was diagnosed on farms with flocks in conventional or furnished cages. The results indicate that the risk for an outbreak was higher in free-range systems than in indoor litter-based systems, and lowest for flocks housed in cages. Absence of erysipelas in the majority of subsequent flocks on the affected farms suggested that proper measures, including vaccination, were undertaken. PMID:23542656

  6. Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paula; Huynh, Amy; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

    2007-01-01

    As is commonly the case in new areas of research, workplace bullying researchers and practitioners have struggled to establish a single agreed-upon definition of this phenomenon. As a consequence, there are numerous definitions of workplace bullying currently in use around the world to investigate this serious workplace issue, to educate the workforce about this form of harassment and to assess claims involving allegations of workplace bullying. Additionally, little is known about how employees and people in general define workplace bullying behaviour, and whether current researcher, practitioner and legal definitions coincide with lay definitions of bullying. To compare researcher, practitioner and legal definitions of workplace bullying with lay definitions, the content of definitions composed by adults from diverse personal and professional backgrounds (N=1095) was analysed. Results confirmed that components commonly used by researchers and practitioners, including the occurrence of harmful and negative workplace behaviours, were frequently cited by participants as central defining components of bullying behaviour. In addition, lay definitions often included themes of fairness and respect. The emergence of these themes has important consequences for organisations responding to, and attempting to prevent the occurrence of workplace bullying behaviour in that organisations in which bullying is tolerated may violate both local laws as well as their ethical responsibility to provide employees with a safe, professional and respectful workplace. PMID:17692375

  7. Altruistic behavior by egg-laying worker honeybees.

    PubMed

    Naeger, Nicholas L; Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Barron, Andrew B; Robinson, Gene E

    2013-08-19

    If a honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony loses its queen, worker bees develop their ovaries and produce male offspring [1]. Kin selection theory predicts that the degree of altruism in queenless colonies should be reduced because the relatedness of workers to a hivemate's offspring is less in queenless colonies than it is to the daughters of the queen in queenright colonies [2-4]. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the behavior and physiology of queenless egg-laying workers. Queenless bees engaged in both personal reproduction and the social foraging and defense tasks that benefited their colony. Laying workers also had larger brood-food-producing and wax glands, showing metabolic investments in both colony maintenance and personal reproduction. Whereas in queenright colonies there is a very clear age-based pattern of division of labor between workers, in queenless colonies the degree of individual specialization was much reduced. Queenless colonies functioned as a collective of reproductive and behaviorally generalist bees that cooperatively maintained and defended their nest. This social structure is similar to that observed in a number of primitively social bee species [5]. Laying workers therefore show a mix of selfish personal reproduction and altruistic cooperative behavior, and the queenless state reveals previously unrecognized plasticity in honeybee social organization.

  8. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief.

  9. Erysipelas in laying hens is associated with housing system.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, H; Nyman, A-K; Fellström, C; Wallgren, P

    2013-07-01

    Following the change from conventional cages to non-cage housing systems and furnished cages, which in Sweden was finalised by 2005, problems caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae increased in laying hen flocks. This study aimed to investigate possible associations between housing systems for laying hens and outbreaks of erysipelas. Also, sera from 129 flocks in different housing systems, collected during 2005-2007, were analysed for the presence of antibodies to E rhusiopathiae using an indirect ELISA test. Antibodies were detected in all housing systems. The mean flock absorbance values from free-range flocks were significantly higher than corresponding values from other housing systems. Data on the Swedish laying hen population were compared with the recorded number of erysipelas outbreaks during 1998-2011. Outbreaks occurred on 15 farms with indoor litter-based systems (n=87 farms in 2011). No outbreak was diagnosed on farms with flocks in conventional or furnished cages. The results indicate that the risk for an outbreak was higher in free-range systems than in indoor litter-based systems, and lowest for flocks housed in cages. Absence of erysipelas in the majority of subsequent flocks on the affected farms suggested that proper measures, including vaccination, were undertaken.

  10. Context-Dependent Plastic Response during Egg-Laying in a Widespread Newt Species

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on predator-induced phenotypic plasticity mostly focused on responses in morphology, developmental time and/or behaviour during early life stages, but the potential significance of anticipatory parental responses has been investigated less often. In this study I examined behavioural and maternal responses of gravid female smooth newts, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the presence of chemical cues originating from invertebrate predators, Acilius sulcatus water beetles and Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae. More specifically, I tested the extent of oviposition preference, plasticity in egg-wrapping behaviour and plasticity in egg size when females had the possibility to lay eggs at oviposition sites with and without predator cues during overnight trials. I found that individuals did not avoid laying eggs in the environment with predator cues; however, individuals that deposited eggs into both environments adjusted the size of the laid eggs to the perceived environment. Females deposited larger eggs earlier in the season but egg size decreased with time in the absence of predator cues, whereas individuals laid eggs of average size throughout the investigated reproductive period when such cues were present. Also, egg size was found to be positively related to hatching success. Individuals did not adjust their wrapping behaviour to the presence of predator cues, but females differed in the extent of egg-wrapping between ponds. Females’ body mass and tail depth were also different between ponds, whereas their body size was positively associated with egg size. According to these results, female smooth newts have the potential to exhibit activational plasticity and invest differently into eggs depending on temporal and environmental factors. Such an anticipatory response may contribute to the success of this caudate species under a wide range of predator regimes at its natural breeding habitats. PMID:26291328

