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Sample records for academic gender stereotypes

  1. The Accuracy of Academic Gender Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the accuracy of academic gender stereotypes by asking 265 college students to estimate the percentage of male and female students and their grade point averages (GPAs) and comparing these to the actual percentage of male and female students and GPAs. Results show the inaccuracies of academic gender stereotypes. (SLD)

  2. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  3. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  4. "Experiences of Korean Female Doctoral Students in Academe: Raising Voice against Gender and Racial Stereotypes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Denise O'Neil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2005-01-01

    The experiences of South Korean female students studying at American postsecondary institutions have been little examined in relation to gender and racial stereotypes. This qualitative inquiry explores the stereotypes encountered by Korean female doctoral students, their personal coping strategies, and their perceptions of gender equality while…

  5. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  6. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  7. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  8. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519

  9. Eyeglasses and gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Terry, R L

    1989-10-01

    Under the guise of forming impressions of a job applicant in a hiring interview, subjects rated a videotaped male or female stimulus person (SP) on several gender stereotypical and task relevant traits. In one condition, the SP's wore eyeglasses, and in the other condition they did not. Eyeglasses, especially when worn by the stimulus male, were associated with feminine stereotypes and positive task relevant attributes. The results were interpreted to suggest that men who wear eyeglasses may be the target of some negative social judgments but also redeeming task relevant attributes, whereas women who wear eyeglasses are more likely to be the target of only negative social judgments.

  10. Eyeglasses and gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Terry, R L

    1989-10-01

    Under the guise of forming impressions of a job applicant in a hiring interview, subjects rated a videotaped male or female stimulus person (SP) on several gender stereotypical and task relevant traits. In one condition, the SP's wore eyeglasses, and in the other condition they did not. Eyeglasses, especially when worn by the stimulus male, were associated with feminine stereotypes and positive task relevant attributes. The results were interpreted to suggest that men who wear eyeglasses may be the target of some negative social judgments but also redeeming task relevant attributes, whereas women who wear eyeglasses are more likely to be the target of only negative social judgments. PMID:2587035

  11. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought.

  12. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  13. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  14. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  15. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  16. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  17. Practicing Stereotypes: Exploring Gender Stereotypes Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Mary

    Eliminating gender imbalances online should be possible with the ability to mask identity and move in worlds anonymously. If almost half of Internet participants are women, what is happening in the social realm of online space in relation to these numbers? This paper shows how a course at the State University of New York at Buffalo called "Gender…

  18. Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

  19. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research. PMID:26956071

  20. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research.

  1. Gender and Social Roles: A Distributional Theory of Gender Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; And Others

    In applying a social structural analysis of stereotyping to people's beliefs about gender, two issues must be confronted: (1) What is the content of stereotypes about men and women? and (2) What are the major differences in the ways that men and women are distributed into social roles? In part, the distribution of females and males into social…

  2. Gender Stereotypes and Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.

    The reason that people think women and men differ in their general qualities may be that the two sexes tend to be observed in different social roles. To explore the sources of stereotypes about men and women several experiments were conducted. Most of the studies involved randomly selected college students who were presented with a description of…

  3. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.

  4. Predicting Stereotype Endorsement and Academic Motivation in Women in Science Programs: A Longitudinal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…

  5. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and biochemistry, however, little attention has been paid to the performance of women in comparison with men or perceptions of stereotype threat, despite documentation of leaky pipelines into professional and academic careers. We used methodologies developed in physics education research and cognitive psychology to 1) investigate and compare the performance of women and men across three introductory science sequences (biology, biochemistry, physics), 2) document endorsement of stereotype threat in these science courses, and 3) investigate the utility of a values-affirmation writing task in reducing achievement gaps. In our study, analysis of final grades and normalized learning gains on content-specific concept inventories reveals no achievement gap in the courses sampled, little stereotype threat endorsement, and no impact of the values-affirmation writing task on student performance. These results underscore the context-dependent nature of achievement gaps and stereotype threat and highlight calls to replicate education research across a range of student populations. PMID:23463226

  6. Stereotyped: investigating gender in introductory science courses.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and biochemistry, however, little attention has been paid to the performance of women in comparison with men or perceptions of stereotype threat, despite documentation of leaky pipelines into professional and academic careers. We used methodologies developed in physics education research and cognitive psychology to 1) investigate and compare the performance of women and men across three introductory science sequences (biology, biochemistry, physics), 2) document endorsement of stereotype threat in these science courses, and 3) investigate the utility of a values-affirmation writing task in reducing achievement gaps. In our study, analysis of final grades and normalized learning gains on content-specific concept inventories reveals no achievement gap in the courses sampled, little stereotype threat endorsement, and no impact of the values-affirmation writing task on student performance. These results underscore the context-dependent nature of achievement gaps and stereotype threat and highlight calls to replicate education research across a range of student populations.

  7. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  8. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content.

  9. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    PubMed Central

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making. PMID:26869947

  10. An Examination of Adolescents' Salary Expectations and Gender-Based Occupational Stereotyping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender on expectations of salary and judgments about occupational suitability. Responses from 1,062 high school students were collected. Females provided lower salary estimates than males and were less likely to stereotype occupations on the basis of gender. Academic achievement was negatively correlated with…

  11. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  12. The Impact of Gender-Fair versus Gender-Stereotyped Basal Readers on 1st-Grade Children's Gender Stereotypes: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel; Gal-Disegni, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Israeli 1st-grade children in two different schools in the same neighborhood who were using either a gender-stereotyped or a gender-fair basal reader were asked to judge for a series of female-stereotyped, male-stereotyped, and gender-neutral activities whether they were characteristic of females, of males, or of both. Children using the…

  13. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  14. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  15. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept. PMID:25344993

  16. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. PMID:26414843

  17. Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge–behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature. PMID:19606278

  18. Challenging Stereotypes about Academic Writing: Complexity, Elaboration, Explicitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…

  19. The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal K; Turban, Daniel B; Bhawe, Nachiket M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit activation of gender stereotypes on men's and women's intentions to pursue a traditionally masculine career, such as entrepreneurship, was examined. On the basis of stereotype activation theory, it was hypothesized that men and women would confirm the gender stereotype about entrepreneurship when it was presented implicitly but disconfirm it when it was presented explicitly. Hypotheses were tested by randomly assigning 469 business students to one of 6 experimental conditions and then measuring their entrepreneurial intentions. Results supported the hypothesis when entrepreneurship was associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics but not when it was associated with traditionally feminine characteristics. Men also had higher entrepreneurial intention scores compared with women when no stereotypical information about entrepreneurship was presented, suggesting that underlying societal stereotypes associating entrepreneurship with masculine characteristics may influence people's intentions. However, men and women reported similar intentions when entrepreneurship was presented as gender neutral, suggesting that widely held gender stereotypes can be nullified. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:18808225

  20. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  1. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2–3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26441778

  2. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition.

  3. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and…

  4. Instrument Selection and Gender Stereotypes: A Review of Recent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eros, John

    2008-01-01

    Choice of instrument is among the most important factors in determining the course of a student's music education. Instrument selection can be a lengthy process accomplished through a variety of factors. The stereotyping of instruments by gender can, unfortunately, be one of those factors. The association of gender with particular instruments can…

  5. Revisiting Adam's Rib: Student Performance, Gender Stereotyping, and Trial Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Sara L.; Moran, Sheena M.

    2008-01-01

    The manuscript explores gender stereotyping in performance evaluations in undergraduate mock trial competitions. The central hypothesis is that gendered expectations for attorney and witness behavior in the legal community inform and influence the evaluation of undergraduate performance in relation to communication methods, argumentation…

  6. The Cooking Teacher: Investigating Gender Stereotypes in a Korean Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Liz; Ha, Sang-Jin

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses some findings from a small-scale investigation of children's gendered beliefs and behaviours in a Korean kindergarten which was attempting to challenge gender stereotyping through the anti-bias intervention of a "cooking curriculum". A sample of 14 children, some with "working" mothers and some with "housewife" mothers, was…

  7. Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…

  8. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  9. Looking through Gendered Lenses: Female Stereotyping in Advertisements and Gender Role Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafky, Sue; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Applies cognitive heuristics theory to the study of gender role stereotyping--75 high schoolers viewed magazine advertisements with stereotypical female images, while 50 others viewed nonstereotypical images; groups then responded to statements about women in a "neutral" photograph. Finds differences in gender role expectations for 6 of 12…

  10. The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Yakovlev, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines—nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb). In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially) generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases. PMID:26635650

  11. Processing Definitional and Stereotypical Gender in Reference Resolution: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Hamutal; Sturt, Patrick; Garrod, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Readers immediately slow down when an anaphor (e.g. herself) refers to an antecedent that mismatches in stereotypical gender (e.g. minister). The mismatch-cost has been attributed to a clash between the gender of the pronoun and the gender associated with the stereotypical role noun. However, the nature of such stereotypical gender is still…

  12. The Electrophysiological Underpinnings of Processing Gender Stereotypes in Language

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widely documented influence of gender stereotypes on social behaviour, little is known about the electrophysiological substrates engaged in the processing of such information when conveyed by language. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we examined the brain response to third-person pronouns (lei “she” and lui “he”) that were implicitly primed by definitional (passeggeraFEM “passenger”, pensionatoMASC “pensioner”), or stereotypical antecedents (insegnante “teacher”, conducente “driver”). An N400-like effect on the pronoun emerged when it was preceded by a definitionally incongruent prime (passeggeraFEM – lui; pensionatoMASC – lei), and a stereotypically incongruent prime for masculine pronouns only (insegnante – lui). In addition, a P300-like effect was found when the pronoun was preceded by definitionally incongruent primes. However, this effect was observed for female, but not male participants. Overall, these results provide further evidence for on-line effects of stereotypical gender in language comprehension. Importantly, our results also suggest a gender stereotype asymmetry in that male and female stereotypes affected the processing of pronouns differently. PMID:23226494

  13. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536

  14. Threatening the heart and mind of gender stereotypes: Can imagined contact influence the physiology of stereotype threat?

    PubMed

    Allen, Ben; Friedman, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient. The noticeable absence of female faculty and students in math and science departments at coed universities throughout the United States may increase the belief in gender stereotypes and discourage women from pursuing careers in these fields. Contact with counterstereotypical exemplars, such as female science experts, decreases belief in gender stereotypes and increases women's motivation to pursue careers in science. Thus, the present study examined whether imagining an interpersonal interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar removes the physiological and performance effects of stereotype threat. Subjects were asked to imagine either a nature scene or meeting a female math professor, and were also assigned to either a control or stereotype threat condition. Imagination was used because studies have shown it to be an effective method of simulating interpersonal contact. Subjects were 139 young women (mean age 19 years) recruited from a pool of undergraduates. Results showed that the stereotype threat manipulation elicited greater vagal withdrawal and poorer working memory capacity during the n-back, and that vagal withdrawal was attenuated when the stereotype threat manipulation was preceded by a brief imagined interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar. This study provides novel evidence that exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars can diminish cardiovascular reactions to salient information about threatening gender stereotypes.

  15. Gender-Stereotyping of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlin, Margaret W.; Matkoski, Kathleen M.

    In the area of cognitive skills, the actual differences between males and females are relatively small. Females score slightly higher on verbal tasks and males score slightly higher on mathematical tasks. According to the cognitive approach to stereotypes, people should perceive these differences to be quite large. To determine whether subjects…

  16. Challenging Gender Stereotypes: Theory of Mind and Peer Group Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T.; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer’s group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group’s stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group’s evaluation of challenges to the group’s stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one’s own and other group perspectives. PMID:26395753

  17. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  18. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  19. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  20. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces.

  1. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces. PMID:24897907

  2. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls. PMID:23402479

  3. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls.

  4. "Michael Can't Read!" Teachers' Gender Stereotypes and Boys' Reading Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Schwartz, Katja; Asbrock, Frank

    2015-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theory, the gender stereotypes of significant others such as parents, peers, or teachers affect students' competence beliefs, values, and achievement-related behavior. Stereotypically, gender beliefs about reading favor girls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' gender stereotypes in relation to…

  5. Gender and Musical Instrument Stereotypes in Middle School Children: Have Trends Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Dittloff, Alexandra L.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have established that gender stereotypes are associated with children's choice of musical instrument. Though some have suggested that these gender stereotypes may be trending toward change, other studies have indicated that gender stereotypes are long-standing and still very much at issue. This descriptive study of middle school…

  6. Language Style and Gender Stereotypes in Person Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quina, Kathryn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described sentence pairs representing Lakoff's "women's language" and corresponding "masculine" styles to examine gender stereotyping as a function of linguistic pattern usage. College students evaluated hypothetical male, female, or sex-unknown speakers on 31 bipolar adjective scales. Participants rated the nonfeminine linguistic style…

  7. Perfectionism moderates stereotype threat effects on STEM majors' academic performance.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Lopez, Frederick G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Stinson, Jennifer M

    2013-04-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of freshmen students (N = 294) was recruited from 2 major universities. Students were blocked by gender and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to experience subtle ST or no ST. Participants in the subtle ST condition were primed to consider their gender, race, and ethnicity prior to completing measures of science self-efficacy. Those in the control condition completed the measures without such priming. Controlling for prior academic performance and university context, ST priming significantly interacted (a) with self-critical perfectionism to predict coping self-efficacy scores and (b) with race/ethnicity to predict end-of-semester STEM grades. A 3-way interaction of ST priming, sex, and self-critical perfectionism also predicted students' grades in courses wherein women and men were more proportionally represented. The Sex × Self-Critical Perfectionism interaction was not significant for those in the ST group but was for those in the control group. Men in the control group had higher grade-point averages (GPAs) at low levels of self-critical perfectionism than they had at higher levels of perfectionism. In contrast, women had lower GPAs when self-critical perfectionism was low, but their GPAs were higher when self-critical perfectionism was high. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for self-efficacy and performance in the pursuit of a STEM major. PMID:23458606

  8. Perfectionism moderates stereotype threat effects on STEM majors' academic performance.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Lopez, Frederick G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Stinson, Jennifer M

    2013-04-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of freshmen students (N = 294) was recruited from 2 major universities. Students were blocked by gender and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to experience subtle ST or no ST. Participants in the subtle ST condition were primed to consider their gender, race, and ethnicity prior to completing measures of science self-efficacy. Those in the control condition completed the measures without such priming. Controlling for prior academic performance and university context, ST priming significantly interacted (a) with self-critical perfectionism to predict coping self-efficacy scores and (b) with race/ethnicity to predict end-of-semester STEM grades. A 3-way interaction of ST priming, sex, and self-critical perfectionism also predicted students' grades in courses wherein women and men were more proportionally represented. The Sex × Self-Critical Perfectionism interaction was not significant for those in the ST group but was for those in the control group. Men in the control group had higher grade-point averages (GPAs) at low levels of self-critical perfectionism than they had at higher levels of perfectionism. In contrast, women had lower GPAs when self-critical perfectionism was low, but their GPAs were higher when self-critical perfectionism was high. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for self-efficacy and performance in the pursuit of a STEM major.

  9. Gender Compatibility, Math-Gender Stereotypes, and Self-Concepts in Math and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…

  10. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. PMID:24141205

  11. Face gender and stereotypicality influence facial trait evaluation: Counter-stereotypical female faces are negatively evaluated.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Young, Andrew W; Mootz, Carmen A; Oldmeadow, Julian A

    2015-05-01

    The facial first impressions literature has focused on trait dimensions, with less research on how social categories (like gender) may influence first impressions of faces. Yet, social psychological studies have shown the importance of categories like gender in the evaluation of behaviour. We investigated whether face gender affects the positive or negative evaluation of faces in terms of first impressions. In Study 1, we manipulated facial gender stereotypicality, and in Study 2, facial trustworthiness or dominance, and examined the valence of resulting spontaneous descriptions of male and female faces. For both male and female participants, counter-stereotypical (masculine or dominant looking), female faces were perceived more negatively than facially stereotypical male or female faces. In Study 3, we examined how facial dominance and trustworthiness affected rated valence across 1,000 male and female ambient face images, and replicated the finding that dominance is more negatively evaluated for female faces. In Study 4, the same effect was found with short stimulus presentations. These findings integrate the facial first impressions literature with evaluative differences based on social categories.

  12. Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Effects of Gender Stereotypical Speech Style in a Management Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Doreen S.

    To determine the most effective communication style for women in management, a study examined which of three power/gender speech strategies--stereotypical feminine (powerless), stereotypical masculine (powerful), and mixed stereotypical masculine/stereotypical feminine--was perceived most effective for a male or female when communicating with a…

  13. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Performance on a Novel Visuospatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan Miller; Collaer, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Stereotype threat research has shown that being a member of a negatively stereotyped group may result in impaired performance on tests of skills thought to be relevant to the stereotype. This study investigated whether stereotype threat influences gender differences in performance on a novel test of visuospatial ability. Undergraduates (N = 194)…

  14. Transnational Academic Mobility and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Heike

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the participation of researchers in transnational academic mobility, their experiences and perceived outcomes vary by gender. Based on longitudinal statistics, original survey data and semi-structured interviews with former visiting researchers in Germany, the paper shows that the academic world of female…

  15. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships.

    PubMed

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). We also find evidence of seemingly contradictory attraction processes documented previously in heterosexual romantic relationships, in which individuals become disillusioned with the qualities in a partner that were initially appealing. Our findings challenge common stereotypes of same-gender relationships. The results document broad similarities between same-gender and cross-gender couples in attraction.

  16. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships.

    PubMed

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). We also find evidence of seemingly contradictory attraction processes documented previously in heterosexual romantic relationships, in which individuals become disillusioned with the qualities in a partner that were initially appealing. Our findings challenge common stereotypes of same-gender relationships. The results document broad similarities between same-gender and cross-gender couples in attraction. PMID:20352053

  17. Stereotype threat? Effects of inquiring about test takers' gender on conceptual test performance in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that activation of a stereotype, for example by indicating one's gender before a test, typically alters performance in a way consistent with the stereotype, an effect called "stereotype threat." On a standardized conceptual physics assessment, we found that asking test takers to indicate their gender right before taking the test did not deteriorate performance compared to an equivalent group who did not provide gender information. Although a statistically significant gender gap was present on the standardized test whether or not students indicated their gender, no gender gap was observed on the multiple-choice final exam students took, which included both quantitative and conceptual questions on similar topics.

  18. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  19. Performing the Grade: Urban Latino Youth, Gender Performance, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foiles Sifuentes, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and academic success through an ethnographic case study in a Texas charter high school. The 98% working-class, Latino student population was exposed to an array of stigmas ascribed to their persons based on negative social stereotypes of race, ethnicity, gender, and class due to the…

  20. Critical Media Literacy and Gender: Teaching Middle School Children about Gender Stereotypes and Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda; Hedley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the implementation of a small-scale critical media literacy curriculum unit focused on gender stereotypes, especially as they pertain to occupations. The research question was whether students exposed to the critical media literacy (CML) curriculum were more likely than students not exposed to believe: that…

  1. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  2. Gender Stereotypes and Selling Techniques in Television Advertising: Effects on Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Debra; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    This paper examines gender messages within television advertisements. Society is shaped by the suggestions of television advertisers who influence consumers' beliefs on how people should look or act, and many of these advertisements perpetuate stereotypes. Any consideration of the influence of gender stereotyping within TV advertising must first…

  3. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the…

  4. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  5. Cognitive Mechanisms in Children's Gender Stereotyping: Theoretical and Educational Implications of a Cognitive-Based Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.; Liben, Lynn S.

    1992-01-01

    Children who had received training in sorting pictures of men and women, and in sorting occupations according to rules that countered gender stereotypes, exhibited a more egalitarian response in subsequent measures of gender stereotyping and showed superior memory for counterstereotypic information in stories than did other children. (BC)

  6. Gender and Mathematics: Attitudes and Stereotype Threat Susceptibility in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzatti, Barbara; Agnoli, Franca

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of attitudes toward mathematics and stereotype threat susceptibility in Italian children. Experiment 1 involved 476 elementary school boys and girls and produced evidence of gender differences in self-confidence in one's own mathematical ability and in gender stereotyping of mathematics during…

  7. Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Cimpian, Andrei; Meyer, Meredith; Freeland, Edward

    2015-01-16

    The gender imbalance in STEM subjects dominates current debates about women's underrepresentation in academia. However, women are well represented at the Ph.D. level in some sciences and poorly represented in some humanities (e.g., in 2011, 54% of U.S. Ph.D.'s in molecular biology were women versus only 31% in philosophy). We hypothesize that, across the academic spectrum, women are underrepresented in fields whose practitioners believe that raw, innate talent is the main requirement for success, because women are stereotyped as not possessing such talent. This hypothesis extends to African Americans' underrepresentation as well, as this group is subject to similar stereotypes. Results from a nationwide survey of academics support our hypothesis (termed the field-specific ability beliefs hypothesis) over three competing hypotheses. PMID:25593183

  8. Venus and Mars or Down to Earth: Stereotypes and Realities of Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Susan T

    2010-11-01

    Psychological scientists, like lay people, often think in categorical dichotomies that contrast men and women and exaggerate the differences between groups. These value-laden divides tend to privilege one side over the other, often to the advantage of the scientists' own identity group. Besides balancing perspectives in the academic marketplace of ideas, scientists can recognize the complexity of stigma. Gender, like many categories, entails two fundamental dimensions that characterize intergroup stigma (and all interpersonal perception): perceived warmth and competence. These dimensions identify groups viewed with ambivalence (e.g., traditional women are stereotypically warm but incompetent, whereas professional women are allegedly competent but cold). In gender and in other areas, psychological scientists can go beyond value-laden dichotomies and consider the fundamental, continuous dimensions along which we think about stigma.

