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Sample records for academic health centres

  1. Burnout among faculty physicians in an academic health science centre

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James Gardner; Khetani, Nicole; Stephens, Derek

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout experienced by physicians is concerning because it may affect quality of care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of burnout among physicians at an academic health science centre and to test the hypothesis that work hours are related to burnout. METHODS: All 300 staff physicians, contacted through their personal e-mail, were provided an encrypted link to an anonymous questionnaire. The primary outcome measure, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, has three subscales: personal, work related and patient related. RESULTS: The response rate for the questionnaire was 70%. Quantitative demands, insecurity at work and job satisfaction affected all three components of burnout. Of 210 staff physicians, 22% (n=46) had scores indicating personal burnout, 14% (n=30) had scores indicating work-related burnout and 8% (n=16) had scores indicating patient-related burnout. The correlation between total hours worked and total burnout was only 0.10 (P=0.14) DISCUSSION: Up to 22% of academic paediatric physicians had scores consistent with mild to severe burnout. A simple reduction in work hours is unlikely to be successful in reducing burnout and, therefore, quantitative demands, job satisfaction and work insecurity may require attention to address burnout among academic physicians. PMID:22851895

  2. Improving accountability through alignment: the role of academic health science centres and networks in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As in many countries around the world, there are high expectations on academic health science centres and networks in England to provide high-quality care, innovative research, and world-class education, while also supporting wealth creation and economic growth. Meeting these expectations increasingly depends on partnership working between university medical schools and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers. However, academic-clinical relationships in England are still characterised by the “unlinked partners” model, whereby universities and their partner teaching hospitals are neither fiscally nor structurally linked, creating bifurcating accountabilities to various government and public agencies. Discussion This article focuses on accountability relationships in universities and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of academic health science centres and networks. The authors analyse accountability for the tripartite mission of patient care, research, and education, using a four-fold typology of accountability relationships, which distinguishes between hierarchical (bureaucratic) accountability, legal accountability, professional accountability, and political accountability. Examples from North West London suggest that a number of mechanisms can be used to improve accountability for the tripartite mission through alignment, but that the simple creation of academic health science centres and networks is probably not sufficient. Summary At the heart of the challenge for academic health science centres and networks is the separation of accountabilities for patient care, research, and education in different government departments. Given that a fundamental top-down system redesign is now extremely unlikely, local academic and clinical leaders face the challenge of aligning their institutions as a matter of priority in order to improve accountability for the tripartite mission from

  3. Feasibility of physician peer assessment in an academic health sciences centre.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Sharon; Vozzolo, Ben; Daneman, Denis; Macgregor, Daune

    2011-01-01

    Peer assessment has become an important component of physician evaluation. In an academic health sciences centre, in addition to clinical care there is a significant focus on education, training and research. The literature suggests that the use of a 360-degree evaluation can provide physicians with valuable information on many aspects of their practice and can inform both professional and personal development. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of using peer assessment as part of the evaluation of our academic physicians. To maintain anonymity, an outside company was engaged to conduct the study. Participants completed a self-assessment and provided the names of eight physician peers and eight non-physician peers who were then requested to complete an evaluation. In addition, 25 patients were asked to provide their feedback. All questionnaires were forwarded directly to the outside company, which then compiled the data and provided each participant with a final report. Results indicate that it is feasible to carry out peer assessment within an academic health sciences centre. Participants noted the value of the process for career development and quality improvement. PMID:21301240

  4. Better governance in academic health sciences centres: moving beyond the Olivieri/Apotex Affair in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Ferris, L E; Singer, P A; Naylor, C D

    2004-02-01

    The Toronto experience suggests that there may be several general lessons for academic health sciences complexes to learn from the Olivieri/Apotex affair (OAA) regarding the ethics, independence, and integrity of clinical research sponsored by for profit enterprises. From a local perspective, the OAA occurred when there already was a focus on the complex and changing relationships among the University of Toronto, its medical school, the fully affiliated teaching hospitals, and off campus faculty because of intertwined interests and responsibilities. The OAA became a catalyst that accelerated various systemic reforms, particularly concerning academic/industry relations. In this article, the evolving governance framework for the Toronto academic health sciences complex is reviewed and these policy and process reforms discussed. These reforms have created collaborative activity among research ethics boards and contract research offices of the partner institutions, and allowed the joint university/hospital ethics centre to play a role in governance and policy, while respecting the missions and mandates of the involved institutions. Although few of the policies are dramatically innovative, what is arguably novel is the elaboration of an overarching governance framework that aims to move ethics to a central focus in the academic complex. Time alone will tell how sustainable and effective these changes are. PMID:14872067

  5. Academic collaborative centres for health promotion in the Netherlands: building bridges between research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Gerard; Fransen, Gerdine

    2012-04-01

    A logical and promising next step for the development of an effective infrastructure for health promotion in the Netherlands are Academic Collaborative Centres (ACCs). Their aims are to bridge the gap between research, policy and practice; make better use of available knowledge and strengthen the evidence base for health promotion practice. To understand their position, they must be seen in light of the strong growth in health promotion in the Netherlands. Since the 1970s, the emphasis in health promotion has shifted from simple unidimensional interventions to much more comprehensive and integrated programmes. Comprehensive research programmes, which explicitly involve actual practice and policy, are also thus called for. These developments are described in this article. There is considerable and widespread enthusiasm about the establishment of ACCs in the Netherlands. Experiences from the first 5 years of collaboration between research, policy and practice within the ACCs, however, shows research to still have the dominant position. The different groups of stakeholders in the public health infrastructure are also shown to perceive and appreciate the current infrastructure rather differently. These findings are similar to results found in the USA. The predominance of research has recently led the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) to impose stricter criteria and guidelines for the funding of such centres. These measures are aimed at eliciting a shift of power from science to practice. They seem to be a promising contribution to bridging the gap between research, policy and practice. PMID:22399547

  6. Warning Letters to Sponsor-Investigators at Academic Health Centres – The Regulatory “Canaries in a Coal Mine”

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Erin K; Blair Holbein, M. E.; Berglund, Jelena P.; Parrish, Amanda B.; Roth, Mary-Tara; Burnett, Bruce K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study highlights Warning Letters (WL) findings issued to sponsor-investigators (S-Is) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods The online index of WLs issued from October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2012 was reviewed [1]. Through a manual screening process, letters were evaluated if specifically issued to ‘clinical investigators’, ‘sponsors’ or ‘sponsor-investigators’. A particular focus was given to S-Is at Academic Health Centres (AHCs). Each letter was scored for the presence of violations in 40 general regulatory categories. Results A review of FDA WLs issued over a five year period (FDA Fiscal Years 2008–2012) revealed that WLs to S-Is represent half of the WLs issued to all sponsors (16 of 32 letters). A review of these letters indicates that S-Is are not aware, or simply do not meet, their regulatory responsibilities as either investigators or sponsors. In comparing total sponsor letters to those of S-Is, the most cited violation was the same: a lack of monitoring. A review of publicly available inspection data indicates that these 16 letters merely represent the tip of the iceberg. Conclusion This review of the WL database reveals the potential for serious regulatory violations among S-Is at AHCs. Recent translational funding initiatives may serve to increase the number of S-Is, especially among Academic Health Centres (AHCs) [2]. Thus, AHCs must become aware of this S-I role and work to support investigators who assume both roles in the course of their research. PMID:24309225

  7. The academic medical centre: an idea whose time has come.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, D G

    1993-05-01

    Interdependence of faculties of medicine or health sciences and teaching hospitals is central to the academic medical centre's three "products": education, research and clinical service. Whether a voluntary association, partnership, joint venture or single entity, the strength of the association of member institutions must lie in mutual dependency. With the potential of reducing costs and increasing effectiveness through administrative efficiency and rationalization, especially of planning and setting priorities, the academic medical centre can outstrip its individual member institutions in contributing to the solution of Canada's present and future challenges in health care. PMID:8477377

  8. Impact on health-related quality of life and costs of managing chronic neuropathic pain in academic pain centres: Results from a one-year prospective observational Canadian study

    PubMed Central

    Tarride, J-E; Moulin, DE; Lynch, M; Clark, AJ; Stitt, L; Gordon, A; Morley-Forster, PK; Nathan, H; Smyth, C; Toth, C; Ware, MA

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of chronic pain, including neuropathic pain (NeP), is a major public health issue. However, there is a paucity of data evaluating pain management strategies in real-life settings. OBJECTIVE: To inform policy makers about the economic value of managing chronic NeP in academic centres by conducting a subeconomic assessment of a Canadian multicentre cohort study aimed at determining the long-term outcomes of the management of chronic NeP in academic pain centres. Specific questions regarding the economic value of this type of program were answered by a subset of patients to provide further information to policy makers. METHODS: Baseline demographic information and several pain-related measurements were collected at baseline, three, six and 12 months in the main study. A resource use questionnaire aimed at determining NeP-related costs and the EuroQoL-5 Dimension were collected in the subset study from consenting patients. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare outcomes over time and according to responder status. RESULTS: A total of 298 patients were evaluated in the present economic evaluation. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 53.7±14.0 years, and 56% were female. At intake, the mean duration of NeP was >5 years. Statistically significant improvements in all pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were observed between the baseline and one-year visits. Use decreased over time for many health care resources (eg, visits to the emergency room decreased by one-half), which resulted in overall cost savings. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that increased access to academic pain centres should be facilitated in Canada. PMID:26474381

  9. Cardiac rehabilitation referral and enrolment across an academic health sciences centre with eReferral and peer navigation: a randomised controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Faisal, Sobia F; Benz Scott, Lisa; Johnston, Lauren; Grace, Sherry L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe (1) cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referral across cardiac units in a tertiary centre with eReferral; (2) characteristics associated with CR referral and enrolment and (3) the effects of peer navigation (PN) on referral and enrolment. This pilot was a 2 parallel-arm, randomised, single-blind trial with allocation concealment. Setting 3 cardiac units (ie, interventional, general cardiology, and cardiac surgery) in 1 of 2 hospitals of a tertiary centre. Participants CR-eligible adult cardiac inpatients were randomised to PN or usual care. 94 (54.7%) patients consented, of which 46 (48.9%) were randomised to PN. Outcomes were ascertained in 76 (80.9%) participants. Intervention The PN (1) visited participant at the bedside, (2) mailed a card to participant's home reminding about CR and (3) called participant 2 weeks postdischarge to discuss CR barriers. Outcome measures The primary outcome of enrolment was defined as participant attendance at a scheduled CR intake appointment (yes/no). The secondary outcome was referral. Blinded outcome assessment was conducted 12 weeks postdischarge, via CR chart extraction. Results Those who received care on the cardiac surgery unit (77.9%) were more likely to be referred than those treated on the general cardiology (61.1%) or interventional unit (33.3%; p=0.04). Patients who had cardiac surgery, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were significantly more likely, and those with congenital heart disease, cancer and a previous cardiac diagnosis were less likely to be referred. Participants referred to a site closer to home (76.2% of those referred) were more likely to enrol than those not (23.7%, p<0.05). PN had no effect on referral (77.6%, p=0.45) or enrolment (46.0%, p=0.24). Conclusions There is wide variability in CR referral, even within academic centres, and despite eReferral. Referral was quite high, and thus, PN did not improve CR utilisation. Results support triaging patients to the CR programme closest

  10. Academic Health Centers and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Stephen H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of academic health centers in health care reform efforts looks at the following issues: balancing academic objectivity and social advocacy; managing sometimes divergent interests of centers, faculty, and society; and the challenge to develop infrastructure support for reform. Academic health centers' participation in…

  11. Academic family health teams

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Talbot, Yves; Permaul, Joanne; Tobin, Anastasia; Moineddin, Rahim; Blaine, Sean; Bloom, Jeff; Butt, Debra; Kay, Kelly; Telner, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore patients’ perceptions of primary care (PC) in the early development of academic family health teams (aFHTs)—interprofessional PC teams delivering care where family medicine and other health professional learners are trained—focusing on patients’ perceptions of access and patients’ satisfaction with services. Design Self-administered survey. Setting Six aFHTs in Ontario. Participants Adult patients attending appointments and administrators at each of the aFHTs. Main outcome measures Answers to questions about access from the Primary Care Assessment Tool Adult Expanded Version, the Primary Care Assessment Survey, and research team questions. Results The response rate was 47.3% (1026 of 2167). The mean (SD) Primary Care Assessment Tool first-contact accessibility score was 2.28 (0.36) out of 4, with 96.5% of patients rating access less than 3, which was the minimum expected level of care. Two-thirds (66.6%) indicated someone from their aFHTs would definitely or probably see them the same day if they were sick, 56.8% could definitely or probably get advice quickly by telephone, and 14.5% indicated it was definitely or probably difficult to be seen by their primary health care provider (HCP). Additionally, 46.9% indicated they would like to get medical advice by e-mail. For a routine or follow-up visit, 73.4% would be willing to see another aFHT physician if their regular provider were unavailable, while only 48.3% would see a nonphysician HCP. If sick, 88.2% would see another aFHT physician and 55.2% would see a nonphysician HCP. Most (75.3%) were satisfied with access to their regular HCP. Conclusion Although patients are generally satisfied with care, there is room for improvement in access. Strategies are needed to enhance access to care, including addressing appropriate roles and scopes of practice for nonphysician HCPs. The accessibility challenges for aFHTs will likely affect new family physicians and other HCPs training in

  12. The network of WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health and the role of maritime centres.

    PubMed

    Kortum, Evelyn; Fingerhut, Marilyn A

    2003-01-01

    The WHO Network of Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health comprises 70 Collaborating Centres. Four of these Centres are specialised in Maritime Occupational Health and they are situated in Poland, Germany, Denmark and the Ukraine. All Collaborating Centres follow the mandate of the Occupational Health Programme in WHO, which is the Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All. Collaborating Centres in Maritime Occupational Health cover a specific group of workers who are exposed to different work environments than workers on land. They are often not at all or only insufficiently covered by any health services. The Collaborating Centres in Maritime Occupational Health provide an excellent example of international collaboration. PMID:14974788

  13. Student Health and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11 Resources Health and Academics Data and Statistics Bullying and Absenteeism: Information for State and Local Education Agencies [PDF - 624 KB] Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ...

  14. Academic family health teams

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Talbot, Yves; Permaul, Joanne; Tobin, Anastasia; Moineddin, Rahim; Blaine, Sean; Bloom, Jeff; Butt, Debra; Kay, Kelly; Telner, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore patients’ perceptions of primary care (PC) in the early development of academic family health teams (aFHTs)—interprofessional PC teams delivering care where family medicine and other health professional learners are trained—focusing on the 4 core domains of PC. Design Self-administered survey using the Primary Care Assessment Tool Adult Expanded Version (PCAT), which addresses 4 core domains of PC (first contact, continuity, comprehensiveness, and coordination). The PCAT uses a 4-point Likert scale (from definitely not to definitely) to capture patients’ responses about the occurrence of components of care. Setting Six aFHTs in Ontario. Participants Adult patients attending appointments and administrators at each of the aFHTs. Main outcome measures Mean PCAT domain scores, with a score of 3 chosen as the minimum expected level of care. Multivariate log binomial regression models were used to estimate the adjusted relative risks of PCAT score levels as functions of patient- and clinic-level characteristics. Results The response rate was 47.3% (1026 of 2167). The mean age of respondents was 49.6 years, and most respondents were female (71.6%). The overall PC score (2.92) was just below the minimum expected care level. Scores for first contact (2.28 [accessibility]), coordination of information systems (2.67), and comprehensiveness of care (2.83 [service available] and 2.36 [service provided]) were below the minimum. Findings suggest some patient groups might not be optimally served by aFHTs, particularly recent immigrants. Characteristics of aFHTs, including a large number of physicians, were not associated with high performance on PC domains. Distributed practices across multiple sites were negatively associated with high performance for some domains. The presence of electronic medical records was not associated with improved performance on coordination of information systems. Conclusion Patients of these aFHTs rated several

  15. Critical Connections: Health and Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Shannon L.; Merlo, Caitlin L.; Basch, Charles E.; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Wechsler, Howell

    2015-01-01

    Background: While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework…

  16. Critical Connections: Health and Academics

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Basch, Charles E; Wentzel, Kathryn R; Wechsler, Howell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework as a way to address health-related barriers to learning. METHODS A literature review was conducted on the association between student health and academic achievement. RESULTS Most of the evidence examined the association between student health behaviors and academic achievement, with physical activity having the most published studies and consistent findings. The evidence supports the need for school health services by demonstrating the association between chronic conditions and decreased achievement. Safe and positive school environments were associated with improved health behaviors and achievement. Engaging families and community members in schools also had a positive effect on students' health and achievement. CONCLUSIONS Schools can improve the health and learning of students by supporting opportunities to learn about and practice healthy behaviors, providing school health services, creating safe and positive school environments, and engaging families and community. This evidence supports WSCC as a potential framework for achieving national educational and health goals. PMID:26440816

  17. Academic freedom and global health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Donald

    2012-02-01

    There is a tension between the preservation of academic freedom and the economic context in which the university currently finds itself. This tension embodies serious threats to global health as a result of three overlapping phenomena which impede the production and diffusion of valuable knowledge about health. These phenomena, the privatisation, commercialisation and instrumentalisation of knowledge are identified and examined in this paper in relation to human rights and international morality. PMID:21737839

  18. Reinventing the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D

    2005-11-01

    Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives. PMID:16249294

  19. Swasti: An International Health Resource Centre

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Swasti, an International Health Resource Centre was established in 2002 in India. The objective was to enhance the health and well-being of communities, particularly the marginalized. Swasti’s main focus lies in the areas of primary health, sexual and reproductive health including HIV, communicable and non-communicable diseases, water, sanitation and hygiene and gender based violence. The organization, during the last decade has grown in leaps and bounds reaching out to the most affected communities through policy influence and grassroots level intervention reach. Swasti has an agile, passionate and multi-disciplinary team, who deliver in diverse situations across the development spectrum while integrating community needs, programs and policies. The organization’s focus is on quality support to deliver cutting edge, sustainable solutions. Swasti has a global approach and works with many development partners across many countries. So far it has been involved in over 200 engagements in over 20 countries with partners ranging from Government Departments, Bilateral and Multilateral Donors, Foundations, INGOs, FBOs, CBOs etc. With many awards and recognitions to its credit, Swasti also contributes to policy and is a part of many global platforms for advocacy.

  20. Cooperative Working towards Family-Centred Health Education in Acute Care: Improvement in Client Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastani, Farideh; Golaghaie, Farzaneh; Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Rafeie, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish family-centred health education for patients in a neurosurgery unit and to evaluate its impact on patients' and families' satisfaction. Design: Cooperative participatory research through which a group of clinical nurses and an academic researcher engaged in cycles of action and reflection. Setting: The study was…

  1. Academic Incivility among Health Sciences Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Melissa; Hill, Lilian H.