  11. Context-Dependent Plastic Response during Egg-Laying in a Widespread Newt Species.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on predator-induced phenotypic plasticity mostly focused on responses in morphology, developmental time and/or behaviour during early life stages, but the potential significance of anticipatory parental responses has been investigated less often. In this study I examined behavioural and maternal responses of gravid female smooth newts, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the presence of chemical cues originating from invertebrate predators, Acilius sulcatus water beetles and Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae. More specifically, I tested the extent of oviposition preference, plasticity in egg-wrapping behaviour and plasticity in egg size when females had the possibility to lay eggs at oviposition sites with and without predator cues during overnight trials. I found that individuals did not avoid laying eggs in the environment with predator cues; however, individuals that deposited eggs into both environments adjusted the size of the laid eggs to the perceived environment. Females deposited larger eggs earlier in the season but egg size decreased with time in the absence of predator cues, whereas individuals laid eggs of average size throughout the investigated reproductive period when such cues were present. Also, egg size was found to be positively related to hatching success. Individuals did not adjust their wrapping behaviour to the presence of predator cues, but females differed in the extent of egg-wrapping between ponds. Females' body mass and tail depth were also different between ponds, whereas their body size was positively associated with egg size. According to these results, female smooth newts have the potential to exhibit activational plasticity and invest differently into eggs depending on temporal and environmental factors. Such an anticipatory response may contribute to the success of this caudate species under a wide range of predator regimes at its natural breeding habitats. PMID:26291328

  12. Context-Dependent Plastic Response during Egg-Laying in a Widespread Newt Species.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on predator-induced phenotypic plasticity mostly focused on responses in morphology, developmental time and/or behaviour during early life stages, but the potential significance of anticipatory parental responses has been investigated less often. In this study I examined behavioural and maternal responses of gravid female smooth newts, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the presence of chemical cues originating from invertebrate predators, Acilius sulcatus water beetles and Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae. More specifically, I tested the extent of oviposition preference, plasticity in egg-wrapping behaviour and plasticity in egg size when females had the possibility to lay eggs at oviposition sites with and without predator cues during overnight trials. I found that individuals did not avoid laying eggs in the environment with predator cues; however, individuals that deposited eggs into both environments adjusted the size of the laid eggs to the perceived environment. Females deposited larger eggs earlier in the season but egg size decreased with time in the absence of predator cues, whereas individuals laid eggs of average size throughout the investigated reproductive period when such cues were present. Also, egg size was found to be positively related to hatching success. Individuals did not adjust their wrapping behaviour to the presence of predator cues, but females differed in the extent of egg-wrapping between ponds. Females' body mass and tail depth were also different between ponds, whereas their body size was positively associated with egg size. According to these results, female smooth newts have the potential to exhibit activational plasticity and invest differently into eggs depending on temporal and environmental factors. Such an anticipatory response may contribute to the success of this caudate species under a wide range of predator regimes at its natural breeding habitats.

  13. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Wei; Cosman, Pamela; Palm, Megan; Schafer, William R.

    2005-12-01

    Egg laying is an important phase of the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Previous studies examined egg-laying events manually. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of egg-laying onset using deformable template matching and other morphological image analysis techniques. Some behavioral changes surrounding egg-laying events are also studied. The results demonstrate that the computer vision tools and the algorithm developed here can be effectively used to study C. elegans egg-laying behaviors. The algorithm developed is an essential part of a machine-vision system for C. elegans tracking and behavioral analysis.

  15. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  16. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  17. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  18. Ethics and academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-01-01

    Academics from across the globe must navigate ever-increasing demands for research, practice, and educational productivity. With the increased demands, nurse faculty must choose value priorities and actions that reflect academic integrity. What does it mean to choose actions that reflect personal integrity in the academic arena? This article begins an important nursing philosophical and theoretical discussion that members and future members of the discipline of nursing must reflect upon and grapple with as they consider what it potentially means to act with straight thinking and integrity in academics. PMID:25520458

  19. 40 CFR 262.204 - How an eligible academic entity indicates it will withdraw from the requirements of this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How an eligible academic entity... Unwanted Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.204 How an eligible academic entity indicates it will withdraw from the requirements of this subpart. (a) An eligible academic...

  20. 40 CFR 262.204 - How an eligible academic entity indicates it will withdraw from the requirements of this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How an eligible academic entity... Unwanted Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.204 How an eligible academic entity indicates it will withdraw from the requirements of this subpart. (a) An eligible academic...

  1. Incorporating Academic Standards in Instructional Systems Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue

    Almost every state is "imposing" academic standards. Helping students to meet those standards is a key task for teachers and school administrators, as well as instructional systems designers. Thus, instructional designers in the K-12 environments are facing the challenge of using appropriately and effectively academic standards in their…

  2. Gendered Habitus and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance

    2014-01-01

    Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a…

  3. College Students and Academic Performance: A Case of Taking Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Wortman, Thomas I.

    2004-01-01

    College students face a myriad of pressures and challenges in the academic environment as they seek to maintain optimal performance or even to remain in the academic program. In 2002, it was reported that more than 30% of first-year students did not return for their second year of college (Smith), and only 40% are reported to actually compete…

  4. College Students and Academic Performance: A Case of Taking Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Wortman, Thomas I.

    2009-01-01

    College students face a myriad of pressures and challenges in the academic environment as they seek to maintain optimal performance or even to remain in the academic program. In 2002, it was reported that more than 30% of first-year students did not return for their second year of college (Smith), and only 40% are reported to actually compete…

  5. Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berentsen, Lowell W.