  9. Venus and Mars or Down to Earth: Stereotypes and Realities of Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Susan T

    2010-11-01

    Psychological scientists, like lay people, often think in categorical dichotomies that contrast men and women and exaggerate the differences between groups. These value-laden divides tend to privilege one side over the other, often to the advantage of the scientists' own identity group. Besides balancing perspectives in the academic marketplace of ideas, scientists can recognize the complexity of stigma. Gender, like many categories, entails two fundamental dimensions that characterize intergroup stigma (and all interpersonal perception): perceived warmth and competence. These dimensions identify groups viewed with ambivalence (e.g., traditional women are stereotypically warm but incompetent, whereas professional women are allegedly competent but cold). In gender and in other areas, psychological scientists can go beyond value-laden dichotomies and consider the fundamental, continuous dimensions along which we think about stigma. PMID:23678365

  10. VENUS AND MARS OR DOWN TO EARTH: STEREOTYPES AND REALITIES OF GENDER DIFFERENCES

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological scientists, like lay people, often think in categorical dichotomies that contrast men and women and exaggerate the differences between groups. These value-laden divides tend to privilege one side over the other, often to the advantage of the scientists’ own identity group. Besides balancing perspectives in the academic marketplace of ideas, scientists can recognize the complexity of stigma. Gender, like many categories, entails two fundamental dimensions that characterize intergroup stigma (and all interpersonal perception): perceived warmth and competence. These dimensions identify groups viewed with ambivalence (e.g., traditional women are stereotypically warm but incompetent, whereas professional women are allegedly competent but cold). In gender and in other areas, psychological scientists can go beyond value-laden dichotomies and consider the fundamental, continuous dimensions along which we think about stigma. PMID:23678365

  11. Gender, Stereotype Threat, and Anxiety: Psychophysiological and Cognitive Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis proposed that negative group stereotypes increase individual anxiety levels, hurting performance. However, the role of anxiety in stereotype threat has not been fully explored. This study examined the hypothesis that experimental manipulation of stereotype threat would influence real-time…

  12. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  13. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  14. Gender Schema, Gender Constancy, and Gender-Role Knowledge: The Roles of Cognitive Factors in Preschoolers' Gender-Role Stereotype Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gary D.; Carter, D. Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Data from 44 boys and 39 girls of 27-63 months of age indicated that children's gender schematization and other cognitive gender schema factors were significantly associated with accuracy in attributing gender-role stereotypes to males and females. (RH)

  15. Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness. Children who knew of broadly held stereotypes more often explained hypothetical negative interracial encounters between White actors and Black targets as discriminatory. In addition, among African American and Latino children who knew about broadly held stereotypes, diagnostic testing conditions led to stereotype threat effects on a standardized working memory task. Findings are discussed in terms of the contribution to our understanding of children's developing thinking about and response to stereotypes and related phenomena. PMID:19930343

  16. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes Towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip

    2010-02-01

    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the 10th grade; girls were more inclined to stereotype than boys while this gender difference decreased with increasing grade; (2) girls tend to have an implicit science-unpleasant/humanities-pleasant association from the 8th grade, while boys showed a negative implicit attitude towards science up to the 11th grade. In self-report, girls preferred humanities to science, while boys preferred science to humanities; (3) implicit affective attitude was closely related to implicit stereotype. In particular, implicit affective attitude has a stronger predictive power on stereotype than the other way around, the result of which may have more significance for girls.

  17. “Shake It Baby, Shake It”: Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes. PMID:21212809

  18. Korean Children's Evaluation of Parental Restrictions Regarding Gender-Stereotypic Peer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun

    2012-01-01

    Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…

  19. A Meta-Analysis on the Malleability of Automatic Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenton, Alison P.; Bruder, Martin; Sedikides, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analytic review examined the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing automatic gender stereotypes. Such interventions included attentional distraction, salience of within-category heterogeneity, and stereotype suppression. A small but significant main effect (g = 0.32) suggests that these interventions are successful but that their…

  20. Language, Gender and Cyberspace: Pulling the Old Stereotypes into New Territory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Judy E.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    The social construct of gender is laced throughout society and carries stereotypes through the use of language, arts, literature, and social practices. As more women begin using computers more frequently and in new ways, stereotypes become evident in the patterns of communication in cyberspace. One of the characteristics of computer-mediated…

  1. Children's Evaluations of Gender-Stereotypic Household Activities in the Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine; Killen, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to analyze children's (N = 120) evaluations about parental decisions regarding gender-stereotypic household family activities. Children at 5, 8, and 10 years of age were individually interviewed. Contrary to prevailing findings, the majority of children used stereotypic expectations and…

  2. Refusing the Stereotype: Decoding Negative Gender Imagery through a School-Based Digital Media Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Naomi; White, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The media plays a significant role in shaping cultural norms and attitudes, concomitantly reinforcing "body" and "beauty" ideals and gender stereotypes. Unrealistic, photoshopped and stereotyped images used by the media, advertising and fashion industries influence young people's body image and impact on their feelings of body…

  3. Personality Characteristics and Choice of Academic Major: Are Traditional Stereotypes Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Charles D.; DuBose, Philip B.; Yankey, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Among the many reasons for choosing an academic major are stereotypes that students hold of particular occupations and the degree to which they believe that their personalities match those stereotypes. We examined relevant personality characteristics (i.e., achievement motivation, conformity, conscientiousness, creativity and extroversion) of 899…

  4. Gender Disparities in Academic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Jennifer F.; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Kim, H. Myra; Gyetko, Margaret R.; Quint, Elisabeth H.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Woolliscroft, James O.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In academia, women remain underrepresented. Our purpose was to examine differences in faculty position and professional satisfaction among academic physicians by gender. Methods From 2008–2012, academic faculty members at a single institution were surveyed (2008 n=737; 2010 n=1151; 2012 n=971). Outcomes included position, choice of position, professional satisfaction, and the reasons for leaving. Logistic regression was performed to compare aspects of professional satisfaction by gender. Results Men more often held tenure track positions compared with women (2008: 45% vs. 20%; 2010: 47% vs. 20%, 2012: 49% vs. 20%, p<0.001). Women were more likely to engage in only clinical activities compared with men (2008: 31% vs. 18%, 2010: 28% vs. 14%; 2012: 33% vs. 13%, p<0.001), and less likely to participate in research. Women chose tracks to accommodate work-life balance (2008: OR=1.9 (1.29 – 2.76); 2010: OR: 2.0 (1.38 – 2.76); 2012: OR: 2.1 (1.40 – 3.00)), and but not for the opportunity of tenure (2008: OR=0.4 (0.23 – 0.75); 2010: OR=0.5 (0.35–0.85); 2012: OR=0.5 (0.29–0.76) compared with men. Men reported higher professional satisfaction compared with women (2008: 5.7 vs. 5.4, p<0.009; 2012: 5.3 vs. 5.0, p<0.03). Men were more likely to leave due leadership opportunities (14.4% vs. 9.2%, p<0.03) and compensation (14.2% vs. 9.2%, p<0.03) compared with women. Conclusions Women are less satisfied in academic practice compared with men, and make choices to accommodate the demands of their work-life balance. Given the increasing pressures of academic practice, efforts to align work-life balance can improve faculty satisfaction and retention. PMID:26313843

  5. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Smyth, Frederick L; Sriram, N; Lindner, Nicole M; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2009-06-30

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.

  6. The Role of Classification Skill in Moderating Environmental Influences on Children's Gender Stereotyping: A Study of the Functional Use of Gender in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the effect of using gender as a functional category in elementary school students' gender stereotyping. Results support the idea that the functional use of gender categories leads to increases in gender stereotyping, particularly among those children with less-advanced classification skills. Advanced classification skills proved to…

  7. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma. PMID:25280170

  8. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  9. Ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation: an intersectional approach.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Blodorn, Alison; Adams, Glenn; Garcia, Donna M; Hammer, Elliott

    2015-04-01

    Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2-4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation.

  10. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Janka I; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2012-03-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a "good" manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees' managerial stereotypes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: 3229 respondents working in various organizations completed an electronic questionnaire. FINDINGS: The results confirm our hypotheses that, although the general stereotype of a manager is masculine and although most prefer a man as a manager, female employees, employees with a female manager, and employees working in an organization with a high percentage of female managers, have a stronger preference for feminine characteristics of managers and for female managers. Moreover, we find that proximal variables are much stronger predictors of these preferences than more distal variables. IMPLICATIONS: Our study suggests that managerial stereotypes could change as a result of personal experiences and changes in the organizational context. The results imply that increasing the proportion of female managers is an effective way to overcome managerial stereotyping. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study examines the influence on managerial stereotypes of various proximal and distal factors derived from theory among a large group of employees (in contrast to students).

  11. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  12. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people. PMID:26610722

  13. The impact of nontraditionalism on the malleability of gender stereotypes in Spain and Germany.

    PubMed

    Zafra, Esther Lopez; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2011-08-01

    Gender stereotypes and inequalities are based on and sustained by people's perception of gender roles. The evolution of these gender roles, however, might be substantially different depending on cultural and social evolution in different countries. In a study, we investigated stereotypes in Germany and Spain, where residents might have different beliefs about gender roles due to their different social evolution after the Second World War and their economic and social advances. Results showed that in both countries people's expectations of differences in masculine characteristics between men and women were less noticeable than perceptions in the past or present. We also demonstrated that people perceive an increase in masculinity in women. This increase is more evident in Spaniards than in Germans. In estimations about the past, present, and future, Spaniards also perceived an increase of gender-stereotypic feminine characteristics more in men than in women. Our results are consistent with the predictions of social role theory, as gender stereotypes can include dynamic aspects and the content of these stereotypes is rooted in social roles. PMID:22044269

  14. The impact of nontraditionalism on the malleability of gender stereotypes in Spain and Germany.

    PubMed

    Zafra, Esther Lopez; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2011-08-01

    Gender stereotypes and inequalities are based on and sustained by people's perception of gender roles. The evolution of these gender roles, however, might be substantially different depending on cultural and social evolution in different countries. In a study, we investigated stereotypes in Germany and Spain, where residents might have different beliefs about gender roles due to their different social evolution after the Second World War and their economic and social advances. Results showed that in both countries people's expectations of differences in masculine characteristics between men and women were less noticeable than perceptions in the past or present. We also demonstrated that people perceive an increase in masculinity in women. This increase is more evident in Spaniards than in Germans. In estimations about the past, present, and future, Spaniards also perceived an increase of gender-stereotypic feminine characteristics more in men than in women. Our results are consistent with the predictions of social role theory, as gender stereotypes can include dynamic aspects and the content of these stereotypes is rooted in social roles.

  15. An Intersectional Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes: Testing Three Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavami, Negin; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2013-01-01

    We compared perceived cultural stereotypes of diverse groups varying by gender and ethnicity. Using a free-response procedure, we asked 627 U.S. undergraduates to generate 10 attributes for 1 of 17 groups: Asian Americans, Blacks, Latinos, Middle Eastern Americans, or Whites; men or women; or 10 gender-by-ethnic groups (e.g., Black men or Latina…

  16. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  17. Implicit Gender Stereotypes and Essentialist Beliefs Predict Preservice Teachers' Tracking Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nürnberger, Miriam; Nerb, Josef; Schmitz, Florian; Keller, Johannes; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which differences in implicit and explicit math--language gender stereotypes, and essentialist beliefs among preservice teachers affect tracking recommendations for math/science versus language-oriented secondary schools. Consistent with expectations, the results suggest that student's gender influences…

  18. Further Evidence of Gender Stereotype Priming in Language: Semantic Facilitation and Inhibition in Italian Role Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciari, Cristina; Padovani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested the activation of gender stereotypes for Italian role nouns (e.g., "teacher"). The experimental paradigm was modeled on the one proposed by a study by Banaji and Hardin: participants were shown a prime word followed by a target pronoun ("he" or "she") on which they performed a gender decision task. The prime words were…

  19. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  20. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Eve F.; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics. PMID:26834684

  1. On the gender-science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  2. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  3. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  4. Gendered Games in Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at women's efforts to construct an academic leadership career. It is not a study of women's leadership in general but one that takes place in what Bourdieu calls the academic field. Drawing from an in-depth interview study of 31 women from faculties of education who occupy managerial positions in universities in Canada,…

  5. Stereotypes in Four Current AOUM Sexuality Education Curricula: Good Girls, Good Boys, and the New Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Graling, Kelly; Lustig, Kara

    2011-01-01

    It has long been noted that sexuality education curricula contain gender stereotypes and heterosexism that may be harmful to people of all genders. Many of the stereotypes and sources of heterosexism that have been discussed in the literature have to do with old-fashioned and restrictive roles for men and women and focus on heterosexual sex and…

  6. If the Dress Fits, Wear It: Uncovering Meaning in Gender Stereotyping in an Australian Outdoor Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Katherine J.

    A study examined gender stereotyping in an outdoor adventure education program. Observations, interviews, and document reviews involving 138 adolescent students from 8 schools attending a residential outdoor education center in Queensland (Australia) found the following gender stereotypes: boys are physically stronger than girls; boys are…

  7. Perfectionism Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on STEM Majors' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Stinson, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of…

  8. New Perspectives on the Gender Stereotyping of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Leder, Gilah C.; Kloosterman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Historically, mathematics has been stereotyped as a male domain, and there is considerable evidence to support this belief. In the last 30 years, mathematics education researchers have uncovered a range of factors contributing to the documented achievement and participation differences that favored males and sought to redress them. Mathematics as…

  9. Ambient belonging: how stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science.

    PubMed

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C; Davies, Paul G; Steele, Claude M

    2009-12-01

    People can make decisions to join a group based solely on exposure to that group's physical environment. Four studies demonstrate that the gender difference in interest in computer science is influenced by exposure to environments associated with computer scientists. In Study 1, simply changing the objects in a computer science classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek poster, video games) to objects not considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., nature poster, phone books) was sufficient to boost female undergraduates' interest in computer science to the level of their male peers. Further investigation revealed that the stereotypical broadcast a masculine stereotype that discouraged women's sense of ambient belonging and subsequent interest in the environment (Studies 2, 3, and 4) but had no similar effect on men (Studies 3, 4). This masculine stereotype prevented women's interest from developing even in environments entirely populated by other women (Study 2). Objects can thus come to broadcast stereotypes of a group, which in turn can deter people who do not identify with these stereotypes from joining that group.

  10. Perceived Gender Based Stereotypes in Educational Technology Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolliger, Doris U.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…

  11. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails.

  12. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails. PMID:26102185

  13. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  14. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  15. When gentlemen are first and ladies are last: effects of gender stereotypes on the order of romantic partners' names.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Peter; Watson, Nila; Fletcher, Laura; McQueen, Grant

    2011-03-01

    A preference to name stereotypically masculine before stereotypically feminine individuals explains why men are typically named before women, as on the Internet, for example (Study 1). Heterosexual couples are named with men's names first more often when such couples are imagined to conform to gender stereotypes (Studies 2 and 3). First-named partners of imaginary same-sex couples are attributed more stereotypically masculine attributes (Study 4). Familiarity bounds these effects of stereotypes on name order. People name couples they know well with closer people first (Study 5), and consequently name familiar heterosexual couples with members of their own gender first (Study 6). These studies evidence a previously unknown effect of the semantics of gender stereotypes on sentence structure in the everyday use of English.

  16. When interdependence shapes social perception: cooperation and competition moderate implicit gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of interdependence goals on the accessibility of implicit gender stereotypical associations. Participants were asked to cooperate with or compete against a woman on a mathematical abilities task and subsequently the relative activation of positive and negative warmth and competence traits was measured using a primed categorization task. Results showed that female primes (vs. male primes) facilitated the activation of low warmth and high competence in the competition condition, whereas high warmth was activated in the cooperation condition and no differences were found for competence traits. These results are discussed referring to the stereotype content model and the compensation effect in person perception. The goal dependent nature of implicit gender stereotypes is emphasized.

  17. Effects of Gendered Language on Gender Stereotyping in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Moderating Role of Depersonalization and Gender-Role Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Ju

    2007-01-01

    This experiment examined what situational and dispositional features moderate the effects of linguistic gender cues on gender stereotyping in anonymous, text-based computer-mediated communication. Participants played a trivia game with an ostensible partner via computer, whose comments represented either prototypically masculine or feminine…

  18. Women's Representation in Science Predicts National Gender-Science Stereotypes: Evidence from 66 Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David I.; Eagly, Alice H.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 40 years, the proportion of women in science courses and careers has dramatically increased in some nations but not in others. Our research investigated how national differences in women's science participation related to gender-science stereotypes that associate science with men more than women. Data from ~350,000 participants in 66…

  19. Musicians Crossing Musical Instrument Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeles, Harold F.; Hafeli, Mary; Sears, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined computer-mediated communication (CMC) -- blogs and responses to YouTube postings -- to better understand how CMCs reflect adolescents' attitudes towards musicians playing instruments that cross gender stereotypes. Employing purposive sampling, we used specific search terms, such as "girl drummer", to identify a…

  20. Discursive Essentializing in a Woman-Owned Business: Gendered Stereotypes and Strategic Subordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edley, Paige P.

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how the cultural practice of discursive essentializing in a woman-owned and operated business accomplished simultaneous agendas of power and resistance. Shows how the performance of gendered stereotypes, rather than having expected negative consequences, allowed organizational members to suppress conflict and to reproduce the owners'…

  1. Sexualisation's Four Faces: Sexualisation and Gender Stereotyping in the "Bailey Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Meg; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the considerations of sexualisation and gender stereotyping in the recent UK government report "Letting Children be Children". This report, the "Bailey Review", claimed to represent the views of parents. However, closer reading reveals that, while the parents who were consulted were concerned about both the sexualisation and…

  2. Once Upon a Time There Was a Math Contest: Gender Stereotyping and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganske, Kathryn H.; Hebl, Michelle R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a study that examined the reactions of students to a classroom exercise in which students observed how gender stereotypes influenced memory processes. Explains how one student tells a story to second student; that student tells a third student; and the third student tells the entire class the story. (CMK)

  3. Students' Stereotypes of Professors: An Exploration of the Double Violations of Ethnicity and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined students' stereotypes of professors based on professor ethnicity, gender, teaching style, and course taught. An ethnically diverse sample of undergraduates (N = 594) rated hypothetical professors on several dimensions including perceived warmth, professional competence, and difficulty. Evidence consistent with response…

  4. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Ellen A.; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children,…

  5. Student Gender Stereotypes: Contrasting the Perceived Maleness and Femaleness of Mathematics and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Isabelle; Theoret, Manon; Favreau, Olga Eizner

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender stereotypes endorsed by elementary and high school students regarding mathematics and language. We developed a questionnaire allowing students to rate mathematics and language as either male or female domains and administered it to a sample of 984 elementary and high school French-speaking…

  6. The Academic Opportunity Gap: How Racism and Stereotypes Disrupt the Education of African American Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…

  7. Negating Stereotype Threat: Autonomy Support and Academic Identification Boost Performance of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Dustin R.; Komarraju, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of stereotype threat and autonomy support on the test performance of 190 African American college students. Participants completed a set of 7 easy and 7 difficult problems from Raven's Progressive Matrices and a survey including measures of Academic Self-Concept, Learning Climate, and…

  8. Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wych, Gina M. F.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

  9. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  10. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  11. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    PubMed Central

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., “spatial ability is for boys”) in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest—instruction—posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  12. Status, communality, and agency: implications for stereotypes of gender and other groups.

    PubMed

    Conway, M; Pizzamiglio, M T; Mount, L

    1996-07-01

    Four studies addressed the hypothesis, based on correspondence bias, that low- relative to high-status individuals are perceived as more communal and less agentic. Study 1 instantiated status in terms of occupations, and findings were as expected. The findings of Study 2 reconciled those of Study 1 and of A.H. Eagly and V.J. Steffen (1984) in that they demonstrated that high-status occupations are differentially construed in terms of their interpersonal communal demands. The hypothesis received clear support in Studies 3 and 4, in which a general instantiation of status independent of occupations, social roles, and gender was adopted. The findings are discussed in terms of gender stereotypes and social role theory of gender (A.H. Eagly, 1987) as well as in terms of other stereotypes. PMID:8709000

  13. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  14. Gender stereotyping in television advertisements: a study of French and Danish television.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Babitzkow, M; Uguccioni, S

    2000-02-01

    Two similar, but not identical, content analyses of the portrayals of men and women in French and Danish television advertisements are reported. By partially replicating and extending past investigations conducted in America, Australia, Britain, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, and New Zealand, it was predicted that there would be more gender stereotyping in French television advertisements and less gender stereotyping in Danish television advertisements. In the first study, 165 French television advertisements were analyzed by following established coding categories (A. Furnham & E. Skae, 1997; L. Z. McArthur & B. G. Resko, 1975). Contrary to prediction, the results showed that traditional gender role portrayal on French television was no different from that found in other countries. Separate statistical analyses were carried out for visually versus aurally classified central figures, yet this yielded relatively few significant differences. In the second study, a sample of 151 Danish advertisements was analyzed; results showed that Danish television was generally less gender stereotypic than French television in its portrayal of women. Exactly half (5) of the coding categories showed significant differences. Finally, an international statistical comparison between these two studies and similar research in Australia, Britain, and Italy was carried out. The methodological implications of these results are discussed as well as the theoretical issues arising from other studies of this sort. PMID:10713902

  15. Dissociable effects of prefrontal and anterior temporal cortical lesions on stereotypical gender attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gozzi, Marta; Raymont, Vanessa; Solomon, Jeffrey; Koenigs, Michael; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-08-01

    Clinical observations of patients with ventral frontal and anterior temporal cortical lesions reveal marked abnormalities in social attitudes. A previous study in seven patients with ventral prefrontal lesions provided the first direct experimental evidence for abnormalities in social attitudes using a well-established measure of gender stereotypes, the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Here, we were able to test whether these first findings could be reproduced in a larger sample of 154 patients with penetrating head injuries, and to determine the differential effects of ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal (vlPFC) cortical lesions on IAT performance. In addition, we investigated the role of the superior anterior temporal lobe (aTL), recently shown to represent conceptual social knowledge. First, we used a linear regression model to identify the role of each of the three regions, while controlling for the extent of damage to other regions. We found that larger lesions in either the vmPFC or the superior aTL were associated with increased stereotypical attitudes, whereas larger lesions in the vlPFC were associated with decreased stereotypical attitudes. Second, in a confirmatory analysis, we grouped patients by lesion location and compared their performance on the IAT with that of healthy volunteers. Compared to controls, patients with lesions in either the vmPFC or the superior aTL showed increased stereotypical attitudes, whereas patients with lesions in the vlPFC showed decreased stereotypical attitudes. The functional contributions of these regions in social attitudes are discussed.

  16. The Shattered Stereotype: The Academic Library in Technological Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Constance L.

    In academic libraries, neither technical services, public services, nor administration has escaped the impact of online information systems. Online catalogs, network systems, interlibrary lending, database searches, circulation control, automated technical processes, and an increasing number of non-book materials are part of a technological…

  17. Why Does Gender Matter? Counteracting Stereotypes with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Olaiya E.; Cameron, Petronella A.