    2015-01-01

    Academic health centers are under pressure to graduate more health professionals and, therefore, must retain talented faculty members who can educate students in respective disciplines. Faculty-to-faculty incivility is especially relevant to academic medical centers because faculty in the health professions must not only meet university tenure and…

  2. Health Care Reform and the Academic Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmey, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the implications of health care reform for academic health centers (a complex of institutions which educate health professionals) looks at problems in the current system, the role of academic health centers in the current system, financial pressures, revenue sources other than patient care, impact on health research, and human…

  3. Academic Stress, Supportive Communication, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGeorge, Erina L.; Samter, Wendy; Gillihan, Seth J.

    2005-01-01

    Academic stress is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes, including depression and physical illness. The current study examined the capacity of supportive communication reported as being received from friends and family to buffer the association between academic stress and health. College students completed measures of academic…

  4. The Space Between: Pedagogic Collaboration between a Writing Centre and an Academic Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckay, Tracey Morton; Simpson, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    The expectations placed on students with respect to appropriate academic writing may hinder successful participation in Higher Education. Full participation is further complicated by the fact that each discipline within the University constitutes its own community of practice, with its own set of literacy practices. While Writing Centres aim to…

  5. Development of a One Health National Capacity in Africa : the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) One Health Virtual Centre Model.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, Mark; Kambarage, Dominic; Karimuribo, Esron; Wambura, Philemon; Matee, Mecky; Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Mweene, Aaron; Neves, Luis; Masumu, Justin; Kasanga, Christopher; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Kayunze, Kim; Misinzo, Gerald; Simuunza, Martin; Paweska, Janusz T

    2013-01-01

    Among the many challenges to health, infectious diseases stand out for their ability to have a profound impact on humans and animals. The recent years have witnessed an increasing number of novel infectious diseases. The numerous examples of infections which originated from animals suggest that the zoonotic pool is an important and potentially rich source of emerging diseases. Since emergence and re-emergence of pathogens, and particularly zoonotic agents, occur at unpredictable rates in animal and human populations, infectious diseases will constitute a significant challenge for the public health and animal health communities in the twenty-first century. The African continent suffers from one of the highest burdens of infectious diseases of humans and animals in the world but has the least capacity for their detection, identification and monitoring. Lessons learnt from recent zoonotic epidemics in Africa and elsewhere clearly indicate the need for coordinated research, interdisciplinary centres, response systems and infrastructures, integrated surveillance systems and workforce development strategies. More and stronger partnerships across national and international sectors (human health, animal health, environment) and disciplines (natural and social sciences) involving public, academic and private organisations and institutions will be required to meet the present and future challenges of infectious diseases. In order to strengthen the efficiency of early warning systems, monitoring trends and disease prediction and timely outbreak interventions for the benefit of the national and international community, it is essential that each nation improves its own capacity in disease recognition and laboratory competence. The SACIDS, a One Health African initiative linking southern African academic and research institutions in smart partnership with centres of science excellence in industrialised countries as well as international research centres, strives to strengthen

  6. Health Hazards and Academic Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Louis G.

    2002-01-01

    Humorist Louis Lippman describes how proper lecture etiquette requires a professor to twist repeatedly between screen and paying customers to read and explain his Powerpoint projections. Such Rotary Academic Whiplash invariably results in the gravest of musculo-pedagogical distress. (Contains 1 note.)

  7. Perspectives from the Academic Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Roger J.

    1996-01-01

    An administrator of an academic health center discusses effects of increased competition for funds including the necessity of segregating the three funding streams (service, education, and research) and the short-term increased costs of implementing educational technology solutions. He urges a broader health science vision and greater…

  8. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds. Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts. The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning. A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  9. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Coen, Stephanie E; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Ratner, Pamela A

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds.Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts.The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning.A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  10. College Health Professionals and Academic Librarians: Collaboration for Student Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallyburton, Ann; Kolenbrander, Nancy; Robertson, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    College health professionals must find new ways of educating students on finding and evaluating consumer health information, specifically in the online environment. Librarians are trained as information professionals; however, librarians at general academic libraries are not taking a lead role in providing consumer health information. Objective:…

  11. Evolution of the Academic Health Department through public health academic and practice collaborations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy F; Quade, Thomas; Dwinnells, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, the Office of Public Health Practice was chartered at Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED). Through this office, public health practitioners and academics have engaged in informal collaborations, formal collaborations, and formal agreements. Projects that have helped public health practitioners included a sanitarian preparation course, educational opportunities, and shared faculty arrangements. The academic programs have benefited through support in accreditation activities, teaching and precepting of public health and medical students, and advice on community-oriented curriculum. Formal affiliation agreements have been developed between the medical school and 5 local health departments, and public health practitioners have been given faculty appointments. Factors that have resulted in the longevity of Academic Health Department relationships through the Office of Public Health Practice include individuals dedicated to these relationships, agencies willing to support collaborative efforts, mutually beneficial activities, and a culture conducive to continued engagement. PMID:24667189

  12. Frambu Health Centre: Promoting Family Focused Care for Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storhaug, Kari; Vandvik, Inger Helene

    1983-01-01

    The article describes services of the Frambu Health Centre in Norway, which has evolved during the past 30 years from a summer camp for children with poliomyelitis to a modern information and treatment center for families with disabled members, and offers fortnightly courses for patients with rare congenital and/or hereditary disorders. (Author/MC)

  13. The new academic health center hybrids: part business, part academic.

    PubMed

    Vavala, D

    1996-06-01

    Academic health centers have flourished since the 1960s and even managed to survive the shift toward prospective payment. But in their current quest to expand the number of managed care patients and compete with the private sector, they often must price services below cost and reduce the number of faculty members and other personnel. Unless their prices are competitive, managed care companies will not do business with them. AHCs that cannot compete find they are overbedded, underused, and in turmoil. This article explores what successful AHCs are doing to stay healthy in the managed care era. PMID:10161348

  14. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    PubMed

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative. PMID:7945762

  15. Student Experience and Academic Success: Comparing a Student-Centred and a Lecture-Based Course Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severiens, Sabine; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that, under certain conditions, student-centred and small-scale course programmes result in more academic success. The present study investigates these conditions in further detail. It is examined whether, in comparison to a course programme that is relatively more lecture-based, a student-centred course programme promotes…

  16. Distance education for health centre staff in rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Saeki, K; Izumi, H; Ohyanagi, T; Sugiyama, A; Sawada, I; Suzuki, K; Hatazawa, M; Ohuch, M

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated a course delivered by videoconferencing to rural health centre staff in Hokkaido. The course focused on the planning and evaluation of community health interventions. It included four 90 min sessions and two follow-up sessions. Fourteen professional staff members (public health nurses, nutritionists and dental assistants) attended each class. Knowledge of community health-care planning and evaluation was higher at post-education testing than pre-education testing. Ratings for 'using a computer', 'using some computer software', 'using the Internet' and 'interest in telehealth' increased significantly in post-education testing compared with pre-education testing. The course had an additional benefit in increasing the collaboration between community health workers and university staff. PMID:10975108

  17. Strengthening patient-centred communication in rural Ugandan health centres: A theory-driven evaluation within a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Nayiga, Susan; DiLiberto, Deborah; Taaka, Lilian; Nabirye, Christine; Haaland, Ane; Staedke, Sarah G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a theory-driven evaluation of one component of an intervention to improve the quality of health care at Ugandan public health centres. Patient-centred services have been advocated widely, but such approaches have received little attention in Africa. A cluster randomized trial is evaluating population-level outcomes of an intervention with multiple components, including ‘patient-centred services.’ A process evaluation was designed within this trial to articulate and evaluate the implementation and programme theories of the intervention. This article evaluates one hypothesized mechanism of change within the programme theory: the impact of the Patient Centred Services component on health-worker communication. The theory-driven approach extended to evaluation of the outcome measures. The study found that the proximal outcome of patient-centred communication was rated 10 percent higher (p < 0.008) by care seekers consulting with the health workers who were at the intervention health centres compared with those at control health centres. This finding will strengthen interpretation of more distal trial outcomes. PMID:25983612

  18. Changes in College Student Health:Implications for Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Marrone, Sonia; Hladkyj, Steve; Robinson-Epp, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations of health perceptions and behaviors with subsequent academic performance among college students. Multiple health perceptions and behaviors were assessed for 203 college students both at the beginning and end of an academic year. Students' academic performance was also measured at the end of the…

  19. Six essential roles of health promotion research centres: the Atlantic Canada experience.

    PubMed

    Langille, Lynn L; Crowell, Sandra J; Lyons, Renée F

    2009-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, the federal government and universities across Canada have directed resources towards the development of university-based health promotion research centres. Researchers at health promotion research centres in Canada have produced peer-reviewed papers and policy documents based on their work, but no publications have emerged that focus on the specific roles of the health promotion research centres themselves. The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework, based on an in-depth examination of one centre, to help identify the unique roles of health promotion research centres and to clarify the value they add to promoting health and advancing university goals. Considering the shifting federal discourse on health promotion over time and the vulnerability of social and health sciences to changes in research funding priorities, health promotion research centres in Canada and elsewhere may need to articulate their unique roles and contributions in order to maintain a critical focus on health promotion research. The authors briefly describe the Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre (AHPRC), propose a framework that illustrates six essential roles of health promotion research centres and describe the policy contexts and challenges of health promotion research centres. The analysis of research and knowledge translation activities over 15 years at AHPRC sheds light on the roles that health promotion research centres play in applied research. The conclusion raises questions regarding the value of university-based research centres and challenges to their sustainability. PMID:19171668

  20. Institutionalizing the academic health department within the context of the 3-fold academic mission.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Bryant, Thomas; Harmon, Robert G; Wood, David L

    2014-01-01

    A mature model of an academic health department (AHD) that has been institutionalized over 2 decades is described within the context of the 3-fold traditional mission of academics (teaching, research, and service/practice). This adaptive model for AHDs, based on mutual benefits that can be viewed through the lenses of both the academic health center mission and the public health functions and services, has important implications for AHD sustainability. Continued collaboration in any academic-public health partnership will depend in part on the commitments of the changing leadership. However, institutionalizing support for the academic mission enables this collaboration to transcend changing leadership styles and priorities. The collaboration of Duval County Health Department and University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville is an example of a model of AHD that has endured major changes in leadership within both the academic center and the Duval County Health Department. PMID:24667196

  1. Social contract of academic medical centres to the community: Dr Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943), a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Academic medical centres have traditionally been bastions of teaching and research. Outreach to the community at large and involvement in community affairs have sometimes been lacking in the overall mission and activities of academic medical centres. This paper provides an historical perspective first on the numerous achievements of a physician and surgeon and then on the topic of involvement in community affairs by reviewing the many contributions of America's pioneer gynaecological surgeon and one of the four physician founders of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine in 1889 - Dr Howard Atwood Kelly. PMID:24906403

  2. An Interinstitutional Academic Collaborative Partnership to End Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Barbara N.; Davis, Leroy; Parker, Veronica G.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been published in the health care literature describing partnerships between academic institutions and community or health care agencies that are designed to improve health outcomes in medically underserved populations. However, little has been published regarding partnerships between minority- and majority-serving academic institutions…

  3. Understanding the dynamic interactions driving Zambian health centre performance: a case-based health systems analysis

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Stephanie M; Chipukuma, Julien M; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being central to achieving improved population health outcomes, primary health centres in low- and middle-income settings continue to underperform. Little research exists to adequately explain how and why this is the case. This study aimed to test the relevance and usefulness of an adapted conceptual framework for improving our understanding of the mechanisms and causal pathways influencing primary health centre performance. Methods A theory-driven, case-study approach was adopted. Four Zambian health centres were purposefully selected with case data including health-care worker interviews (n = 60); patient interviews (n = 180); direct observation of facility operations (2 weeks/centre) and key informant interviews (n = 14). Data were analysed to understand how the performance of each site was influenced by the dynamic interactions between system ‘hardware’ and ‘software’ acting on mechanisms of accountability. Findings Structural constraints including limited resources created challenging service environments in which work overload and stockouts were common. Health workers’ frustration with such conditions interacted with dissatisfaction with salary levels eroding service values and acting as a catalyst for different forms of absenteeism. Such behaviours exacerbated patient–provider ratios and increased the frequency of clinical and administrative shortcuts. Weak health information systems and lack of performance data undermined providers’ answerability to their employer and clients, and a lack of effective sanctions undermined supervisors’ ability to hold providers accountable for these transgressions. Weak answerability and enforceability contributed to a culture of impunity that masked and condoned weak service performance in all four sites. Conclusions Health centre performance is influenced by mechanisms of accountability, which are in turn shaped by dynamic interactions between system hardware and system software. Our

  4. Educating for the Internet in an Academic Library: The Scholars' Centre at the University of Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Toby

    1995-01-01

    Describes services offered by the University of Western Australia's Scholars' Centre to academic staff and postgraduate students in the arts and social sciences. Highlights include study facilities; collection development; interlibrary loan and document delivery services; access to electronic resources, including CD-ROMs and the Internet; Internet…

  5. Cost analysis of a primary health care centre in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, A. M. Zakir

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the first-ever cost analysis of a primary health care centre in Bangladesh. The aim was to provide information on costs incurred on various health care activities available in a thana health complex, in relation to the number of patients and the intensity of use of services. Overall costs were estimated by examining records and papers and by interviewing staff. Cost apportionment was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, all direct expenditure was calculated for each activity, e.g., wards, outpatient department, tuberculosis services, etc. In the second stage, general service costs, covering water, sanitation, security, and administration were divided among the various services. In the third stage, the costs of laboratory services were distributed according to the number of examinations carried out for each service. The capital costs for 1979 were US$ 36 382, of which 84.6% were incurred on the buildings. Recurrent costs for 1979 were US$ 59 556, i.e., 62% of overall costs, reflecting the labour intensiveness of the health complex. The distribution of the costs among the various health care activities was detailed. It was found that, in general, the cost per unit of activity depended mainly on the intensity of use of the resources, e.g., unit costs incurred in the outpatient department, maternal and child health services, and subcentres were relatively low because of the high rate of utilization of services. This study has demonstrated that it is possible to estimate unit costs in a thana health complex. It is hoped that the methods used here will provide a basis for further work of a similar nature. PMID:6603921

  6. [Health centres, a new mode of practice for private practice nurses].

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Health centres group together health professionals within the same complex. They work in collaboration, have a shared information system and regularly come together around a common project, while being remunerated for treatments not covered by the French social security system by grants from regional health authorities. The advantage of health centres in terms of the multi-professional follow-up of patients is undeniable. Such centres represent a real opportunity for nurses. PMID:27596493

  7. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing. PMID:25606190

  8. Experiences of involuntary admission in an approved mental health centre.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, D; Dowling, M; Trimble, T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what it means to have an involuntary hospital admission. A sample of six people who were detained at an approved Irish mental health centre consented to recount their experiences were interviewed. The interview transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three superordinate themes were identified: 'The early days', 'Experiences of treatment' and 'Moving on?'. 'The early days' represented participants' initial feelings and opinions of the experience of coming into the approved centre. 'Experiences of treatment' refers to participants' experiences of medication and relationships with staff. Finally, the theme 'Moving on?' represented participants' views on how they adjusted to involuntary admission. 'Learning the way' was central to the participants' notion of moving on. The findings suggest that the meaning of detention is a varied one that evokes an array of emotional responses for participants and highlights the need for a renewed way of thinking and doing concerning those subject to involuntary. PMID:23106908

  9. Some observations on perinatal mortality in rural health centre.

    PubMed

    Damodar; Mathur, H N; Sharma, P N

    1983-01-01

    A 4-year study of perinatal mortality in Rural Health Training Centre, Vallabhnagar, affiliated to R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur was conducted. The chief objective of the study was to analyze underlying causes of perinatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was calculated to be 74.19/100 births. Age and parity of mother and sex of the child did not affect perinatal mortality significantly. Antenatal care of mother had a significant role in determining fetal outcome and 1st week survival. Fate of the newborn was substantially affected by birth weight less than 2 kg. Training of "dais" in view of identification of "at risk" cases and nutrition education, better facilities in terms of personnel and equipment, and improvement in referral services emerged as necessary steps needed to plan strategy for lowering perinatal mortaltiy in rural areas. PMID:6680112

  10. The academic health center and the healthy community.

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, J; Vana, J E

    1994-01-01

    US medical care reflects the priorities and influence of academic health centers. This paper describes the leadership role assumed by one academic health center, the State University at Buffalo's School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and its eight affiliated hospitals, to serve its region by promoting shared governance in educating graduate physicians and in influencing the cost and quality of patient care. Cooperation among hospitals, health insurance payers, the business community, state government, and physicians helped establish priorities to meet community needs and reduce duplication of resources and services; to train more primary care physicians; to introduce shared governance into rural health care delivery; to develop a regional management information system; and to implement health policy. This approach, spearheaded by an academic health center without walls, may serve as a model for other academic health centers as they adapt to health care reform. PMID:8017527

  11. Health Education Strategies for Coping with Academic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the significance of health education strategies for coping with academic stress. Comprehensive health education strategies for coping with academic stress can help students obtain the greatest benefits from education and become healthy and productive adults .One child out of four has an emotional, social,…

  12. Surgical management of stage T1 renal tumours at Canadian academic centres

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Luke T.; Tanguay, Simon; Jewett, Michael A.; Wood, Lori; Kapoor, Anil; Rendon, Ricardo A.; Moore, Ronald B.; Lacombe, Louis; Kawakami, Jun; Pautler, Stephen E.; Drachenberg, Darrel E.; Black, Peter C.; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Morash, Christopher; Cagiannos, Ilias; Liu, Zhihui; Breau, Rodney H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The proportion of patients with stage 1 renal tumours receiving partial nephrectomy is considered a quality of care indicator. The objective of this study was to characterize surgical practice patterns at Canadian academic institutions for the treatment of these tumours. Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) is a multicentre collaboration of 13 academic institutions in Canada. All patients with pathologic stage T1 renal tumours in CKCis were identified. Descriptive statistics were performed to characterize practice patterns over time. Associations between patient, tumour, and treatment factors with the use of partial nephrectomy were determined. Results: From 1988 to April 2014, 1453 patients with pathologic stage 1 renal tumours were entered in the CKCis database. Of these, 977 (67%) patients had pT1a tumours; of these, 765 (78%) received partial nephrectomy. Of the total number of patients (1453), 476 (33%) had pT1b tumours; of these, 204 (43%) received partial nephrectomy. The use of partial nephrectomy increased over time from 60% to 90% for pT1a tumours and 20% to 60% for pT1b tumours. Stage pT1b (relative risk [RR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50–0.63) and minimally invasive surgical approach (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73–0.84 for pT1a and RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.17–0.30 for pT1b) were associated with decreased use of partial nephrectomy. Most patient factors including age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, and renal function were not significantly associated with use of partial nephrectomy (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Almost all pT1a and most pT1b renal tumours managed surgically at academic centres in Canada receive partial nephrectomy. The use of partial versus radical nephrectomy appears to occur independently of patient age and comorbid status, which may indicate that urologists are performing partial nephrectomy whenever technically feasible based on tumour factors. Although the ideal proportion patients receiving

  13. [The sainsbury centre for mental health: forensic mental health services in England and wales].