    2006-01-01

    Technology education teachers today have at their disposal the skills, opportunity, experience, ingenuity, expertise, equipment, and environment to greatly improve students' ability to learn and apply the knowledge they have gained in their academic programs. When a technology education teacher joins forces with an academic core teacher, the…

  6. Open Access in China and Its Effect on Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Dehua; Luo, Aijing; Liu, Haixia

    2013-01-01

    OA is to become the future of academic library exchanges in China. With the government's support and promotion of OA, more and more Chinese academic libraries have been committed to participating in OA. The rapid development of OA not only has changed the model of traditional scholarly communication and brought a free communication environment of…

  7. Essays on Academic Achievement and Student Behavior in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Wael Soheil

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English…

  8. Students as Spectators: Their Academic and Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopton, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    There is extensive research literature addressing the impact that the college experience has on students, linking the campus environment to their persistence and graduation, satisfaction, sense of community, academic and social integration, and academic performance. Researchers have yet to fully address the connection between students identifying…

  9. Understanding the Organizational Context of Academic Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Jay R.; Heineman, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a conceptual model that academic leaders can use to navigate the complex, and often contentious, organizational terrain of academic program development. The model includes concepts related to the institution's external environment, as well as internal organizational structures, cultures, and politics. Drawing from the…

  10. Building Next Generation Video Game Collections in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskowski, Mary; Ward, David

    2009-01-01

    Most academic libraries do not yet have gaming collections, let alone gaming services and facilities that support the unique and growing teaching and research needs of campus environments. Academic libraries in particular need to start thinking about developing the next generation of gaming collections and services. This article examines the…

  11. Affective Benefits from Academic Competitions for Middle School Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet A.; Debelak, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Academic competitions have long been an aspect of programming for the gifted. These competitions can facilitate a learning environment that presents gifted students the academic challenge that often is difficult to create in a single classroom or school. They can offer the types of experiences that foster the development of productive attitudes…

  12. Fifty "Best" Database and File Management Packages for Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garten, Edward D.

    1985-01-01

    Lists computer programs selected on basis of following criteria: (1) applicability or easy adaptability to academic or research library environment; (2) operative on three microcomputer brands found in academic and research libraries; (3) good or excellent reviews appearing in software magazines; (4) price ranging from $50-$350. Vendor addresses…

  13. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part II—Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    David, Bruce; Mejdell, Cecilie; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Oppermann Moe, Randi

    2015-01-01

    The EU ban on conventional barren cages for laying hens from 2012 has improved many aspects of laying hen welfare. The new housing systems allow for the expression of highly-motivated behaviors. However, the systems available for intensive large-scale egg production (e.g., aviaries, floor housing systems, furnished cages) may cause other welfare challenges. We have reviewed the literature regarding the health, behavior, production characteristics, and welfare of laying hens when exposed to ammonia in their housing environment. Concentrations of ammonia gas are commonly high in aviaries and floor housing systems in which manure is not regularly removed, whereas they are usually lower in furnished cages. High levels are found during the cold season when ventilation flow is often reduced. Ammonia is a pungent gas, and behavioral studies indicate chickens are averse to the gas. High concentrations of gaseous ammonia can have adverse health effects and, when very high, even influence production performance. The most profound effects seen are the occurrence of lesions in the respiratory tract and keratoconjunctivitis. There is also evidence that high ammonia concentrations predispose poultry to respiratory disease and secondary infections. We conclude that there are animal welfare challenges related to high ammonia levels, and that immediate actions are needed. Development of improved systems and management routines for manure removal and ventilation will be important for the reduction of ammonia levels and hence will contribute to safeguarding hen welfare. PMID:26479391

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. PMID

  15. Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-12-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  16. Lay understanding of genetics: a test of a hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M; Ponder, M

    1996-01-01

    There have been growing calls for more education in genetics for the public and in schools. However, studies of the public, school children, and those who have received genetic counselling show that understanding of scientific genetics is very limited. A hypothesis to explain this limited understanding is proposed and tested. It is argued that there is a widespread lay knowledge of inheritance which conflicts in a number of aspects with scientific explanations and which impedes the assimilation of the latter. It is suggested that this lay knowledge is derived from concepts of the social relationships of kinship. Concepts of kinship ties are sustained by everyday social activities and relationships which may make them resistant to change. A prediction which follows from the hypothesis that the lay understanding of genetics is derived from concepts of family and kinship relationships is that closeness in genetic terms will be determined by the closeness of the family ties of social relationship and social obligation. While the proportion of genes shared with parents, children, and sibs is, on average, the same, kin relationships and obligations are much stronger between parents and children than between sibs. The hypothesis was tested in a questionnaire study of two samples of adult women (n = 64 and n = 113) and one of social science students (n = 73). In all three groups a higher proportion of subjects gave the correct response for the proportion of shared genes with a father and child than with a sister, uncle, or grandmother. In the cases of sisters and uncle (and grandmother), there was a consistent tendency to underestimate the degree of genetic connection as predicted by the hypothesis. Answers to other questions are consistent with the hypothesis. The fundamental implications of the hypothesis for genetic education in the clinic and classroom are outlined. PMID:9004138

  17. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  18. Leadership Challenges in Academic Anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Mets, Berend

    2005-01-01

    The leadership challenge for academic anesthesiology lies in developing leadership at all levels in the department to create a meaningful, equitable, academic environment, with an attractive culture which challenges but supports and mentors individual growth and in so doing retains faculty. Education, research and clinical care, important as they are, are not ends in themselves, but a means to personal fulfillment lending meaning and identity to the individual which would be different from that which might be achieved in a private practice setting. The concepts of leadership from contemporary business literature are reviewed and a framework within which leadership can occur is described. This framework is based on an understanding of the role that the development of a departmental vision plays. This vision should be based on shared values as well as the mission of the department and should draw on the concepts of strategy, and commitment to realize the departmental goals. Based on these ideas, suggestions are made to illustrate how these business concepts might be applied in academic anesthesia departments.