    2011-01-01

    The early gender bias experiences that children encounter can shape their attitudes and beliefs related to their development of interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships, access to education equality, participation in the corporate work world, as well as stifling their physical and psychological well being. For early childhood educators, being…

  18. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  19. Academic Gender Bias and Women's Behavioral Agency Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancis, Julie R.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1996-01-01

    Examined 67 upper-level college women enrolled in traditional, nontraditional, and gender-neutral majors to study the relationship between academic gender bias and female students' agentic self-efficacy expectations. Results indicate that perceived academic gender bias predicted agentic self-efficacy expectations, beyond the contributions of sex…

  20. What Do True Gender Ratios and Stereotype Norms Really Tell Us?

    PubMed Central

    Gygax, Pascal M.; Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We present a Focused Review on work that was conducted to compare perceived distributions of men and women in occupations and other social roles with actual real world distributions. In previous work, we showed that means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high. However, in the present paper, although we argue that comparing subjective gender stereotype norms and real world data about gender ratios is an interesting endeavor, we also discuss the limits to and difficulties in trying to determine the causal relationship between them. Most crucially, we argue that our data does not allow us to deduce with certainty that subjective gender norms are based directly on gender ratios. PMID:27458423

  1. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  2. Gender and stereotypes in motivation to study computer programming for careers in multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubé, Wendy; Lang, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    A multimedia university programme with relatively equal numbers of male and female students in elective programming subjects provided a rare opportunity to investigate female motivation to study and pursue computer programming in a career. The MSLQ was used to survey 85 participants. In common with research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, females displayed significantly lower self-efficacy and expectancy for success. In contrast to research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, both genders placed similar high values on computer programming and shared high extrinsic and intrinsic goal orientation. The authors propose that the stereotype associated with a creative multimedia career could attract female participation in computer programming whereas the stereotype associated with computer science could be a deterrent.

  3. Academic Self-Concept, Gender and Single-Sex Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…

  4. Boys Will Be Boys (and Girls Will Be Girls): The Attribution of Gender Role Stereotypes in a Gaming Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Wesley C., Jr.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests the strength of the gender role stereotype regarding competitive behavior. Measures gender differences in its attribution for 48 male and 54 female undergraduate juniors and seniors. Results from a Prisoner's Dilemma game setting reflect the prevailing sentiment that competitive behavior is considered more characteristic of men than women.…

  5. Gender Stereotypes as a Product of Inferred Sex Differences in Status: The Case of the Influenceability Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    According to sex stereotypes, women are more easily influenced than men. This stereotype may derive from perceivers' inferences that women occupy lower status positions than men, and the lower an individual's status in relation to other persons, the more he or she yields to their influence. Each subject (N=408) read a scenario describing a…

  6. Israeli Kindergarten Children's Gender Constancy for Others' Counter-Stereotypic Toy Play and Appearance: The Role of Sibling Gender and Relative Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To test divergent theoretical predictions as to the impact of having a younger or older, same-sex sibling or opposite-sex sibling on other gender constancy, Israeli kindergarten children in two-child families responded to a gender constancy task in which a male and female picture target engaged in counter-stereotypic toy play and adopted…

  7. Gender Stereotypes and Gendered Vocational Aspirations among Swiss Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjar, Andreas; Aeschlimann, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Horizontal gender inequalities appear to be rather stable, with girls more often choosing "female" service professions, and boys choosing career paths related to science, technology, engineering or Mathematics. Purpose: Non-egalitarian patriarchal gender-role orientations and gender associations (perceived femininity) of the…

  8. Intersecting Discourses of Militarism: Military and Academic Gendered Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which military constructions of gender intersect with academic ones. Its focus is to connect military discourses of duty, honour and service before self with academic ones of commitment and productivity. As such, it engages in an institutional analysis of the gendered organizations of the military and academia and…

  9. On the gender–science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Frederick L.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity. PMID:25964765

  10. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    PubMed

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent. PMID:26779046

  11. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    PubMed

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  12. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  13. Asian and Pacific Islander Women Scientists and Engineers: A Narrative Exploration of Model Minority, Gender, and Racial Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-01-01

    Uses narrative methodology in a qualitative study to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. (Author/MM)

  14. Art and Fairy Tales in an Interdisciplinary Interplay: Teaching Interventions towards Negotiation and Subversion of Gender Roles and Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moula, Evangelia; Kabouropoulou, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary project under discussion is suitable to be addressed to students of either primary or secondary education and it interweaves the art of painting with fairy tales. The aims of the project are: the deeper understanding of the complexity of human nature and the sensitization of students regarding gender roles and stereotypes. On…

  15. Sex, cheating, and disgust: enhanced source memory for trait information that violates gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.

  16. The Effects of Teachers' Gender-Stereotypical Expectations on the Development of the Math Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joseph P.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Copur, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have identified mathematics gender gaps favoring males as early as kindergarten or first grade, particularly at the top of the achievement distribution (Penner & Paret, 2008; Rathbun, West & Germino-Hausken, 2004; Robinson & Lubienski, 2011). These relatively small achievement disparities precede larger differences in students' career…

  17. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  18. Latino Adolescents' Academic Success: The Role of Discrimination, Academic Motivation, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the academic resilience perspective, the current longitudinal study examined whether academic motivation mediated the relation between Latino adolescents' (N = 221) experiences with discrimination and their academic success. The potential moderating role of gender was also examined. Using multiple group analysis in structural equation…

  19. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  20. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  1. Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

  2. Gendered Habitus and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance

    2014-01-01

    Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a…

  3. "You Would Not Believe What I Have to Go through to Prove My Intellectual Value!" Stereotype Management among Academically Successful Black Mathematics and Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.; Martin, Danny B.

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype management is introduced to explain high achievement and resilience among 23 Black mathematics and engineering college students. Characterized as a tactical response to ubiquitous forms of racism and racialized experiences across school and non-school contexts, stereotype management emerged along overlapping paths of racial, gender, and…

  4. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  5. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  6. Job Satisfaction of Academics: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Taylor, Maria de Lourdes; White, Kate; Gouveia, Odilia

    2014-01-01

    Academic work in higher education has been influenced by global trends such as accountability, massification and deteriorating financial support. Within this broader context, the performance of academic staff as teachers and researchers has an impact on student learning and implications for the quality of higher education institutions (HEIs).…

  7. Straight talk for youth: Ugandan girls and boys learning to escape gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Henry, K

    1995-11-01

    "Straight Talk," a monthly newspaper produced by Uganda's Ministry of Information, provides advice to young people about sexuality, relationships, and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The tabloid is inserted in the daily government newspaper, "New Vision," which has a circulation of 40,000; another 30,000 copies are distributed to secondary schools and nongovernmental organizations. The newspaper began in 1993 as part of the media campaign of Safeguard Youth from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Each issue publishes articles by and interviews with young people, dozens of letters from readers, and columns by health care professionals. The content seeks to demystify sex, challenge gender-based stereotypes, and encourage real friendships between girls and boys. There is strong peer support for postponing sex. A recent issue included a contest for the best story about sexual boasting and pressure. One article noted that boys and girls learn separate rules of sexual behavior that resemble scripts in a play. Another analyzed passages from popular novels depicting men as strong and forceful and women as helpless and submissive. The publication also encourages dialogue between parents and children about sex. Many schools have formed clubs that discuss issues raised in the publication.

  8. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns. PMID:20855899

  9. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  10. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  11. Gender Differences in Scholarly Productivity Within Academic Gynecologic Oncology Departments

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Emily K.; Blake, Rachel A.; Emerson, Jenna B.; Svider, Peter; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Raker, Christina; Robison, Katina; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether there is a gender difference in scholarly productivity among academic gynecologic oncologists. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, the academic rank and gender of gynecologic oncology faculty in the United States were determined from online residency and fellowship directories and departmental web sites. Each individual’s h-index and years of publication were determined from Scopus (a citation database of peer-reviewed literature). The h-index is a quantification of an author’s scholarly productivity that combines the number of publications with the number of times the publications have been cited. We generated descriptive statistics and compared rank, gender, and productivity scores. RESULTS Five hundred seven academic faculty within 137 U.S. teaching programs were identified. Of these, 215 (42%) were female and 292 (58%) were male. Men had significantly higher median h-indices than women, 16 compared with 8, respectively (P<.001). Women were more likely to be of junior academic rank with 63% of assistant professors being female compared with 20% of full professors. When stratifying h-indices by gender and academic rank, men had significantly higher h-indices at the assistant professor level (7 compared with 5, P<.001); however, this difference disappeared at the higher ranks. Stratifying by the years of active publication, there was no significant difference between genders. CONCLUSION Female gynecologic oncologists at the assistant professor level had lower scholarly productivity than men; however, at higher academic ranks, they equaled their male counterparts. Women were more junior in rank, had published for fewer years, and were underrepresented in leadership positions. PMID:26551177

  12. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  13. (En)Gendering Knowledge: Feminists in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Joan E., Ed.; Messer-Davidow, Ellen, Ed.

    This book summarizes the major conceptual dilemmas facing feminist intellectuals in academia today. It shows how scholars in very different disciplines can draw on particularities of race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, gender, and voice to enrich and contextualize the knowledge they produce. Examined are agency, perspectives, value judgments,…

  14. Children and Adults Use Gender and Age Stereotypes in Ownership Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Sarah; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Friedman, Ori

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, we are often faced with the problem of judging who owns an object. The current experiments show that children and adults base ownership judgments on group stereotypes, which relate kinds of people to kinds of objects. Moreover, the experiments show that reliance on stereotypes can override another means by which people make…

  15. Gender and Leadership Styles in Single-Sex Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleb, Hanan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between gender and female leadership styles in a single-sex academic institution in Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Essentially, a qualitative research approach that utilised a single case-study methodology was adopted. As part of this research, seven in-depth semi-structured…

  16. The Relationship between Gender and Academic Success Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupczynski, Lori; Brown, Michelle; Holland, Glenda; Uriegas, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Distance learning may pose challenges to students in terms of satisfaction and academic success. This study examined the relationship between the final grade received in a distance learning course and the student characteristic of gender. Examined were differences in online course achievement between male and female students through the lens of…

  17. Faculty Gender Effects on Academic Research and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, James P.

    1999-01-01

    A study estimated the effects of college faculty gender differences on research and teaching productivity, using a sample of 523 four-year institutions for the academic year 1987-1988. Results indicate that female faculty have significant marginal productivity in research at liberal arts institutions but not in other institution categories.…

  18. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  19. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  20. Understanding the Motivational Consequences of Extreme School Violence through the Lens of Mortality Salience: The Case of Academic Self-Stereotyping in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, DeLeon L.; Wichman, Aaron L.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted an investigation into a determinant of academic motivation that has implications for how we respond to school violence and tragedy. We conducted two studies to examine whether exposure to messages related to the salience of one's own mortality cause people to align their own academic beliefs more closely with stereotypical beliefs…

  1. An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Westring, Alyssa; McDonald, Jennifer M; Carr, Phyllis; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health funded 14 R01 grants to study causal factors that promote and support women's biomedical careers. The Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers, a multi-institutional collaboration of the investigators, is one product of this initiative.A comprehensive framework is needed to address change at many levels-department, institution, academic community, and beyond-and enable gender equity in the development of successful biomedical careers. The authors suggest four distinct but interrelated aspects of culture conducive to gender equity: equal access to resources and opportunities, minimizing unconscious gender bias, enhancing work-life balance, and leadership engagement. They review the collection of eight articles in this issue, which each address one or more of the four dimensions of culture. The articles suggest that improving mentor-mentee fit, coaching grant reviewers on unconscious bias, and providing equal compensation and adequate resources for career development will contribute positively to gender equity in academic medicine.Academic medicine must adopt an integrated perspective on culture for women and acknowledge the multiple facets essential to gender equity. To effect change, culture must be addressed both within and beyond academic health centers (AHCs). Leaders within AHCs must examine their institutions' processes, resources, and assessment for fairness and transparency; mobilize personnel and financial resources to implement evidence-based initiatives; and assign accountability for providing transparent progress assessments. Beyond AHCs, organizations must examine their operations and implement change to ensure parity of funding, research, and leadership opportunities as well as transparency of assessment and accreditation. PMID:27276008

  2. An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Westring, Alyssa; McDonald, Jennifer M; Carr, Phyllis; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health funded 14 R01 grants to study causal factors that promote and support women's biomedical careers. The Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers, a multi-institutional collaboration of the investigators, is one product of this initiative.A comprehensive framework is needed to address change at many levels-department, institution, academic community, and beyond-and enable gender equity in the development of successful biomedical careers. The authors suggest four distinct but interrelated aspects of culture conducive to gender equity: equal access to resources and opportunities, minimizing unconscious gender bias, enhancing work-life balance, and leadership engagement. They review the collection of eight articles in this issue, which each address one or more of the four dimensions of culture. The articles suggest that improving mentor-mentee fit, coaching grant reviewers on unconscious bias, and providing equal compensation and adequate resources for career development will contribute positively to gender equity in academic medicine.Academic medicine must adopt an integrated perspective on culture for women and acknowledge the multiple facets essential to gender equity. To effect change, culture must be addressed both within and beyond academic health centers (AHCs). Leaders within AHCs must examine their institutions' processes, resources, and assessment for fairness and transparency; mobilize personnel and financial resources to implement evidence-based initiatives; and assign accountability for providing transparent progress assessments. Beyond AHCs, organizations must examine their operations and implement change to ensure parity of funding, research, and leadership opportunities as well as transparency of assessment and accreditation.

  3. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

  4. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain’s Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as “king” or “engineer”) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more “feminine” or “expressive” self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less “expressive” participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent. PMID:26779046

  5. Effects of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Early Academic Performance on Postsecondary Education Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry; Robinson, Chester R.; Plata, Maximino; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and four types of eighth-grade academic performance on postsecondary educational choices at late adolescence. Gender had strongest influences on educational choice. Gender also interacted with SES and academic performance. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.…

  6. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed.

  7. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing.

  8. Why Are Women Underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender Differences in Stereotypes, Self-Efficacy, Values, and Interests and Predictors of Future CS Course-Taking and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their…

  9. Gender Role Stereotypes in the "Dick and Jane" Basal Reader Series and Sustained Impression upon Women of the Baby Boom Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of women of the Baby Boom generation regarding the potential impact of gender role stereotypes contained in the children's reading series utilized in elementary school classrooms from 1946 through 1964. Particular emphasis was placed upon the prominent reading series of the Baby Boom Era, the Scott, Foresman and…

  10. The relative autonomy of schools and educational interventions for substance abuse prevention, sex education, and gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Shamai, S; Coambs, R B

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates intervention programs in schools using the theoretical framework of the critical sociology of education, and most specifically, the extent to which schools are autonomous from the larger society. Three different types of intervention programs are reviewed: drug abuse prevention, sex education, and programs to change gender stereotypes, all of which were found to have limited effectiveness. Schools appear unable to change behaviors which are prevalent in a culture because they themselves are strongly influenced by that culture, and because adolescents are influenced by forces outside school. To be effective, such interventions would seem to require governmental agencies, community groups, and the media to work with the schools in order to influence the culture and thus produce behavioral changes in individuals.

  11. A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amanda J; D'Mello, Susan D; Sackett, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Gender bias continues to be a concern in many work settings, leading researchers to identify factors that influence workplace decisions. In this study we examine several of these factors, using an organizing framework of sex distribution within jobs (including male- and female-dominated jobs as well as sex-balanced, or integrated, jobs). We conducted random effects meta-analyses including 136 independent effect sizes from experimental studies (N = 22,348) and examined the effects of decision-maker gender, amount and content of information available to the decision maker, type of evaluation, and motivation to make careful decisions on gender bias in organizational decisions. We also examined study characteristics such as type of participant, publication year, and study design. Our findings revealed that men were preferred for male-dominated jobs (i.e., gender-role congruity bias), whereas no strong preference for either gender was found for female-dominated or integrated jobs. Second, male raters exhibited greater gender-role congruity bias than did female raters for male-dominated jobs. Third, gender-role congruity bias did not consistently decrease when decision makers were provided with additional information about those they were rating, but gender-role congruity bias was reduced when information clearly indicated high competence of those being evaluated. Fourth, gender-role congruity bias did not differ between decisions that required comparisons among ratees and decisions made about individual ratees. Fifth, decision makers who were motivated to make careful decisions tended to exhibit less gender-role congruity bias for male-dominated jobs. Finally, for male-dominated jobs, experienced professionals showed smaller gender-role congruity bias than did undergraduates or working adults.

  12. A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amanda J; D'Mello, Susan D; Sackett, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Gender bias continues to be a concern in many work settings, leading researchers to identify factors that influence workplace decisions. In this study we examine several of these factors, using an organizing framework of sex distribution within jobs (including male- and female-dominated jobs as well as sex-balanced, or integrated, jobs). We conducted random effects meta-analyses including 136 independent effect sizes from experimental studies (N = 22,348) and examined the effects of decision-maker gender, amount and content of information available to the decision maker, type of evaluation, and motivation to make careful decisions on gender bias in organizational decisions. We also examined study characteristics such as type of participant, publication year, and study design. Our findings revealed that men were preferred for male-dominated jobs (i.e., gender-role congruity bias), whereas no strong preference for either gender was found for female-dominated or integrated jobs. Second, male raters exhibited greater gender-role congruity bias than did female raters for male-dominated jobs. Third, gender-role congruity bias did not consistently decrease when decision makers were provided with additional information about those they were rating, but gender-role congruity bias was reduced when information clearly indicated high competence of those being evaluated. Fourth, gender-role congruity bias did not differ between decisions that required comparisons among ratees and decisions made about individual ratees. Fifth, decision makers who were motivated to make careful decisions tended to exhibit less gender-role congruity bias for male-dominated jobs. Finally, for male-dominated jobs, experienced professionals showed smaller gender-role congruity bias than did undergraduates or working adults. PMID:24865576

  13. Is Gender Stereotyping Still an Issue? An Analysis of a Hong Kong Primary English Textbook Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chi Cheung Ruby

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender representation in an English textbook series used in Hong Kong schools. The corpus software AntConc was used to analyse the collocations of gendered terms "He/he," "She/she," "Man/man," "Woman/woman," "women," "Boy/boy," "Boys/boys,"…

  14. The Effect of Gender Stereotypes on Explicit and Implicit Career Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadassi, Reuma; Gati, Itamar

    2009-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in directly reported and indirectly derived career preferences and tested the hypothesis that individuals' implicit preferences would show less gender-biased occupational choices than their directly elicited ones. Two hundred sixty-six visitors to a career-related Internet site were asked to (a) list 5…

  15. Undergraduates Regard Deviation from Occupational Gender Stereotypes as Costly for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Schleicher, Thomas L.

    1996-01-01

    Student attitudes toward men and women successful in occupations traditionally associated with the other gender were studied through ratings of a hypothetical stimulus person. Results with 230 undergraduates found that they expected deviation from occupational gender types to be personally costly for women but not for men. (SLD)

  16. Gender Difference in Academic Planning Activity among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Giang, Thao Thach

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS) to develop academic planning activity (APA) for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM). Methods In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. Results There were several interesting gender differences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males’ APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups – with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01), equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. Conclusions Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity. PMID:23418467

  17. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Response to Comment on "Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines".

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2015-07-24

    Ginther and Kahn claim that academics' beliefs about the importance of brilliance do not predict gender gaps in Ph.D. attainment beyond mathematics and verbal test scores. However, Ginther and Kahn's analyses are problematic, exhibiting more than 100 times the recommended collinearity thresholds. Multiple analyses that avoid this problem suggest that academics' beliefs are in fact uniquely predictive of gender gaps across academia.

  18. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  19. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  20. Gender stereotypes in management: a comparative study of communist and postcommunist Romania.

    PubMed

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Boroş, Smaranda

    2011-08-01

    This study sets out to investigate the changes in the perception of women in leading positions in communist and postcommunist Romania. The study uses a noninvasive paradigm of analyzing the content of obituaries for women and men in leading positions published in a national journal, and shows that the gender gap in management widened during the postcommunist period. In postcommunist Romania, women are perceived as being less able to lead/manage and more relational in their leadership style as compared to men, while in the communist period the gender differences were not significant.

  1. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  2. Coping with Ethnic Stereotypes in the Academic Domain: Perceived Injustice and Psychological Disengagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmader, Toni; Major, Brenda; Gramzow, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between perceived ethnic injustices and processes of psychological disengagement among White, African American, and Hispanic American college students, examining perceived ethnic injustice and academic performance as predictors of devaluing and discounting. Student surveys indicated that broader beliefs about social…

  3. The Influence of Stereotypical Beliefs, Participant Gender, and Survivor Weight on Sexual Assault Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Allyson K.; Stermac, Lana

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal…

  4. Gender Stereotyping and the Influence of Race in Sport among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James; Soohoo, Sonya; Reel, Justine; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the most dreaded insults in sports is, "You throw like a girl," because it epitomizes society's gender logic about physiological differences between men and women. Although physiological differences between the sexes exist, people label these abilities and behaviors as masculine or feminine as a result of social and cultural expectations.…

  5. "...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

  6. Equity Issues in Performance Assessment. Undermining Gender Stereotypes: Examination Performance in the UK at 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Jannette

    Since its introduction in 1988 the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), the main public examination for pupils at age 16 in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, has become an obvious area in which to investigate gender-related differences in performance. As a complex attainment test, the GCSE is largely made up of a coursework…

  7. "The Voice inside Herself": Transforming Gendered Academic Identities in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Janice; Wallin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the academic identity formation(s) of 10 Canadian female academics whose disciplinary knowledge is in the field of educational administration. We trace the ways in which discourses of gender, institutional power, and other cultural and social influences shaped their sense of themselves as academics in the highly patriarchal…

  8. Expressing pride: Effects on perceived agency, communality, and stereotype-based gender disparities.

    PubMed

    Brosi, Prisca; Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Heilman, Madeline E

    2016-09-01

    Two experimental studies were conducted to investigate how the expression of pride shapes agency-related and communality-related judgments, and how those judgments differ when the pride expresser is a man or a woman. Results indicated that the expression of pride (as compared to the expression of happiness) had positive effects on perceptions of agency and inferences about task-oriented leadership competence, and negative effects on perceptions of communality and inferences about people-oriented leadership competence. Pride expression also elevated ascriptions of interpersonal hostility. For agency-related judgments and ascriptions of interpersonal hostility, these effects were consistently stronger when the pride expresser was a woman than a man. Moreover, the expression of pride was found to affect disparities in judgments about men and women, eliminating the stereotype-consistent differences that were evident when happiness was expressed. With a display of pride women were not seen as any more deficient in agency-related attributes and competencies, nor were they seen as any more exceptional in communality-related attributes and competencies, than were men. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281186

  9. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  10. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F. -Sophie; Spinath, Frank M.; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students’ academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development. PMID:26347698

  11. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development. PMID:26347698

  12. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa and the reproduction of gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Mindry, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    This paper draws upon recent research in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes the provision of aid in the context of the HIV in Africa constructing an image of 'virile' and 'violent' African masculinity. Humanitarian organisations construct imagined relations of caring, invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are strongly gendered. Humanitarian interventions that invoke universalising conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably construct women (and children) as victims in need of care, which at best ignore the lived experiences of men and, at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder.