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M; Duggan, S

    2008-06-01

    The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (SCMH) is a charity founded in 1985 by Gatsby Charitable Foundation. The SCMH works to improve the quality of life for people with mental health problems by influencing policy and practice in mental health and related services. Working to improve the quality of mental health care for people in prison is one of SCMH main work theme. This paper describes some epidemiological aspects of mental health situation of prisoners in England and Wales and the available forensic facilities to manage this kind of patients in prison. PMID:23128315

  14. Nurse-physician collaboration in an academic medical centre: The influence of organisational and individual factors.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Darci; McIntosh, Georgia; Hemrajani, Reena; Yen, Miao-Shan; Phillips, Allison; Schwartz, Nathan; Tu, Shin-Ping; Dow, Alan W

    2016-09-01

    Ineffective physician-nurse collaboration has been recognised to adversely impact patient and organisational outcomes, and some studies suggest an underlying factor may be that nurses and physicians have different perceptions of interprofessional collaboration (IPC). The objectives of this study were to evaluate for a difference in the perception of IPC between physicians and nurses and to explore potential contributing factors at the individual and organisational levels to any observed difference. Data including measures of perceptions of IPC were collected from a convenience sample of resident physicians (n = 47), attending physicians (n = 18), and nurses (n = 54) providing care for internal medicine patients in a large tertiary care academic medical centre. Regression analysis revealed significantly lower perceptions of IPC scores for nurses in comparison to the scores of both the resident and attending physician groups (p = .0001 for both). Although demographic and workload factors also differed by profession, only profession and workload remained significant in regression analysis. Given the known relationships between effective physician-nurse collaboration and superior patient and organisational outcomes, better defining the individual and organisational predictors of IPC scores may support development of more effective interventions targeting improvements in IPC. PMID:27388560

  15. Interdisciplinary collaboration within Quebec Community Health Care Centres.

    PubMed

    Sicotte, Claude; D'Amour, Danielle; Moreault, Marie-Pierre

    2002-09-01

    Central to the success of many recent health system reforms is the implementation of new primary health care delivery models. The central characteristic common to these new models usually emphasises interdisciplinary collaboration. Using empirical research, this paper studies interdisciplinary collaboration among various groups of professionals within an original Canadian primary health care delivery model, the Quebec Community Health Care Centres (CCHCs). The entire population of more than 150 CHCCs have been surveyed. The goals of this study are (1) to measure the achieved intensity of inter-professional collaboration among Quebec CHCCs, and (2) to identify the organisational and professional factors fostering or limiting interdisciplinary collaboration. The results show that Quebec CHCCs have reached modest results in achieving interdisciplinary collaboration especially since interdisciplinary collaboration is a central objective that has been pursued for more than 25 years. This study demonstrates that the main factors associated with interdisciplinary collaboration are closely linked to work group internal dynamics. Interdisciplinary collaboration is linked to the simultaneous and antagonistic effect of some central intragroup process factors. Conflicting values and beliefs are present that both enhance and limit interdisciplinary collaboration. The presence of conflicting stimuli seriously undermines the strength of the CHCC work group's shared beliefs and strongly limits interdisciplinary collaboration. The results also stress the importance of administrative formalisation initiatives to enhance collaboration among different professions. The efficacy of formalisation in this context is based on its capacity to offer an articulated and operative interdisciplinary framework that can generate a counteractive effect to the traditional professional framework. It offers concrete rules that help align the work group beliefs with interdisciplinary values. The

  16. Practice-centred evaluation and the privileging of care in health information technology evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic Patient Records (EPRs) and telemedicine are positioned by policymakers as health information technologies that are integral to achieving improved clinical outcomes and efficiency savings. However, evaluating the extent to which these aims are met poses distinct evaluation challenges, particularly where clinical and cost outcomes form the sole focus of evaluation design. We propose that a practice-centred approach to evaluation - in which those whose day-to-day care practice is altered (or not) by the introduction of new technologies are placed at the centre of evaluation efforts – can complement and in some instances offer advantages over, outcome-centric evaluation models. Methods We carried out a regional programme of innovation in renal services where a participative approach was taken to the introduction of new technologies, including: a regional EPR system and a system to support video clinics. An ‘action learning’ approach was taken to procurement, pre-implementation planning, implementation, ongoing development and evaluation. Participants included clinicians, technology specialists, patients and external academic researchers. Whilst undergoing these activities we asked: how can a practice-centred approach be embedded into evaluation of health information technologies? Discussion Organising EPR and telemedicine evaluation around predetermined outcome measures alone can be impractical given the complex and contingent nature of such projects. It also limits the extent to which unforeseen outcomes and new capabilities are recognised. Such evaluations often fail to improve understanding of ‘when’ and ‘under what conditions’ technology-enabled service improvements are realised, and crucially, how such innovation improves care. Summary Our contribution, drawn from our experience of the case study provided, is a protocol for practice-centred, participative evaluation of technology in the clinical setting that privileges care. In

  17. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants. PMID:27563465

  18. Changing Perspectives: Teaching and Learning Centres' Strategic Contributions to Academic Development in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Challis, Di

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of Australian teaching and learning centres to identify factors that contribute to their effective strategic leadership. These centres remain in a state of flux, with seemingly endless reconfiguration. The drivers for such change appear to lie in decision makers' search for their centres to add more strategic value…

  19. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70%) with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20%) met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70%) evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services. PMID:26767134

  20. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  1. Adolescent Mental Health, Behavior Problems, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…

  2. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors

    PubMed Central

    Tooey, Mary Joan (M.J.); Arnold, Gretchen N.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative. PMID:25349542

  3. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors.

    PubMed

    Tooey, Mary Joan M J; Arnold, Gretchen N

    2014-10-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative. PMID:25349542

  4. Academic health center hospitals: alternative responses to financial stress.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Sloate, S G

    1987-01-01

    Academic health center hospitals face challenges to their survival in an increasingly competitive, challenging, and entrepreneurial environment. University hospitals face a number of major stresses and are responding in various ways to ensure their financial viability. PMID:3305420

  5. School-Based Health Centers and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Poor academic outcomes and high dropout rates are major concerns of educators, policy makers, and parents alike--and poor health severely limits a child's motivation and ability to learn. Recent research confirms that "health disparities affect educational achievement". Improving students' health is integral to education reform. "School-Based…

  6. The Centre for International Mental Health Approach to Mental Health System Development

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181

  7. The Centre for International Mental Health approach to mental health system development.

    PubMed

    Minas, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to develop mental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. PMID:22335181

  8. Integrating an Academic Electronic Health Record: Challenges and Success Strategies.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Valerie M; Connors, Helen

    2016-08-01

    Technology is increasing the complexity in the role of today's nurse. Healthcare organizations are integrating more health information technologies and relying on the electronic health record for data collection, communication, and decision making. Nursing faculty need to prepare graduates for this environment and incorporate an academic electronic health record into a nursing curriculum to meet student-program outcomes. Although the need exists for student preparation, some nursing programs are struggling with implementation, whereas others have been successful. To better understand these complexities, this project was intended to identify current challenges and success strategies of effective academic electronic health record integration into nursing curricula. Using Rogers' 1962 Diffusion of Innovation theory as a framework for technology adoption, a descriptive survey design was used to gain insights from deans and program directors of nursing schools involved with the national Health Informatics & Technology Scholars faculty development program or Cerner's Academic Education Solution Consortium, working to integrate an academic electronic health record in their respective nursing schools. The participants' experiences highlighted approaches used by these schools to integrate these technologies. Data from this project provide nursing education with effective strategies and potential challenges that should be addressed for successful academic electronic health record integration. PMID:27326804

  9. The Australian e-Health Research Centre: enabling the health care information and communication technology revolution.

    PubMed

    Hansen, David P; Gurney, Phil; Morgan, Gary; Barraclough, Bruce

    2011-02-21

    The CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) and the Queensland Government have jointly established the Australian e-Health Research Centre (AEHRC) with the aim of developing innovative information and communication technologies (ICT) for a sustainable health care system. The AEHRC, as part of the CSIRO ICT Centre, has access to new technologies in information processing, wireless and networking technologies, and autonomous systems. The AEHRC's 50 researchers, software engineers and PhD students, in partnership with the CSIRO and clinicians, are developing and applying new technologies for improving patients' experience, building a more rewarding workplace for the health workforce, and improving the efficiency of delivering health care. The capabilities of the AEHRC fall into four broad areas: smart methods for using medical data; advanced medical imaging technologies; new models for clinical and health care interventions; and tools for medical skills development. Since its founding in 2004, new technology from the AEHRC has been adopted within Queensland (eg, a mobile phone-based cardiac rehabilitation program), around Australia (eg, medical imaging technologies) and internationally (eg, our clinical terminology tools). PMID:21401490

  10. ICT Implementation Challenges and Strategies for ODL Institutions: The ZOU's National Centre Academic Staff Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenge, Richard Tafara; Chimbadzwa, Zvinaiye; Mapolisa, Tichaona

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted some of the major challenges that Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) academic staff experiences in connection with Information Communication Technology (ICT) implementation. It employed a qualitative paradigm rooted in a case study research design focusing on ZOU Academic Staff at the selected Faculties. It purposively sampled…

  11. Building a sustainable Academic Health Department: the South Carolina model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Waddell, Lisa; Kyle, Joseph; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited resources available to public health, it is critical that university programs complement the development needs of agencies. Unfortunately, academic and practice public health entities have long been challenged in building sustainable collaborations that support practice-based research, teaching, and service. The academic health department concept offers a promising solution. In South Carolina, the partners started their academic health department program with a small grant that expanded into a dynamic infrastructure that supports innovative professional exchange and development programs. This article provides a background and describes the key elements of the South Carolina model: joint leadership, a multicomponent memorandum of agreement, and a shared professional development mission. The combination of these elements allows the partners to leverage resources and deftly respond to challenges and opportunities, ultimately fostering the sustainability of the collaboration. PMID:24667204

  12. Directory of Academic Programs in Occupational Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, William J., III; And Others

    This booklet describes academic program offerings in American colleges and universities in the area of occupational safety and health. Programs are divided into five major categories, corresponding to each of the core disciplines: (1) occupational safety and health/industrial hygiene, (2) occupational safety, (3) industrial hygiene, (4)…

  13. Academic health centers in turbulent times: strategies for survival.

    PubMed

    Topping, S; Hyde, J; Barker, J; Woodrell, F D

    1999-01-01

    Given the increasingly turbulent health care environment, the strategic adaptation of academic health centers (AHCs) provides an opportunity to investigate the effects of drastic change on a population of organizations. This article identifies and categorizes the adaptive behavior using existing strategic typologies, while exploring the implications for hospital managers. PMID:10358803

  14. Mergers involving academic health centers: a formidable challenge.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, V D

    2001-10-01

    Escalating economic pressures on the clinical enterprise threaten the missions of education and research in many of the most prestigious academic health centers. Following the model of industry, mergers of the healthcare delivery systems of teaching hospitals and clinics held promise for economies of scale and an improved operating margin. Failure to follow business principles in constructing the merged entity, differences in organizational governance and culture, and inability of physician leadership to prioritize, downsize, and consolidate clinical programs to optimize operational efficiencies all compromise the success of such mergers in academic medicine. Academic institutions and their respective governing boards need to exercise greater discipline in financial analysis and a willingness to make difficult decisions that show favor to one parent institution over another if mergers are to be effective in this setting. To date, an example of a vibrant and successful merger of academic health centers remains to be found. PMID:11603683

  15. [Academic review of global health approaches: an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    In order to identify perspectives on global health, this essay analyzes different trends from academia that have enriched global health and international health. A database was constructed with information from the world's leading global health centers. The search covered authors on global diplomacy and global health and was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and Google Scholar with the key words "global health" and "international health". Research and training centers in different countries have taken various academic approaches to global health; various interests and ideological orientations have emerged in relation to the global health concept. Based on the mosaic of global health centers and their positions, the review concludes that the new concept reflects the construction of a paradigm of renewal in international health and global health, the pre-paradigmatic stage of which has still not reached a final version. PMID:26578006

  16. Academic health centers and society: an ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1999-08-01

    Academic health centers--which combine university, medical school, and hospital--exist to satisfy universal human needs and thus are by definition instruments of social purpose. Their core mission is threefold: to provide medical knowledge that can help relieve and prevent illness and suffering, to supply practitioners able to apply that knowledge wisely, and to serve as sites where optimal use of medical knowledge can be demonstrated and investigated. Maintaining a balance between core mission and responsiveness to social trends is a delicate exercise. Overly close accommodation to such trends can endanger the core mission, as has occurred in the United States with regard to managed care. Society and academic health centers have mutual obligations. Obligations of society include giving academic health centers financial and other support and allowing them sufficient freedom to pursue their mission; obligations of academic medical centers include accepting greater scrutiny by society and providing social criticism on matters relating to health. A task for the future is to discern how academic health centers can be responsive to social needs without being totally subservient to societal desires. PMID:10495739

  17. The Academic Health Department: the process of maturation.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Keck, C William

    2014-01-01

    The Academic Health Department (AHD) involves an arrangement between a governmental health agency and an academic institution, which provides mutual benefits in teaching, service, research, and practice. From its initial development in the mid-1980s as the public health equivalent of the relationship between a teaching hospital and a medical school, the AHD concept has evolved to include multiple levels of governmental public health agencies (local, state, and federal) as well as multiple academic institutions (public health, medicine, and primary care medical residencies). Throughout the decade of the 2000s, multiple influences have impacted both the quality and quantity of AHDs, leading to an expansion of AHDs through the Council on Linkages' AHD Learning Community. The value of the AHD--as described from prior studies as well as the AHD case examples in this current special issue--is evident in its impact on the quality of educational experiences and workforce development, agency and academic accreditation, practice-based research, and the potential to influence health reform. PMID:24667186

  18. Profile: the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning of India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    In 1974, the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning was founded at India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare with funds from the government and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) to provide reliable population information to policy makers, planners, administrators for program development as well as to academics, researchers, students, and social workers engaged in population issues. Data collected from states and districts by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare are disseminated through publications. The Centre receives documents from other Indian research entities and from foreign bodies. The existing collection consists of 40,000 books and monographs, 10,000 periodicals and journals, 450 current journals, 2000 institutional publications, 1000 annual reports, and 5000 fugitive material items. A data base containing this collected material has the purpose of generating various publications, and full copies of originals are provided at request. WHO designated the Centre a resource center for primary health care information. It is a linchpin of the Asia-Pacific POPIN network. Requests are frequent for information on family welfare program management. Dissemination includes information packages, annotated bibliographies, synthesized information, case studies, and field experience reports. The staff includes subject specialists, communication experts, and software and management specialists. 54 health and family welfare training centers have been involved in information activities since 1985. Exchange of information with population research centers has started by means of computer networking. Local area networks are developed with science libraries of major cities. DELNET (Delhi Library Network) launched a resource-sharing effort of health and family planning libraries. The creation of a National Population Information Database is also planned by the establishment of POPIN-India. PMID:12286547

  19. Strategies for building a multidisciplinary academic program in women's health.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J

    1999-09-01

    During the decade of the 1990s, women's health has received unprecedented attention from government, industry, marketers of healthcare, and academic medical centers. An assessment of research, education, and healthcare delivery has exposed gaps in our knowledge about gender-related issues. Recognition of gender as a rich frontier for innovation and discovery has resulted in widespread and varied responses and a commensurate increase in activity in the field. However, this diversity of effort has created the new challenge of effectively communicating strategies of response to the multiple disciplines invested in women's health. This article describes a strategy used at Duke University Medical Center to build awareness of women's health through a highly visible and successful Women's Health Seminar Series. The series serves as a focal point for broader efforts to build a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, academic program in women's health with initiatives in clinical care, research, faculty development, provider education, and community outreach. PMID:10534301

  20. The Untold Story: Examining Ontario's Community Health Centres' Initiatives to Address Upstream Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Resendes, Sarah J.; Dunn, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike traditional primary care centres, part of the Community Health Centre (CHC) mandate is to address upstream health determinants. In Ontario, CHCs refer to these activities as Community Initiatives (CIs); yet, little is known about how CIs operate. The objective of this study was to examine the scope, resource requirements, partnerships, successes and challenges among selected Ontario CIs. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 CHC staff members representing 11 CIs across Ontario. CIs were identified through an online inventory, recruited by e-mail and interviewed between March and June 2011. Results: Most CIs aim to increase community participation, while addressing social isolation and poverty. They draw minimal financial resources from their CHC, and employ highly skilled staff to support implementation. Most enlist support from various partners, and use numerous methods for community engagement. Successes include improved community relations, increased opportunities for education and employment and rewarding partnerships, while insufficient funding was a commonly identified challenge. Conclusions: Despite minimal attention from researchers and funders, our findings suggest that CIs play key capacity-building roles in vulnerable communities across Ontario, and warrant further investigation. PMID:25410693

  1. The Challenges for New Academics in Adopting Student-Centred Approaches to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The current article provides a perspective on the day-to-day challenges that a group of new teachers experienced as they adopted more student-centred approaches to teaching. Three semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 11 new teachers from a range of higher education institutions and subject disciplines. The analysis used…

  2. The Centre for History in Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London (LSHTM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the origin of the Centre for History in Public Health and the significance of its location in a leading school of public health. It is in three parts: (1) A brief history of how the AIDS programme became the History Centre; (2) The distinctive approach of the Centre's staff as historians: their contribution and its…

  3. Developing Blended Learning Resources and Strategies to Support Academic Reading: A Student-Centred Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roger; Dickerson, Claire; Teague, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a blended learning curriculum development project, in which a student was "prospectively" engaged with teacher educators in developing resources designed to increase support for academic reading. Curriculum development took place at the University of Hertfordshire School of Education through the Change Academy for Blended…

  4. Safety and Health Concerns in Academic and Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Dorothy M.

    The library is a relatively safe work place, but no place is completely free from hazards. This paper examines the major health and safety concerns of staff and patrons of academic and public libraries, based on a literature review of approximately 60 articles. According to this literature, general safety hazards are not considered a major problem…