  19. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  20. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  1. Facility Focus: Academic Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Humanities Building at Rice University, the Health Sciences Center at Lake Sumter Community College, and the Norman S. and Lida M. Smith Academic Technology Center at Bentley College as examples of the importance of academic buildings in helping define campus image. Includes photographs. (EV)

  2. Academic Researchers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergom, Inger; Waltman, Jean; August, Louise; Hollenshead, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Non-tenure-track (NTT) research faculty are perhaps the most under-recognized group of academic professionals on the campuses today, despite their increasingly important role within the expanding academic research enterprise. The American Association for the Advancement of Science reports that the amount of federal spending on R&D has more than…

  3. Becoming an Academic Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angervall, Petra; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The neo-liberal restructuring of academia justifies research concerning what constitutes academic work, what it means to be an academic researcher and how researchers manoeuvre in academia. The aim of this article is to investigate how this reshaping of higher education affects how research careers are formed and impacts on "becoming…

  4. California Redefines Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.

    2003-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, University of California President Richard Atkinson forwarded to the U.C. Academic Senate a proposed revision of the existing regulation bearing on how university teachers should treat contentious and disputed issues, both political and academic, in their classrooms. The existing regulation on this matter, APM-010, had been…

  5. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  6. Academic Identities under Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the lived experience of practising academics as part of an inquiry into the vexed question of "academic identities". Identity is understood not as a fixed property, but as part of the lived complexity of a person's project. The article reports on data from a small study in one university. The data suggest that academic…

  7. Arbitration in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  8. Impulsivity and Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…

  9. The Academic Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the academic dean, role conflicts, and the occupational experiences and performance of deans are considered. Role conflict for academic deans is related to clashing constituencies, role ambiguity, lack of correspondence between organization requirements and the personalities of incumbent deans, changing organizational needs over time,…

  10. Understanding Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…

  11. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  12. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  13. Is MBO Appropriate in the Academic Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasher, Harry J.

    1978-01-01

    A model for implementing a Management by Objectives (MBO) system in the academic environment is presented and potential problems are explored. Some of the pitfalls discussed include: organizational climate, clarity of objectives, assumption that MBO concepts are readily understood, instant success syndrome, and economic reward myopia. (JMD)

  14. Academic Capitalism and the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ilene

    2010-01-01

    Profit-generating entrepreneurial initiatives have become increasingly important as community colleges look for alternative revenue to support escalating costs in an environment characterized by funding constraints. Academic capitalism was used as the conceptual framework to determine whether community colleges have become increasingly market…

  15. Research Productivity and Academics' Conceptions of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela; Boud, David; Namgung, Sang Un; Lucas, Lisa; Crawford, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question: do people with different levels of research productivity and identification as a researcher think of research differently? It discusses a study that differentiated levels of research productivity among English and Australian academics working in research-intensive environments in three broad discipline areas: science,…

  16. Managing Academic Libraries with Fewer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of academic library management during retrenchment looks at a variety of issues, including staffing needs in the labor-intensive library environment, acquisitions budgeting, interlibrary cooperation (ownership vs. access to resources), entrepreneurship and strategic planning for problem solving, and use of total quality management…

  17. Foundational Academic Development: Building Collegiality across Divides?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Catherine; Reid, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research into the effectiveness of non-accredited foundational courses for new academic staff. An ongoing issue is that of attention and anxiety overload in the critical first period of employment when the challenges of establishing oneself in a new collegial environment are most acute. Approaches to addressing this issue may be…

  18. Transmorphosis: Negotiating Discontinuities in Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2010-01-01

    The idea of "transmorphosis" will be used in this article to discuss the impact of new teaching and learning environments on the highly mobile global academic pedagogue. "Trans-" implies "movement across", whether it be space, time, place, culture, or institution. "-morphosis" evokes the possibility/requirement to shapeshift one's pedagogical…

  19. Rough Way for Academics: Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursul, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to compare the academics' perceptions about face to face and distance education, beside finding out the contributions of distance education to them, difficulties they experience in synchronous and asynchronous distance education environments and suggestions for possible solutions of the existing problems. The sample consists…

  20. US Academic Libraries: Today's Learning Commons Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the author examined existing academic libraries in the United States to determine best practices for the design, implementation and service of learning commons facilities. A primary objective of this study was to discover how to create a higher education learning environment that sustains scholarship, encourages collaboration and empowers…

  1. Egg-laying demand induces aversion of UV light in Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Edward Y; Guntur, Ananya R; He, Ruo; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster females are highly selective about the chemosensory quality of their egg-laying sites, an important trait that promotes the survival and fitness of their offspring. How egg-laying females respond to UV light is not known, however. UV is a well-documented phototactic cue for adult Drosophila, but it is an aversive cue for larvae. Here, we show that female flies exhibit UV aversion in response to their egg-laying demand. First, females exhibit egg-laying aversion of UV: they prefer to lay eggs on dark sites when choosing between UV-illuminated and dark sites. Second, they also exhibit movement aversion of UV: positional tracking of single females suggests that egg-laying demand increases their tendency to turn away from UV. Genetic manipulations of the retina suggest that egg-laying and movement aversion of UV are both mediated by the inner (R7) and not the outer (R1-R6) photoreceptors. Finally, we show that the Dm8 amacrine neurons, a synaptic target of R7 photoreceptors and a mediator of UV spectral preference, are dispensable for egg-laying aversion but essential for movement aversion of UV. This study suggests that egg-laying demand can temporarily convert UV into an aversive cue for female Drosophila and that R7 photoreceptors recruit different downstream targets to control different egg-laying-induced behavioral modifications.

  2. Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings.

  3. Comparing academic and community-based hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Malkenson, David; Siegal, Eric M; Leff, Jared A; Weber, Rachel; Struck, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, hospitalist programs were formally introduced at both an academic and community hospital in the same city providing an opportunity to study the similarities and differences in workflows in these two settings. The data were collected using a time-flow methodology allowing the two workflows to be compared quantitatively. The results showed that the hospitalists in the two settings devoted similar proportions of their workday to the task categories studied. Most of the time was spent providing indirect patient care followed by direct patient care, travel, personal, and other. However, after adjusting for patient volumes, the data revealed that academic hospitalists spent significantly more time per patient providing indirect patient care (Academic: 54.7 +/- 11.1 min/patient, Community: 41.9 +/- 9.8 min/patient, p < 0.001). Additionally, we found that nearly half of the hospitalists' time at both settings was spent multitasking. Although we found subtle workflow differences between the academic and community programs, their similarities were more striking as well as greater than their differences. We attribute these small differences to the higher case mix index at the academic program as well greater complexity and additional communication hand-offs inherent to a tertiary academic medical center. It appears that hospitalists, irrespective of their work environment, spend far more time documenting, communicating and coordinating care than they do at the bedside raising the question, is this is a necessary feature of the hospitalist care model or should hospitalists restructure their workflow to improve outcomes?