  13. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa, and the reproduction of gender stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mindry, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes as starting point research conducted in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes humanitarian aid in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in Africa constructing an image of “virile” and “violent” African masculinity. Humanitarian organizations construct imagined relations of caring invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are gendered. Humanitarian interventions which invoke universalizing conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising, feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably invoke women (and children) as victims in need of care and, at best, ignore the lived experiences of men, and at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder. PMID:20432080

  14. Gender Differences in Publication Productivity, Academic Position, Career Duration and Funding Among U.S. Academic Radiation Oncology Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Emma B.; Jagsi, Reshma; Wilson, Lynn D.; Choi, Mehee; Thomas, Charles R.; Fuller, Clifton. D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There has been much recent interest in promoting gender equality in academic medicine. This study aims to analyze gender differences in rank, career duration, publication productivity and research funding among radiation oncologists at U.S. academic institutions. Methods For 82 domestic academic radiation oncology departments, the authors identified current faculty and recorded their academic rank, degree and gender. The authors recorded bibliographic metrics for physician faculty from a commercially available database (SCOPUS, Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, NL), including numbers of publications and h-indices. The authors then concatenated this data with National Institute of Health funding for each individual per Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (REPORTer). The authors performed descriptive and correlative analyses, stratifying by gender and rank. Results Of 1031 faculty, 293 (28%) women and 738 (72%) men, men had a higher median h-index (8 (0-59) versus 5 (0-39); P<.05) and publication number (26 (0-591) versus 13 (0-306); P<.05) overall, and were more likely to be senior faculty and receive NIH funding. However, after stratifying for rank, these differences were largely non-significant. On multivariate analysis, there were significant correlations between gender, career duration and academic position, and h-index (P<.01). Conclusions The determinants of a successful career in academic medicine are certainly multi-factorial, particularly in traditionally male-dominated fields. However, data from radiation oncologists show a systematic gender association withfewer women achieving senior faculty rank. However, women who achieve senior status have productivity metrics comparable to their male counterparts. This suggests early career development and mentorship of female faculty may narrow productivity disparities. PMID:24667510

  15. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  16. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Response to Comment on "Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines".

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2015-07-24

    Ginther and Kahn claim that academics' beliefs about the importance of brilliance do not predict gender gaps in Ph.D. attainment beyond mathematics and verbal test scores. However, Ginther and Kahn's analyses are problematic, exhibiting more than 100 times the recommended collinearity thresholds. Multiple analyses that avoid this problem suggest that academics' beliefs are in fact uniquely predictive of gender gaps across academia. PMID:26206927

  17. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups

    PubMed Central

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. PMID:24975918

  18. Gender Differences in Calling and Work Spirituality among Israeli Academic Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Aryeh; Davidovitch, Nitza; Coren, Gal

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine possible gender differences in work calling and work spirituality, 68 university academic faculty members responded to self-report multidimensional measures of these constructs. No gender differences were found for the attribution of the source of a transcendent summons, with a majority of respondents indicating internal…

  19. Issues of Gender and Personal Life for Women in Academic Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholer, Anne-Marie

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues of gender and personal life that arose during discussions with women scientists about factors contributing to their success in completing training and pursuing an academic career. Issues include gender discrimination, perception of reverse discrimination, efforts toward assisting junior women in science, and the possibility that…

  20. Relation of Gender, Course Enrollment, and Grades to Distinct Forms of Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, L. C.; Kirkpatrick, K. M.; Burgoon, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A thorough understanding of academic dishonesty and the students who engage in it is necessary to develop appropriate policies and educational interventions to discourage such actions. The present study examines the frequency of academic dishonesty and the characteristics (i.e. gender, course enrollment, and grades) of students who engage in…

  1. Gender and Academic Major Bias in Peer Assessment of Oral Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The fairness and precision of peer assessment have been questioned by educators and academics. Of particular interest, yet poorly understood, are the factors underlying the biases that cause unfair and imprecise peer assessments. To shed light on this issue, I investigated gender and academic major biases in peer assessments of oral presentations.…

  2. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  3. The Influence of Dispositional Optimism and Gender on Adolescents' Perception of Academic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of optimism together with gender, on students' perception of academic stress. Four hundred and thirty secondary school students from Singapore participated in this study and data were collected using two self-report measures: the Life Orientation Test and the Academic Expectation Stress Inventory. Results revealed…

  4. College Students' Academic Motivation: Differences by Gender, Class, and Source of Payment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…

  5. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship with Gender, Academic Performance and Intellectual Abilities of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valadez Sierra, Maria de los Dolores; Borges del Rosal, Maria Africa; Ruvalcaba Romero, Norma; Villegas, Karina; Lorenzo, Maryurena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been linked to several variables, such as gender, and academic performance. In the area of high intellectual abilities, the literature shows controversy, without a unanimous result on the relationship between both variables. In the present study we analyzed the modulatory effect has academic performance in…

  7. Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.

  8. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  9. Early Gender Differences in Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, J. S.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in self-regulation in the fall and spring of kindergarten and their connection to gender differences in 5 areas of early achievement: applied problems (math), general knowledge, letter-word identification, expressive vocabulary, and sound awareness. Behavioral self-regulation was measured using both an…

  10. Indicators of Esteem: Gender and Prestige in Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coate, Kelly; Howson, Camille Kandiko

    2016-01-01

    The continued gender imbalance in senior positions in higher education is a problem that persists despite decades of feminist research and publications in the area, as well as interventions in many countries to promote the advancement of women. In this article we view the issue of gender inequality through the lens of the prestige economy, which…

  11. From admission to graduation: the impact of gender on student academic success in respiratory therapy education.

    PubMed

    Ari, Arzu; Atalay, Orcin Telli; Aljamhan, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Despite research in other allied health professions and medicine, the influence of gender on student performance in respiratory therapy (RT) academic programs and on the National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC) examinations is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the impact of gender on student academic performance from admission to graduation and to determine whether gender differences affected student success on the NBRC examinations. This study consisted of a retrospective analysis of 91 female and 22 male graduates at a southeastern U.S. university between 2003 and 2007. The variables of academic success included the students' entering GPA, exit GPA, and first-attempt performance on the Certified Respiratory Therapy (CRT) examination and on the Written Registry for Respiratory Therapy (WRRT) examination. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test analyses at a level of significance of α = 0.05 were utilized. No significant gender differences were observed in the measures of students' entering GPA, exit GPA, or performance on scaled CRT and WRRT examinations (p > 0.05). When we compared entering GPAs and exit GPAs, a statistically significant difference was found (p < 0.05). Both male and female RT students had significantly higher exit GPAs than entering GPAs. The results of the study showed that gender plays no role in the academic success of RT students. When looking at the changes on academic success, we conclude that RT students work hard, as the graduation scores are higher than admission scores.

  12. Policy: Powerful or Pointless? An Exploration of the Role of Critical Literacy in Challenging and Changing Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralfe, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The broad context for this article is the 1998 publication of the National Department of Education's (DoE) Gender Equity Task Team Report. Following its publication, the DoE established a Directorate for Gender Equity and each province set up a department to deal with gender issues headed by a gender focal person. Despite these efforts, it is…

  13. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice.

  14. The Effects of Stereotypes on the Achievement Gap: Reexamining the Academic Performance of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellow, J. Thomas; Jones, Brett D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether African American high school freshman students experience stereotype threat when taking a test that is seen as a predictor of their success on a high-stakes test. The authors conceptually replicated a previous study by Kellow and Jones (2005) using a true experimental design, as opposed to a quasi-experimental…

  15. Gender Inequalities in Transnational Academic Mobility and the Ideal Type of Academic Entrepreneur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemann, Regula Julia

    2010-01-01

    Based on a study on academic career paths of PhD graduates in Switzerland, this paper is concerned with the individual and institutional factors that affect transnational academic mobility in the postdoctoral period. It will be argued that the institutionalisation of geographic mobility in academic career paths through research funding…

  16. The Effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Glover, Katrina Gill; Ruane, Amy; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children, ages 18-47 months (n=30), were observed for 30 minutes in a playroom to determine if: (1) stereotyped toys impact children's play; (2) their behavior influences cognitive development; and (3) which toys are appropriate for the assessment sessions. Includes references. (CMK)

  17. How do stereotypes influence choice?

    PubMed

    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-01

    In the study reported here, I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice. PMID:25749702

  18. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  19. The Evolving Manager Stereotype: The Effects of Industry Gender Typing on Performance Expectations for Leaders and Their Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Susan F.; Sauer, Stephen J.; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how external evaluators' assessments of a management team and its leader are impacted by congruence between the leader's gender and the gender typing of the industry in which the team works. We experimentally tested our theory using industries that are either male typed or gender neutral, with teams led by male and female…

  20. Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  1. Chairing and Caring: Gendered Dimensions of Leadership in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This article uses three frames of analysis, each with gendered implications, to interpret the author's narrative of experience as a department chair (head of department) in a Canadian university from 1999 to 2002. The narrative is based not only on memory but on transcripts of interviews conducted with the author at various points during her term…

  2. Academic Incivility and Bullying as a Gendered and Racialized Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2015-01-01

    The continuum of bad behavior within the academy, from incivility to aggressive bullying, is analyzed using examples that occurred over a two-decade career. The author posits that the cases, which involved both faculty and students, were significantly impacted by the participants' gender and race positionalities.

  3. Gender Diversity Strategy in Academic Departments: Exploring Organizational Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xuhong; Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Full inclusion of women into the academics remains a daunting challenge in the United States. The situation is particularly acute within science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields where the underrepresentation of women and their career disadvantages attract a great deal of attention. Based on a dataset combining a survey of…

  4. Gender, Self-Perception, and Academic Problems in High School

    PubMed Central

    CROSNOE, ROBERT; RIEGLE-CRUMB, CATHERINE; MULLER, CHANDRA

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of education to socioeconomic attainment and other life course trajectories, early academic struggles can have long-term consequences if not addressed. Analysis of a nationally representative sample with official school transcripts and extensive data on adolescent functioning identified a social psychological pathway in this linkage between external feedback about early struggles and truncated educational trajectories. For girls, class failures absent of diagnosed learning disabilities engendered increasingly negative self-perceptions that, in turn, disrupted math and science course-taking, especially in family and peer contexts in which academic success was prioritized. For boys, diagnosed learning disabilities, regardless of class performance, engendered the same changes in self-perception and the same consequences of these changes for course-taking across family and peer contexts. These results reveal how ability labels and ability-related performance indicators come together to influence the long-term educational prospects of girls and boys attending mainstream schools in which the majority of students do not have learning disabilities or severe academic problems. Keywords: education, learning disability, academic failure, peers, and stigma. PMID:20216933

  5. Non-parallel processing: Gendered attrition in academic computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohoon, Joanne Louise Mcgrath

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation addresses the issue of disproportionate female attrition from computer science as an instance of gender segregation in higher education. By adopting a theoretical framework from organizational sociology, it demonstrates that the characteristics and processes of computer science departments strongly influence female retention. The empirical data identifies conditions under which women are retained in the computer science major at comparable rates to men. The research for this dissertation began with interviews of students, faculty, and chairpersons from five computer science departments. These exploratory interviews led to a survey of faculty and chairpersons at computer science and biology departments in Virginia. The data from these surveys are used in comparisons of the computer science and biology disciplines, and for statistical analyses that identify which departmental characteristics promote equal attrition for male and female undergraduates in computer science. This three-pronged methodological approach of interviews, discipline comparisons, and statistical analyses shows that departmental variation in gendered attrition rates can be explained largely by access to opportunity, relative numbers, and other characteristics of the learning environment. Using these concepts, this research identifies nine factors that affect the differential attrition of women from CS departments. These factors are: (1) The gender composition of enrolled students and faculty; (2) Faculty turnover; (3) Institutional support for the department; (4) Preferential attitudes toward female students; (5) Mentoring and supervising by faculty; (6) The local job market, starting salaries, and competitiveness of graduates; (7) Emphasis on teaching; and (8) Joint efforts for student success. This work contributes to our understanding of the gender segregation process in higher education. In addition, it contributes information that can lead to effective solutions for an

  6. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Comment on "Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines".

    PubMed

    Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit

    2015-07-24

    Leslie et al. (Reports, 16 January 2015, p. 262) concluded that "expectations of brilliance" explained the gender makeup of academic disciplines. We reestimated their models after adding measures of disaggregated Graduate Record Examination scores by field. Our results indicated that female representation among Ph.D. recipients is associated with the field's mathematical content and that faculty beliefs about innate ability were irrelevant.

  7. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  8. Different Worlds and Divergent Paths: Academic Careers Defined by Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Juanita Johnson-Bailey, a Black female professor, and Ronald M. Cervero, a White male professor, examine and contrast their academic lives by exploring how race and gender have influenced their journeys and their experiences. Using journal excerpts, personal examples, and a comparative list of privileges, the authors present a…

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Gender as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Some University Students in Barbados

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated emotional intelligence (attending to emotion, positive expressivity and negative expressivity) and gender as predictors of academic achievement among 163 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. Results revealed significant positive and negative correlations…

  10. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  11. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement among Turkish Prospective Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ismail Hakki

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to explain prevalent gender differences in academic achievement of 84 third-year students enrolled in a pre-service ELT (English Language Teaching) teacher training department. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 38 students. A content analysis of the data…

  12. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Ethical Perceptions in Barbados: Differences by Gender, Academic Major and Religiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Philmore; Persaud, Nadini

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in students' ethical perceptions based on gender, academic major and religiosity. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered survey was conducted of 132 students at a university in Barbados, to determine ethical perceptions on five moral constructs: justice,…

  13. Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments to University Life: Comparisons across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Fong Cheng, Alison Lai

    2012-01-01

    University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions, namely: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous researches show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The purpose of this…

  14. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  15. Exploring Modes of Communication among Pupils in Brazil: Gender Issues in Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Adla B. M.; Villani, Carlos E.; do Nascimento, Silvania S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify gender issues in the academic performance of boys and girls during physics classes in a laboratory. The methodology adopted was the observation and interactions of pupils during eight classroom events. The interactions were recorded and events were informally discussed with the teacher. The school…

  16. Gender Differences in Academic Performance in a Large Public University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayioglu, Meltem; Turut-Asik, Serap

    2007-01-01

    The paper attempts to determine whether there are significant gender differences in academic performance among undergraduate students in a large public university in Turkey based on three indicators; university entrance scores, performance in the English preparatory school and in the program the student is majoring in. The paper finds that a…

  17. The Effect of Academics' Dress and Gender on Student Perceptions of Instructor Approachability and Likeability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatelain, Amber M.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to discover student perceptions of academics' dress and gender and their impact on perceived instructor approachability and likeability. Three categories of dress were examined: casual, business casual and professional. The results of this study suggest students at career-arts institutions perceive female teachers as less…

  18. Personality and Problem Behaviours as Predictors of Adolescents' Social Status: Academic Track and Gender as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubers, Mireille D.; Burk, William J.; Segers, Eliane; Kleinjan, Marloes; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent personality and problem behaviours as predictors of two types of social status: social preference and popularity. Academic track (college preparatory and vocational) and gender were expected to moderate these associations. The sample included 693 students (49.0% female; M = 15.46 years) attending classrooms in two…

  19. Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…

  20. Continuity or Change? Gender, Family, and Academic Work for Junior Faculty in Ontario Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Sandra; Webber, Michelle; Smyth, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 or so years, women's share of faculty positions in Canada and elsewhere has increased considerably, if not yet reaching parity. Yet working in the gendered university remains problematic. This article uses data from a qualitative research project in which 38 junior academics were interviewed about their responses to being on the…

  1. Emotional Design in Multimedia: Does Gender and Academic Achievement Influence Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Jeya Amantha; Muniandy, Balakrishnan; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed as a preliminary study (N = 33) to explore the effects of gender and academic achievement (Cumulative Grade Point Average-CGPA) on polytechnic students' learning outcomes when exposed to Multimedia Learning Environments (MLE) designed to induce emotions. Three designs namely positive (PosD), neutral (NeuD) and negative…

  2. Relationships among Preservice Primary Mathematics Teachers' Gender, Academic Success and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih; Yilmaz, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate relationships among pre-service primary mathematics teachers' gender, academic success and spatial ability. The study was conducted in Izmir with 193 pre-service primary mathematics teachers of Dokuz Eylul University. In the work, spatial ability test, which consists of two main sub-tests measuring spatial…

  3. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  4. Self-Concept among Primary School Students According to Gender and Academic Achievement Variables in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…

  5. Stereotype Threat, Inquiring about Test Takers' Race and Gender, and Performance on Low-Stakes Tests in a Large-Scale Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-15-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Rock, Donald A.; Bridgeman, Brent

    2015-01-01

    This study explores stereotype threat on low-stakes tests used in a large-scale assessment, math and reading tests in the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS). Issues identified in laboratory research (though not observed in studies of high-stakes tests) were assessed: whether inquiring about their race and gender is related to the…

  6. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gayle Patrice

    The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

  7. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home Space for a Black Woman Academic/Single Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William-­White, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT), and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM) in the United States. This piece…

  8. Teacher-student classroom interactions: the influence of gender, academic dominance, and teacher communication style.

    PubMed

    Ilatov, Z Z; Shamai, S; Hertz-Lazarovitz, R; Mayer-Young, S

    1998-01-01

    Two Israeli grade 7 classes, with different teachers, were monitored and the lessons coded according to categories that were based on the conceptual framework of speech acts theory combined with role theory. The two classes differed in their academic composition: one class was dominated by females and the other was balanced by gender. Different classroom interactions were observed. The two teachers manifested different communication styles: one exercised more control, while the other was more influenced by the dominant students. The teachers did not have any bias against females; they were "gender blind." Thus, the findings indicated that gender, academic composition, and teacher communication style are important factors in teacher-student interactions. PMID:9706314

  9. Internet use and academic achievement: gender differences in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yen; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2009-01-01

    As a new medium of learning readily connected with the outside world, the Internet has brought unprecedented opportunities to students on the one hand, while becoming a major concern for parents on the other. For parents and educators alike, it is thus critical to stipulate whether and how Internet use is linked to academic achievement. Using panel survey data from middle-school students in northern Taiwan (N = 1,409), this study examines how patterns of Internet use in the 8th grade affect students' performance on their high school entrance exam a year later. The findings confirm that online searching for information helps boost exam scores, while using the Internet for socializing and gaming, as well as going to Internet Cafés, contributes to poorer exam performance. Male and female students differ not only in their patterns of Internet use, but in how these patterns affect their academic performance. While information searching helps both boys and girls, online socializing makes girls particularly vulnerable, and online gaming and Internet Cafés hurt only boys' academic achievement. PMID:20432601

  10. Why are women underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors of future CS course-taking and grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their first CS course, they had a stronger intention to take another CS course. A subset of 128 students (68 females and 60 males) took a CS course up to one year later. Students who were interested in CS, had high computer self-efficacy, were low in family orientation, low in conscientiousness, and low in openness to experiences were more likely to take CS courses. Furthermore, individuals who were highly conscientious and low in relational-interdependent self-construal earned the highest CS grades. Efforts to improve women's representation in CS should bear these results in mind.

  11. Stereotype Embodiment

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Becca

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned their attention from younger individuals who hold age stereotypes to older individuals who are targeted by these stereotypes. The refocused research has shown that positive and negative age stereotypes held by older individuals can have beneficial and detrimental effects, respectively, on a variety of cognitive and physical outcomes. Drawing on these experimental and longitudinal studies, a theory of stereotype embodiment is presented here. It proposes that stereotypes are embodied when their assimilation from the surrounding culture leads to self-definitions that, in turn, influence functioning and health. The theory has four components: The stereotypes (a) become internalized across the life span, (b) can operate unconsciously, (c) gain salience from self-relevance, and (d) utilize multiple pathways. The central message of the theory, and the research supporting it, is that the aging process is, in part, a social construct. PMID:20802838

  12. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  13. Innovative mentoring programs to promote gender equity in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Mark, S; Link, H; Morahan, P S; Pololi, L; Reznik, V; Tropez-Sims, S

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe the history, characteristics, and goals of four innovative programs, each in a medical school, that were established in 1998 to help faculty members of both sexes obtain mentors and thereby facilitate their career advancement. The programs were established as the result of an initiative by the Office on Women's Health (OWH) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Specifically, the OWH convened the National Task Force on Mentoring for Health Professionals, which determined that two principles are paramount to the success of any mentoring relationship or program: institutional commitment and institutional rewards and recognition to mentors. In accordance with the task force findings, the OWH created the National Centers of Leadership in Academic Medicine, one at each of four medical schools: MCP Hahnemann School of Medicine; the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine; East Carolina University School of Medicine; and Meharry Medical College School of Medicine. The authors give highlights of each program's goals and progress, and note that, ideally, these programs will eventually serve as models for similar programs at other schools. Programs such as these foster the advancement of a diverse faculty, a more supportive academic environment, and the education of providers who are sensitive to the needs of all their patients, staff, and colleagues.

  14. Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all. PMID:27332868

  15. Gender inequality in career advancement for females in Japanese academic surgery.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the participation of women in medicine has increased from 10.6% (1986) to 19.7% (2012) in Japan. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the top tiers of academic medicine. We highlight gender inequality and discuss the difficulties faced by female surgeons in Japanese academic surgery. Using anonymous and aggregate employment data of medical doctors at Kyoto University Hospital from 2009 and 2013, and a commercially-published faculty roster in 2012-2013, we compared gender balance stratified by a professional and an academic rank. The numbers of total and female doctors who worked at Kyoto University Hospital were 656 and 132 (20.1%) in 2009 and 655 and 132 (20.2%) in 2013, respectively. Approximately half the men (n = 281) were in temporary track and the rest (n = 242) were in tenure track, but only one fifth of women (n = 24) were in tenure track compared to 108 women in temporary track (p < 0.0001) in 2013. There were three female associate professors in basic medicine (8.1%), two female professors in clinical non-surgical medicine (3.9%) and one female lecturer in clinical surgical medicine (2.3%) in 2012. Fewer female doctors were at senior positions and at tenure positions than male doctors at Kyoto University Hospital. There were no female associate and full professors in surgery. The status of faculty members indicates the gender differences in leadership opportunities in Japanese academic surgery.

  16. Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.

  17. Science Anxiety as a Function of Personality, Gender Roles, Experience with Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlow, Sheila; Rogers, Molly I.; Jacobi, Tara

    This study examined the influence of gender and various background and personality factors on science anxiety. Students (50 women, 37 men) took the Science Anxiety Scale (Mallow, 1994), provided information about high-school and college academic accomplishments, described gender-role stereotyping in the home, evaluated their science teachers and…

  18. Interpreting the relationships between single gender science classes and girls' academic motivation and interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sonya L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how and to what extent single gender science classes affect motivation to learn scientific concepts, interest in science, and college major intent among high school and middle school girls. This study was designed to determine whether students' motivation to learn science changes when they are placed in a single gender science class. The study also measured whether the students' level of interest in science and desire to major in science changes based on their enrollment in a single gender class. Finally, the study investigated the career and college major intentions of the sample population used in the study. Girls in single gender groupings engage in more academic risk taking and participate more than girls in coeducational classes. This benefit alone responds to reform efforts and supports the abolition of gender-based obstacles. Single gender grouping could help encourage more girls to take interest in majoring in science, a field that is considered to be masculine. By increasing students' interest in science while enrolled in single gender classes, students may become more motivated to learn science. This study was conducted using seven, eighth, ninth and tenth grade girls from single sex and coeducational science classes. The students participated in 2 surveys, the Science Motivational Survey and the Test of Science Related Attitudes, at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. In respect to girls in high school single gender science classes, results were contrary to recent studies that state that girls who received science education in a single gender setting have an increase in motivation and attitude towards science. The results did show that middle school girls in single gender science classes did show an increase in motivation.