  5. Health Behaviour and Academic Achievement in Icelandic School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…

  6. The Evolving Academic Health Center: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirin, Steven; Summergrad, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Regardless of the outcome of current efforts at healthcare reform, the resources that academic health centers need--to provide care for increasingly complex patient populations, support clinical innovation, grow the clinical enterprise, and carry out their research and teaching missions--are in jeopardy. This article examines the value…

  7. Changing Economics of Health Care Are Devastating Academic Medical Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Once a financially healthy part of American universities, many academic health centers are struggling to survive. Many are merging with for-profit chains or declaring bankruptcy. The advance of managed care and insurance companies focusing on reducing costs appears to be affecting teaching hospitals more than community hospitals. (MSE)

  8. Workaholism and mental health among Polish academic workers.

    PubMed

    Bartczak, Monika; Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between workaholism and mental health among 126 Polish academic workers. The participants' mean age was 45.9 years, 51.6% of them were women. The participants completed 2 questionnaires: the work addiction risk test and the general health questionnaire. Even though 66% of the subjects were classified in the group of moderate-to-high risk of workaholism, the overall state of mental health was categorized as average. The results revealed that workaholism was associated with poorer mental health. Employees with higher levels of workaholism had worse state of health, i.e., more somatic symptoms, higher levels of anxiety, insomnia, social dysfunction and symptoms of depression. Emotional arousal/perfectionism was the strongest predictor of the state of general health and was mostly responsible for harmful effects on mental health. However, the general effect of workaholism on health was not as strong as expected. PMID:22429525

  9. A feasibility study for the establishment of a national wildlife health centre in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Valeix, S; Lokugalappatti, L G S; Abeynayake, P; Prasad, T; Chandrasiri, A D N; Daniel, S L A; Stephen, C; Leighton, F A

    2011-12-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical nation within a zoogeographic zone that is at high risk for infectious disease emergence. In 2010, a study was conducted on the feasibility of enhancing capacity in Sri Lanka to manage wildlife diseases through the establishment of a national wildlife health centre. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre was assessed as a potential model for adaptation in Sri Lanka. Interviews and group meetings were conducted with potential key participants from the Sri Lankan Departments of Wildlife Conservation and Animal Production and Health, and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of Peradeniya. In addition, site visits were made to potentially participating facilities and the literature on best practices in building scientific capacity was consulted. With strategic enhancements in education and training, additional personnel, improvements in transportation and diagnostic facilities, and central coordination, Sri Lanka appears very well positioned to establish a sustainable wildlife health centre and programme. PMID:22435187

  10. Health Systems Innovation at Academic Health Centers: Leading in a New Era of Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ellner, Andrew L; Stout, Somava; Sullivan, Erin E; Griffiths, Elizabeth P; Mountjoy, Ashlin; Phillips, Russell S

    2015-07-01

    Challenged by demands to reduce costs and improve service delivery, the U.S. health care system requires transformational change. Health systems innovation is defined broadly as novel ideas, products, services, and processes-including new ways to promote healthy behaviors and better integrate health services with public health and other social services-which achieve better health outcomes and/or patient experience at equal or lower cost. Academic health centers (AHCs) have an opportunity to focus their considerable influence and expertise on health systems innovation to create new approaches to service delivery and to nurture leaders of transformation. AHCs have traditionally used their promotions criteria to signal their values; creating a health systems innovator promotion track could be a critical step towards creating opportunities for innovators in academic medicine. In this Perspective, the authors review publicly available promotions materials at top-ranked medical schools and find that while criteria for advancement increasingly recognize systems innovation, there is a lack of specificity on metrics beyond the traditional yardstick of peer-reviewed publications. In addition to new promotions pathways and alternative evidence for the impact of scholarship, other approaches to fostering health systems innovation at AHCs include more robust funding for career development in health systems innovation, new curricula to enable trainees to develop skills in health systems innovation, and new ways for innovators to disseminate their work. AHCs that foster health systems innovation could meet a critical need to contribute both to the sustainability of our health care system and to AHCs' continued leadership role within it. PMID:25738387

  11. Swan Hills Special Waste Treatment Centre human health impact assessment. Volume 2: Technical appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Appendices to a study of human health impacts of the Swan Hills Waste Treatment Centre in Alberta include: Background information on the Centre, including site characteristics, operational history, environmental incidents, and land use; protocols for sampling of locally obtained meat and fish; data on levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in meat and fish samples; protocols for human blood monitoring and sampling; congener profiles for deer, fish, and human blood samples; survey questionnaires and news releases related to possible impacts of a contaminant release from the Centre; and information on databases used.

  12. Swan Hills Special Waste Treatment Centre human health impact assessment. Volume 2: Technical appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-01-01

    Appendices to a study of human health impacts of the Swan Hills Waste Treatment Centre in Alberta include: Background information on the Centre, including site characteristics, operational history, environmental incidents, and land use; protocols for sampling of locally obtained meat and fish; data on levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in meat and fish samples; protocols for human blood monitoring and sampling; congener profiles for deer, fish, and human blood samples; survey questionnaires and news releases related to possible impacts of a contaminant release from the Centre; and information on databases used.

  13. Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

  14. Processes of patient-centred care in Family Health Teams: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; Ryan, Bridget L.; Thorpe, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient-centred care, access to care, and continuity of and coordination of care are core processes in primary health care delivery. Our objective was to evaluate how these processes are enacted by 1 primary care model, Family Health Teams, in Ontario. Methods: Our study used grounded theory methodology to examine these 4 processes of care from the perspective of health care providers. Twenty Family Health Team practice sites in Ontario were selected to represent maximum variation (e.g., location, year of Family Health Team approval). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant. A constant comparative approach was used to analyze the data. Results: Our final sample population involved 110 participants from 20 Family Health Teams. Participants described how their Family Health Team strived to provide patient-centred care, to ensure access, and to pursue continuity and coordination in their delivery of care. Patient-centred care was provided through a variety of means forging the links among the other processes of care. Participants from all teams articulated a commitment to timely access, spontaneously expressing the importance of access to mental health services. Continuity of care was linked to both access and patient-centred care. Coordination of care by the team was perceived to reduce unnecessary walk-in clinic and emergency department visits, and facilitated a smoother transition from hospital to home. Interpretation: These 4 processes of patient care were inextricably linked. Patient-centred care was the focal point, and these processes in turn served to enhance the delivery of patient-centred care. PMID:27398373

  15. Quality at the centre of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Howard L; Huntington, Dale; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-05-01

    The last decade of the MDG era witnessed substantial focus on reaching the bottom economic quintiles in low and middle income countries. However, the inordinate focus on reducing financial risk burden and increasing coverage without sufficient focus on expanding quality of services may account for slow progress of the MDGs in many countries. Human Resources for Health underlie quality and service delivery improvements, yet remains under-addressed in many national strategies to achieve Universal Health Coverage. Without adequate investments in improving and expanding health professional education, making and sustaining gains will be unlikely. The transition from the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), with exciting new financing initiatives such as the Global Financing Facility brings the potential to enact substantial gains in the quality of services delivered and upgrading human health resources. This focus should ensure effective methodologies to improve health worker competencies and change practice are employed and ineffective and harmful ones eliminated (including undue influence of commercial interests). PMID:26420642

  16. The development of an intelligent laboratory information system for a community health promotion centre.

    PubMed

    Chae, Young Moon; Lim, Hwan-Sub; Lee, Ju Hon; Bae, Mi Young; Kim, Gyu Hyung

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an Intelligent Laboratory Information System (ILIS) for the community health promotion centre in Kwachun city to help process an increasing amount of laboratory test data in an efficient manner, and to support the clinical decision-making of public health doctors. A sample of 170 cases was used for validation of the system. Overall, the system correctly predicted 92.5% of the cases. This paper also analysed the economic feasibility of the ILIS based on the Information Economics approach. The results showed that the ILIS not only helps screen more people by increasing the capacity of a health promotion centre, but also brings in more revenue to the centre. PMID:12862409

  17. Building public health capacity in Madhya Pradesh through academic partnership

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Anjali; Negandhi, Himanshu; Zodpey, Sanjay; Vyas, Nidhi; Agnani, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in partnerships is a strategic means of achieving objectives common to each partner. The Post Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management (PGDPHM) partners in consultation with the government and aims to strengthen the public health managerial capacity. This case study examines the PGDPHM program conducted jointly by the Public Health Foundation of India and the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) at the State Institute of Health Management and Communication, Gwalior, which is the apex training and research institute of the state government for health professionals. This is an example of collaborative partnership between an academic institution and the Department of Public Health and Family Welfare, GoMP. PGDPHM is a 1-year, fully residential course with a strong component of field-based project work, and aims to bridge the gap in public health managerial capacity of the health system through training of health professionals. The program is uniquely designed in the context of the National Rural Health Mission and uses a multidisciplinary approach with a focus on inter-professional education. The curriculum is competency driven and health systems connected and the pedagogy uses a problem-solving approach with multidisciplinary faculty from different programs and practice backgrounds that bring rich field experience to the classroom. This case study presents the successful example of the interface between academia and the health system and of common goals achieved through this partnership for building capacity of health professionals in the state of Madhya Pradesh over the past 3 years. PMID:25128807

  18. Commentary: Institutes versus traditional administrative academic health center structures.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Michael; Lofgren, Richard

    2012-05-01

    In the Point-Counterpoint section of this issue, Kastor discusses the pros and cons of a new, institute-based administrative structure that was developed at the Cleveland Clinic in 2008, ostensibly to improve the quality and efficiency of patient care. The real issue underlying this organizational transformation is not whether the institute model is better than the traditional model; instead, the issue is whether the traditional academic health center (AHC) structure is viable or whether it must evolve. The traditional academic model, in which the department and chair retain a great deal of autonomy and authority, and in which decision-making processes are legislative in nature, is too tedious and laborious to effectively compete in today's health care market. The current health care market is demanding greater efficiencies, lower costs, and thus greater integration, as well as more transparency and accountability. Improvements in both quality and efficiency will demand coordination and integration. Focusing on quality and efficiency requires organizational structures that facilitate cohesion and teamwork, and traditional organizational models will not suffice. These new structures must and will replace the loose amalgamation of the traditional AHC to develop the focus and cohesion to address the pressures of an evolving health care system. Because these new structures should lead to more successful clinical enterprises, they will, in fact, support the traditional academic missions of research and education more successfully than traditional organizational models can. PMID:22531588

  19. Health Reform and Academic Health Centers: Commentary on an Evolving Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wartman, Steven A; Zhou, Yingying; Knettel, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), both directly and indirectly, has had a demonstrable impact on academic health centers. Given the highly cross-subsidized nature of institutional funds flows, the impact of health reform is not limited to the clinical care mission but also extends to the research and education missions of these institutions. This Commentary discusses how public policy and market-based health reforms have played out relative to expectations. The authors identify six formidable challenges facing academic health centers in the post-ACA environment: finding the best mission balance; preparing for the era of no open-ended funding; developing an integrated, interprofessional vision; broadening the institutional perspective; addressing health beyond clinical care; and finding the right leadership for the times. Academic health centers will be well positioned for success if they can focus on 21st-century realities, reengineer their business models, and find transformational leaders to change institutional culture and behavior. PMID:26422592

  20. Health Is Academic. A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Eva, Ed.; Wooley, Susan Frelick, Ed.; Northrop, Daphne, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of papers that define comprehensive school health programs and their components and provide action steps for their implementation at the local, state, and national levels: (1) "Linking Health and Learning: An Overview of Coordinated School Health Programs" (Floretta Dukes McKenzie and Julius B. Richmond); (2)…

  1. The Academic Health Sciences Library and Serial Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jo Ann

    1974-01-01

    A review of efforts to formulate basic medical journal lists and a report of a survey of subscriptions held in academic health science libraries is presented. The subscriptions held by thirty-seven libraries were analyzed to determine those held by 60-100% of the sample. A comparison of those titles subscribed to by 90-100% of the sample reveals that most of these titles appear in the lists formulated by other studies. PMID:4466506

  2. Building diversity in a complex academic health center.

    PubMed

    South-Paul, Jeannette E; Roth, Loren; Davis, Paula K; Chen, Terence; Roman, Anna; Murrell, Audrey; Pettigrew, Chenits; Castleberry-Singleton, Candi; Schuman, Joel

    2013-09-01

    For 30 years, the many diversity-related health sciences programs targeting the University of Pittsburgh undergraduate campus, school of medicine, schools of the health sciences, clinical practice plan, and medical center were run independently and remained separate within the academic health center (AHC). This lack of coordination hampered their overall effectiveness in promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2007, a group of faculty and administrators from the university and the medical center recognized the need to improve institutional diversity and to better address local health disparities. In this article, the authors describe the process of linking the efforts of these institutions in a way that would be successful locally and applicable to other academic environments. First, they engaged an independent consultant to conduct a study of the AHC's diversity climate, interviewing current and former faculty and trainees to define the problem and identify areas for improvement. Next, they created the Physician Inclusion Council to address the findings of this study and to coordinate future efforts with institutional leaders. Finally, they formed four working committees to address (1) communications and outreach, (2) cultural competency, (3) recruitment, and (4) mentoring and retention. These committees oversaw the strategic development and implementation of all diversity and inclusion efforts. Together these steps led to structural changes within the AHC and the improved allocation of resources that have positioned the University of Pittsburgh to achieve not only diversity but also inclusion and to continue to address the health disparities in the Pittsburgh community. PMID:23886998

  3. External Reporting Lines of Academic Special Libraries: A Health Sciences Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Amy G.; Ferree, Nita; Cataldo, Tara T.; Tennant, Michele R.

    2010-01-01

    Very little literature exists on the nature of external reporting lines and funding structures of academic special libraries. This study focuses on academic health sciences libraries. The authors analyze information gathered from statistics published by the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) from 1977 through 2007; an…

  4. School Nurse Case Management for Children with Chronic Illness: Health, Academic, and Quality of Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelke, Martha Keehner; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B.; Swanson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with…

  5. Strategic planning and entrepreneurism in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Smith, C T

    1988-01-01

    This article examines the academic medical center as a mature component of the industry, whose complex mission can be reconciled with the public's changing needs in an era of cost containment through the use of increasingly businesslike strategic planning. New dimensions in academic health center missions (as a result of changing public mandates) emphasize the need to identify the most appropriate settings for both the delivery of patient care and physician education. Strategies to meet these new demands, reflecting a market-oriented approach, such as diversification through corporate reorganization and joint ventures are delineated. Legal, tax, and regulatory problems that develop as a result of not-for-profit hospital engagement in unrelated business activity are also reviewed. PMID:10302489

  6. A patient-centred approach to health service delivery: improving health outcomes for people with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Wagner Model provides a framework that can help to facilitate health system transition towards a chronic care oriented model. Drawing on elements of this framework as well as health policy related to patient centred care, we describe the health needs of patients with chronic illness and compare these with services which should ideally be provided by a patient-centred health system. This paper aims to increase understanding of the challenges faced by chronically ill patients and family carers in relation to their experiences with the health care system and health service providers. Method We interviewed patients, carers and health care professionals (HCPs) about the challenges faced by people living with complicated diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results Patients indicated that they had a range of concerns related to the quality of health care encounters with health care professionals (HCPs), with these concerns being expressed as needs or wants. These included: 1) the need for improved communication and information delivery on the part of HCPs; 2) well organised health services and reduced waiting times to see HCPs; 3) help with self care; 4) greater recognition among professionals of the need for holistic and continuing care; and 5) inclusion of patients and carers in the decision making processes. Conclusions In order to address the challenges faced by people with chronic illness, health policy must be more closely aligned with the identified needs and wants of people affected by chronic illness than is currently the case. PMID:23819721

  7. Evaluating Three School-Based Integrated Health Centres Established by a Partnership in Cornwall to Inform Future Provision and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report the process, findings and implications of a three-year evaluation of integrated health centres (IHCs) established in three secondary schools in Cornwall by the School-Based Integrated Health Centres (SBIHC) partnership. Design/methodology/approach: When the partners had completed the capital works, an…

  8. Using women's health research to develop women leaders in academic health sciences: the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Carnes, M; VandenBosche, G; Agatisa, P K; Hirshfield, A; Dan, A; Shaver, J L; Murasko, D; McLaughlin, M

    2001-01-01

    While the number of women entering U.S. medical schools has risen substantially in the past 25 years, the number of women in leadership positions in academic medicine is disproportionately small. The traditional pathway to academic leadership is through research. Women's health research is an ideal venue to fill the pipeline with talented women physicians and scientists who may become academic leaders in positions where they can promote positive change in women's health as well as mentor other women. The Office on Women's Health (OWH) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has contracted with 18 academic medical centers to develop National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health. Emphasizing the integral link between women's health and women leaders, each of the Centers of Excellence must develop a leadership plan for women in academic medicine as part of the contract requirements. This paper describes the training programs in women's health research that have developed at five of the academic medical centers: the University of Wisconsin, Magee Women's Hospital, the University of Maryland, Medical College of Pennsylvania Hahnemann University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. We discuss some of the challenges faced for both initiation and future viability of these programs as well as criteria by which these programs will be evaluated for success. PMID:11224943

  9. A prospective health impact assessment of the international astronomy and space exploration centre

    PubMed Central

    Winters, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES—Assess the potential health impacts of the proposed International Astronomy and Space Exploration Centre on the population of New Wallasey. Contribute to the piloting of health impact assessment methods.
DESIGN—Prospective health impact assessment involving brainstorming sessions and individual interviews with key informants and a literature review.
SETTING—New Wallasey Single Regeneration Budget 4 area.
PARTICIPANTS—Key stakeholders including local residents' groups selected through purposeful snowball sampling.
MAIN RESULTS—Recommendations are made that cover issues around: transport and traffic; civic design; security; public safety, employment and training.
CONCLUSIONS—Health impact assessment is a useful pragmatic tool for facilitating wide consultation. In particular engaging the local population in the early planning stages of a proposed development, and assisting in highlighting changes to maximise the positive health influences on affected communities.