  4. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  5. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  6. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that academics see…

  7. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  8. Laying, operating innovations pace move to deeper water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Innovations driven by the offshore industry's move into deeper, colder water and its continuing demand for solid operating research were highlighted in technical papers presented at the 26th Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, May 2--5. For pipe line connecting and laying operations, there were discussions concerning: a diverless jumper connector system for two 12-in. lines to be carried out in 2,130 ft water depth; what's believed to be the first near vertical, deepwater, J-lay project, conducted in 2,860 ft of water; first year results from operation of a prototype subsea, ROV-controlled, lightweight pipe line trencher for flexible lines. In operating research, scientists reported on new laboratory test apparatus and results designed to investigate wax deposition and gel strength of waxy live crude oils. Operators, perhaps for the first time, have data on the impact of oil bubble point, flowrate and paraffin inhibitor on wax deposition and the impact of oil bubble point and pipe size on the gel strength of waxy crudes, including both stock tank oils and live oils.

  9. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler. PMID:825006

  10. Climate change and micro-geographic variation in laying date.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape

    2008-04-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect the timing of reproduction, with earlier reproduction being associated with an increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of reproduction arise from changes in food availability as well as other factors, and differences in the timing of reproduction among sites may cause sites with early reproduction to contribute disproportionately to local recruitment. In this study, spatial variation in the laying date of barn swallows Hirundo rustica at 39 sites in a 45-km2 study area during the period 1971-2004 was used to investigate micro-geographic patterns in the timing of breeding. I found that individuals breeding at sites with early reproduction had a disproportionately large reproductive success. Early sites were characterized by early plant phenology, as determined by the date of leafing of the broad-leaved elm Ulmus glabra and date of flowering of the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis during a single year. Such early sites showed greater advancement in laying date between 1971 and 2004 than the average site. Early sites were also generally occupied during more years by a larger number of breeders than were late sites. Breeders at early sites produced more fledglings, and breeders at such sites were characterized by a smaller adult body size and larger secondary sexual characters than individuals at the average site. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that temporal changes in the timing of reproduction occur as a consequence of differential recruitment at phenologically early sites that produce disproportionately large numbers of offspring.

  11. Public Presentations of Professional Change in Academic Research Library Strategic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracke, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Academic librarianship is a profession in the midst of change. Embedded within multiple social spheres, academic librarians are adapting to changes in higher education, the sociotechnical environment of information, and the system of professions. This research investigates the ways in which academic librarians publicly present the ways in which…

  12. Perceptions of Academic Honesty in Online vs. Face-to-Face Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As online instruction continues to evolve, instructors continue to struggle with the perceived growing problem of academic dishonesty. This study will expand the literature regarding academic integrity, particularly in the online learning environment by examining student perceptions of academic integrity related to both online and face-to-face…

  13. Using Non-Finites in English Academic Writing by Chinese EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bingjun

    2014-01-01

    Frequent use of non-finites is an important feature of English academic writing (Chafe & Danielewicz, 1987), but teachers and students in the Chinese environment are not aware of it. To investigate the problems that can be found in academic writings by Chinese students is significant in two aspects: academic writing by Chinese EFL students…

  14. Understanding Today's Students: Entry-Level Science Student Involvement in Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lynda P.; Nelson, Rodney K.; Tichenor, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Academic dishonesty and its implications to learning within and outside of the academic arena are of historical concern to college faculty. Faculty generally associate actions and attitudes displayed in the academic environment as indicators of behavior throughout the student's life. As technology and societal changes occur, student…

  15. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed.

  16. Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: part I. Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organs development.

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Gu, H; Chang, L L; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

    2013-05-01

    Daidzein, an estrogen-like product, becomes increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals seeking a safe natural alternative to play a role of estrogen. However, there is little available safety data of it for raisers and consumers. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if the high-dose daidzein could affect the safety of hens selves, including laying performance, clinical blood parameters and organs development. Seven hundred and sixty-eight 56-week-old Hyline Brown were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 replicates of 24 birds each and 3weeks later fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg of daidzein/kg for 12weeks. The mortality was significantly decreased (P<0.05). No treatment related adverse clinical signs were observed. Mean egg production, egg mass and feed conversion of whole experiment period was significantly influenced by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05), showing significant quadratic response to increasing dietary daidzein supplement (P=0.029, P=0.003 and P=0.019, respectively). There was no statistically significant changes in haematology (P>0.05). In clinical chemistry parameters, total protein, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus were significantly affected by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be 50mg/kg. PMID:23391597

  17. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  18. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  19. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2011-07-01

    These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log(10) cfu/mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