  19. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  20. How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

  1. Gender differences in health care provider-patient communication: are they due to style, stereotypes, or accommodation?

    PubMed

    Street, Richard L

    2002-12-01

    This article examines gender differences in health care provider-patient communication within the framework of an ecological model of communication in the medical encounter. The ecological perspective posits that, although health care provider-patient interactions are situated within a number of contexts (e.g. organizational, political, cultural), the interpersonal domain is the primary context within which these interactions unfold. Hence, gender may influence provider-patient interaction to the extent that it can be linked to the interactants' goals, skills, perceptions, emotions, and the way the participants adapt to their partner's communication. The evidence reviewed in this essay indicates that gender differences in medical encounters may come from several sources including differences in men's and women's communicative styles, perceptions of their partners, and in the way they accommodate their partner's behavior during the interaction. However, because gender is but one of many personal and partner variables (e.g. age, ethnicity, personal experiences) that can influence these processes, gender differences are often quite modest (if apparent at all) when examined across a population of health care providers and patients. Implications for future research and communicative skill training are discussed. PMID:12477604

  2. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Comment on "Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines".

    PubMed

    Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit

    2015-07-24

    Leslie et al. (Reports, 16 January 2015, p. 262) concluded that "expectations of brilliance" explained the gender makeup of academic disciplines. We reestimated their models after adding measures of disaggregated Graduate Record Examination scores by field. Our results indicated that female representation among Ph.D. recipients is associated with the field's mathematical content and that faculty beliefs about innate ability were irrelevant. PMID:26206926

  3. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  4. Gender stereotyping for sociability, dominance, character, and mental health: a meta-analysis of findings from the bogus stranger paradigm.

    PubMed

    Feingold, A

    1998-08-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of target gender effects on trait attributions from 18 bogus stranger studies that had manipulated target gender and target physical attractiveness. Collapsed over sex of perceivers, female targets were seen as more sociable, happier, and possessing greater character than male targets. However, these effects were small and were often moderated by the perceivers' sex. Male perceivers viewed female targets as more sociable and happier than male targets, whereas female perceivers viewed male targets as more dominant than female targets. There was no moderation of the gender effect on attributions of character, as both sexes viewed females more favorably than males and the effect size was very small for perceivers of both sexes.

  5. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  6. Bullying-Victimization Problems and Aggressive Tendencies in Spanish Secondary Schools Students: The Role of Gender Stereotypical Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Raul; Larranaga, Elisa; Yubero, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents data concerning culturally prescribed gender traits and their influence on bullying/victimization problems and aggressive tendencies from a wide sample of 1,654 Spanish adolescents. The aims of this study were to clarify the effect of masculine traits on male and female secondary students' aggression, and also to explore the…

  7. Are Males and Females Still Portrayed Stereotypically? Visual Analyses of Gender in Two Hong Kong Primary English Language Textbook Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chi Cheung Ruby

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how gender is represented in the visuals (or illustrations) of two English Language textbook series used in most primary schools in Hong Kong. Instead of conducting frequency counts of the occurrence of male and female characters in illustrations, or the spheres of activities they engaged in as in many previous textbook…

  8. Qualitative Differences Among Gender-Stereotyped Toys: Implications for Cognitive and Social Development in Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia L.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates a system of toy classification developed to improve the assessment of gender differences in cognitive and social development. One hundred adults rated 50 children's toys on 122 "functional" dimensions. Results showed that these toys could be reliably described according to multidimensional similarities, and confirmed that toys considered…

  9. Gender equity programmes in academic medicine: a realist evaluation approach to Athena SWAN processes

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Louise; Mattingley, Helena; Williamson, Catherine; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gender inequity has persisted in academic medicine. Yet equity is vital for countries to achieve their full potential in terms of translational research and patient benefit. This study sought to understand how the gender equity programme, Athena SWAN, can be enabled and constrained by interactions between the programme and the context it is implemented into, and whether these interactions might produce unintended consequences. Design Multimethod qualitative case studies using a realist evaluation approach. Setting 5 departments from a university medical school hosting a Translational Research Organisation. Participants 25 hours of observations of gender equality committee meetings, 16 in-depth interviews with Heads of Departments, Committee Leads and key personnel involved in the initiative. 4 focus groups with 15 postdoctoral researchers, lecturers and senior lecturers. Results The implementation of Athena SWAN principles was reported to have created social space to address gender inequity and to have highlighted problematic practices to staff. However, a number of factors reduced the programme's potential to impact gender inequity. Gender inequity was reproduced in the programme's enactment as female staff was undertaking a disproportionate amount of Athena SWAN work, with potential negative impacts on individual women's career progression. Early career researchers experienced problems accessing Athena SWAN initiatives. Furthermore, the impact of the programme was perceived to be undermined by wider institutional practices, national policies and societal norms, which are beyond the programme's remit. Conclusions Gender equity programmes have the potential to address inequity. However, paradoxically, they can also unintentionally reproduce and reinforce gender inequity through their enactment. Potential programme impacts may be undermined by barriers to staff availing of career development and training initiatives, and by wider institutional practices

  10. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  11. Learning Disabilities, Gender, Sources of Efficacy, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Achievement in High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang; Mason, Emanuel

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of gender, learning disability status, and sources of efficacy on self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement in the concept of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results revels that LD status had indirect influence on self-efficacy via the source variable; gender did not have influences; and sources of efficacy had direct…

  12. Gender and Bilingual Education: An Exploratory Study of the Academic Achievement of Latina and Latino English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapayese, Yvette; Huchting, Karen; Grimalt, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Although biliteracy plays a vital role in academic achievement, there has been little research on the unique needs of female and male English language learners. Becoming biliterate is a complex process, compounded by other variables such as 1st-language background, class, culture, and gender. Among these variables, gender has been the least…

  13. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  14. The Evolving Role of Student Employees in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, David

    1995-01-01

    Examines selected literature on the role of student employment in academic libraries from the early 1900s to the present. Discusses stereotypes, responsibilities, qualifications, standards, gender and racial bias, training, job assignments, performance, and benefits of student employment. Contains 79 references. (AEF)

  15. Who is the better applicant? Effects from gender, academic record, and type of decision.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Martha; Valenzuela, Jerilee

    2012-07-01

    This experiment recreates several features of the selection of candidates for junior professional positions. The situation of central interest involves an assessor (either male or female) and a pair consisting of a male and a female applicant with either equivalent or slightly different academic records. We also investigate effects from quality of record (either excellent or poor) and type of decision (namely, choice between applicants, and ratings of competence and suitability). Our hypotheses consider both gender as social status and as social identity, and predict different outcomes depending on decision type. In line with those predictions, findings show that, at both levels of performance, the question about competence elicited effects only from the two applicants' relative academic standing, while the choice and suitability measures show effects from that standing as well as from sex category of applicant and of assessor. Results and their interpretation are presented and discussed in detail.

  16. 2D:4D asymmetry and gender differences in academic performance.

    PubMed

    Nye, John V C; Androuschak, Gregory; Desierto, Desirée; Jones, Garett; Yudkevich, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone (T)-which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D)-would seem to have ambiguous effects on academic achievement since traits like aggressiveness or risk-taking are not uniformly positive for success in school. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear, quadratic, relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila. We also find that there is a gender differentiated link between various measures of academic achievement and measured digit ratios. These effects are different depending on the field of study, choice of achievement measure, and use of the right hand or left digit ratios. The results seem to be asymmetric between Moscow and Manila where the right (left) hand generates inverted-U (U-shaped) curves in Moscow while the pattern for hands reverses in Manila. Drawing from unusually large and detailed samples of university students in two countries not studied in the digit literature, our work is the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions.

  17. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  18. The roots of stereotype threat: when automatic associations disrupt girls' math performance.

    PubMed

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by testing whether automatic associations trigger stereotype threat in young girls. Whereas no indicators were found that children endorsed the math-gender stereotype, girls, but not boys, showed automatic associations consistent with the stereotype. Moreover, results showed that girls' automatic associations varied as a function of a manipulation regarding the stereotype content. Importantly, girls' math performance decreased in a stereotype-consistent, relative to a stereotype-inconsistent, condition and automatic associations mediated the relation between stereotype threat and performance.

  19. Funding mechanisms for gender-specific research: proceedings from a panel discussion at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R; Anise, Ayodola; Brown, Jeremy; Conwit, Robin; Filart, Rosemarie; Scott, Jane; Choo, Esther K

    2014-12-01

    As part of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," we assembled a diverse panel of representatives from federal and nonfederal funding agencies to discuss future opportunities for sex- and gender-specific research. The discussion revolved around the mission and priorities of each organization, as well as its interest in promoting sex- and gender-specific research. The panelists were asked to provide specific examples of funding lines generated or planned for as pertinent to emergency care. Training opportunities for future researchers in this area were also discussed. PMID:25413301

  20. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  1. The Development and Consequences of Stereotype Consciousness in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Weinstein, Rhona S.

    2003-01-01

    Examined in 2 studies development and consequences of 6- to 10-year-olds' awareness of others' stereotypes. Findings indicated that children's ability to infer an individual's stereotype and awareness of broadly-held stereotypes increased with age. Academically stigmatized groups (African American and Latino) were more likely to be aware of…

  2. Confronting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  3. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  4. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999

  5. Gender role stereotype and poor working condition pose obstacles for female doctors to stay in full-time employment: alumnae survey from two private medical schools in Japan.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Miki; Nomura, Kyoko; Higaki, Yuko; Akaishi, Yu; Seki, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Komoda, Takayuki; Otaki, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of physicians has become a serious problem in Japan. It has been pointed out that an increase in the number of female doctors may contribute to the aggravation of this shortage because it is known that women work fewer hours than male doctors. Here, we investigated how many female doctors had ever resigned from a full-time position, and elucidated the reasons why female doctors find it difficult to stay in full-time employment. An alumnae survey of 2 private medical schools was conducted in 2007. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1423 graduates and 711 responded with informed consent (response rate, 50%; mean age, 39 years). Overall, 55% of the respondents had previously resigned from full-time employment, of which 90% resigned within 10 years of graduating from medical school. The difficulty in balancing work, childbirth and child rearing (45%) were the top 2 reasons for resignation, followed by physical problems (12%) and long working hours (8%). Among those who resigned, only 33% returned to full-time employment. Women who had at least 1 child were only 30% of those who had never resigned and 84% of those who had previously resigned. The majority of study subjects, regardless of experience of resignation (88%), agreed that women should continue to work even after childbirth. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that many female doctors resigned from a full-time position within 10 years of graduating from medical school, largely because of the gender role stereotype and poor working conditions.

  6. Stereotype Threat: Effects on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cary Stacy; Hung, Li-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Numerous stereotypes exist regarding race and gender, and while all are difficult to eradicate, one still regnant throughout society is the notion that females are not as capable as males within the fields of math and science. In order to expose this belief as faulty, an in depth literature review was initiated, with special attention being placed…

  7. Characterizing learning-through-service students in engineering by gender and academic year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carberry, Adam Robert

    Service is increasingly being viewed as an integral part of education nationwide. Service-based courses and programs are growing in popularity as opportunities for students to learn and experience their discipline. Widespread adoption of learning-through-service (LTS) in engineering is stymied by a lack of a body of rigorous research supporting the effectiveness of these experiences. In this study, I examine learning-through-service through a nationwide survey of engineering undergraduate and graduate students participating in a variety of LTS experiences. Students (N = 322) participating in some form of service -- service-learning courses or extra-curricular service programs -- from eighty-seven different institutions across the United States completed a survey measuring demographic information (institution, gender, academic year, age, major, and grade point average), self-perceived sources of learning (service and traditional coursework), engineering epistemological beliefs, personality traits, and self-concepts (self-efficacy, motivation, expectancy, and anxiety) toward engineering design. Responses to the survey were used to characterize engineering LTS students and identify differences in these variables in terms of gender and academic year. The overall findings were that LTS students perceived their service experience to be a beneficial source for learning professional skills and, to a lesser degree, technical skills, held moderately sophisticated engineering epistemological beliefs, and were generally outgoing, compassionate, and adventurous. Self-perceived sources of learning, epistemological beliefs, and personality traits were shown to be poor predictors of student engineering achievement. Self-efficacy, motivation, and outcome expectancy toward engineering design were generally high for all LTS students; most possessed rather low anxiety levels toward engineering design. These trends were generally consistent between genders and across the five academic

  8. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    PubMed Central

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  9. African-American parents' racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: teasing out the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.

  10. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RISK/PROTECTION PROFILES FOR LOW ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Stephen D; Renner, Lynette M; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2010-05-01

    Using holistic-interactionistic theory, the simultaneous nature of risk and protection factors for both males and females (age 6-11 in Wave 1) is examined using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). Risk/protection classes are estimated using multiple risk factor variables (e.g., physical child abuse) and multiple protective factors (e.g., extracurricular activities). These risk/protection classes were used to predict low academic performance. For both males and females, high risk, low protection individuals were significantly more likely to experience low academic performance than low risk, high protection cases. Gender differences emerged in a class for females that included the importance of parental/peer disapproval of anti-social behavior as a protective factor that was not present for males. Findings support elements of the holistic-interactionistic theory for human development and suggest the need to examine risk and protective factors in combination to account for their shared influences on developmental outcomes. Implications for youths underperforming academically are discussed.

  11. Women in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Bickel, J

    2000-01-01

    Women now constitute 43% of US medical students, 37% of residents, and 27% of full-time medical school faculty. Less than 11% of women faculty are full professors, however, compared to 31% of men, and these proportions haven't changed in more than 15 years. Since the proportion of women reaching the top ranks remains relatively low, the pool of women available for leadership positions in academic medicine is still small. This review article first summarizes recent data on women's representation in academic medicine and then discusses why they are not succeeding at the same pace as men. Reasons include a complex combination of women's choices, sexism, cultural stereotypes, constraints in combining family responsibilities with professional opportunities, and lack of effective mentoring. Multiple approaches are required to overcome these "cumulative disadvantages," among them improving the gender climate at academic medical centers; the mentoring of women faculty, residents, and students; and skill-building opportunities for women.

  12. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.

  13. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Lift on Men and Women's Performance in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather J.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the differential effects of stereotype threat and lift between genders on math test performance. They asked 3 questions: (a) What is the effect of gender on math test performance?, (b) What is the effect of stereotyping condition (threat, lift, or neither) on math test performance?, and (c) What is the effect of…

  14. The inexorable rise of gender and the decline of sex: social change in academic titles, 1945-2001.

    PubMed

    Haig, David

    2004-04-01

    More than 30 million titles of "academic" articles, from the years 1945-2001, were surveyed for occurrences of the words sex and gender. At the beginning of this period, uses of gender were much rarer than uses of sex, and often used in the sense of a grammatical category. By the end of this period, uses of gender outnumbered uses of sex in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. Within the natural sciences, there was now more than 1 use of gender for every 2 uses of sex. The beginnings of this change in usage can be traced to Money's introduction of the concept of "gender role" in 1955 (J. Money, 1955). However, the major expansion in the use of gender followed its adoption by feminists to distinguish the social and cultural aspects of differences between men and women (gender) from biological differences (sex). Since then, the use of gender has tended to expand to encompass the biological, and a sex/gender distinction is now only fitfully observed.

  15. The inexorable rise of gender and the decline of sex: social change in academic titles, 1945-2001.

    PubMed

    Haig, David

    2004-04-01

    More than 30 million titles of "academic" articles, from the years 1945-2001, were surveyed for occurrences of the words sex and gender. At the beginning of this period, uses of gender were much rarer than uses of sex, and often used in the sense of a grammatical category. By the end of this period, uses of gender outnumbered uses of sex in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. Within the natural sciences, there was now more than 1 use of gender for every 2 uses of sex. The beginnings of this change in usage can be traced to Money's introduction of the concept of "gender role" in 1955 (J. Money, 1955). However, the major expansion in the use of gender followed its adoption by feminists to distinguish the social and cultural aspects of differences between men and women (gender) from biological differences (sex). Since then, the use of gender has tended to expand to encompass the biological, and a sex/gender distinction is now only fitfully observed. PMID:15146141

  16. Gender Difference in Students' Academic Performance in Colleges of Education in Borno State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goni, Umar; wali S. B., Yagana; Ali, Hajja Kaltum; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the differences between students' gender and academic achievement in Colleges of Education in Borno State. The study set one research objective, one research question and tested one research hypothesis. the population of this study include all the NCE students from three NCE awarding institutions in the state that were…

  17. Teaching Strategies and Gender Based Learning Environments: How They Relate to Self-Efficacy, Participatory Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…

  18. Relationship between Multiple Sources of Perceived Social Support and Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence: Comparisons across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided…

  19. The Unique Contribution of Learning Approaches to Academic Performance, after Controlling for IQ and Personality: Are There Gender Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the unique contribution of learning approaches to academic performance, also taking gender differences into account. The participant sample consisted of 476 school pupils (53% girls and 47% boys) from two upper secondary schools in Sweden who completed two self-reported measures related to personality and learning…

  20. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  1. Ethnic, Gender, and Socio-Economic Group Differences in Academic Performance and Secondary School Selection: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender, socio-economic (SES), and ethnic group differences in academic performance (measured at 14 and 16 years) in a sample of 517 British pupils (mean age = 16.5 years). White pupils outperformed their Black and Pakistani counterparts and high SES pupils consistently outperformed their low SES counterparts. Results from two…

  2. The Effects of Religion and Gender on Well-Being, Substance Use, and Academic Engagement among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milot, Alyssa S.; Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The effects of religious attendance, religious importance, and gender on well-being, substance use, and academic engagement were examined among early adolescents (N = 683) from rural schools. Results indicated that females viewed religion as more important than males, although the frequency of religious attendance did not differ for males and…

  3. An Empirical Study into Gender Differences in the Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments of University Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships.…

  4. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  5. Gender and Course Selection in Upper Secondary Education: Effects of Academic Self-Concept and Intrinsic Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Baumert, Jurgen; Koller, Olaf; Garrett, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Predictions about processes linking gender to students' choices of advanced courses were derived from the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model and expectancy value (EV) theory. The predictions were tested for the domains of mathematics and biology using data from 1,148 students attending academically oriented secondary schools in…

  6. Self-Regulation of Learning and Academic Delay of Gratification: Gender and Ethnic Differences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2007-01-01

    Self-regulated learners engage in self-generated thoughts, actions, and feelings while pursuing academic goals. The most successful learners use appropriate learning strategies and maintain high levels of motivation. Few studies on the self-regulation of learning have examined individual differences such as gender and ethnicity among college…

  7. African-American Parents' Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing out the Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…

  8. The Unchosen Me: Race, Gender, and Identity among Black Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    Racial and gender inequities persist among college students, despite ongoing efforts to combat them. Students of color face alienation, stereotyping, low expectations, and lingering racism even as they actively engage in the academic and social worlds of college life. "The Unchosen Me" examines the experiences of African American collegiate women…

  9. Changing the culture of academic medicine to eliminate the gender leadership gap: 50/50 by 2020.

    PubMed

    Valantine, Hannah; Sandborg, Christy I

    2013-10-01

    Central to the daily struggles that successful working women face is the misalignment of the current work culture and the values of the workforce. In addition to contributing to work-life integration conflicts, this disconnect perpetuates the gender leadership gap. The dearth of women at the highest ranks of academic medicine not only sends a clear message to women that they must choose between career advancement and their personal life but also represents a loss of talent for academic health centers as they fail to recruit and retain the best and the brightest. To close the gender leadership gap and to meet the needs of the next generation of physicians, scientists, and educators, the authors argue that the culture of academic medicine must change to one in which flexibility and work-life integration are core parts of the definition of success. Faculty must see flexibility policies, such as tenure clock extensions and parental leaves, as career advancing rather than career limiting. To achieve these goals, the authors describe the Stanford University School of Medicine Academic Biomedical Career Customization (ABCC) model. This framework includes individualized career plans, which span a faculty member's career, with options to flex up or down in research, patient care, administration, and teaching, and mentoring discussions, which ensure that faculty take full advantage of the existing policies designed to make career customization possible. The authors argue that with vision, determination, and focus, the academic medicine community can eliminate the gender leadership gap to achieve 50/50 by 2020.

  10. Changing the culture of academic medicine to eliminate the gender leadership gap: 50/50 by 2020.

    PubMed

    Valantine, Hannah; Sandborg, Christy I

    2013-10-01

    Central to the daily struggles that successful working women face is the misalignment of the current work culture and the values of the workforce. In addition to contributing to work-life integration conflicts, this disconnect perpetuates the gender leadership gap. The dearth of women at the highest ranks of academic medicine not only sends a clear message to women that they must choose between career advancement and their personal life but also represents a loss of talent for academic health centers as they fail to recruit and retain the best and the brightest. To close the gender leadership gap and to meet the needs of the next generation of physicians, scientists, and educators, the authors argue that the culture of academic medicine must change to one in which flexibility and work-life integration are core parts of the definition of success. Faculty must see flexibility policies, such as tenure clock extensions and parental leaves, as career advancing rather than career limiting. To achieve these goals, the authors describe the Stanford University School of Medicine Academic Biomedical Career Customization (ABCC) model. This framework includes individualized career plans, which span a faculty member's career, with options to flex up or down in research, patient care, administration, and teaching, and mentoring discussions, which ensure that faculty take full advantage of the existing policies designed to make career customization possible. The authors argue that with vision, determination, and focus, the academic medicine community can eliminate the gender leadership gap to achieve 50/50 by 2020. PMID:23969359

  11. Indirect Effects in the Peer Victimization-Academic Achievement Relation: The Role of Academic Self-Concept and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…

  12. Gender trends in dental leadership and academics: a twenty-two-year observation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lee, Damian J; Kongkiatkamon, Suchada; Ross, Sasha; Prasad, Soni; Koerber, Anne; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender disparities in dental leadership and academics in the United States. Nine journals that represent the dental specialties and high published impact factors were selected to analyze the percentage of female dentists' first and senior authorship for the years 1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008. Data on appointment status and female deanship were collected from the American Dental Association (ADA) survey, and the trends were studied. The proportion of female presidents in ADA-recognized specialty organizations was also calculated. Overall, the increase in first female authorship was not statistically significant, but the increase of last female authorship was statistically significant in a linear trend over the years. The percentage of tenured female faculty members and female deans in U.S. dental schools increased by factors of 1.7 and 9, respectively, during the study period. However, female involvement in professional organizations was limited. Findings from this study indicate that female participation in authorship and leadership has increased over time. Nevertheless, females are still a minority in dental academics and leadership.