Keywords: health impact assessment; health determinants PMID:11351002

  10. Disease Surveillance and the Academic, Clinical, and Public Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rebmann, Catherine A.; Schuchat, Anne; Hughes, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs), a population-based network involving 10 state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, complement and support local, regional, and national surveillance and research efforts. EIPs depend on collaboration between public health agencies and clinical and academic institutions to perform active, population-based surveillance for infectious diseases; conduct applied epidemiologic and laboratory research; implement and evaluate pilot prevention and intervention projects; and provide capacity for flexible public health response. Recent EIP work has included monitoring the impact of a new conjugate vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease, providing the evidence base used to derive new recommendations to prevent neonatal group B streptococcal disease, measuring the impact of foodborne diseases in the United States, and developing a systematic, integrated laboratory and epidemiologic method for syndrome-based surveillance. PMID:12890317

  11. A new conceptual framework for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Borden, William B; Mushlin, Alvin I; Gordon, Jonathan E; Leiman, Joan M; Pardes, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Led by the Affordable Care Act, the U.S. health care system is undergoing a transformative shift toward greater accountability for quality and efficiency. Academic health centers (AHCs), whose triple mission of clinical care, research, and education serves a critical role in the country's health care system, must adapt to this evolving environment. Doing so successfully, however, requires a broader understanding of the wide-ranging roles of the AHC. This article proposes a conceptual framework through which the triple mission is expanded along four new dimensions: health, innovation, community, and policy. Examples within the conceptual framework categories, such as the AHCs' safety net function, their contributions to local economies, and their role in right-sizing the health care workforce, illustrate how each of these dimensions provides a more robust picture of the modern AHC and demonstrates the value added by AHCs. This conceptual framework also offers a basis for developing new performance metrics by which AHCs, both individually and as a group, can be held accountable, and that can inform policy decisions affecting them. This closer examination of the myriad activities of modern AHCs clarifies their essential role in our health care system and will enable these institutions to evolve, improve, be held accountable for, and more fully serve the health of the nation. PMID:25785679

  12. Integrative cancer care in a US academic cancer centre: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Experience.

    PubMed

    Deng, G

    2008-08-01

    Various surveys show that interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among cancer patients. Patients want to explore all options that may help their treatment. Many CAM modalities offer patients an active role in their self-care, and the resulting sense of empowerment is very appealing. On the other hand, many unscrupulous marketeers promote alternative cancer "cures," targeting cancer patients who are particularly vulnerable. Some alternative therapies can hurt patients by delaying effective treatment or by causing adverse effects or detrimental interactions with other medications. It is not in the best interest of cancer patients if they cannot get appropriate guidance on the use of CAM from the health care professionals who are part of their cancer care team. The Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York was established in 1999 to address patient interest in cam, to incorporate helpful complementary therapies into each patient's overall treatment management, to guide patients in avoiding harmful alternative therapies, and to develop prospective research to evaluate the efficacy of CAM modalities. PMID:18769574

  13. Integrative Cancer Care in a US Academic Cancer Centre: The Memorial Sloan–Kettering Experience

    PubMed Central

    Deng, G.

    2008-01-01

    Various surveys show that interest in complementary and alternative medicine (cam) is high among cancer patients. Patients want to explore all options that may help their treatment. Many cam modalities offer patients an active role in their self-care, and the resulting sense of empowerment is very appealing. On the other hand, many unscrupulous marketeers promote alternative cancer “cures,” targeting cancer patients who are particularly vulnerable. Some alternative therapies can hurt patients by delaying effective treatment or by causing adverse effects or detrimental interactions with other medications. It is not in the best interest of cancer patients if they cannot get appropriate guidance on the use of cam from the health care professionals who are part of their cancer care team. The Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center in New York was established in 1999 to address patient interest in cam, to incorporate helpful complementary therapies into each patient’s overall treatment management, to guide patients in avoiding harmful alternative therapies, and to develop prospective research to evaluate the efficacy of cam modalities. PMID:18769574

  14. [Behaviour concerning smoking among the patients making use of advice in women health centres].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Szymański, Przemysław; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    The level of knowledge in the society about the harmful influence of smoking is increasing systematically. But there are still many people ignoring the warnings and prohibitions concerning smoking. The results of the research show that it is highly worrying that there are people for whom smoking is incredibly dangerous, e.g. children, youth, women, especially pregnant women. The aim of the work was to establish the percentage of smoking women among the patients of the women health centre, with the special focus on pregnant women. There were 120 women encompassed in this study in the health centre in Opoczno and 120 women using a similar health centre in Lodz between the 1st and the 15th March 2007, using a auditoria survey questionnaire. The collected data was worked out statistically. In the group of 240 tested people, 87 admitted to smoking, which is 36.3% of the respondents. Among the 185 women who were not pregnant, but were smoking, there were 75 (40.5%) and in the group of 55 pregnant women, there were 12 who smoked (f=0.22). Over 22% of the smoking women smoked over 10 cigarettes a day. From among 87 of the surveyed, 35.6% claimed they smoked everywhere they wanted. Majority of the respondents that is 52.9% lived with at least one other smoking person. Over 70% of them would like to quit smoking. Almost 48% stated their doctor has never talked with them about the influence of smoking on their health and almost 42% stated that no nurse or midwife has ever talked to them about this subject. Frequency of smoking among the tested people who were using the women health centre was high. Especially worrying was the percentage of the smoking pregnant women--every fifth of them smoked. PMID:18409321

  15. The glass ceiling in academe: health administration is no exception.

    PubMed

    Stoskopf, C H; Xirasagar, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews gender issues in academe and presents findings of a limited survey of ACEHSA-accredited health administration graduate programs. The survey shows gender ratios adverse to women at the full, associate, and assistant professor levels. Men to women ratio among faculty was 1.98, among full-time faculty it was 2.24, and among tenured/tenure-track faculty it was 2.69, despite an excess of female students over male students in graduate programs, and despite equal proportions of women and men faculty holding doctoral degrees. Distribution by rank showed 48.5 percent full professors, 27.8 percent associate professors, and, 20.1 percent assistant professors among men, vs. 27.4 percent, 41.1 percent, and 31.5 percent respectively among women. In other academic fields similar gender ratios prevail, and many researchers have documented evidence of continuing gender inequities in tenure, promotion and salary, given comparable performance, despite the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Gender disparities are rooted in a complex web of gender-specific constraints interwoven with secular human capital and structural variables, and confounded by sexist discriminatory factors. In light of these issues, recommendations are made toward creating an equitable academic climate without compromising the ideal of meritocracy, through gender-sensitive initiatives and vigilance mechanisms to bring policies to fruition. PMID:10539610

  16. Training future leaders of academic medicine: internal programs at three academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Morahan, P S; Kasperbauer, D; McDade, S A; Aschenbrener, C A; Triolo, P K; Monteleone, P L; Counte, M; Meyer, M J

    1998-11-01

    The authors review the need for internal programs for leadership training at academic health centers and then describe in detail three programs of this type that have operated during the 1990s: (1) the Allegheny Leadership Institute, founded by the Allegheny Health, Education and Research Foundation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; (2) the Physician Executive Management Development Program (PEMDP) of Saint Louis University School of Medicine; and (3) the University of Nebraska Medical Center Leadership Institute. Educational elements common to these programs include having a small class size and participants from many areas of academic medicine and health care, focusing on educational strategies that draw on participants' experiences and training, conducting the training away from the participants' institutions, having short sessions, using faculty from both within and outside the participants' institutions, and creating strategies to reinforce learning. Lessons learned reflect the unique context of each institution; the authors list the major lessons learned by each of the three programs they surveyed (e.g., leaders of the Saint Louis University PEMDP program believe that it is important to help participants implement desired changes in their work areas once they return to work, and are investigating how to do this). The authors conclude with an extensive list of recommendations to optimize the effects of leadership development training carried out in AHCs' internal programs (e.g., "Focus on specific skills that can be learned, and link the learning experiences to real work situations in health care and higher education") and explain why they think internal leadership institutes have at least three distinct advantages over external programs. PMID:9834697

  17. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  18. Research and development in haematology. A report on international congresses and visit to academic centres in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wood, L

    1990-01-01

    Haematology is one of the most rapidly expanding disciplines in medicine and nursing. As occurs in other highly specialised areas, optimum care is now largely of a multidisciplinary nature. In this context there are literally unlimited opportunities for the involvement of professional nurses and, as I have attempted to illustrate in this report, integration in all aspects of research and development and active participation in presentation of research data and discussion at international meetings is one direction in which fulfillment of academic aspirations can be achieved. It is my viewpoint, based on more than a decade of direct involvement in all the activities of our department in Cape Town that these are entirely attainable goals. There is currently, in our country, a concerted move afoot to develop an improved career structure for the professional nurse along the lines of the American clinical nurse specialist. Much of this experience overseas would strongly support that commitment. It was my privilege to enjoy the confidence of the department, university and medical school sufficient for me to present research data at international meetings and to be a welcome visitor at some of the world's premier academic and research institutions. That this was possible reflects the uncompromising commitment in Haematology to the position of the professional nurse as an integral and equal part of the multidisciplinary health care team. PMID:1977529

  19. Family medicine as a model of transition from academic medicine to academic health care: Estonia's experience.

    PubMed

    Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the development of academic family medicine in an environment of traditional academic medicine at the Tartu University, Estonia. The introduction of university family medicine teachers to everyday practice and practitioners to academic teaching and research helps bridge the gap between theory and practice, and it shows changed approach to academic medicine. PMID:15495281

  20. Comparison of primary health care services between urban and rural settings after the introduction of the first urban health centre in Vyronas, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Mariolis, Anargiros; Mihas, Constantinos; Alevizos, Alevizos; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros; Marayiannis, Konstantinos; Papathanasiou, Marek; Gizlis, Vassilios; Karanasios, Dimitris; Merkouris, Bodossakis

    2008-01-01

    Background Discrepancies in primary health care (PHC) services between urban and rural settings have already been studied in many countries; however, limited information exists regarding countries, such as Greece, where public Health Centres dedicated to primary care have not been in existence in major cities. The objective of this study was to evaluate points of divergence or convergence between an urban and a rural health centre, in an attempt to underline challenges faced by the introduction of urban health centres in Greece. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the Health Centre of Vyronas, Athens, Greece and in the Health Centre of Nea (New) Madytos, Thessaloniki Prefecture, Greece between February 2004 and February 2006. The profile of the population seeking care, as well as data on the services provided were collected and compared. In addition, the reason for choosing each primary health care unit was also recorded. Results More patients visited the urban centre (145415 vs. 112513), while the pattern of services utilized by the citizens differed significantly (p < 0.001) between the two Health Centres. The frequency of diagnoses made according to ICPC-2 was not similar in the two Health Centres (p < 0.001). The three most frequent reasons for the adults choosing the Health Centre for their problem were low waiting time, proximity to residence and satisfaction with the services provided in previous visits in Vyronas. Conclusion The results of this study highlight the significant differences regarding PHC services utilization between an urban and a rural population. Urban citizens seem to have different health needs and reasons for choosing a PHC unit than residents of the Greek countryside. Proximity to health services and the public character of the urban health centre seem to be its main advantages. PMID:18541013

  1. System Integration and Network Planning in the Academic Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Marcia A.; Spackman, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer of information within the academic health center is complicated by the complex nature of the institution's multi-dimensional role. The diverse functions of patient care, administration, education and research result in a complex web of information exchange which requires an integrated approach to system management. System integration involves a thorough assessment of “end user” needs in terms of hardware and software as well as specification of the communications network architecture. The network will consist of a series of end user nodes which capture, process, archive and display information. This paper will consider some requirements of these nodes, also called intelligent workstations, relating to their management and integration into a total health care network.

  2. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  3. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: A longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students’ academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  4. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  5. Coordinated School Health Programs and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Nancy G.; Low, Barbara J.; Hollis, Christine; Cross, Alan W.; Davis, Sally M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few evaluations of school health programs measure academic outcomes. K-12 education needs evidence for academic achievement to implement school programs. This article presents a systematic review of the literature to examine evidence that school health programs aligned with the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) model improve…

  6. A Study of the Competencies Needed of Entry-Level Academic Health Sciences Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbrick, Jodi Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…

  7. An academic health center-community partnership: the Morgantown Health Right free clinic.

    PubMed

    Smego, R A; Costante, J

    1996-06-01

    This article reports the main findings of a descriptive study of the origin, structure, and evolution of the Morgantown Health Right (MHR) free clinic in Morgantown, West Virginia. The study was conducted between 1984 and 1995 to examine the organizational and operational features of this rural academic health center-community partnership. The MHR's longevity and provision of primary care without charge to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured residents of north central West Virginia are a function of its intimate relationship with the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center of West Virginia University. Essential elements of this rural academic health center-community partnership include social commitment and voluntarism, shared community and faculty leadership, joint problem-oriented long-term planning, and interdisciplinary practice and training opportunities for faculty, residents, and students. Financial support for the MHR comes from a variety of public and private sources, and the clinic serves as a prototypic rural free health care provider by virtue of its social and fiscal sustainability. The MHR experience shows that, like inner-city counterparts, academic health center-community partnerships can enhance access to health care for rural underserved populations. PMID:9125917

  8. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  9. Is Student-Centred Learning a Western Concept? Lessons from an Academic Development Programme to Support Student-Centred Learning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, L.; Bovill, C.; Othman, S. M.; Saleh, A. M.; Shabila, N. P.; Watters, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that student-centred learning (SCL) is a concept and an approach that is internationally useful and transferable to a range of higher education settings. We present details of a British Council funded collaborative project between Hawler Medical University (HMU), in Erbil in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq and…

  10. Managing Academic Health Centers: Meeting the Challenges of the New Health Care World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report focuses on strategies documented by the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers (AHCs) concerning AHCs' management of patient care and research missions. Whatever challenges AHCs face in the future, their ability to respond effectively will be determined by the quality of their governance and management. To improve…

  11. A Study of the Scholarly Activities of Allied Health Faculty in Southern Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, J. David; Roush, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 742 (of 942) allied health faculty members indicate that (1) refereed journal articles are primary publications, (2) less than half had recent professional presentations, and (3) only 29 percent had directed sponsored projects. Most indicated that their academic preparation encouraged scholarly pursuits and that scholarship is…

  12. The community care model of the Intercountry Centre for Oral Health at Chiangmai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Anumanrajadhon, T; Rajchagool, S; Nitisiri, P; Phantumvanit, P; Songpaisan, Y; Barmes, D E; Sardo-Infirri, J; Davies, G N; Møller, I J; Pilot, T

    1996-08-01

    The Intercountry Centre for Oral Health opened in Chiangmai, Thailand, in November, 1981. In 1984, as part of its mandate to promote new approaches to the delivery of oral health care, it initiated a demonstration project known as the Community Care Model for Oral Health. Logistic, financial and organisational difficulties prevented the full implementation of the original plan. Nevertheless, consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of the Model has provided valuable suggestions for adoption by national and international health agencies interested in adopting a primary health care approach to the delivery of oral health services. Important features which could be appropriate for disadvantaged communities include: integration into the existing health service infrastructure; emphasis on health promotion and prevention; minimal clinical interventions; an in-built monitoring and evaluation system based on epidemiological principles, full community participation in planning and implementation; the establishment of specific targets and goals; the instruction of all health personnel, teachers and senior students in the basic principles of the recognition, prevention and control of oral diseases and conditions; the application of relevant principles of Performance Logic to training; and the provision of a clear career path for all health personnel. PMID:9147120

  13. How Good Is Our School? The Child at the Centre: The Health Promoting School. Self-Evaluation Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is one of a series of guides to self-evaluation that builds on the advice given in the publications "How good is our school?" and "The Child at the Centre." It also shows how the relevant "National Care Standards" can be applied when evaluating the effectiveness of your establishment as a health promoting school or centre. The…

  14. Agreement and disagreement on health care quality concepts among academic health professionals: the Saudi case.

    PubMed

    Mahrous, Mohamed Saad

    2014-01-01

    A systematic and rigorous implementation of quality improvement processes is likely to improve the well-being of staff members and heighten their job satisfaction. Assessing professionals' perceptions of health care quality should lead to the betterment of health care services. In Saudi Arabia, no previous studies examine how university health professionals view health care quality concepts. A cross-sectional analytical study employing a self-administered questionnaire with 43 statements assessing quality perceptions of academic health care professionals was used. Despite the agreement of health professionals on numerous quality concepts addressed in this study, there was insufficient agreement on 10 core quality concepts, 3 of which were the following: "quality focuses on customers" (50%), "quality is tangible and therefore measurable" (29.3%), and "quality is data-driven" (62%). Hence, providing health professionals with relevant training likely will generate a better understanding of quality concepts and optimize their performance. PMID:23897553

  15. Spatial accessibility of the population to urban health centres in Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran: a geographic information systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Reshadat, S; Saedi, S; Zangeneh, A; Ghasemi, S R; Gilan, N R; Karbasi, A; Bavandpoor, E

    2015-06-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) analysis has not been widely used in underdeveloped countries to ensure that vulnerable populations have accessibility to primary health-care services. This study applied GIS methods to analyse the spatial accessibility to urban primary-care centres of the population in Kermanshah city, Islamic Republic of Iran, by age and sex groups. In a descriptive-analytical study over 3 time periods, network analysis, mean centre and standard distance methods were applied using ArcGIS 9.3. The analysis was based on a standard radius of 750 m distance from health centres, walking speed of 1 m/s and desired access time to health centres of 12.5 mins. The proportion of the population with inadequate geographical access to health centres rose from 47.3% in 1997 to 58.4% in 2012. The mean centre and standard distance mapping showed that the spatial distribution of health centres in Kermanshah needed to be adjusted to changes in population distribution. PMID:26369997

  16. Leadership in Academic Health Centers: Transactional and Transformational Leadership.

    PubMed

    Smith, Patrick O

    2015-12-01

    Leadership is a crucial component to the success of academic health science centers (AHCs) within the shifting U.S. healthcare environment. Leadership talent acquisition and development within AHCs is immature and approaches to leadership and its evolution will be inevitable to refine operations to accomplish the critical missions of clinical service delivery, the medical education continuum, and innovations toward discovery. To reach higher organizational outcomes in AHCs requires a reflection on what leadership approaches are in place and how they can better support these missions. Transactional leadership approaches are traditionally used in AHCs and this commentary suggests that movement toward a transformational approach is a performance improvement opportunity for AHC leaders. This commentary describes the transactional and transformational approaches, how they complement each other, and how to access the transformational approach. Drawing on behavioral sciences, suggestions are made on how a transactional leader can change her cognitions to align with the four dimensions of the transformational leadership approach. PMID:26604205

  17. Resource allocation in academic health centers: creating common metrics.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Keith A; Castellanos, Nathan; Wartman, Steven A

    2011-09-01

    Optimizing resource allocation is essential for effective academic health center (AHC) management, yet guidelines and principles for doing so in the research and educational arenas remain limited. To address this issue, the authors analyzed responses to the 2007-2008 Association of Academic Health Centers census using ratio analysis. The concept was to normalize data from an individual institution to that same institution, by creating a ratio of two separate values from the institution (e.g., total faculty FTEs/total FTEs). The ratios were then compared across institutions. Generally, this strategy minimizes the effect of institution size on the responses, size being the predominant limitation of using absolute values for developing meaningful metrics. In so doing, ratio analysis provides a range of responses that can be displayed in graphical form to determine the range and distribution of values. The data can then be readily scrutinized to determine where any given institution falls within the distribution. Staffing ratios and operating ratios from up to 54 institutions are reported. For ratios including faculty numbers in the numerator or denominator, the range of values is wide and minimally discriminatory, reflecting heterogeneity across institutions in faculty definitions. Values for financial ratios, in particular total payroll expense/total operating expense, are more tightly clustered, reflecting in part the use of units with a uniform definition (i.e., dollars), and emphasizing the utility of such ratios in decision guidelines. The authors describe how to apply these insights to develop metrics for resource allocation in the research and educational arenas. PMID:21785307