  20. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  1. Lay perceptions of breast cancer in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Naanyu, Violet; Asirwa, Chite Fredrick; Wachira, Juddy; Busakhala, Naftali; Kisuya, Job; Otieno, Grieven; Keter, Alfred; Mwangi, Anne; Omenge, Orango Elkanah; Inui, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore lay perceptions of causes, severity, presenting symptoms and treatment of breast cancer. METHODS: In October-November 2012, we recruited men and women (18 years and older) from households and health facilities in three different parts of Western Kenya, chosen for variations in their documented burdens of breast cancer. A standardized and validated tool, the breast cancer awareness measure (BCAM), was administered in face-to-face interviews. Survey domains covered included socio-demographics, opinions about causes, symptoms, severity, and treatment of breast cancer. Descriptive analyses were done on quantitative data while open-ended answers were coded, and emerging themes were integrated into larger categories in a qualitative analysis. The open-ended questions had been added to the standard BCAM for the purposes of learning as much as the investigators could about underlying lay beliefs and perceptions. RESULTS: Most respondents were female, middle-aged (mean age 36.9 years), married, and poorly educated. Misconceptions and lack of knowledge about causes of breast cancer were reported. The following (in order of higher to lower prevalence) were cited as potential causes of the condition: Genetic factors or heredity (n = 193, 12.3%); types of food consumed (n = 187, 11.9%); witchcraft and curses (n = 108, 6.9%); some family planning methods (n = 56, 3.6%); and use of alcohol and tobacco (n = 46, 2.9%). When asked what they thought of breast cancer’s severity, the most popular response was “it is a killer disease” (n = 266, 19.7%) a lethal condition about which little or nothing can be done. While opinions about presenting symptoms and signs of breast cancer were able to be elicited, such as an increase in breast size and painful breasts, early-stage symptoms and signs were not widely recognized. Some respondents (14%) were ignorant of available treatment altogether while others felt breast cancer treatment is both dangerous and expensive. A

  2. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Nicol, Christine J; Murrell, Joanna C

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  3. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  4. Academic freedom and academic-industry relationships in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Commercial academic-industry relationships (AIRs) are widespread in biotechnology and have resulted in a wide array of restrictions on academic research. Objections to such restrictions have centered on the charge that they violate academic freedom. I argue that these objections are almost invariably unsuccessful. On a consequentialist understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on unfounded empirical claims about the overall effects that AIRs have on academic research. And on a rights-based understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on excessively lavish assumptions about the kinds of activities that academic freedom protects.

  5. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.

  6. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ≥1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  7. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes.

  8. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  9. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  10. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  11. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  12. Academic medicine in a transformational time.

    PubMed

    Daschle, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Public policy and technology are having and will continue to have an extraordinary impact on virtually every aspect of academic medicine. The effects of this combination of policy and technology transformations can hardly be overstated. It is critical to recognize these transformative forces and work to accept and even embrace them enthusiastically. The author examines five major transformative forces affecting academic medicine today: big data, greater transparency, new payment models, emphasis on wellness, and scope of practice. He discusses each of these transformative forces within the context of the current U.S. health care environment and offers suggestions for academic medicine to leverage them. It will take resiliency, innovation, collaboration, engagement in public policy debates, and strong leadership for this country to make the U.S. health care system the success it should be. PMID:25545002

  13. The effects of housing environment on liver health of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of type of housing, including access to perches, on f...

  14. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom.

  15. Effective organizational control: implications for academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Michael S; Srinivasan, Malathi; Flamholtz, Eric

    2005-11-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding the nature, role, functioning, design, and effects of organizational oversight systems. Using a case study with elements recognizable to an academic audience, the authors explore how a dean of a fictitious School of Medicine might use organizational control structures to develop effective solutions to global disarray within the academic medical center. Organizational control systems are intended to help influence the behavior of people as members of a formal organization. They are necessary to motivate people toward organizational goals, to coordinate diverse efforts, and to provide feedback about problems. The authors present a model of control to make this process more visible within organizations. They explore the overlap among academic medical centers and large businesses-for instance, each is a billion-dollar enterprise with complex internal and external demands and multiple audiences. The authors identify and describe how to use the key components of an organization's control system: environment, culture, structure, and core control system. Elements of the core control system are identified, described, and explored. These closely articulating elements include planning, operations, measurement, evaluation, and feedback systems. Use of control portfolios is explored to achieve goal-outcome congruence. Additionally, the authors describe how the components of the control system can be used synergistically by academic leadership to create organizational change, congruent with larger organizational goals. The enterprise of medicine is quickly learning from the enterprise of business. Achieving goal-action congruence will better position academic medicine to meet its multiple missions.

  16. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

  17. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  18. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  19. Social capital and health: implication for health promotion by lay citizens in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    A non-profit organization was formed in 2009 by lay citizens of Nagahama, Japan in response to a community-based genome-epidemiologic study, the ‘Nagahama Zero(0)-ji Prevention Cohort Project (N0PCP)’. This organization aims to promote health by taking advantage of citizens’ social networks. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion affirms the importance of creating supportive environments and coordinating social relationships. Supportive environments (infrastructure) and social relationships (resources) work together as aspects of social capital. This study sought to examine the association between self-rated health and social capital, at both individual and neighborhood levels, and to discuss suitable health promotion strategies for local circumstances. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Social capital indicators included aspects of support in the environment (social support, neighborhood connectedness, informal social controls, neighborhood trust, general trust, and attachment to place) and social relationships (number of activities; participation in neighborhood activities; participation in recreational activities; and social leverage regarding physical health, mental health, and acquisition of health information). Neighborhood-level social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in a neighborhood in the ‘high social capital’ category. At the individual level, participation in recreational activities, high general trust, and discussion regarding mental health problems with family members were associated with self-rated health positively, whereas discussion of mental health problems with acquaintances had a negative correlation. At the neighborhood level, a highly supportive environment did not contribute to good health, whereas aggregated attachment to place had a positive correlation. There were no significant inter-regional health differences. The results of this study

  20. Social capital and health: implication for health promotion by lay citizens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-12-01