  13. The gender imbalance in academic medicine: a study of female authorship in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Reena; Rajashekhar, Praveen; Lavin, Victoria L; Parry, Joanne; Attwood, James; Holdcroft, Anita; Sanders, David S

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives A shortfall exists of female doctors in senior academic posts in the United Kingdom. Career progression depends on measures of esteem, including publication in prestigious journals. This study investigates gender differences in first and senior authorship in six peer-reviewed British journals and factors that are associated with publication rates. Design and main outcome measures Data was collected on United Kingdom first and senior authors who had published in the British Medical Journal, Lancet, British Journal of Surgery, Gut, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Archives of Diseases in Childhood. Authorship and gender were quantified for 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2004 (n=6457). In addition, selected questions from the Athena Survey of Science Engineering and Technology (ASSET2006), web-based doctor's self-report of publications were also analysed (n=1162). Results Female first authors increased from 10.5% in 1970 to 36.5% in 2004 (p<0.001) while female senior authors only increased from 12.3% to 16.5% (p=0.046). Within individual journals, the largest rise was in British Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology with 4.5- and 3-fold increases for first and senior authors, respectively. In contrast, female senior authors marginally declined in Gut and Lancet by 2.8% and 2.2%, respectively. ASSET2006 identified that female respondents who were parents were less likely to have publications as sole (p=0.02) and joint authors (p<0.001) compared to male respondents. Female respondents with care responsibilities for parents/partner also had less publications as lead authors compared to those without carer responsibilities (p<0.001). Conclusion The increase in UK female first authors is encouraging. In contrast, there is considerable lag and in some specialties a decline in female senior authors. Factors that could narrow the gender gap in authorship should be sought and addressed. PMID:19679736

  14. How Women in Biomedical PhD Programs Manage Gender Consciousness as They Persist toward Academic Research Careers

    PubMed Central

    Remich, Robin; Jones, Remi; Wood, Christine V.; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Women remain underrepresented as biomedical faculty and are more likely than White and Asian men to lose interest in faculty careers in graduate school. However, some women maintain interest in academic research careers during PhD training and are the most likely candidates for faculty positions. This study explored how these women described and interpreted gender issues at early stages in their training. Method Annual interviews from 2009–14 with 22 female PhD students aspiring to research faculty careers were analyzed using an iterative, content analysis approach rooted in the interview data. Focusing on career intentions and experiences with gender, race, and ethnicity, authors arrived at 11 themes which describe a range of gendered experiences and strategies. Results Of the 22 women, 19 (86%) acknowledged systemic gender inequities in science and/or reported instances of bias while 15 of them also said they had not yet experienced unequal treatment. All 22 described using at least one “gender explicit strategy,” where they based decisions on gender or in response to perceived biases. “Gender agnostic strategies” emerged for 12 (55%) who doubted that gender will affect their career. Conclusions Findings show that women biomedical PhD students continue to face conditions that can lead to unequal treatment; gender biases continue to persist. Students displayed a range of perceptions and strategies in response to these conditions at this early training stage. Following these students over time will determine if these or other strategies are required and sufficient to enable persistence toward academic careers. PMID:27254008

  15. Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288

  16. Retraining attitudes and stereotypes to affect motivation and cognitive capacity under stereotype threat.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Chad E; Schmader, Toni

    2010-11-01

    In a series of experiments, a retraining paradigm was used to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals' motivation and cognitive capacity in stereotype-threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4), which in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype-threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed.

  17. Gender, Ethnicity, and Social Cognitive Factors Predicting the Academic Achievement of Students in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationships of measures of occupational and academic self-efficacy; vocational interests; outcome expectations; academic ability; and perceived stress, support, and coping to academic achievement of engineering/science majors (n=197). Self-efficacy for academic milestones, in combination with other academic and support variables, was…

  18. Moving away from a cultural deficit to a holistic perspective: Traditional gender role values, academic attitudes, and educational goals for Mexican descent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2016-04-01

    Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Do Gender Differences Exist in the Academic Identification of African-American Elementary-School Aged Children?

    PubMed Central

    McMillian-Robinson, M. Monique; Frierson, Henry T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African-American boys achieve less in school than African-American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically (i.e., they are disidentified). When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children (N = 113) at high-risk for academic problems because they come from low-income families, the authors examined whether elementary school-aged and early adolescent African-American boys are more prone to low achievement and disidentification than African-American girls. Multiple regression analyses indicated no gender differences in reading or mathematics achievement between boys and girls at age 8 or at age 12. At 12, African-American boys’ self-esteem was predicted by academic performance in ways similar to that of African-American girls. Thus, no gender differences emerged in elementary school achievement and no gender-specific disengagement patterns were confirmed among at-risk African-American students. PMID:24790256

  20. Inequities in Academic Compensation by Gender: A Follow-Up to the National Faculty Survey Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Karen M.; Raj, Anita; Kaplan, Samantha E.; Terrin, Norma; Breeze, Janis L.; Urech, Tracy H.; Carr, Phyllis L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated gender differences in salaries within academic medicine. No research has assessed longitudinal compensation patterns. This study sought to assess longitudinal patterns by gender in compensation, and to understand factors associated with these differences in a longitudinal cohort. Method A 17-year longitudinal follow-up of the National Faculty Survey was conducted with a random sample of faculty from 24 U.S. medical schools. Participants employed full-time at initial and follow-up time periods completed the survey. Annual pre-tax compensation during academic year 2012–13 was compared by gender. Covariates assessed included race/ethnicity; years since first academic appointment; retention in academic career; academic rank; departmental affiliation; percent effort distribution across clinical, teaching, administrative, and research duties; marital and parental status; and any leave or part-time status in the years between surveys. Results In unadjusted analyses, women earned a mean of $20,520 less than men (P = .03); women made 90 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts. This difference was reduced to $16,982 (P = .04) after adjusting for covariates. The mean difference of $15,159 was no longer significant (P = .06) when adjusting covariates and for those who had ever taken a leave or worked part-time. Conclusions The continued gender gap in compensation cannot be accounted for by metrics used to calculate salary. Institutional actions to address these disparities include both initial appointment and annual salary equity reviews, training of senior faculty and administrators to understand implicit bias, and training of women faculty in negotiating skills. PMID:27276007

  1. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  2. Ethnicity, Gender, and the Education of Cambodian American Students in an Urban High School

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kimmie; Kao, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of gender and ethnicity in the education of Cambodian American high school students. Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed ninth-grade Cambodian American students (n=10), teachers (n=4), and administrators (n=2) at a Southern California high school. The data revealed that Cambodian students were often mistaken for other Asian groups and due to stereotypes, expected to excel academically. Fearing that they would disappoint their teachers or be ridiculed by other students, they often remained silent about their academic struggles. Traditional values regarding gender and familial expectations also played prominent roles for both Cambodian boys and girls and their academic progress. PMID:25485315

  3. Ethnicity, Gender, and the Education of Cambodian American Students in an Urban High School.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kimmie; Kao, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the role of gender and ethnicity in the education of Cambodian American high school students. Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed ninth-grade Cambodian American students (n=10), teachers (n=4), and administrators (n=2) at a Southern California high school. The data revealed that Cambodian students were often mistaken for other Asian groups and due to stereotypes, expected to excel academically. Fearing that they would disappoint their teachers or be ridiculed by other students, they often remained silent about their academic struggles. Traditional values regarding gender and familial expectations also played prominent roles for both Cambodian boys and girls and their academic progress.

  4. The Path through Math: Course Sequences and Academic Performance at the Intersection of Race-Ethnicity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    RIEGLE-CRUMB, CATHERINE

    2010-01-01

    Using new national data from Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement (AHAA), this article examines high school math patterns for students of different race-ethnicity and gender. Compared with white males, African American and Latino males receive lower returns from taking Algebra I during their freshman year, reaching lower levels of the math course sequence when they begin in the same position. This pattern is not explained by academic performance, and, furthermore, African American males receive less benefit from high math grades. Lower returns are not observed for minority female students, suggesting that more attention to racial-ethnic inequality in math among male students is needed. PMID:20574544

  5. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  6. How to harvest brainpower for a brighter future on Earth - bypassing stereotypes in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to detect and respond to patterns, the core asset in scientific work, likely has been a strong evolutionary advantage when navigating between need and danger. We therefore argue that our use of stereotypes for the most part is decoupled from malice but instead profoundly rooted, pervasive and often unchallenged in our daily thought process. The fundamental need for patterns also means that we all express biases - regardless of our gender - such as during teaching, mentoring or collaborations. As culprits, our implicit bias both disfavor (e.g. female or immigrant students) and favor (e.g. the-celebrated-worker's-results-are-probably-stronger-than-they-seem) our fellow workers in unsolicited ways. Additionally, people in our environment adapt to the expectations we express, called the stereotype threat. Ultimately, these two effects likely lead to missed opportunities for new questions and achievements. The omni-present implicit bias also means that some equality efforts, such as quotas, would soon be neutralized unless we train in catching our use of stereotypes in action. We will share our experiences from gender sensitivity training during teaching and assessment, such as the use of anonymous exams, simple 'traps' to demonstrate gender bias, and group work management. We also present views collected in our group on how academic talent management may improve through mentorship, career coaching and general policy decisions. All with the selfish ambition to improve future harvests of brainpower, for science and for sustainable human life on Earth.

  7. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes.

  8. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes. PMID:15841859

  9. Viewpoint: A challenge to academic health centers and the National Institutes of Health to prevent unintended gender bias in the selection of clinical and translational science award leaders.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Bland, Carole

    2007-02-01

    In controlled studies, both men and women preferentially select men over women for leadership positions, even when credentials are identical and despite field studies demonstrating women's equivalent or slightly better leadership effectiveness. The assumption that men will make better leaders than women is attributed to the pervasive existence of unconscious stereotypes that characterize both men and leaders as agentic or action oriented and women as dependent. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap is a novel, prestigious award that will place considerable power in the hands of one principal investigator-conditions that predict activation of bias in favor of selecting male leaders. The authors review research supporting this assertion. To mitigate the impact of this bias and broaden the pool of potential leaders for this transformative initiative, the authors offer the following suggestions. To academic health centers they suggest (1) internal search committees comprised of at least 35% women that establish a priori the desired qualities for the CTSA leader and broadly solicit applicants, (2) explicit specification of the full range of desirable skills of a CTSA leader, and (3) systematic efforts to increase awareness of the negative impact of unconscious gender bias on women's advancement. To the NIH they suggest (1) the new multiple principal investigator rule for the CTSA program, (2) a statement in the request for applications (RFA) encouraging diversity among principal investigators, (3) repetition in the RFA of the public NIH statement of the importance of work life balance for young investigators, and (4) constitution of study sections with at least 35% women. PMID:17264704

  10. Viewpoint: A challenge to academic health centers and the National Institutes of Health to prevent unintended gender bias in the selection of clinical and translational science award leaders.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Bland, Carole

    2007-02-01

    In controlled studies, both men and women preferentially select men over women for leadership positions, even when credentials are identical and despite field studies demonstrating women's equivalent or slightly better leadership effectiveness. The assumption that men will make better leaders than women is attributed to the pervasive existence of unconscious stereotypes that characterize both men and leaders as agentic or action oriented and women as dependent. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap is a novel, prestigious award that will place considerable power in the hands of one principal investigator-conditions that predict activation of bias in favor of selecting male leaders. The authors review research supporting this assertion. To mitigate the impact of this bias and broaden the pool of potential leaders for this transformative initiative, the authors offer the following suggestions. To academic health centers they suggest (1) internal search committees comprised of at least 35% women that establish a priori the desired qualities for the CTSA leader and broadly solicit applicants, (2) explicit specification of the full range of desirable skills of a CTSA leader, and (3) systematic efforts to increase awareness of the negative impact of unconscious gender bias on women's advancement. To the NIH they suggest (1) the new multiple principal investigator rule for the CTSA program, (2) a statement in the request for applications (RFA) encouraging diversity among principal investigators, (3) repetition in the RFA of the public NIH statement of the importance of work life balance for young investigators, and (4) constitution of study sections with at least 35% women.

  11. Academic computer science and gender: A naturalistic study investigating the causes of attrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declue, Timothy Hall

    Far fewer women than men take computer science classes in high school, enroll in computer science programs in college, or complete advanced degrees in computer science. The computer science pipeline begins to shrink for women even before entering college, but it is at the college level that the "brain drain" is the most evident numerically, especially in the first class taken by most computer science majors called "Computer Science 1" or CS-I. The result, for both academia and industry, is a pronounced technological gender disparity in academic and industrial computer science. The study revealed the existence of several factors influencing success in CS-I. First, and most clearly, the effect of attribution processes seemed to be quite strong. These processes tend to work against success for females and in favor of success for males. Likewise, evidence was discovered which strengthens theories related to prior experience and the perception that computer science has a culture which is hostile to females. Two unanticipated themes related to the motivation and persistence of successful computer science majors. The findings did not support the belief that females have greater logistical problems in computer science than males, or that females tend to have a different programming style than males which adversely affects the females' ability to succeed in CS-I.

  12. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  13. Gender Differences in the Academic Performance and Retention of Undergraduate Engineering Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haemmerlie, Frances Montgomery; Montgomery, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of academic performance factors, and personality traits as measured by the "Hogan Personality Inventory" (Hogan & Hogan, 2007), in the academic success and retention of undergraduate engineering majors. With regard to academic performance, the academic measures of ACT score and high school GPA were significantly…

  14. Changing the Culture of Academic Medicine to Eliminate the Gender Leadership Gap: 50/50 by 2020

    PubMed Central

    Valantine, Hannah; Sandborg, Christy I.

    2013-01-01

    Central to the daily struggles that successful working women face is the misalignment of the current work culture and the values of the workforce. In addition to contributing to work-life integration conflicts, this disconnect also perpetuates the gender leadership gap. The dearth of women at the highest ranks of academic medicine not only sends a clear message to women that they must choose between career advancement and their personal life but also represents a loss of talent for academic health centers as they fail to recruit and retain the best and the brightest. To close the gender leadership gap and to meet the needs of the next generation of physicians, scientists, and educators, the authors argue that the culture of academic medicine must change to one in which flexibility and work-life integration are core parts of the definition of success. Faculty must see flexibility policies, such as tenure clock extensions and parental leaves, as career advancing rather than career limiting. To achieve these goals, the authors describe the Stanford University School of Medicine Academic Biomedical Career Customization (ABCC) model. The ABCC framework includes individualized career plans, which span a faculty member's career, with options to flex up or down in research, patient care, administration, and teaching, and mentoring discussions, which ensure that faculty take full advantage of the existing policies designed to make career customization possible. The authors argue that with vision, determination, and focus, the academic medicine community can eliminate the gender leadership gap to achieve 50/50 by 2020. PMID:23969359

  15. Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: comparisons across gender.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.

  16. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  17. A Comparison of Single-Gender Classes and Traditional, Coeducational Classes on Student Academic Achievement, Discipline Referrals, and Attitudes toward Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra Messenger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in single gender education. Emerging science has proven that boys and girls learn differently. This study compared fifth grade single-gender classes to fifth grade traditional, coeducational classes in the same urban middle school. The following were compared: students' academic achievement;…

  18. Introducing sexual orientation and gender identity into the electronic health record: one academic health center's experience.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Edward J; Sitkin, Nicole; Ton, Hendry; Eidson-Ton, W Suzanne; Weckstein, Julie; Latimore, Darin

    2015-02-01

    Many U.S. populations experience significant health disparities. Increasing health care providers' awareness of and education about sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) diversity could help reduce health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. The authors share the University of California, Davis, Health System's (UCDHS's) experience as it became the first U.S. academic health center to formally introduce patient SO/GI demographic data into its electronic health record (EHR) as a step toward reducing LGBT health disparities. Adding these data to the EHR initially met with resistance. The authors, members of the UCDHS Task Force for Inclusion of SO/GI in the EHR, viewed this resistance as an invitation to educate leaders, providers, and staff about LGBT health disparities and to expose providers to techniques for discussing SO/GI with patients. They describe the strategies they employed to effect institutional culture change, including involvement of senior leadership, key informant interviews, educational outreach via grand rounds and resident workshops, and creation of a patient safety net through inviting providers to self-identify as welcoming LGBT patients. The ongoing cultural change process has inspired spin-off projects contributing to an improved climate for LGBT individuals at UCDHS, including an employee organization supporting SO/GI diversity, support for and among LGBT medical learners through events and listservs, development and implementation of an LGBT health curriculum, and creation of peer navigator programs for LGBT patients with cancer. The authors reflect on lessons learned and on institutional pride in and commitment to providing quality care for LGBT patients.

  19. Introducing sexual orientation and gender identity into the electronic health record: one academic health center's experience.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Edward J; Sitkin, Nicole; Ton, Hendry; Eidson-Ton, W Suzanne; Weckstein, Julie; Latimore, Darin

    2015-02-01

    Many U.S. populations experience significant health disparities. Increasing health care providers' awareness of and education about sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) diversity could help reduce health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. The authors share the University of California, Davis, Health System's (UCDHS's) experience as it became the first U.S. academic health center to formally introduce patient SO/GI demographic data into its electronic health record (EHR) as a step toward reducing LGBT health disparities. Adding these data to the EHR initially met with resistance. The authors, members of the UCDHS Task Force for Inclusion of SO/GI in the EHR, viewed this resistance as an invitation to educate leaders, providers, and staff about LGBT health disparities and to expose providers to techniques for discussing SO/GI with patients. They describe the strategies they employed to effect institutional culture change, including involvement of senior leadership, key informant interviews, educational outreach via grand rounds and resident workshops, and creation of a patient safety net through inviting providers to self-identify as welcoming LGBT patients. The ongoing cultural change process has inspired spin-off projects contributing to an improved climate for LGBT individuals at UCDHS, including an employee organization supporting SO/GI diversity, support for and among LGBT medical learners through events and listservs, development and implementation of an LGBT health curriculum, and creation of peer navigator programs for LGBT patients with cancer. The authors reflect on lessons learned and on institutional pride in and commitment to providing quality care for LGBT patients. PMID:25162618

  20. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  1. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST…

  2. Occupational Sex-Role Stereotyping in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darlene A.

    Occupational stereotyping appears very early in children. Both boys and girls place specific boundaries when considering occupational choices. This study investigated 136 students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades for occupational sex-role stereotyping. Independent variables investigated were: gender, grade level, job status of the mother, family…

  3. Stereotype Threat among Schoolgirls in Quasi-Ordinary Classroom Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    There is ample evidence today in the stereotype threat literature that women and girls are influenced by gender-stereotyped expectations on standardized math tests. Despite its high relevance to education, this phenomenon has not received much attention in school settings. The present studies offer the 1st evidence to date indicating that middle…

  4. "It's Funny that We Don't See the Similarities when that's What We're Aiming for"--Visualizing and Challenging Teachers' Stereotypes of Gender and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This study illuminates teachers' conceptions of gender and science and possibilities to challenge these conceptions. Since 2005, a group of teachers (K-6) in Sweden have met approximately once a month in two-hour seminars to discuss and develop their instruction in science and technology based on a gender perspective. The present data consist…

  5. Sex Role Socialization Via Teachers' Behavior and Sexually Stereotyped Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Sara E.; And Others

    Research has shown that children's differentiation of gender-appropriate behavior is not directly affected by their teacher's gender. However, the teacher's behavior in relation to the material being taught may convey the sex-appropriateness or -inappropriateness to the child. To examine the effects of student gender and sexual stereotype of the…

  6. TA and Sex Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roney, Anne M.

    1975-01-01

    Author discusses sex stereotypes and how they relate to transactional analysis. Thus, she claims there are striking similarities between female and male stereotypes and the Child and Adult respectively. Sex stereotypes hinder the attaining of the "I'm O.K. You're O.K." state between males and females. (SE)

  7. "It's Funny that We Don't See the Similarities when that's what We're Aiming for"—Visualizing and Challenging Teachers' Stereotypes of Gender and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Kristina

    2012-04-01

    This study illuminates teachers' conceptions of gender and science and possibilities to challenge these conceptions. Since 2005, a group of teachers (K-6) in Sweden have met approximately once a month in two-hour seminars to discuss and develop their instruction in science and technology based on a gender perspective. The present data consist mainly of audio-recordings of the teacher seminars and video-recordings of science activities with students. Analysis of the empirical data has been carried out in several stages and was inspired by thematic analysis, the theoretical framework of which is based on Hirdman's and Beauvoir's theories of gender. The results show that the teachers' ideas about gender/equity and science exist on several levels, within which various conceptions are represented. On the one hand, "reasoning around similarity", where teachers consider that both girls and boys should have the same prerequisites for working with science. In contrast, stereotypical conceptions of girls and boys occur when the teachers evaluate their activities with students, and condescending attitudes toward girls are also observed. The girls' ways of working with science are not as highly valued as the boys', and this outlook on children can ultimately have consequences for girls' attitudes towards the subject. When teachers are allowed to read their own statements about the girls, they get "a glimpse of themselves", and their condescending ideas about girls are made visible. In this way, the teachers can begin their active work towards change, which may lead to new outlooks on and attitudes towards students.

  8. Losing Its Expected Communal Value: How Stereotype Threat Undermines Women's Identity as Research Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Deemer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women's worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use…

  9. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  10. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5).