  18. Less equal than others? Experiences of AYUSH medical officers in primary health centres in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, J K

    2012-01-01

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) includes, inter alia, the establishment of an AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) component (practitioner, trained assistants, drugs and equipment) in every primary health centre (PHC). However, five years following the launch of the NRHM, the AYUSH mainstreaming scenario is below expectations, riddled with ethical and governance issues. Accounts from AYUSH practitioners at PHCs in various regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh reveal enormous lacunae in implementation: unfilled positions, inequitable emoluments, inadequate or absent infrastructure, assistance and supplies, unethical interpersonal arrangements, and limited support from non-AYUSH personnel. The widespread negative impact of these conditions undermines the value of AYUSH, demotivating both practitioners and patients, and failing to provide the intended support to the public health system. PMID:22319847

  19. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign. PMID:23348094

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of IPTi on malaria using routine health information from sentinel health centres in southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) consists of the administration of a treatment dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at the time of routine vaccinations. The use of routine Health Management and Information Services (HMIS) data to investigate the effect of IPTi on malaria, anaemia, and all-cause attendance in children aged 2-11 months presenting to 11 health centres in southern Tanzania is described. Methods Clinical diagnosis of malaria was confirmed with a positive blood slide reading from a quality assurance laboratory. Anaemia was defined using two thresholds (mild [Hb < 11 g/dL], severe [Hb < 8 g/dL]). Incidence rates between IPTi and non-implementing health centres were calculated using Poisson regression, and all statistical testing was based on the t test due to the clustered nature of the data. Results Seventy two per cent of infants presenting in intervention areas received at least one dose of IPTi- 22% received all three. During March 2006 - April 2007, the incidence of all cause attendance was two attendances per person, per year (pppy), including 0.2 episodes pppy of malaria, 0.7 episodes of mild and 0.13 episodes of severe anaemia. Point estimates for the effect of IPTi on malaria varied between 18% and 52%, depending on the scope of the analysis, although adjustment for clustering rendered these not statistically significant. Conclusions The point estimate of the effect of IPTi on malaria is consistent with that from a large pooled analysis of randomized control trials. As such, it is plausible that the difference seen in health centre data is due to IPTi, even thought the effect did not reach statistical significance. Findings draw attention to the challenges of robust inference of effects of interventions based on routine health centre data. Analysis of routine health information can reassure that interventions are being made available and having desired effects, but unanticipated effects should trigger

  1. Redesign of a health science centre: reflections on co-leadership.

    PubMed

    MacTavish, M; Norton, P

    1995-01-01

    Since 1988, the Sunnybrook Health Science Centre has been proactive in re-designing its system toward decentralized management, the purpose being to further enhance patient care. This process has involved numerous changes, among which were the establishment of three large clinical units. These clinical units are not defined following the historic medical model, but group patients with similar service and care needs. Subsequently, each of the clinical units defined Patient Service Units (PSUs). The hospital has chosen a co-leadership model for the lead management at each of the unit levels. This paper describes the model for clinical units. PMID:10156486

  2. Integrating comparative effectiveness research programs into predictive health: a unique role for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Rask, Kimberly J; Brigham, Kenneth L; Johns, Michael M E

    2011-06-01

    The growing burden of chronic disease, an aging population, and rising health care costs threaten the sustainability of our current model for health care delivery. At the same time, innovations in predictive health offer a pathway to reduce disease burden by preventing and mitigating the development of disease. Academic health centers are uniquely positioned to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of predictive and personalized health interventions, given institutional core competencies in innovative knowledge development. The authors describe Emory University's commitment to integrating comparative effectiveness research (CER) into predictive health programs through the creation and concurrent evaluation of its Center for Health Discovery and Well Being (hereafter, "the Center"). Established in 2008, the Center is a clinical laboratory for testing the validity and utility of a health-focused rather than disease-focused care setting. The Center provides preventive health services based on the current evidence base, evaluates the effectiveness of its care delivery model, involves trainees in both the delivery and evaluation of its services, and collects structured physical, social, and emotional health data on all participants over time. Concurrent evaluation allows the prospective exploration of the complex interactions among health determinants as well as the comparative effectiveness of novel biomarkers in predicting health. Central to the Center is a cohort study of randomly selected university employees. The authors describe how the Center has fostered a foundation for CER through the structured recruitment of study cohorts, standardized interventions, and scheduled data collection strategies that support pilot studies by faculty and trainees. PMID:21512361

  3. Making Value-Based Payment Work for Academic Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Harold D

    2015-10-01

    Under fee-for-service payment systems, physicians and hospitals can be financially harmed by delivering higher-quality, more efficient care. The author describes how current "value-based purchasing" initiatives fail to address the underlying problems in fee-for-service payment and can be particularly problematic for academic health centers (AHCs). Bundled payments, warranties, and condition-based payments can correct the problems with fee-for-service payments and enable physicians and hospitals to redesign care delivery without causing financial problems for themselves. However, the author explains several specific actions that are needed to ensure that payment reforms can be a "win-win-win" for patients, purchasers, and AHCs: (1) disconnecting funding for teaching and research from payment for service delivery, (2) providing predictable payment for essential hospital services, (3) improving the quality and efficiency of care at AHCs, and (4) supporting collaborative relationships between AHCs and community providers by allowing each to focus on their unique strengths and by paying AHC specialists to assist community providers in diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate payment reforms and a commitment by AHCs to redesign care delivery, medical education, and research, AHCs could provide the leadership needed to improve care for patients, lower costs for health care purchasers, and maintain the financial viability of both AHCs and community providers. PMID:26266462

  4. Profile: Manhiça Health Research Centre (Manhiça HDSS).

    PubMed

    Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Aponte, John J; Bassat, Quique; Augusto, Orvalho; Mandomando, Inácio; Sacarlal, Jahit; Lauchande, Natu; Sigaúque, Betuel; Alonso, Pedro; Macete, Eusébio; Munguambe, Khátia; Guinovart, Caterina; Aide, Pedro; Menendez, Clara; Acácio, Sozinho; Quelhas, Diana; Sevene, Esperança; Nhampossa, Tacilta

    2013-10-01

    The Manhiça Health Research Centre, established in 1996 in a rural area of southern Mozambique, currently follows around 92 000 individuals living in approximately 20 000 enumerated and geo-positioned households. Its main strength is the possibility of linking demographic data and clinical data to promote and conduct biomedical research in priority health areas. Socio-demographic data are updated twice a year and clinical data are collected on a daily basis. The data collected in Manhiça HDSS comprises household and individual characteristics, household socio-economic assets, vital data, migration, individual health history and cause of death, among others. Studies conducted in this HDSS contributed to guide the health authorities and decision-making bodies to define or adjust health policies such as the introduction of Mozambique's expanded programme of immunization with different vaccines (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Pneumococcus) or the development of the concept of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Infants (IPTi) that led to the World Health Organization recommendation of this method as best practice for the control of malaria among infants. Manhiça's data can be accessed through a formal request to Diana Quelhas (diana.quelhas@manhica.net) accompanied by a proposal that will be analysed by the Manhiça HDSS internal scientific and ethics committees. PMID:24159076

  5. Health centres' view of the services provided by a university hospital laboratory: Use of satisfaction surveys

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Paula; Kouri, Timo; Pakarinen, Arto

    2010-01-01

    Customer orientation has gained increasing attention in healthcare. A customer satisfaction survey is one way to raise areas and topics for quality improvement. However, it seems that customer satisfaction surveys have not resulted in quality improvement in healthcare. This article reports how the authors' university hospital laboratory has used customer satisfaction surveys targeted at the health centres in their hospital district. Closed-ended statements of the questionnaire were planned to cover the essential aspects of laboratory services. In addition, an open-ended question asked what was considered to be the most important problem in services. The questionnaires were sent to the medical directors of the health centres. The open-ended question proved to be very useful because the responses specified the main problems in service. Based on the responses, selected dissatisfied customers were contacted to specify their responses and possible corrective actions were taken. It is concluded that a satisfaction survey can be used as a screening tool to identify topics of dissatisfaction. In addition, further clarifications with selected customers are needed to specify the causes for their dissatisfaction and to undertake proper corrective actions. PMID:20205616

  6. Health centres' view of the services provided by a university hospital laboratory: use of satisfaction surveys.

    PubMed

    Oja, Paula; Kouri, Timo; Pakarinen, Arto

    2010-03-01

    Customer orientation has gained increasing attention in healthcare. A customer satisfaction survey is one way to raise areas and topics for quality improvement. However, it seems that customer satisfaction surveys have not resulted in quality improvement in healthcare. This article reports how the authors' university hospital laboratory has used customer satisfaction surveys targeted at the health centres in their hospital district. Closed-ended statements of the questionnaire were planned to cover the essential aspects of laboratory services. In addition, an open-ended question asked what was considered to be the most important problem in services. The questionnaires were sent to the medical directors of the health centres. The open-ended question proved to be very useful because the responses specified the main problems in service. Based on the responses, selected dissatisfied customers were contacted to specify their responses and possible corrective actions were taken. It is concluded that a satisfaction survey can be used as a screening tool to identify topics of dissatisfaction. In addition, further clarifications with selected customers are needed to specify the causes for their dissatisfaction and to undertake proper corrective actions. PMID:20205616

  7. Trends in academic health sciences libraries and their emergence as the “knowledge nexus” for their academic health centers*

    PubMed Central

    Kronenfeld, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify trends in academic health sciences libraries (AHSLs) as they adapt to the shift from a print knowledgebase to an increasingly digital knowledgebase. This research was funded by the 2003 David A. Kronick Traveling Fellowship. Methods: The author spent a day and a half interviewing professional staff at each library. The questionnaire used was sent to the directors of each library in advance of the visit, and the directors picked the staff to be interviewed and set up the schedule. Results: Seven significant trends were identified. These trends are part of the shift of AHSLs from being facility and print oriented with a primary focus on their role as repositories of a print-based knowledgebase to a new focus on their role as the center or “nexus” for the organization, access, and use of an increasingly digital-based knowledgebase. Conclusion: This paper calls for a national effort to develop a new model or structure for health sciences libraries to more effectively respond to the challenges of access and use of a digital knowledgebase, much the same way the National Library of Medicine did in the 1960s and 1970s in developing and implementing the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. The paper then concludes with some examples or ideas for research to assist in this process. PMID:15685271

  8. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  9. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy.

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Kevin; Kitzman, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest that that the United States is failing to make significant progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities. One missing element from the US strategy for achieving this goal is a focus on gaps in child development and achievement. Academic achievement and education seem to be critical determinants of health across the life span and disparities in one contribute to disparities in the other. Despite these linkages, national policy treats child education and health as separate. Landmark education legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, is due for Congressional reauthorization. It seeks to eliminate gaps in academic child achievement by 2014. It does so by introducing accountability for states, school districts, and schools. In this special article, we review health disparities and contributors to child achievement gaps. We review changes in achievement gaps over time and potential contributors to the limited success of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its unfunded mandates and unfounded assumptions. We conclude with key reforms, which include addressing gaps in child school readiness through adequate investment in child health and early education and reductions in child poverty; closing the gap in child achievement by ensuring equity in school accountability standards; and, importantly, ensuring equity in school funding so that resources are allocated on the basis of the needs of the students. This will ensure that schools, particularly those serving large numbers of poor and minority children, have the resources necessary to promote optimal learning. PMID:19255042

  10. Training Tomorrow's Doctors: The Medical Education Mission of Academic Health Centers. A Report of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report, fifth of a series on Academic Health Centers (AHCs), addresses the fundamental rationale of such centers: the education of the health care workforce. None of the missions of the 125 AHCs in the United States, medical schools and their closely affiliated hospitals and physician groups, is more important than the education of…

  11. Investigating the Relationship of Resilience to Academic Persistence in College Students with Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relationships between measures of inter- and intrapersonal resilience and mental health were examined with respect to academic persistence in college students with mental health issues. A sample of 121 undergraduate students with mental health issues was recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling,…

  12. Cost of maternal health services in selected primary care centres in Ghana: a step down allocation approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of knowledge on the cost of health care services in Ghana. This poses a challenge in the economic evaluation of programmes and inhibits policy makers in making decisions about allocation of resources to improve health care. This study analysed the overall cost of providing health services in selected primary health centres and how much of the cost is attributed to the provision of antenatal and delivery services. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design and quantitative data was collected between July and December 2010. Twelve government run primary health centres in the Kassena-Nankana and Builsa districts of Ghana were randomly selected for the study. All health-care related costs for the year 2010 were collected from a public service provider’s perspective. The step-down allocation approach recommended by World Health Organization was used for the analysis. Results The average annual cost of operating a health centre was $136,014 US. The mean costs attributable to ANC and delivery services were $23,063 US and $11,543 US respectively. Personnel accounted for the largest proportion of cost (45%). Overall, ANC (17%) and delivery (8%) were responsible for less than a quarter of the total cost of operating the health centres. By disaggregating the costs, the average recurrent cost was estimated at $127,475 US, representing 93.7% of the total cost. Even though maternal health services are free, utilization of these services at the health centres were low, particularly for delivery (49%), leading to high unit costs. The mean unit costs were $18 US for an ANC visit and $63 US for spontaneous delivery. Conclusion The high unit costs reflect underutilization of the existing capacities of health centres and indicate the need to encourage patients to use health centres .The study provides useful information that could be used for cost effectiveness analyses of maternal and neonatal care interventions, as well as for policy makers to

  13. Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) study: drug use, health and systemic risks—Emthonjeni Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specific data on drug users in correctional centres is not available for the majority of countries, including South Africa. The study aimed to identify the attitudes and knowledge of key informant (KI) offender and correctional centre staff regarding drug use, health and systemic-related problems so as to facilitate the long-term planning of activities in the field of drug-use prevention and systems strengthening in correctional centres, including suggestions for the development of appropriate intervention and rehabilitation programmes. Method A Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) methodology was adopted which included observation, mapping of service providers (SP), KI interviews (staff and offenders) and focus groups (FGs). The study was implemented in Emthonjeni Youth Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. Fifteen KI staff participants were interviewed and 45 KI offenders. Results Drug use is fairly prevalent in the centre, with tobacco most commonly smoked, followed by cannabis and heroin. The banning of tobacco has also led to black-market features such as transactional sex, violence, gangsterism and smuggling in order to obtain mainly prohibited tobacco products, as well as illicit substances. Conclusion HIV, health and systemic-related risk reduction within the Correctional Service sector needs to focus on measures such as improvement of staff capacity and security measures, deregulation of tobacco products and the development and implementation of comprehensive health promotion programmes. PMID:24708609

  14. The Relationship Between Suicide Ideation, Behavioral Health, and College Academic Performance.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Susan M; Franklin, Cynthia; Yueqi, Yan; Johnson, Shannon; Brownson, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The impact of suicidal ideation on college students' academic performance has yet to be examined, yet mental health is often linked with academic performance. Underclassmen and upperclassmen were compared on behavioral health outcomes related to academic success (N = 26,457). Ideation (b = -0.05, p < .05), increased mental health (b = -0.03, p < .01) or substance use severity (b = -0.02, p < .01) was associated with lower GPAs. Underclassmen's behavioral health severity was related to lower GPA. Students reported higher GPAs when participating in extracurricular activities during the past year. Ideation, beyond mental health, is an important when assessing academic performance. Increasing students' connections benefits students experiencing behavioral concerns but also aids in suicide prevention initiatives and improves academic outcomes. Creating integrated health care systems on campus where physical, mental health and academic support services is crucial to offer solutions for students with severe or co-morbid mental health histories. PMID:26831304

  15. Examining the Relationships between Resilience, Mental Health, and Academic Persistence in Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the relationships between measures of interpersonal resilience, intrapersonal resilience, and mental health were examined with respect to academic and social integration, key determinants of academic persistence. Participants: A sample (n = 605) of undergraduate students was recruited from 2 midwestern universities during…

  16. Impacting Children's Health and Academic Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy A.; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity…

  17. Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…

  18. On Preparing Academic Health Centers for the Very Different 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David E.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to predict some of the economic and social forces that will affect academic health centers in the coming decade. It is argued that to survive and prosper medical academe must adjust to a period of little or no real economic growth, but that with this necessary adjustment new opportunities will arise. (JSR)

  19. Formative Assessment and Academic Achievement in Pre-Graduate Students of Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo-de-la-Pena, Maria T.; Bailles, Eva; Caseras, Xavier; Martinez, Alvar; Ortet, Generos; Perez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Although educational experts recommend the use of formative assessment, there is a dearth of empirical studies on its impact on academic achievement. In this research the authors analyse to what extent participation and performance in formative assessment are associated with positive academic outcomes of pre-graduate students of health sciences. A…

  20. Cataloging Three-Dimensional Objects: A Study of Academic Health Science Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Jennifer L.