    A non-profit organization was formed in 2009 by lay citizens of Nagahama, Japan in response to a community-based genome-epidemiologic study, the 'Nagahama Zero(0)-ji Prevention Cohort Project (N0PCP)'. This organization aims to promote health by taking advantage of citizens' social networks. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion affirms the importance of creating supportive environments and coordinating social relationships. Supportive environments (infrastructure) and social relationships (resources) work together as aspects of social capital. This study sought to examine the association between self-rated health and social capital, at both individual and neighborhood levels, and to discuss suitable health promotion strategies for local circumstances.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Social capital indicators included aspects of support in the environment (social support, neighborhood connectedness, informal social controls, neighborhood trust, general trust, and attachment to place) and social relationships (number of activities; participation in neighborhood activities; participation in recreational activities; and social leverage regarding physical health, mental health, and acquisition of health information). Neighborhood-level social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in a neighborhood in the 'high social capital' category. At the individual level, participation in recreational activities, high general trust, and discussion regarding mental health problems with family members were associated with self-rated health positively, whereas discussion of mental health problems with acquaintances had a negative correlation. At the neighborhood level, a highly supportive environment did not contribute to good health, whereas aggregated attachment to place had a positive correlation. There were no significant inter-regional health differences.The results of this study suggest that

  1. Careers in Academe: The Academic Labour Market as an Eco-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…

  2. Academic and Athletic Motivation as Predictors of Academic Performance of Division I College Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…

  3. The Effective Academic: A Handbook for Enhanced Academic Practice. The Times Higher Education Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketteridge, Steve, Ed.; Marshall, Stephanie, Ed.; Fry, Heather, Ed.

    This handbook provides guidance about controlling and directing an academic career by suggesting systematic approaches to key areas of responsibility and activity. It explores management and leadership in higher education, developing and promoting research and teaching, and coping with the changing university environment. The chapters of part 1,…

  4. "They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

  5. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder Etiology: Lay Beliefs and the Role of Cultural Values and Social Axioms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Xin; Zaroff, Charles M.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research examining the explanations given by the public (i.e. lay beliefs) for autism spectrum disorder often reveals a reasonably accurate understanding of the biogenetic basis of the disorder. However, lay beliefs often manifest aspects of culture, and much of this work has been conducted in western cultures. In this study, 215…

  7. Whistleblowing in academic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J

    2004-01-01

    The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine. PMID:14872069

  8. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect

  9. 40 CFR 262.203 - How an eligible academic entity indicates it will be subject to the requirements of this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How an eligible academic entity... Unwanted Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.203 How an eligible academic entity indicates it will be subject to the requirements of this subpart. (a) An eligible academic...

  10. 40 CFR 262.203 - How an eligible academic entity indicates it will be subject to the requirements of this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How an eligible academic entity... Unwanted Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.203 How an eligible academic entity indicates it will be subject to the requirements of this subpart. (a) An eligible academic...

  11. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

  12. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  13. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  14. Recommendations to University Managers for Facilitating Engagement of Academics with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Research on community-based approaches to academic development has shown the importance of a collegial and supportive environment for teaching and learning about teaching. To investigate the environment in which academics work and teach, the research behind this article has defined a new concept, called "teaching groups". Teaching groups…

  15. Critical Interactions Shaping Early Academic Career Development in Two Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug; Sharp, John G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the critical interactions within work environments that support the development of early career academics as researchers in institutions with lower order research profiles, that is, environments that differ from research-intensive universities. Ten early career academics, five from Australia and five from the…

  16. Women in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Bickel, J

    2000-01-01

    Women now constitute 43% of US medical students, 37% of residents, and 27% of full-time medical school faculty. Less than 11% of women faculty are full professors, however, compared to 31% of men, and these proportions haven't changed in more than 15 years. Since the proportion of women reaching the top ranks remains relatively low, the pool of women available for leadership positions in academic medicine is still small. This review article first summarizes recent data on women's representation in academic medicine and then discusses why they are not succeeding at the same pace as men. Reasons include a complex combination of women's choices, sexism, cultural stereotypes, constraints in combining family responsibilities with professional opportunities, and lack of effective mentoring. Multiple approaches are required to overcome these "cumulative disadvantages," among them improving the gender climate at academic medical centers; the mentoring of women faculty, residents, and students; and skill-building opportunities for women.

  17. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  18. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire. PMID:24597456

  19. Critical theory as a framework for academic nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Martha K

    2014-05-01

    In academic centers of nursing, faculty or academic practice has become more widespread and integrated into the expectations and criteria for appointment and promotion. Yet, the concept of academic practice is not fully embraced among all schools of nursing. Numerous models of academic nursing practice have evolved and vary widely according to the clinical site, the roles of the practitioners, and the systems for generating revenue. Although most models are related to the mission statements of the schools of nursing, few seem to be based on a distinct philosophy of practice. In this article, a consideration of critical theory that provides a framework for practice-based nursing education is presented. By applying the philosophical underpinnings and assumptions of practice that are guided by critical theory, educators may begin to better identify the values of academic nursing practice and incorporate this activity more fully into the educational environment.

  20. Evocative gene-parenting correlations and academic performance at first grade: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Propper, Cathi B; Shanahan, Michael J; Russo, Rosemary; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2012-11-01

    Academic performance during the first years of school lays the groundwork for subsequent trajectories of academic success throughout childhood and adolescence. The current study tests a model according to which a gene-parenting correlation in the first 3 years of life is associated with subsequent psychosocial adjustment and then academic performance in the first grade (as indicated by teachers' assessment of academic behavior and two subscales of the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement, Third Edition). Drawing on multiple waves of data from the Durham Child Health and Development Study, we find that risk alleles for dopamine receptor genes (dopamine receptor D4 for girls, dopamine receptor D2 for boys) are associated with less sensitive parenting. For girls, parenting mediates the link between dopamine receptor D4 and all academic outcomes. There is some indication that parenting also influences girls' withdrawn behavior in the classroom, which in turn influences teachers' assessments of academic performance. For boys, some evidence suggests that parenting is associated with emotion regulation, which is associated with teachers' assessments of academic behavior and both subscales of the Woodcock-Johnson. Replications of this exploratory study are necessary, but these findings provide a first step in understanding how evocative correlations in the home may predict indicators of psychosocial adjustment that in turn influence performance and achievement at school.