  11. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). PMID:25844573

  12. Enhancing a Brief Writing Intervention to Combat Stereotype Threat among Middle-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Natasha K.; Wegmann, Kate M.; Webber, Kristina C.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental research has demonstrated both the deleterious effects of negative stereotypes about ability on academic performance and the relative ease with which stereotypes can be countered in educational settings. The extent to which stereotypes contribute to the achievement gap between American students from dominant social and economic groups…

  13. Moving away from a cultural deficit to a holistic perspective: Traditional gender role values, academic attitudes, and educational goals for Mexican descent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2016-04-01

    Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26651213

  14. Librarians' Occupational Stereotype: Will It Ever Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Indra M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational interests and personality patterns of today's academic librarians are more like the traditional stereotype (i.e., that librarians are conventional, conservative, rigid types) or are beginning to change due to the changing nature of the profession and its work environment. To…

  15. The Restructuring of Academic Work in Australia: Power, Management, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, George; Fleming, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Examines how the restructuring of Australia's university system and the introduction of corporate managerialism has changed the work performed by academic staff. Illustrates how there is more regulation of academic work due to the emergence of higher education as an export industry and a vehicle for more competitiveness. Includes references. (CMK)

  16. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  17. Perceptions of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Programming Needs Based on Gender, Ethnicity, and Academic Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvan, April Anita

    2010-01-01

    Student-athletes are often disengaged in campus programming due to their academic and athletic commitments. Previous research explored various facets of student-athlete development, particularly academic development in relation to NCAA Division I student-athletes. The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine…

  18. Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

  19. Gender, Academics and Interscholastic Sports Participation at the School Level: A Gender-specific Analysis of the Relationship between Interscholastic Sports Participation and AP Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Veliz, Philip; Shakib, Sohaila

    2014-01-01

    While literature demonstrates that interscholastic sports participation is associated with positive academic outcomes, this relationship is rarely analyzed at a macro-level (the school-level). To date, there is no research examining whether increases in schools’ female and male interscholastic sports participation rates is associated with increases in female and male AP enrollment rates. Using a national sample of 4,644 public high schools during the 2009-2010 school year, we test several gender-specific hypotheses linked with the association between schools’ sport participation rates and advanced placement enrollment rates (AP math, AP science, AP foreign language, and overall AP enrollment). The findings reveal that schools’ female and male sports participation rates have a positive association with schools’ female and male AP math, AP science, AP foreign language, and overall AP enrollment rates. Moreover, the findings suggest that females benefit more than males in regard to the positive relationship between interscholastic sports and AP enrollment. PMID:24910475

  20. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  1. Boys Are Like Puppies, Girls Aim to Please: How Teachers' Gender Stereotypes May Influence Student Placement Decisions and Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    Since teachers' decisions and behaviour potentially influence learners' future academic and occupational status, it is imperative that these decisions be unbiased. In the study reported here, 21 teachers were invited to place 24 fictional student record cards into regular, advanced, or supplementary learning assistance classes. Study…

  2. Learning Microbiology with Computer Simulations: Students' Academic Achievement by Method and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huppert, Jehuda; Yaakobi, Judith; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1998-01-01

    Studies the use of a computer-assisted learning simulation episode during a unit on the growth curve of microorganisms in grade ten. Finds no significant gender differences in either the experimental or control groups. Contains 25 references. (DDR)

  3. The possible role of resource requirements and academic career-choice risk on gender differences in publication rate and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Otis, Shayna; Woodruff, Teresa; Amaral, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universities. Our analyses reveal that gender differences in publication rate and impact are discipline-specific. Our results also support two hypotheses. First, the widely-reported lower publication rates of female faculty are correlated with the amount of research resources typically needed in the discipline considered, and thus may be explained by the lower level of institutional support historically received by females. Second, in disciplines where pursuing an academic position incurs greater career risk, female faculty tend to have a greater fraction of higher impact publications than males. Our findings have significant, field-specific, policy implications for achieving diversity at the faculty level within the STEM disciplines. L. A. N. Amaral gratefully acknowledges the support of NSF awards SBE 0624318 and 0830388, and ThomsonReuters for access to the WoS data. J. Duch and M. Sales-Pardo's work have been partially supported by the Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  4. The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences in Publication Rate and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Otis, Shayna; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Nunes Amaral, Luís A.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universities. Our analyses reveal that gender differences in publication rate and impact are discipline-specific. Our results also support two hypotheses. First, the widely-reported lower publication rates of female faculty are correlated with the amount of research resources typically needed in the discipline considered, and thus may be explained by the lower level of institutional support historically received by females. Second, in disciplines where pursuing an academic position incurs greater career risk, female faculty tend to have a greater fraction of higher impact publications than males. Our findings have significant, field-specific, policy implications for achieving diversity at the faculty level within the STEM disciplines. PMID:23251502

  5. An examination of stereotype threat effects on girls' mathematics performance.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Colleen M; Mingle, Leigh A; Ryan, Allison M; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In a series of 3 studies, with a total sample of 931 students, we investigated stereotype threat effects during childhood and adolescence. Three activation methods were used, ranging from implicit to explicit. Across studies, we found no evidence that the mathematics performance of school-age girls was impacted by stereotype threat. In 2 of the studies, there were gender differences on the mathematics assessment regardless of whether stereotype threat was activated. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed, including the possibility that stereotype threat effects only occur in very specific circumstances or that they are in fact occurring all the time. We also address the possibility that the literature regarding stereotype threat in children is subject to publication bias.

  6. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  7. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  8. Doing is for thinking! Stereotype activation by stereotypic movements.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that stereotypic movements activate the corresponding stereotype. In Study 1, participants who were unobtrusively induced to move in the portly manner that is stereotypic of overweight people subsequently ascribed more overweight-stereotypic characteristics to an ambiguous target person than did control participants. In Study 2, participants who were unobtrusively induced to move in the slow manner that is stereotypic of elderly people subsequently ascribed more elderly-stereotypic characteristics to a target than did control participants. In Study 3, participants who were induced to move slowly were faster than control participants to respond to elderly-stereotypic words in a lexical decision task. Using three different movement inductions, two different stereotypes, and two classic measures of stereotype activation, these studies converge in demonstrating that stereotypes may be activated by stereotypic movements.

  9. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  10. Gender Representation in Academic Geography in Catalonia (Spain): Towards a Masculinization of the Discipline? Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolors Garcia-Ramon, Maria; Pujol, Herminia

    2004-01-01

    In the mid-1980s Spanish geography seemed to be a success story in relation to gender and geography (Garcia-Ramon et al. , 1988 ). But in recent years this positive aspect has been less marked, at least in Catalan geography. The total percentage of women staff has remained quite steady but the male:female ratio has significantly increased among…

  11. University Transitions and Gender: From Choice of Studies to Academic Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Alícia; Hernàndez, Francesc Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of the authors' research using a case study of a Spanish university, the sociological component of gender is an important factor in building transitions at university. When the authors refer to university transitions they are talking about two periods. Firstly, they refer to the transition of undergraduate students from…

  12. Effects of Gender and Depression on Self-Evaluations of Performance on Academic Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    Studies have shown that women have lower expectations for success than men. This paper presents the results of four hypotheses which address depression and gender differences in self-perception: (1) depressed subjects are more accurate in their self-perceptions than non-depressed subjects; (2) self-consistency tendencies can predict gender…

  13. Recodifications of Academic Positions and Reiterations of Desire: Change but Continuity in Gendered Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapping, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the analysis of changes in the social position of women needs to distinguish between levels of social practice and psychic subjectification. The argument draws on Lacan's conception of the relationship between subjectivity, desire and sexual difference to describe gendered aspects of subjectivity embedded within the…

  14. Competitive Science Events: Gender, Interest, Science Self-Efficacy, and Academic Major Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Jennifer Harris

    2010-01-01

    Understanding present barriers to choosing a STEM major is important for science educators so that we may better prepare and inspire future generations of scientists and engineers. This study examined the relationships between participation in competitive science events, gender, race, science self-efficacy, interest in science, and choosing a STEM…

  15. Can Anyone Have It All? Gendered Views on Parenting and Academic Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret; Ward, Kelly; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on data from two qualitative studies that examined the experiences of 93 tenure-line faculty members who are also mothers and fathers. Using gender schemas and ideal worker norms as a guide, we examined the pressures that professors experience amid unrealistic expectations in their work and home lives. Women participants…

  16. The Impact of Age and Gender on Prep Children's Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Within the current climate of heightened interest in the education of young children, it is essential that consideration be given to different factors which may impact, either positively or negatively, on the achievement of young learners when their academic progress in literacy and numeracy is considered. The research study reported in this paper…

  17. Femininities/Masculinities and a Sense Self: Thinking Gendered Academic Identities and the Intellectual Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on the theoretical resources offered by feminist scholarship to enquire into the discourse of the intellectual and how women do being an academic. My starting points are threefold: Val Hey's interrogation of Butler's work and her emphasis on the importance of sociality; Carrie Paechter's exploration of the available personal sets…

  18. A Quantitative Evaluation of Gender, Nationality, and Generational/Age Influence on Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Universities are challenged with finding ways to motivate the increasing number of diverse students so that the largest number of students can be expected to succeed. University success is measured by retention and graduation rates, which affect profit. A lack of academic motivation among increasingly diverse students influences student retention,…

  19. Exceptional Female Students of Color: Academic Resilience and Gender in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Erik E.

    2008-01-01

    In researching the exceptional academic performance of 31 female and 19 male low socioeconomic college students of color, three distinctly female approaches to exceptional achievement arose from the data. These included the inordinate degree of familial resistance faced by the females and their approaches to that resistance, the value and…

  20. The Relationship between Engagement in Cocurricular Activities and Academic Performance: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacherman, Avi; Foubert, John

    2014-01-01

    The effects of time spent in cocurricular activities on academic performance was tested. A curvilinear relationship between hours per week spent involved in cocurricular activities and grade point average was discovered such that a low amount of cocurricular involvement was beneficial to grades, while a high amount can potentially hurt academic…

  1. "They Make You Invisible": Negotiating Power at the Academic Intersections of Ethnicity, Gender, and Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia M.

    2009-01-01

    This Foucauldian case study examines the academic conflicts of Mexican American women and girls, how they negotiate those conflicts, and the identity effects of their negotiations. It extends Gloria Anzaldua's (1999) work and builds upon those who have studied the schooling experiences of Mexican American women and girls. Similar conflicts for…

  2. Chief Academic Officers at Black Colleges and Universities: A Comparison by Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lea E.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of women's underrepresentation among education administrators are explored. The following points are considered: (1) career paths of men and women chief academic officers (CAOs); (2) career aspirations; (3) responsibilities of male and female CAOs; (4) general profile of men and women CAOs; (5) salaries and compensation inequities; and (6)…

  3. An Analytic Method for Measuring Student Academic Preparation by School and Gender. Report 09-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stacy; Fuller, Ryan; Angeli, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    An important goal for California is that public high schools continue to make progress in closing the achievement gap between demographic groups and that students are prepared for postsecondary education. In early 2008 Commission staff started developing a composite measure of academic preparation based on standardized test scores in nine college…

  4. "Wasting Talent"? Gender and the Problematics of Academic Disenchantment and Disengagement with Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Confronted with the processes of massification, commercialisation, internationalisation and reduced funding, universities also face an ageing academic workforce, with implications of a shrinking pool from which to recruit managerial and research leaders. A feminist analysis suggests that the policy problematic has been wrongly conceptualised as…

  5. Physical and Nonphysical Bullying Victimization of Academically Oriented Students: The Role of Gender and School Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many factors associated with being the victim of bullying in school, quantitative studies have not treated academic attitudes, effort, and achievement (or lack thereof) as risk factors. This is true despite many ethnographic accounts of good students being stigmatized and directly bullied on account of their status as good…

  6. College Student Engagement and Early Career Earnings: Differences by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Academic Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping; Wolniak, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 2001 cohort of applicants to the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program, the authors examined scaled measures of academic and social engagement in relation to labor market earnings to test whether the economic value of student engagement among high-achieving students of color differs by student characteristics.…

  7. Wait, what? Assessing stereotype incongruities using the N400 ERP component.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine R; Crites, Stephen L; Taylor, Jennifer H; Corral, Guadalupe

    2009-06-01

    Numerous discoveries regarding stereotypes have been uncovered by utilizing techniques and methods developed by cognitive psychologists. The present study continues this tradition by borrowing psychophysiological techniques used for the study of memory and language, and applying them to the study of stereotypes. In this study, participants were primed with either the gender category 'Women' or 'Men', followed by a word which was either consistent with gender stereotypes (e.g. Women: Nurturing) or inconsistent (e.g. Women: Aggressive). Their task was to indicate whether the words matched or did not match, according to gender stereotypes. Both response times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during performance of the task. As predicted, stereotype incongruent word pairs were associated with larger N400 ERP amplitudes and slower response times, relative to congruent word pairs. The potential utility of this approach as an independent measure of stereotypes is discussed.

  8. The Making of a Man: Rethinking and Challenging Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Kay A.

    2014-01-01

    Five literature selections with detailed instructional strategies offer practicing and preservice teachers lessons to help students think deeply about traditional male stereotypes, gender role development, and acceptance of individual differences. Incorporating gender variant books and techniques into early childhood and elementary teacher…

  9. Ethnic identity and gender as moderators of the association between discrimination and academic adjustment among Mexican-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E

    2012-08-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e., grade point average, teacher reports of externalizing, adolescents' deviant peer associations) among 178 Mexican-origin adolescents (53% female). Ethnic identity affirmation was examined as a protective factor expected to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment, and gender was examined as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. Findings indicated that the deleterious effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment in school were particularly salient for Mexican-origin male adolescents. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation emerged as a protective factor for Mexican-origin male adolescents by buffering the negative effects of discrimination on their externalizing behaviors in school.

  10. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  11. Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logel, Christine R.; Walton, Gregory M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Peach, Jennifer; Mark, Zanna P.

    2012-01-01

    Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments--especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes--and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority…

  12. The Effect of Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, and Gender-Role Identity on Academic Performance Outcomes of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Jade Simone

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the predictive worthiness of the predictor variable indices--locus of control, self-efficacy, and gender identity--to ascertain if elevated levels of the predictors influence academic performance outcomes (individually as well as interactionally). The study theorized that students with increased levels of locus…

  13. Saving Our Sons: The Impact of a Single Gender Public School on the Social, Emotional and Academic Progress of Young African American Males from Low Socioeconomic Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…

  14. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  15. Associations between Students' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality, Academic Achievement, and Classroom Behavior: Are They Moderated by Ethnicity, Gender, or Socio Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Khushwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the correlations between students' perceptions of their relationships with teachers, students' academic achievement and students' classroom behavior. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate if students' ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status moderate the…

  16. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Self-Concept and Gender Differences on Students' Academic Performance in Borno State Colleges of Education: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goni, Umar; Bello, S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…

  17. Effect of Gender on Students' Academic Performance in Computer Studies in Secondary Schools in New Bussa, Borgu Local Government of Niger State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adigun, Joseph; Onihunwa, John; Irunokhai, Eric; Sada, Yusuf; Adesina, Olubunmi

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the relationship between student's gender and academic performance in computer science in New Bussa, Borgu local government of Niger state. Questionnaire which consisted of 30 multiple-choice items drawn from Senior School Certificate Examination past questions as set by the West Africa Examination Council in 2014 multiple…

  18. The Connections between Students Self-Motivation, Their Classification (Typical Learners, Academic Intervention Services Learners, and Gifted), and Gender in a Standardized Social Studies Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupree, Jeffrey J.; Morote, Elsa Sofia

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences, if any, between gender, level of motivation, and students' classification (typical learners, academic intervention services learners, and gifted) in scores upon DBQ (document-based questions) among the sixth grade students. 64 grade students were given a DBQ as part of their final examination. Students' scores were…

  19. The Effect of Academic Controversy Technique on Turkish Teachers Candidates' Success to Effective Speaking Skills and Its Relation with Some Variables (Gender, Multilingualism)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karda, Mehmet Nuri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Academic controversy as a technique of collaborative learning on Turkish Teachers candidates' success to effective speaking skills and its relationship with variables like gender and multilingualism. Therefore the experimental design based on the pre-test and post-test measurement with control…

  20. Academic success across the transition from primary to secondary schooling among lower-income adolescents: understanding the effects of family resources and gender.

    PubMed

    Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Kingdon, Danielle

    2013-09-01

    Successful academic performance during adolescence is a key predictor of lifetime achievement, including occupational and social success. The present study investigated the important transition from primary to secondary schooling during early adolescence, when academic performance among youth often declines. The goal of the study was to understand how risk factors, specifically lower family resources and male gender, threaten academic success following this "critical transition" in schooling. The study involved a longitudinal examination of the predictors of academic performance in grades 7-8 among 127 (56 % girls) French-speaking Quebec (Canada) adolescents from lower-income backgrounds. As hypothesized based on transition theory, hierarchical regression analyses showed that supportive parenting and specific academic, social and behavioral competencies (including spelling ability, social skills, and lower levels of attention problems) predicted success across this transition among at-risk youth. Multiple-mediation procedures demonstrated that the set of compensatory factors fully mediated the negative impact of lower family resources on academic success in grades 7-8. Unique mediators (social skills, spelling ability, supportive parenting) also were identified. In addition, the "gender gap" in performance across the transition could be attributed statistically to differences between boys and girls in specific competencies observed prior to the transition, as well as differential parenting (i.e., support from mother) towards girls and boys. The present results contribute to our understanding of the processes by which established risk factors, such as low family income and gender impact development and academic performance during early adolescence. These "transitional" processes and subsequent academic performance may have consequences across adolescence and beyond, with an impact on lifetime patterns of achievement and occupational success.

  1. Threatened by Gender?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, Candice; Pyper, Brian

    2006-10-01

    A good deal of research has been done on the issue of stereotype threat.^1, 2 This research proposes that if a person identifies with a group of people that is negatively stereotyped for performance, then they will not perform as well as someone from the same group of people who is not made aware of the negative stereotype. The research we conducted investigates the legitimacy of stereotype threat based on gender in the area of science in the BYU-Idaho student population. Our results have significance in the current national debate about the lack of women pursuing careers in scientific disciplines. ^1 Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.. (2001). The Interference of Stereotype Threat With Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies. Journal of Social Issues. 57(1):55-71. ^2 Schmader, Tony, & Johns, Michael. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(3):440-452.

  2. Threatened Because of Gender?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, Candice; Pyper, Brian

    2006-05-01

    A good deal of research has been done on the issue of stereotype threat. [1, 2] This research proposes that if a person identifies with a group of people that is negatively stereotyped for performance, then they will not perform as well as someone from the same group of people who is not made aware of the negative stereotype. The research we conducted investigates the legitimacy of stereotype threat based on gender in the area of science in the BYU-Idaho student population. Our results have significance in the current national debate about the lack of women pursuing careers in scientific disciplines. [1] Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.. (2001). The Interference of Stereotype Threat With Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies. Journal of Social Issues. 57(1):55-71. [2] Schmader, Tony, & Johns, Michael. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(3):440-452.

  3. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  4. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  5. Mediators of Stereotype Threat among Black College Students.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Owens, Jayanti

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesize that the manner in which stereotype threat affects college grade achievement is mediated by institutional context as well as individual characteristics. Drawing on a sample of black students from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen we find weak and inconsistent evidence that institutional characteristics influence the operation of stereotype threat. We find more consistent evidence to indicate that the effect of stereotype threat is conditioned by individual factors such as skin color, multiracial origins, and an integrated upbringing. Most of the effect on grade achievement occurs through the internalization pathway, in which the internalization of negative stereotypes leads to disinvestment manifested by a reduction in academic effort. The reduction in work effort, in turn, lowers grades. We also find evidence that immigrant origin confers protection from the negative effects of stereotype threat through both internalization and externalization mechanisms, though the ultimate effect of grade achievement is rather small.

  6. Does stereotype threat influence performance of girls in stereotyped domains? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Flore, Paulette C; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2015-02-01

    Although the effect of stereotype threat concerning women and mathematics has been subject to various systematic reviews, none of them have been performed on the sub-population of children and adolescents. In this meta-analysis we estimated the effects of stereotype threat on performance of girls on math, science and spatial skills (MSSS) tests. Moreover, we studied publication bias and four moderators: test difficulty, presence of boys, gender equality within countries, and the type of control group that was used in the studies. We selected study samples when the study included girls, samples had a mean age below 18years, the design was (quasi-)experimental, the stereotype threat manipulation was administered between-subjects, and the dependent variable was a MSSS test related to a gender stereotype favoring boys. To analyze the 47 effect sizes, we used random effects and mixed effects models. The estimated mean effect size equaled -0.22 and significantly differed from 0. None of the moderator variables was significant; however, there were several signs for the presence of publication bias. We conclude that publication bias might seriously distort the literature on the effects of stereotype threat among schoolgirls. We propose a large replication study to provide a less biased effect size estimate.

  7. Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women's math performance.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Crandall, Christian S

    2003-06-01

    Theories of arousal suggest that arousal should decrease performance on difficult tasks and increase performance on easy tasks. An experiment tested the hypothesis that the effects of stereotype threat on performance are due to heightened arousal. The authors hypothesized that telling participants that a math test they are about to take is known to have gender differences would cause stereotype threat in women but not in men. In the experiment, each participant took two tests--a difficult math test and an easy math test. Compared to women in a "no differences" condition, women in the "gender differences" condition scored better on the easy math test and worse on the difficult math test. Men's performance was unaffected by the manipulation. These data are consistent with an arousal-based explanation of stereotype threat effects. Data were inconsistent with expectancy, evaluation apprehension, and persistence explanations of the stereotype threat phenomenon.

  8. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  9. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls' interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students' stereotypes about the culture of these fields-including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field-steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes-by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs-significantly increases girls' sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  10. The integration of gender in medical research and education-obstacles and possibilities from a Nordic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Research on women's issues in medicine was developed in the Nordic countries from the beginning of the 1980s. The theoretical developments led to a change of concepts from women's health to gender research, within which the structurally organised relations between men and women are analysed. Over the last decades, gender research has slowly been established in medical faculties, as a result of a strong political commitment for increased research and integration of gender issues in the university curriculum in Sweden. The government has made substantial investments in order to stimulate gender research and education in different disciplines, with special focus on medicine. Academic medicine has responded to this development with different strategies, including resistance and redefining concepts. Gender research has slowly become integrated into both research and teaching within Nordic academic medicine, although the pathway has not been easy. Gender research has had political support but there is a risk of backlash. Medical students' reactions to gender education can be compared with academic medicine's reactions towards gender research. Obstacles and possibilities are described in relation to teaching gender in schools of medicine. Most important is to recognise the risks for increased gender stereotypes and increased essentialism among the students, unless gender is taught from a theoretical perspective. PMID:12956218

  11. Social Evaluations of Stereotypic Images in Video Games: Unfair, Legitimate, or “Just Entertainment”?

    PubMed Central

    Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female (N = 46) and male (N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotypes, and gender-neutral games. Gender differences were found for how participants evaluated these games. Males were more likely than females to find stereotypes acceptable. Results are discussed in terms of social reasoning, video game playing, and gender differences. PMID:25722501

  12. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-12-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, and a nullified condition. Results indicated that males in all three conditions performed similarly on a set of physics problems. Females in the nullified condition outperformed females in the explicit ST condition and females in the implicit and explicit conditions performed similarly. Males performed better than females in the implicit and explicit ST conditions, but male and female performance on the physics problems was not significantly different in the nullified condition. The implications of these findings for physics instruction and future research on gender differences in physics and ST in science are discussed.

  13. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  14. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat. PMID:22746674

  15. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  16. Disentangling stereotype activation and stereotype application in the stereotype misperception task.