    This study examines a random sample of academic health sciences libraries across the United States to determine if these institutions have three-dimensional medical artifacts in their collections and how they organize and catalog these materials to provide access to them. A questionnaire was sent to heads of cataloging at 30 academic health…

  1. New academic partnerships in global health: innovations at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Ripp, Jonathan; Murphy, Ramon J C; Claudio, Luz; Jao, Jennifer; Hexom, Braden; Bloom, Harrison G; Shirazian, Taraneh; Elahi, Ebby; Koplan, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly important focus of education, research, and clinical service in North American universities and academic health centers. Today there are at least 49 academically based global health programs in the United States and Canada, as compared with only one in 1999. A new academic society, the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, was established in 2008 and has grown significantly. This sharp expansion reflects convergence of 3 factors: (1) rapidly growing student and faculty interest in global health; (2) growing realization-powerfully catalyzed by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic, the emergence of other new infections, climate change, and globalization-that health problems are interconnected, cross national borders, and are global in nature; and (3) rapid expansion in resources for global health. This article examines the evolution of the concept of global health and describes the driving forces that have accelerated interest in the field. It traces the development of global health programs in academic health centers in the United States. It presents a blueprint for a new school-wide global health program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The mission of that program, Mount Sinai Global Health, is to enhance global health as an academic field of study within the Mount Sinai community and to improve the health of people around the world. Mount Sinai Global Health is uniting and building synergies among strong, existing global health programs within Mount Sinai; it is training the next generation of physicians and health scientists to be leaders in global health; it is making novel discoveries that translate into blueprints for improving health worldwide; and it builds on Mount Sinai's long and proud tradition of providing medical and surgical care in places where need is great and resources few. PMID:21598272

  2. New Academic Partnerships in Global Health: Innovations at Mount Sinai School of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Ripp, Jonathan; Murphy, Ramon J. C.; Claudio, Luz; Jao, Jennifer; Hexom, Braden; Bloom, Harrison G.; Shirazian, Taraneh; Elahi, Ebby; Koplan, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly important focus of education, research, and clinical service in North American universities and academic health centers. Today there are at least 49 academically based global health programs in the United States and Canada, as compared with only one in 1999. A new academic society, the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, was established in 2008 and has grown significantly. This sharp expansion reflects convergence of 3 factors: (1) rapidly growing student and faculty interest in global health; (2) growing realization–powerfully catalyzed by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic, the emergence of other new infections, climate change, and globalization–that health problems are interconnected, cross national borders, and are global in nature; and (3) rapid expansion in resources for global health. This article examines the evolution of the concept of global health and describes the driving forces that have accelerated interest in the field. It traces the development of global health programs in academic health centers in the United States. It presents a blueprint for a new school-wide global health program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The mission of that program, Mount Sinai Global Health, is to enhance global health as an academic field of study within the Mount Sinai community and to improve the health of people around the world. Mount Sinai Global Health is uniting and building synergies among strong, existing global health programs within Mount Sinai; it is training the next generation of physicians and health scientists to be leaders in global health; it is making novel discoveries that translate into blueprints for improving health worldwide; and it builds on Mount Sinai’s long and proud tradition of providing medical and surgical care in places where need is great and resources few. PMID:21598272

  3. Cost analysis of magnetic resonance imaging at St. Joseph's Health Centre of London.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, L

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986 St. Joseph's Health Centre of London, Ont., completed 3 years of operating a magnetic resonance imaging unit. The first 2 years were devoted to research and development. From Apr. 1, 1985, to Mar. 31, 1986, the unit operated as the first clinical service unit in Canada. Over the 12 months 1671 patients (an average of 9 patients per 12-hour day) were examined. Studies of the brain (62%) and the spine (21%) accounted for most of the procedures. The operating costs for the year were $892,000; revenues totalled $449,000, for a deficit of $443,000. The average technical cost per patient was $534. Increasing the number of patients examined per year would lower the cost to $431. PMID:3815214

  4. Women's attitudes towards mechanisms of action of family planning methods: survey in primary health centres in Pamplona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    de Irala, Jokin; del Burgo, Cristina Lopez; de Fez, Carmen M Lopez; Arredondo, Jorge; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Stanford, Joseph B

    2007-01-01

    Background Informed consent in family planning includes knowledge of mechanism of action. Some methods of family planning occasionally work after fertilization. Knowing about postfertilization effects may be important to some women before choosing a certain family planning method. The objective of this survey is to explore women's attitudes towards postfertilization effects of family planning methods, and beliefs and characteristics possibly associated with those attitudes. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a sample of 755 potentially fertile women, aged 18–49, from Primary Care Health Centres in Pamplona, Spain. Participants were given a 30-item, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire about family planning methods and medical and surgical abortion. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with women's attitudes towards postfertilization effects. Results The response rate was 80%. The majority of women were married, held an academic degree and had no children. Forty percent of women would not consider using a method that may work after fertilization but before implantation and 57% would not consider using one that may work after implantation. While 35.3% of the sample would stop using a method if they learned that it sometimes works after fertilization, this percentage increased to 56.3% when referring to a method that sometimes works after implantation. Women who believe that human life begins at fertilization and those who consider it is important to distinguish between natural and induced embryo loss were less likely to consider the use of a method with postfertilization effects. Conclusion Information about potential postfertilization effects of family planning methods may influence women's acceptance and choice of a particular family planning method. Additional studies in other populations are necessary to evaluate whether these beliefs are important to those populations. PMID:17596261

  5. True believers? Characteristics of general practitioners in Victorian community health centres.

    PubMed

    Montalto, M; Dunt, D; Young, D

    1994-12-01

    General practitioners have been part of multidisciplinary services in Victoria Community Health Centres (CHCs) for 20 years. This model institutionalizes a high degree of integration between general practitioners and other primary care and community service personnel. Of 51 eligible full-time general practitioners in Victorian CHCs, 46 were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire. General practitioners in CHCs were younger, less experienced and more likely to be female than other general practitioners. Nearly three-quarters were salaried. The philosophy of practice and the conditions of employment were the commonest reasons for entering CHC practice. Teamwork and the conditions of employment were felt to be the biggest advantages of CHC practice, while difficulties with management and the perceived loss of professional ownership and control were the commonest disadvantages. None reported interference from the CHC management in their clinical practice. Nearly a quarter of full-time CHC general practitioners do not undertake any formal community health promotion activities. Forty-five per cent of respondents intended to leave their CHC within the next five years. Universal health insurance has diminished the impact of CHC general practice. The philosophy of CHCs and the salaried nature of the employment continues to attract general practitioners. High staff turnover is a feature of CHC general practice, in part related to young doctors making an initial, but not long-term commitment to CHC practice. However, the loss of professional control and management difficulties should be addressed, as these may contribute to the high turnover. PMID:7718658

  6. Primary Health Centres: Preferred Option for Birthing Care in Tamilnadu, India, from Users’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Saradha; Padmanaban, P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tamilnadu state of India witnessed an increasing trend of institutional deliveries since the beginning of 1990s, with decline of domiciliary deliveries to nearly zero now. Among the institutional deliveries, a shift has been observed since 2006 wherein primary health centres (PHC) have shown a four-fold increase in the number of deliveries while other public and private health facilities showed a decline, despite equal access by people to all categories of health facilities. A qualitative study was designed to explore the determinants that led to increased preference of PHCs for birthing care. In-depth interviews and FGDs were conducted with recently-delivering women and their spouses. User-friendly ambience, courteous attitude and behaviour of staff, good infrastructure, availability of qualified staff, and relative absence of informal payments have contributed to increased preference for birthing care in PHCs. Barriers to seeking care from secondary and tertiary-level public hospitals and private hospitals have also made women prefer PHCs. PMID:25995734

  7. Reviewing institutions of rural health centres: the Performance Initiative in Butare, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Meessen, Bruno; Musango, Laurent; Kashala, Jean-Pierre I; Lemlin, Jackie

    2006-08-01

    In many low-income countries, performance of pyramidal health systems with a public purpose is not meeting the expectations and needs of the populations they serve. A question that has not been studied and tested sufficiently is, 'What is the right package of institutional mechanisms required for organisations and individuals working in these health systems?' This paper presents the experience of the Performance Initiative, an innovative contractual approach that has reshaped the incentive structure in place in two rural districts of Rwanda. It describes the general background, the initial analysis, the institutional arrangement and the results after 3 years of operations. At this stage of the experience, it shows that 'output-based payment + greater autonomy' is a feasible and effective strategy for improving the performance of public health centres. As part of a more global package of strategies, contracting-in approaches could be an interesting option for governments, donors and non-governmental organisations in their effort to achieve some of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16903893

  8. Linking Learning and Health: A Pilot Study of Medical Students' Perceptions of the Academic Impact of Various Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, William D.; Wheat, Mary E.; Lerner, Burton A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess medical students' experience with a wide variety of health concerns and their perceptions of the impact of these health concerns on their academic performance. Methods: The National College Health Assessment (NCHA) was administered to all students enrolled at a single medical school during the spring term of 2005. Results:…

  9. Towards Sustainable Research Capacity Development and Research Ownership for Academic Institutes in Developing Countries: The Malawian Research Support Centre Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomo, Exnevia; Kalilani, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; Trigu, Chifundo; Phiri, Kamija; Schmidt, Joann; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2011-01-01

    In lesser-developed African countries, the lack of institutionalised support for research, combined with limited career opportunities and poor remuneration, have contributed to weak research infrastructure and capacity, and a continuing brain drain to developed countries. Malawi's Research Support Centre (RSC) model is novel in that it provides a…

  10. Facilities Offered by the University of Ibadan (Nigeria) Distance Learning Centre towards Learners' Academic Goal--An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbile, J. A.; Oyekanmi, J. O.

    2011-01-01

    Distance learners in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria unlike other distance learners of different parts of the world are faced with various educational, social and psychological problems associated with the code of distance learning. The facilities offered by the University of Ibadan distance learning centre towards the users' multifarious needs…

  11. Cost of Delivering Health Care Services in Public Sector Primary and Community Health Centres in North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Verma, Ramesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background With the commitment of the national government to provide universal healthcare at cheap and affordable prices in India, public healthcare services are being strengthened in India. However, there is dearth of cost data for provision of health services through public system like primary & community health centres. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the total annual and per capita cost of delivering the package of health services at PHC and CHC level. Secondly, we determined the per capita cost of delivering specific health services like cost per antenatal care visit, per institutional delivery, per outpatient consultation, per bed-day hospitalization etc. Methods We undertook economic costing of fourteen public health facilities (seven PHCs and CHCs each) in three North-Indian states viz., Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Bottom-up costing method was adopted for collection of data on all resources spent on delivery of health services in selected health facilities. Analysis was undertaken using a health system perspective. The joint costs like human resource, capital, and equipment were apportioned as per the time value spent on a particular service. Capital costs were discounted and annualized over the estimated life of the item. Mean annual costs and unit costs were estimated along with their 95% confidence intervals using bootstrap methodology. Results The overall annual cost of delivering services through public sector primary and community health facilities in three states of north India were INR 8.8 million (95% CI: 7,365,630–10,294,065) and INR 26.9 million (95% CI: 22,225,159.3–32,290,099.6), respectively. Human resources accounted for more than 50% of the overall costs at both the level of PHCs and CHCs. Per capita per year costs for provision of complete package of preventive, curative and promotive services at PHC and CHC were INR 170.8 (95% CI: 131.6–208.3) and INR162.1 (95% CI: 112–219

  12. Innovative generalist programs: academic health care centers respond to the shortage of generalist physicians.

    PubMed

    Urbina, C; Hickey, M; McHarney-Brown, C; Duban, S; Kaufman, A

    1994-04-01

    Academic health care centers increasingly are exploring innovative ways to increase the supply of generalist physicians. The authors review successful innovations at representative academic health centers in the areas of recruitment and admissions, undergraduate medical education, residency training, and practice support. Lessons learned focus on those areas that have demonstrated improvements in the number and quality of physicians trained in family practice, general pediatrics, and general internal medicine. Successful recruitment of generalism-oriented applicants requires identification and tracking of rural, minority, and other special groups of students at the high school and college levels. Academic health care centers that provide early, sustained, community-based, ambulatory experiences for medical students and residents encourage trainees to maintain and choose generalist careers. Finally, academic health care centers that link with community providers and with state government encourage the retention of generalist physicians through continuing education and teaching networks. PMID:8014749

  13. The History of SHSAAMc: Student Health Services at Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Hembree, Wylie; Bonner, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an historical review of the organization known as Student Health Services at Academic Medical Centers (SHSAAMc). The authors discuss characteristics of health service directors as well as the history of meetings, discussion, and leadership. The focus of the group is the healthcare needs of health professions students at…

  14. The Relationship between Student Health and Academic Performance: Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Gomes, Paul; Polotskaia, Anna; Jankowska, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are unhealthy are at higher risk for school problems than students who are free from medical problems. Students with poor health have a higher probability of school failure, grade retention, and dropout. The relationship between student health and academic success is complex. Common manageable factors of student health are nutrition,…

  15. Beyond the horizon: the role of academic health centers in improving the health of rural communities.

    PubMed

    Gazewood, John D; Rollins, Lisa K; Galazka, Sim S

    2006-09-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) face increasing pressures from federal, state, and community stakeholders to fulfill their social missions to the communities they serve. Yet, in the 21st century, rural communities in the United States face an array of health care problems, including a shortage of physicians, health problems that disproportionately affect rural populations, a need to improve quality of care, and health disparities related to disproportionate levels of poverty and shifting demographics. AHCs have a key role to play in addressing these issues. AHCs can increase physician supply by targeting their admissions policies and educational programs. Specific health concerns of rural populations can be further addressed through increased use of telemedicine consultations. By partnering with providers in rural areas and through the use of innovative technologies, AHCs can help rural providers increase the quality of care. Partnerships with rural communities provide opportunities for participatory research to address health disparities. In addition, collaboration between AHCs, regional planning agencies, and rural communities can lead to mutually beneficial outcomes. At a time when many AHCs are operating in an environment with dwindling resources, it is even more critical for AHCs to build creative partnerships to help meet the needs of their regional communities. PMID:16936482

  16. ‘Smashed by the National Health’? A Closer Look at the Demise of the Pioneer Health Centre, Peckham

    PubMed Central

    Conford, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The Pioneer Health Centre, based in South London before and after the Second World War, remains a source of interest for advocates of a positive approach to health promotion in contrast with the treatment of those already ill. Its closure in 1950 for lack of funds has been blamed on the then recently established National Health Service, but this article argues that such an explanation is over-simplified and ignores a number of other factors. The Centre had struggled financially during the 1930s and tried to gain support from the Medical Research Council. The Council appeared interested in the Centre before the war, but was less sympathetic in the 1940s. Around the time of its closure and afterwards, the Centre was also involved in negotiations with London County Council; these failed because the Centre’s directors would not accept the changes which the Council would have needed to make. Unpublished documents reveal that the Centre’s directors were uncompromising and that their approach to the situation antagonised their colleagues. Changes in medical science also worked against the Centre. The success of sulphonamide drugs appeared to render preventive medicine less significant, while the development of statistical techniques cast doubt on the Centre’s experimental methods. The Centre was at the heart of the nascent organic farming movement, which opposed the rapid growth of chemical cultivation. But what might be termed ‘chemical triumphalism’ was on the march in both medicine and agriculture, and the Centre was out of tune with the mood of the times. PMID:26971599

  17. Introducing sexual orientation and gender identity into the electronic health record: one academic health center's experience.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Edward J; Sitkin, Nicole; Ton, Hendry; Eidson-Ton, W Suzanne; Weckstein, Julie; Latimore, Darin

    2015-02-01

    Many U.S. populations experience significant health disparities. Increasing health care providers' awareness of and education about sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) diversity could help reduce health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. The authors share the University of California, Davis, Health System's (UCDHS's) experience as it became the first U.S. academic health center to formally introduce patient SO/GI demographic data into its electronic health record (EHR) as a step toward reducing LGBT health disparities. Adding these data to the EHR initially met with resistance. The authors, members of the UCDHS Task Force for Inclusion of SO/GI in the EHR, viewed this resistance as an invitation to educate leaders, providers, and staff about LGBT health disparities and to expose providers to techniques for discussing SO/GI with patients. They describe the strategies they employed to effect institutional culture change, including involvement of senior leadership, key informant interviews, educational outreach via grand rounds and resident workshops, and creation of a patient safety net through inviting providers to self-identify as welcoming LGBT patients. The ongoing cultural change process has inspired spin-off projects contributing to an improved climate for LGBT individuals at UCDHS, including an employee organization supporting SO/GI diversity, support for and among LGBT medical learners through events and listservs, development and implementation of an LGBT health curriculum, and creation of peer navigator programs for LGBT patients with cancer. The authors reflect on lessons learned and on institutional pride in and commitment to providing quality care for LGBT patients. PMID:25162618

  18. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  19. Illness management and recovery (IMR) in Danish community mental health centres

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental illnesses that can have a significant disabling impact on the lives of people. Psychosocial interventions that stress hope and recovery as a part of a multi-dimensional approach are possibly indicated to support people with severe mental illness in facilitating recovery. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based psychosocial intervention designed as structured program with a recovery-oriented approach. The aim of IMR is to rehabilitate people with severe mental illnesses by helping them acquire knowledge and skills in managing their illness and achieve personal recovery goals. Previous randomised clinical trials indicate that IMR can be implemented with a good effect and a high fidelity though further trials are crucial to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of IMR. Methods/Design The trial design is a randomised, assessor-blinded, multi-centre, clinical trial of the IMR program compared with treatment as usual for 200 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder under the care of two community mental health centres in the Capital Region of Denmark. The primary outcome is level of functioning at the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes are disease symptoms; use of alcohol/drugs; individual meaning of recovery; hope; hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric treatment at the end of treatment and the abovementioned and level of functioning at follow-up 21 months after baseline. Discussion If the results of this trial show IMR to be effective these positive results will strengthen the evidence of IMR as an effective comprehensive psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach for people with severe mental illness. This will have significant implications for the treatment and recovery of people with severe mental illness. Trial registration Registration number NCT01361698. PMID:21849024

  20. Contributing to the Community: The Economic Significance of Academic Health Centers and Their Role in Neighborhood Development. Report IV. Report of the Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report is a selective analysis and assessment of quantitative data and field studies that reflect the economic role of the Academic Health Center (AHC) in the urban economy and in neighborhood revitalization. It describes the effect of a variety of cooperative efforts between local community organizations and AHCs, which usually include a…

  1. Commentary: Change we must: putting patients first with the institute model of academic health center organization.

    PubMed

    Young, James B; Cosgrove, Delos M

    2012-05-01

    In the traditional department-based organizational structure of an academic health center, patients can be neglected as a result of fragmented systems of care. Specialty-driven, provider-oriented, economically influenced organizations dominated by research and education missions might, paradoxically, promote too little concern for the patient. All three components (education, research, and patient care) of academic health centers' tripartite mission are sacred, but times have changed. Academic health centers must rethink their traditional approach to achieving their mission. The authors describe the evolution at the Cleveland Clinic of a unique, institute-based reorganization that is focused on integrated disease- and organ-system-based patient care, research, and education. The authors argue that this model better focuses on the patient as well as on the institution's academic charge. It is a concept that should be more widely adopted with deference to individual institutional culture and history. PMID:22531586

  2. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment. PMID:21262057

  3. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  4. Establishing the SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN): A Survey Exploring the Needs of Academic and Community Networks in SouthWestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kathryn; Randhawa, Jasmine; Steele, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    With the evolving fields of health research, health professional education and advanced clinical care comes a need to bring researchers, educators and health care providers together to enhance communication, knowledge-sharing and interdisciplinary collaboration. There is also a need for active collaboration between academic institutions and community organizations to improve health care delivery and health outcomes in the community setting. In Canada, an Academic Health Sciences Network model has been proposed to achieve such activities. The SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN) has been established among three universities, three community colleges, community hospitals, community-based organizations and health care providers and two Local Health Integrated Networks (LHINs) in Southwestern Ontario. A survey was conducted to understand the characteristics, activities, existing partnerships, short- and long-term goals of the academic and community health networks in SouthWestern Ontario to inform the development of SWAHN moving forward. A total of 114 health networks were identified from the two participating LHINs, 103 community health networks and 11 academic health networks. A mailed survey was sent to all networks and responses were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The short- and long-term goals of these networks were categorized into five main themes: Public Health, Education, Research, System Delivery and Special Populations. Overall, this study helped to elicit important information from the academic and community based networks, which will inform the future work of SWAHN. This research has also demonstrated the significance of collecting information from both academic and community partners during the formation of other interdisciplinary health networks. PMID:25795223