  1. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  2. Obstacles to the practice of licensed lay midwifery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D A; Weitz, R

    1984-01-01

    Intensive interviews with licensed lay midwives in one of ten states that have recently reactivated and revised legislation legalizing such alternative practitioners for low risk clientele revealed a number of obstacles to their practice. The obstacles stem from the same rules and regulations developed by medical practitioners that made their homebirth service legal. Even after surmounting the difficulties of obtaining a license, the midwives find widespread unwillingness among private physicians to provide the required prenatal screening examination and medical back-up. The opposition of physicians to the licensed midwifery program is voiced in terms of concern about the safety of homebirths, particularly those attended by nonphysicians. Yet, the outcomes from the first 4 years of the program give no support for such concerns. Physician reluctance to cooperate with the legal program, combined with restrictions prohibiting the licensed midwives from suturing minor tears and administering a single dose of an antihemorrhagic drug in an emergency transfer, do compromise the overall quality of midwifery care. While accepting their subordinate position to medical practitioners, the midwives are struggling to establish the continuum of care for homebirth women implied in their licensure law.

  3. Egg mercury levels decline with the laying sequence in charadriiformes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Whereas pollutants do not differ in concentration among eggs of one clutch in some bird species, in gulls, terns and grebes several organochlorines show intraclutch variation: Concentrations increase with the laying sequence. Heavy metals, however, are not so intensively studied with respect to intraclutch variation. In contrast to lead and cadmium, mercury is accumulated in great quantities in eggs. Variation in mercury levels between the eggs of one clutch were low compared to interclutch variability in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). In gulls, however, intraclutch variation was significant and characterized by higher mercury levels in the first than in subsequently laid eggs, which is the opposite to the trend in organochlorine levels. In this paper, the author reports on investigations of intraclutch variation in mercury levels in three Charadriiform-species, Herring Gull, Common Tern and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). The results confirm those previously reported in gulls and point to the importance of the egg in reducing the females' mercury burden. 23 refs, 2 tabs.

  4. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, Elaine L.; Ritchie, Timothy D.; Igou, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer. PMID:25741302

  5. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    PubMed Central

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  6. Different soil media for free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sossidou, E N; Rose, S P; Silva, S S P; Hall, N W; Tserveni-Goussi, A; Christodoulou, V

    2008-07-01

    1. A replicated experiment compared bird use, soil structure, grass wear and free-moving nematode populations in 4 different soil media (recycled vegetable compost, 90% recycled vegetable compost and 10% sand, re-used topsoil and sterilised topsoil) all with established grass swards within the range area of a large free-range laying hen unit. 2. The birds initially spent a greater proportion of their time on the two topsoil swards in comparison to the two compost-based swards. However, once the whole flock of hens had prolonged access to the different swards (unfenced areas) there were no significant differences in the number of birds that frequented the different sward types. 3. The two compost-based soil media had 33% fewer nematodes per g of dry soil compared to the two topsoil-based media. However, the rate of loss of grass from the subplots was greater with the two compost-based soil media; this was probably due to the greater porosity of these types of soil media.

  7. Binding profile of spiramycin to oviducal proteins of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N

    2000-12-01

    In vitro protein binding of spiramycin (SP) in the plasma and oviducts of laying hens was studied. The data for SP were compared with those for oxytetracycline (OTC), sulphadimidine (SDD), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulphaquinoxaline (SQ). The two oviduct segments, magnum (M) and isthmus plus shell gland (IS), were collected. The soluble (cell sap) fractions from the magnum (M-S9) and the isthmus plus shell gland (IS-S9) were used as samples. Plasma protein binding was highest for SQ (81.4%) (P < 0.01), and lowest for SDD (30.9%) (P < 0.01). No M-S9 protein binding of OTC was found. The IS-S9 protein binding of SP (60.4%) was very much higher than those of OTC (0.8%), SDD (4.1%), SMM (4.0%) and SQ (12.3%) (P < 0.01). Biological half-lives of these drugs in egg albumen were directly correlated to the extent of their binding to IS proteins. Of plasma, M-S9 and IS-S9, variation in SP concentration in the ranges from 1 to 20 micrograms/ml did not alter the binding properties of the drug. PMID:11199206

  8. What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

  9. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  10. Effect of Hypertextual Reading on Academic Success and Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durukan, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    As computer technology developed, hypertexts emerged as an influential environment for developing language skills. This study aims to evaluate a text prepared in a hypertextual environment and its effects on academic success and comprehension skills. In this study, "preliminary test final test control group experimental pattern" was used…

  11. Project Portfolio Management for Academic Libraries: A Gentle Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinopal, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In highly dynamic, service-oriented environments like academic libraries, much staff time is spent on initiatives to implement new products and services to meet users' evolving needs. Yet even in an environment where a sound project management process is applied, if we're not properly planning, managing, and controlling the organization's work in…

  12. Themes of Change in Corporate Libraries: Considerations for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housewright, Ross

    2009-01-01

    The move to an increasingly digital research environment has substantially disintermediated both academic and corporate libraries from the research process. The full impact of this disruptive change has been more clearly expressed in the corporate environment, in which libraries are less insulated by institutional tradition and historical…

  13. 20 CFR 332.6 - Standing by for and laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.6 Standing by for and laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of...

  14. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy. PMID:19083351

  15. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  16. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  17. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy.

  18. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  19. Developing (Authentic?) Academic Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to consider whether the notion of authenticity is useful or meaningful in the context of developing academics as writers. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken is that of a reflective essay. Recent texts on authenticity in higher education are examined whilst a transactional theory of writing is also considered…

  20. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…