    PubMed

    Krieglmeyer, Regina; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    When forming impressions about other people, stereotypes about the individual's social group often influence the resulting impression. At least 2 distinguishable processes underlie stereotypic impression formation: stereotype activation and stereotype application. Most previous research has used implicit measures to assess stereotype activation and explicit measures to assess stereotype application, which has several disadvantages. The authors propose a measure of stereotypic impression formation, the stereotype misperception task (SMT), together with a multinomial model that quantitatively disentangles the contributions of stereotype activation and application to responses in the SMT. The validity of the SMT and of the multinomial model was confirmed in 5 studies. The authors hope to advance research on stereotyping by providing a measurement tool that separates multiple processes underlying impression formation. PMID:22663350

  17. Disentangling stereotype activation and stereotype application in the stereotype misperception task.

    PubMed

    Krieglmeyer, Regina; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    When forming impressions about other people, stereotypes about the individual's social group often influence the resulting impression. At least 2 distinguishable processes underlie stereotypic impression formation: stereotype activation and stereotype application. Most previous research has used implicit measures to assess stereotype activation and explicit measures to assess stereotype application, which has several disadvantages. The authors propose a measure of stereotypic impression formation, the stereotype misperception task (SMT), together with a multinomial model that quantitatively disentangles the contributions of stereotype activation and application to responses in the SMT. The validity of the SMT and of the multinomial model was confirmed in 5 studies. The authors hope to advance research on stereotyping by providing a measurement tool that separates multiple processes underlying impression formation.

  18. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the

  19. Stereotype threat in the classroom: dejection mediates the disrupting threat effect on women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Keller, Johannes; Dauenheimer, Dirk

    2003-03-01

    Research on stereotype threat, which is defined as the risk of confirming a negative stereotypic expectation about one's group, has demonstrated that the applicability of negative stereotypes disrupts the performance of stigmatized social groups. While it has been shown that a reduction of stereotype threat leads to improved performance by members of stigmatized groups, there is a lack of clear-cut findings about the mediating processes. The aim of the present study is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that stereotype threat causes in women working on mathematical problems. In addition, the study set out to test stereotype threat theory in a natural environment: high school classrooms. The experiment involved the manipulation of the gender fairness of a math test. The results indicate that the stereotype threat effect exists in this everyday setting. Moreover, it appears that dejection emotions mediate the effect of threat manipulation. PMID:15273014

  20. Gender Differences in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Barbara B.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at the organizational effects of various types of leadership, and argues for the acceptance of a diversity of non-gender-linked leadership styles. (43 references) (LRW)

  1. Diversifying Science: Intervention Programs Moderate the Effect of Stereotype Threat on Motivation and Career Choice

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypes influence academic interests, performance, and ultimately career goals. The long-standing National Institutes of Health Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) training program has been shown to be effective at retaining underrepresented minorities in science. We argue that programs such as RISE may alter the experience and impact of stereotype threat on academic achievement goals and future engagement in a scientific career. We report analyses of a national sample comparing RISE students with a propensity score-matched control group over a 6-year period. Mediation analyses revealed that while RISE program membership did not buffer students from stereotype threat, it changed students' downstream responses and ultimately their academic outcomes. Nonprogram students were less likely than RISE students to persist in the sciences, partially because feelings of stereotype threat diminished their adoption of mastery goals. We discuss how these findings inform stereotype threat and goal orientation theories and provide insight into the success of intervention programs.

  2. Diversifying Science: Intervention Programs Moderate the Effect of Stereotype Threat on Motivation and Career Choice

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypes influence academic interests, performance, and ultimately career goals. The long-standing National Institutes of Health Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) training program has been shown to be effective at retaining underrepresented minorities in science. We argue that programs such as RISE may alter the experience and impact of stereotype threat on academic achievement goals and future engagement in a scientific career. We report analyses of a national sample comparing RISE students with a propensity score-matched control group over a 6-year period. Mediation analyses revealed that while RISE program membership did not buffer students from stereotype threat, it changed students' downstream responses and ultimately their academic outcomes. Nonprogram students were less likely than RISE students to persist in the sciences, partially because feelings of stereotype threat diminished their adoption of mastery goals. We discuss how these findings inform stereotype threat and goal orientation theories and provide insight into the success of intervention programs. PMID:27668075

  3. Condoning stereotyping? How awareness of stereotyping prevalence impacts expression of stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Duguid, Michelle M; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C

    2015-03-01

    The deleterious effects of stereotyping on individual and group outcomes have prompted a search for solutions. One approach has been to increase awareness of the prevalence of stereotyping in the hope of motivating individuals to resist natural inclinations. However, it could be that this strategy creates a norm for stereotyping, which paradoxically undermines desired effects. The present research demonstrates that individuals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message expressed more stereotypes than those who received a low prevalence of stereotyping message (Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2) or no message (Study 2). Furthermore, working professionals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message were less willing to work with an individual who violated stereotypical norms than those who received no message, a low prevalence of stereotyping message, or a high prevalence of counter-stereotyping effort message (Study 3). Also, in a competitive task, individuals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message treated their opponents in more stereotype-consistent ways than those who received a low prevalence of stereotyping message or those who received a high prevalence of counter-stereotyping effort message (Study 4).

  4. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  5. The Creative Stereotype Effect

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals’ performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective. PMID:26863143

  6. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations. PMID:25717308

  7. Gender differences in acute and chronic pain in the emergency department: results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference pain section.

    PubMed

    Musey, Paul I; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Miner, James R; Bortsov, Andrey V; Safdar, Basmah; Bijur, Polly; Rosenau, Alex; Tsze, Daniel S; Chang, Andrew K; Dorai, Suprina; Engel, Kirsten G; Feldman, James A; Fusaro, Angela M; Lee, David C; Rosenberg, Mark; Keefe, Francis J; Peak, David A; Nam, Catherine S; Patel, Roma G; Fillingim, Roger B; McLean, Samuel A

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a leading public health problem in the United States, with an annual economic burden of more than $630 billion, and is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek emergency department (ED) care. There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the assessment and treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions in the ED. The Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference convened in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014 to develop a research agenda to address this issue among others related to sex differences in the ED. Prior to the conference, experts and stakeholders from emergency medicine and the pain research field reviewed the current literature and identified eight candidate priority areas. At the conference, these eight areas were reviewed and all eight were ratified using a nominal group technique to build consensus. These priority areas were: 1) gender differences in the pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain, including differences in opioid tolerance, side effects, or misuse; 2) gender differences in pain severity perceptions, clinically meaningful differences in acute pain, and pain treatment preferences; 3) gender differences in pain outcomes of ED patients across the life span; 4) gender differences in the relationship between acute pain and acute psychological responses; 5) the influence of physician-patient gender differences and characteristics on the assessment and treatment of pain; 6) gender differences in the influence of acute stress and chronic stress on acute pain responses; 7) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating acute pain in ED populations; and 8) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating chronic pain development after trauma, stress, or acute illness exposure. These areas represent priority areas for future scientific inquiry, and gaining understanding in these will be essential to improving our understanding of sex and gender

  8. Gender Differences in Acute and Chronic Pain in the Emergency Department: Results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Pain Section

    PubMed Central

    Musey, Paul I.; Linnstaedt, Sarah D.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.; Miner, James R.; Bortsov, Andrey V.; Safdar, Basmah; Bijur, Polly; Rosenau, Alex; Tsze, Daniel S.; Chang, Andrew K.; Dorai, Suprina; Engel, Kirsten; Feldman, James A.; Fusaro, Angela M.; Lee, David C.; Rosenberg, Mark; Keefe, Francis J.; Peak, David A.; Nam, Catherine S.; Patel, Roma G.; Fillingim, Roger B.; McLean, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a leading public health problem in the United States, with an annual economic burden of more than $630 billion, and is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek emergency department (ED) care. There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the assessment and treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions in the ED. The Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference convened in Dallas, Texas in May of 2014 to develop a research agenda to address this issue among others related to sex differences in the ED. Prior to the conference, experts and stakeholders from emergency medicine and the pain research field reviewed the current literature and identified eight candidate priority areas. At the conference, these eight areas were reviewed and all eight were ratified using a nominal group technique to build consensus. These priority areas were: 1) gender differences in the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for pain, including differences in opioid tolerance, side effects, or misuse; 2) gender differences in pain severity perceptions, clinically meaningful differences in acute pain, and pain treatment preferences; 3) gender differences in pain outcomes of ED patients across the lifespan; 4) gender differences in the relationship between acute pain and acute psychological responses; 5) the influence of physician-patient gender differences and characteristics on the assessment and treatment of pain; 6) gender differences in the influence of acute stress and chronic stress on acute pain responses; 7) gender differences in biologic mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating acute pain in ED populations; and 8) gender differences in biologic mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating chronic pain development after trauma, stress, or acute illness exposure. These areas represent priority areas for future scientific inquiry, and gaining understanding in these will be essential to improving our understanding of sex and gender

  9. The inherence heuristic: a key theoretical addition to understanding social stereotyping and prejudice.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices. PMID:25388029

  10. Social Evaluations of Stereotypic Images in Video Games: Unfair, Legitimate, or "Just Entertainment"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess late adolescents' evaluations of and reasoning about gender stereotypes in video games. Female (n = 46) and male (n = 41) students, predominantly European American, with a mean age 19 years, are interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences…

  11. The inherence heuristic: a key theoretical addition to understanding social stereotyping and prejudice.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices.

  12. Problems in the Pipeline: Stereotype Threat and Women's Achievement in High-Level Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Catherine; Aronson, Joshua; Harder, Jayne Ann

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that negative stereotypes can undermine women's performance on mathematics tests. Despite considerable laboratory evidence for the role of "stereotype threat" in girls' and women's math test performance, the relevance of such findings for the "real world" gender test-score gap remains unclear and debates about causes focus…

  13. The Effect of Gender on Children's Software Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 16 boys and 16 girls aged 10-11 investigated gender stereotyped, gender neutral, and abstract versions of problem-solving software. Found that boys preferred the male stereotyped version, whereas girls showed no significant preference for the male, female, or neutral versions. Findings are consistent with research on gender stereotyping…

  14. Repetitive stereotyped behaviors.

    PubMed

    Berkson, G

    1983-11-01

    This paper points to factors that determine whether repetitive stereotyped behavior occur in the behavior repertoire. The analysis pits an "intrinsic oscillator" mechanism against a "self-stimulation" theory and chooses to emphasize the latter. The paper accounts for the repetitive and rhythmic nature of stereotypy by suggesting that repetition in a rhythmic way is the most efficient way of self-stimulation. It proposes that rhythm may be a reinforcement in at least some cases. It raises the question of whether control of stimulation by the person is a necessary condition for maintaining stereotypy. The paper recognizes the possibility that stereotyped behaviors may have their origin in the common repetitive behaviors of infancy but emphasizes that pathological stereotypy may involve more than immature repetition. It suggests that there is reason to believe that early intervention to prevent pathological stereotyped behavior might be effective but that we do not know much about how stereotypies get started.

  15. Stereotype Threat in Manual Labor Settings for African American and Caucasian Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Jennifer L.; Green, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat has primarily been studied with regard to test performance in academic settings, testing aptitude, ability, and intelligence, and it has been found to cause both behavioral and cognitive decrements. Although there is research on stereotype threat in the workplace, this too is usually conducted in upper-level or more academically…

  16. Retirement as Meaningful: Positive Retirement Stereotypes Associated with Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes. PMID:27346893

  17. Perceived Gender-Based Challenges Endured by Zimbabwean Secondary School Girls in Their Academic and Occupational Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutekwe, Edmore; Modiba, Maropeng

    2013-01-01

    This study explores and unmasks factors in the Zimbabwean school curricula that predispose or channel girls into particular occupational trajectories, in particular occupations or careers traditionally stereotyped as feminine. As a qualitative research study of the culture of the schooling system within this country, it employs the views of a…

  18. Stereotypes, stepmothers, and splitting.

    PubMed

    Radomisli, M

    1981-01-01

    Asserting that preteen children cannot tolerate ambivalence, a recent study extols the "wicked stepmother" stereotype in fairy tales for providing a safe outlet for child-mother aggression. However, even theories which consider splitting normal in object-relations development see it as operating mostly before age 3. Dualistic thinking is not ubiquitous in childhood, nor is it ever outgrown. Rather, it is a mode of organizing experience mythopoetically; we learn to minimize its intrusions in dealings with day-to-day realities. There is no scientific justification for (and there are moral objections to) the propagation of the wicked stepmother stereotype.

  19. Stereotypic vision: how stereotypes disambiguate visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Correll, Joshua; Wittenbrink, Bernd; Crawford, Matthew T; Sadler, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    Three studies examined how participants use race to disambiguate visual stimuli. Participants performed a first-person-shooter task in which Black and White targets appeared holding either a gun or an innocuous object (e.g., a wallet). In Study 1, diffusion analysis (Ratcliff, 1978) showed that participants rapidly acquired information about a gun when it appeared in the hands of a Black target, and about an innocuous object in the hands of a White target. For counterstereotypic pairings (armed Whites, unarmed Blacks), participants acquired information more slowly. In Study 2, eye tracking showed that participants relied on more ambiguous information (measured by visual angle from fovea) when responding to stereotypic targets; for counterstereotypic targets, they achieved greater clarity before responding. In Study 3, participants were briefly exposed to targets (limiting access to visual information) but had unlimited time to respond. In spite of their slow, deliberative responses, they showed racial bias. This pattern is inconsistent with control failure and suggests that stereotypes influenced identification of the object. All 3 studies show that race affects visual processing by supplementing objective information. PMID:25603373

  20. Stereotypic vision: how stereotypes disambiguate visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Correll, Joshua; Wittenbrink, Bernd; Crawford, Matthew T; Sadler, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    Three studies examined how participants use race to disambiguate visual stimuli. Participants performed a first-person-shooter task in which Black and White targets appeared holding either a gun or an innocuous object (e.g., a wallet). In Study 1, diffusion analysis (Ratcliff, 1978) showed that participants rapidly acquired information about a gun when it appeared in the hands of a Black target, and about an innocuous object in the hands of a White target. For counterstereotypic pairings (armed Whites, unarmed Blacks), participants acquired information more slowly. In Study 2, eye tracking showed that participants relied on more ambiguous information (measured by visual angle from fovea) when responding to stereotypic targets; for counterstereotypic targets, they achieved greater clarity before responding. In Study 3, participants were briefly exposed to targets (limiting access to visual information) but had unlimited time to respond. In spite of their slow, deliberative responses, they showed racial bias. This pattern is inconsistent with control failure and suggests that stereotypes influenced identification of the object. All 3 studies show that race affects visual processing by supplementing objective information.

  1. Penalties for Peer Sexual Harassment in an Academic Context: The Influence of Harasser Gender, Participant Gender, Severity of Harassment, and the Presence of Bystanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kimberly M.; Armenta, Madeline

    2002-01-01

    Examined the impact of harasser gender, participant gender, and presence of bystanders on perceptions of penalty appropriateness for peer sexual harassment in college. Students responded to descriptions of potential sexual harassment between one college student and another and described the appropriate penalty. Participants were more likely to…

  2. The Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test Performance of Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Keith B.

    2006-01-01

    Past research suggests that awareness of negative stereotypes about the intellectual inferiority of one's "in-group" can undermine performance on academic tasks, especially among subjects who are strongly identified with the academic domain or highly invested in the academic task. This study included 72 students (n = 42 women, n = 30 men) and…

  3. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Classrooms: A Review of Social-Psychological Intervention Studies on Improving the Achievement of Black Students. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-076

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Joshua; Cohen, Geoffrey; McColskey, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Stereotype threat arises from a fear among members of a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes about the intellectual ability of the group. This report identifies three randomized controlled trial studies that use classroom-based strategies to reduce stereotype threat and improve the academic performance of Black students, narrowing their…

  4. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Classrooms: A Review of Social-Psychological Intervention Studies on Improving the Achievement of Black Students. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-076

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Joshua; Cohen, Geoffrey; McColskey, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Stereotype threat arises from a fear among members of a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes about the intellectual ability of the group. This report identifies three randomized controlled trial studies that use classroom-based strategies to reduce stereotype threat and improve the academic performance of Black students, narrowing their…

  5. An Examination of Single-Gender and Coeducational Classes: Their Impact on the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students Enrolled in Mathematics and Science at Selected Schools in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Jeanette H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of students enrolled in coeducational instruction and single-gender instruction. Within this framework, the researcher examined class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity using the sixth grade CRCT scores of selected students in the areas of mathematics and science. The fifth-grade…

  6. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  7. The Premed Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Judith D.; And Others

    How the pressure of a stiff competition for admission to medical school affects undergraduates at Yale University is examined. Results of questionnaires completed by 317 Yale undergraduates including 101 premedical students, in 1977, are presented. It was found that students do hold a fairly strong negative stereotype of the premedical student who…

  8. National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Brian A.; Smyth, Frederick L.; Sriram, N.; Lindner, Nicole M.; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W.; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2009-01-01

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement. PMID:19549876

  9. Sex-Types and Instrument Selection: The Effect of Gender Schemas on Fifth Graders' Instrument Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenfeld, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, music education researchers studied and followed musicians' and non-musicians' views of music instrument gender stereotypes and associations. To understand instrument gender stereotypes, one must first understand the difference between sex and gender and gender's role in society. This research aims to study the views of…

  10. Occupational Sex-Role Stereotyping in Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Sheila K.

    A study conducted at Oberlin Elementary School, in Oberlin, Kansas, considered the effects of gender, family structure, parents' socioeconomic status (SES) and education, and grade level on students' tendency to stereotype occupations by sex. The study sample included 164 elementary school children, including 53 second graders, 62 fourth graders,…

  11. Are U.S. Elementary School Reading Textbooks Sex Stereotyped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Mirta; Ekstrom, Ruth B.

    Seven representative elementary school textbooks used in the United States were examined, as part of an international study of sex-stereotyping in textbooks, to determine whether the depiction of males and females was qualitatively and quantitatively sex-equitable. The analysis used a gender models checklist developed by M. Gonzalez-Suarez (1986)…

  12. Sex Role Attitudes and Sex Role Stereotyping: Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography profiles 17 publications examining sex role attitudes/sex role stereotyping from the perspectives of ethnicity, gender, and age. Cited in the section on ethnicity are studies of work satisfaction/family functioning among working-class Mexican-American women and cultural variations in sex typing by students in the United…

  13. Children's Evaluative Stereotypes of Masculine, Feminine, and Androgynous First Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Philip G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined children's evaluative stereotypes of masculine, feminine, and androgynous first names. Attractive and unattractive masculine, feminine, and androgynous first names were presented to 50 primary school children. The gender-typed names were attributed to the appropriate sex; the androgynous names were repeated and attributed to…

  14. Sex- and gender-specific research priorities in cardiovascular resuscitation: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Resuscitation Research Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Jane G; Perman, Sarah M; Barr, Gavin C; McGregor, Alyson J; Miller, Andrew C; Napoli, Anthony M; Napoli, Anthony F; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Deutsch, Steven; Kayea, Tami; Becker, Lance

    2014-12-01

    Significant sex and gender differences in both physiology and psychology are readily acknowledged between men and women; however, data are lacking regarding differences in their responses to injury and treatment and in their ultimate recovery and survival. These variations remain particularly poorly defined within the field of cardiovascular resuscitation. A better understanding of the interaction between these important factors may soon allow us to dramatically improve outcomes in disease processes that currently carry a dismal prognosis, such as sudden cardiac arrest. As part of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," our group sought to identify key research questions and knowledge gaps pertaining to both sex and gender in cardiac resuscitation that could be answered in the near future to inform our understanding of these important issues. We combined a monthly teleconference meeting of interdisciplinary stakeholders from largely academic institutions with a focused interest in cardiovascular outcomes research, an extensive review of the existing literature, and an open breakout session discussion on the recommendations at the consensus conference to establish a prioritization of the knowledge gaps and relevant research questions in this area. We identified six priority research areas: 1) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest epidemiology and outcome, 2) customized resuscitation drugs, 3) treatment role for sex steroids, 4) targeted temperature management and hypothermia, 5) withdrawal of care after cardiac arrest, and 6) cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and implementation. We believe that exploring these key topics and identifying relevant questions may directly lead to improved understanding of sex- and gender-specific issues seen in cardiac resuscitation and ultimately improved patient outcomes.

  15. Mathematics Self-Efficacy: Stereotype Threat versus Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinle, Amy; Mims, Grace A.

    2009-01-01

    Children's academic self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of achievement (Wigfield and Eccles, "Contemporary Educational Psychology" 25(1): 68-81, 2000). The present research examined mathematics self-efficacy and the relationship of racial context from the perspective of two competing bodies of research. Stereotype threat theory would…

  16. Scientist-Image Stereotypes: The Relationships among Their Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine primary school students' scientist-image stereotypes by considering the relationships among indicators. A total of 877 students attending Grades 6 and 7 in Düzce, Turkey participated in this study. The Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) was implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year to determine students' images…

  17. Beyond Performance: A Motivational Experiences Model of Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Dustin B.; Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Chase, Justin; Lee, Joo Young K.

    2013-01-01

    The contributing role of stereotype threat (ST) to learning and performance decrements for stigmatized students in highly evaluative situations has been vastly documented and is now widely known by educators and policy makers. However, recent research illustrates that underrepresented and stigmatized students' academic and career motivations are…

  18. Gender-based Learning Dilemmas in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Lena

    2001-01-01

    A study of eight Swedish companies that reverted to previous forms of work organization shows how gender influences organizational change. The learning organization concept challenges gender order, but gender segregation and stereotypic gender-coding of work are strong mechanisms for reversing change and obstructing individual and organizational…

  19. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  20. Contributions of dental colour to the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Gómez-Polo, C; Santos, J A; Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Albaladejo, A

    2014-10-01

    Dental appearance may play a key role on the way we develop a first impression of another person. To test whether relatively minor changes in the lightness of tooth colour would influence the perceived social appeal (social, intellectual, psychological and relational abilities) of an unknown male and unknown female, this cross-sectional study was performed on 555 Spanish adults. The two major independent variables related to the photograph were tooth lightness (computer-derived), divided into three levels that included lightened teeth, natural teeth and darkened teeth, and the gender of the observed face. Moreover, six independent variables related to the observer were assessed (age, gender, educational level, place of residence, frequency of brushing and self-reported health status). The dependent variables were scored on five-point Likert scales designed to quantify four domains (social, intellectual, psychological and relationship competences) of the Social Appeal Scale (SAS). Tooth lightness influences the perception of social appeal in all dimensions, as darkened smiles received significantly poorer scores than natural-colour smiles, but these were also worse than lightened smiles. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of social appeal was tooth lightness, and for each increment in lightness (from darkened to lightened smiles), the odds ratio (OR) of positive values being perceived increased significantly in all items (from 2·3 in Popularity to 6·9 in Happiness). A perceptible change in dental lightness is the strongest factor associated with the dental attractiveness stereotype, affecting significantly the 12 traits assessed, but mainly the Happiness, Social Relations and Academic Performance.