  5. What makes an academic paper useful for health policy?

    PubMed

    Whitty, Christopher J M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based policy ensures that the best interventions are effectively implemented. Integrating rigorous, relevant science into policy is therefore essential. Barriers include the evidence not being there; lack of demand by policymakers; academics not producing rigorous, relevant papers within the timeframe of the policy cycle. This piece addresses the last problem. Academics underestimate the speed of the policy process, and publish excellent papers after a policy decision rather than good ones before it. To be useful in policy, papers must be at least as rigorous about reporting their methods as for other academic uses. Papers which are as simple as possible (but no simpler) are most likely to be taken up in policy. Most policy questions have many scientific questions, from different disciplines, within them. The accurate synthesis of existing information is the most important single offering by academics to the policy process. Since policymakers are making economic decisions, economic analysis is central, as are the qualitative social sciences. Models should, wherever possible, allow policymakers to vary assumptions. Objective, rigorous, original studies from multiple disciplines relevant to a policy question need to be synthesized before being incorporated into policy. PMID:26675206

  6. Are academic orthopedic surgeons interested in global health?

    PubMed

    Makhni, Melvin C; Miao, Diana; Zurakowski, David; Day, Charles S

    2014-03-01

    Two thirds of the world's population lack orthopedic services. Natural disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake temporarily increased volunteering, but the decision to volunteer regularly is likely multifactorial. In the study reported here, we investigated whether academic orthopedic surgeons are interested in volunteering abroad and identified factors that influence participation. Academic orthopedic surgeons were identified through the faculty listings of all 154 orthopedic residency programs listed by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Electronic Residency Application Service and were sent surveys by e-mail. Of the 3,697 eligible academic orthopedic surgeons, 600 were randomly selected, and 109 completed the survey. Of the 109 respondents, 52% had volunteered abroad previously, and 62% said they were highly likely to volunteer abroad in the future. The most common barriers were scheduling, and family and social commitments (65% and 66%, respectively), followed by lack of specialty-specific opportunities (40%). In a multivariate model, the only barrier significantly decreasing likelihood to volunteer abroad was concern for medical safety (P = .015). Altruistic motivations (P = .005), religious sentiments (P = .006), international networking (P = .004), and fulfilling the true medical creed (P = .015) significantly increased likelihood. Academic orthopedic surgeons are interested in volunteering abroad. Addressing common motivations and barriers may help improve care in the developing world. PMID:24660182

  7. The development and maturation of a statewide academic health care system: Clarian Health Partners/Indiana University Health.

    PubMed

    Handel, David J; Kleit, Stuart A; Handel, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    As health care reform continues, health care organizations are evolving both structurally and operationally to position themselves to meet the challenges ahead. Academic medical centers (i.e., teaching hospitals) particularly need an effective strategy that will allow them to meet their tripartite missions of patient care, education, and research in this time of increasing competition and resource constraints. Clarian Health Partners, recently renamed Indiana University Health, is a health care entity that developed from a partnership of the Indiana University Hospitals and Methodist Hospital of Indiana. This case study explores the history behind the development of Clarian Health Partners, the model employed, and the lessons learned. It discusses the governance and management models implemented, the steps taken to integrate the two partners in the new system, and the specific challenges of physician partnerships and collaborations. As mergers and consolidations continue in an era of health care reform, the lessons learned from previous endeavors, such as that of Clarian Health Partners, may be applicable. PMID:24362393

  8. Do health service organizations and community health centres have higher disease prevention and health promotion levels than fee-for-service practices?

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, J; Lomas, J

    1990-01-01

    We interviewed health care providers representing 23 fee-for-service (FFS) practices, 19 health service organizations (HSOs) and 11 community health centres (CHCs) in Ontario to compare self-reported approaches to disease prevention and health promotion. Few significant differences were found across practice types in the presence of recall systems for screening or in knowledge of, compliance with or estimated coverage for selected preventive maneuvers recommended by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. CHCs reported a significantly greater variety of formal health promotion programs and a greater tendency to use nonphysician health care personnel to carry out both prevention and health promotion activities. The results must be interpreted with caution because of the use of self-reported data, the low response rate for FFS practices and the use of a restrictive definition of disease prevention tied to evidence from the reports of the task force. Thus, the results cast some doubt on the common assumption that increasing the population served by alternative modes of delivery such as HSOs and CHCs necessarily increases the level of disease prevention and health promotion activity. PMID:2311035

  9. [The academization of health care. An interim report in the context of current developments and challenges].

    PubMed

    Kälble, K

    2013-08-01

    In the last two decades, the educational landscape for health-care training has been seen in a new light as a result of complex social changes. Against this background, the present report offers an interim appraisal and assessment of the process of making health care more academic in view of current developments and challenges. The report begins with a short description and examination of the present training situation at a pre-academic level; several reform ideas are also presented. Following this, the report reconstructs the first phase of the academization of health care in the 1990s before the advent of the Bachelor's and Master's university degrees, which were created in the framework of the Bologna Reforms, and in which it first became possible to academicize to a limited extent certain areas of the large spectrum of health-care practices. The central part of the report is a discussion of the present situation and the newest developments in the field of academic health care within the context of the Bologna process and further changing conditions. In the conclusion, the report discusses the future prerequisites that could promote a sustainable and qualitative development of the academization of health care. PMID:23884529

  10. Alcohol and drug use in students attending a student health centre.

    PubMed

    Cahill, E; Byrne, M

    2010-09-01

    Alcohol and drug use amongst 3rd level students in Ireland is a concern and has been reported previously in the CLAN Survey. The aim of our study was to determine the alcohol and drug use and any alcohol associated adverse consequences amongst students attending the health centre of University College Cork (UCC). 178 (98.3%) of the 181 students who replied reported having ever drunk alcohol. 157 (91.3%) students drank spirits in the past year v 148 (86.5%) who drank beer/cider v 135 (78.5%) who drank wine. 81 (44.8%) students reported binge drinking at least once weekly. 48 (26.5%) students used cannabis in the past year v 12 (6.9%) who used cocaine and 7 (4%) who used ecstasy. All students who drink reported at least one adverse consequence. 114 (63%) of students report adverse consequences of other peoples drinking. The changing drinking behaviour of female students is of particular concern. PMID:21046861

  11. Institutionalization of Community Partnerships: The Challenge for Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Magwood, Gayenell S.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Zapka, Jane; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan; Stuart, Gail W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Current public health priorities emphasize the elimination of health disparities, translational research, and transdisciplinary and community alliances. The Center for Community Health Partnerships is a proactive initiative to address new paradigms and priorities in health care through institutionalization of community-university partnerships. This report highlights innovative strategies and lessons learned. PMID:23698666

  12. Prescription patterns of antihypertensives in a community health centre in Mexico City: a drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Alba-Leonel, Adela; Carvajal, Alfonso; Fierro, Immaculada; Castillo-Nájera, Fernando; Campos-Ramos, Oscar; Villa-Romero, Antonio; Molina-Guarneros, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent; in Mexico, the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported a prevalence of hypertension of 31.5% in the adult population. Pharmacological treatment is the commonest intervention and has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and total mortality. Accordingly, the type and number of antihypertensives used and the outcome - in terms of blood pressure (BP) control - are important. Therefore, our purpose is to learn the pattern of antihypertensive drug prescription and explore the determinants of BP control in an urban population in Mexico. A retrospective cross-sectional drug utilization study was conducted. Medical records from a community health centre were searched to identify those corresponding to patients diagnosed with hypertension; information upon antihypertensives used and control of the disease was carefully retrieved. A logistic regression model was built to know the main determinants of BP control. A sample of 345 clinical records of interest was identified. Most patients received antihypertensives (86.4%); the leading medications used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 63.8%; beta-blockers (26.5%), diuretics (19.8%), angiotensin-receptor blockers (15.8%) and calcium-channel blockers (6.4%). Only the age (≥55 years) and BMI (>30) of the patients, and the age of the doctors (≥55 years), had an important influence on BP control. Obesity is a particular and important determinant of uncontrolled hypertension; it is worth to act on body weight, on an individual basis. As lack of control has been also tied to elderly doctors, an education programme could be envisaged. PMID:26787266

  13. Health Status and Residential Exposure to Air Toxics: What Are the Effects on Children's Academic Achievement?

    PubMed

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effects of children's subjective health status and exposure to residential environmental toxins on academic performance for the first time, while adjusting for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. The analysis employs National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates and individual-level data collected through a mail survey. Results indicate that poorer subjective health status and higher levels of residential air toxins are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages, meaning that there is an independent effect of air pollution on children's academic achievement that cannot be explained by poor health alone. PMID:27214671

  14. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  15. The Impact of Part Time Employment on Students' Health and Academic Performance: A Scottish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Claire; McNeish, Sharon; McColl, John

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between part time working, mental and physical health and academic performance. Fifty per cent of the undergraduate full time respondents had part time jobs. Mean pay per hour was ?4.25 and mean number of hours worked was 14 hours. When the current state of students' health was compared to…

  16. Partnership for Health Care: An Academic Nursing Center in a Rural Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMone, Priscilla; McDaniel, Roxanne W.; Sullivan, Toni J.

    1998-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Columbia Sinclair School of Nursing collaborates with Moberly Area Community College in providing holistic health care services to rural college students. This academic nursing center is based on nursing models rather than medical models of health. (JOW)

  17. A Call to Action: A Blueprint for Academic Health Sciences in the Era of Mass Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Warren J; Cloud, David; Spaulding, Anne C; Shelton, Deborah; Trestman, Robert L; Altice, Frederick L; Champion-Lippmann, Carisa; Thomas, David; Taxman, Faye S

    2016-01-01

    Over 100 million Americans have criminal records, and the U.S. incarcerates seven times more citizens than most developed countries. The burden of incarceration disproportionately affects people of color and ethnic minorities, and those living in poverty. While 95% of incarcerated people return to society, recidivism rates are high with nearly 75% arrested again within five years of release. Criminal records impede access to employment and other social services such as shelter and health care. Justice-involved people have higher rates of substance, mental health, and some chronic medical disorders than the general population; furthermore, the incarcerated population is rapidly aging. Only a minority of academic health science centers are engaged in health services research, workforce training, or correctional health care. This commentary provides rationale and a blueprint for engagement of academic health science institutions to harness their capabilities to tackle one of the country's most vexing public health crises. PMID:27133508

  18. Sustaining the edge: factors influencing strategy selection in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anne M; Szabat, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Competition within the acute care sector as well as increased penetration by managed care organizations has influenced the structure and role of academic health centers during the past decade. The market factors confronting academic health centers are not dissimilar from conditions that confront other organizations competing in mature industries characterized by declining profitability and intense rivalry for market share. When confronted with intense competition or adverse external events, organizations in other industries have responded to potential threats by forming alliances, developing joint ventures, or merging with another firm to maintain their competitive advantage. Although mergers and acquisitions dominated the strategic landscape in the healthcare industry during the past decade, recent evidence suggests that other types of strategic ventures may offer similar economic and contracting benefits to member organizations. Academic health centers have traditionally been involved in network relationships with multiple partners via their shared technology, collaborative research, and joint educational endeavors. These quasi-organizational relationships appear to have provided a framework for strategic decisions and allowed executives of academic health centers to select strategies that were competitive yet closely aligned with their organizational mission. The analysis of factors that influenced strategy selection by executives of academic health centers suggests a deliberate and methodical approach to achieving market share objectives, expanding managed care contracts, and developing physician networks. PMID:12469571

  19. An investigation of academic dishonesty in allied health: incidence and definitions.

    PubMed

    Falleur, D

    1990-01-01

    Educators in the health sciences are concerned about academic dishonesty and are searching for methods to control misconduct. If students falsify academic work, their behavior pattern may continue in professional practice, endangering the health and well-being of the patients in their care. This paper presents the results of a study of the attitudes and experiences regarding dishonest academic behaviors of a sample of 244 students and 31 faculty in the School of Health Professions at Southwest Texas State University. Student and faculty definitions of dishonest behavior were compared, and the incidence of dishonest behavior and the experiences of faculty in recognizing and disciplining students for academic misconduct were analyzed. Major findings included: 1) faculty, undergraduate, and graduate students differ in their definitions of some types of dishonest behavior; and 2) the most common types of dishonest behavior identified by faculty and students involve cheating and plagiarism. Future research is warranted with attention given to the causal factors leading to academic dishonesty and patterns of dishonesty in academic and practice settings. PMID:2272891

  20. Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (χ2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p < 0.0001). Malaria occurrence was higher among the households living in bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per

  1. Poor Child Health, Family Capital and Cumulative Inequality in Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margot

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of health and social stratification can be enriched by testing tenets of cumulative inequality theory that emphasize how the accumulation of inequality is dependent on the developmental stage being considered; the duration and stability of poor health; and the family resources available to children. I analyze longitudinal data from the British National Child Development Study (N=9,252) to ask: 1) if child health is a source of cumulative inequality in academic achievement; 2) whether this relationship depends on the timing and duration of poor health; and 3) whether trajectories are sensitive to levels of family capital. The results suggest that the relationship between health and academic achievement emerges very early in life and persists, and that whether we observe shrinking or widening inequality as children age depends on when we measure their health, and whether children have access to compensatory resources. PMID:25926564

  2. 25 CFR 36.82 - May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... during the academic school day? 36.82 Section 36.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at least... outside of the academic school day, except in emergency situations as deemed by the administrative head...

  3. 25 CFR 36.82 - May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... during the academic school day? 36.82 Section 36.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at least... outside of the academic school day, except in emergency situations as deemed by the administrative head...

  4. 25 CFR 36.82 - May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... during the academic school day? 36.82 Section 36.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at least... outside of the academic school day, except in emergency situations as deemed by the administrative head...

  5. Identifying Patterns of Early Risk for Mental Health and Academic Problems in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the "well-adjusted" class had assets in the academic and social…

  6. 25 CFR 36.90 - What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN... What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving...

  7. 25 CFR 36.90 - What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN... What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving...

  8. 25 CFR 36.82 - May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... during the academic school day? 36.82 Section 36.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL...) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at...

  9. 25 CFR 36.82 - May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... during the academic school day? 36.82 Section 36.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL...) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at...

  10. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems. PMID:26642175

  11. Patient’s Comprehension of Prescriptions at Municipal Urban Health Centre, Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Velhal, Gajanan D; Khismatrao, Deepak S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient’s often fail to follow the prescription given by the doctor. Patients understanding of the prescription play an important role in completion of treatment and quick recovery from the illness. The understanding of prescription is dependent on factors which could be both patient and doctor related. These factors need to be studied in order to improve the therapeutic outcome. Aim Hence this study was undertaken to identify the various factors which affect patient’s comprehension of prescription. Materials and Methods Observational, cross-sectional study based on exit interviews were carried out for 370 patients at Cheeta Camp Urban Health Centre, Mumbai over a period of 15 working days of OPD and 25 patients were selected randomly on each day. For data analysis, SPSS 15.0 with Chi-square test were used as test of significance. Results In the present study it was found that in the patients above 45 years, 19.4% have not understood the prescription completely compared to 5.8% below the age of 45 years. The difference was statistically significant. There is no difference between gender and understanding of prescription. Among the illiterate patients it was found that 16.3% have not completely understood the prescription compared to 5.6% of the literate patients. Also, socio-economic status was significantly associated with patients understanding of prescription. There was no significant difference associated with number of prescription and understanding of prescription. Conclusion The patient related factors play an important role in understanding of prescription. It was found that patient’s comprehension of prescription was significantly associated with age, socioeconomic status and Education. PMID:27134903

  12. Perceptions of antenatal care services by pregnant women attending government health centres in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Edie, Gregory Edie Halle Ekane; Obinchemti, Thomas Egbe; Tamufor, Emmanuel Njuma; Njie, Martin Mafany; Njamen, Theophile Nana; Achidi, Eric Akum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User'sperception of quality of ANC services crucially impacts continuity of use of these services and hence pregnancy outcome. However in our community, ANC user's perceptions of quality are not known. Methods An observational analytic cross-sectional study was carried out amongst pregnant women attending selected government health centres in the Buea Health District. We recruited 385 consenting pregnant women for the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaires. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel and exported toEpi-Info (Version 3.5.1) for analysis. Results Geographical accessibility and perceived quality of care were the predominant reasons for choosing or changing a site for ANC. One third of respondents (30.1%) attended a health centre out of their catchment health area with Buea Town health centre receiving the highest proportion of women out of the health area (56.8% of attendees). Knowledge about antenatal care varied and majority of respondents (96.4%) were satisfied with the antenatal services received. However, there were elements of dissatisfaction with health centre services, poor sitting facilities, amenities, few health education talks and poor nursing skills. High educational level (high school and university) (X2 = 8.714; p = 0.01) and first time pregnancy(X2= 4.217; p= 0.04) were significantly associated with poor satisfaction. Conclusion Policy makers should implement changes in the health care delivery system taking into account the users’ preferences, more so in the light of increasing female education in Cameroon. PMID:26405481

  13. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain. PMID:25682021

  14. [Nutrition mode and nurishment status of WUT students in Szczecin as compared to different academical centres in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Seidler, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The mode of nutrition of women and men studying at the WUT (Westpomeranian Technological University) in Szczecin was evaluated. The study was conducted on the group of 198 students. Numerous faults in students nurishment were shown. The unsatisfactory supply of milk and milk products, vegetables, fruit and cereal products in both sexs was confirmed. The consumption of fat, meat, particularly ham, cheeses and eggs was too high in men's diets. Women consumed sugar and sweets in excess. The percentage of energy from fat was too high in women group (35.7%) and in men (37.1%). The evaluation of nutrients consumption was performed according to norms updated in 2008. In both groups deficiency in diet was observed for calcium, potassium, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin C, magnesium, and additionally in women population vitamins from the group B and minerals. The nourishment status was estimated using anthropometric methods in the support of mass and BMI and the circuit of waist and hips (WHR). It was noticed that the BMI value did not reflect the growing problem of obesity among the youth as well as the coefficient abdominal obesity (WHR) measured in the whole population. On the basis of the WHR value it was confirmed that 35% of academical youth from Szczecin has the predisposition to obesity, diabetes II degree, arteriosclerosis and diseases of heart. PMID:21365867

  15. Ethnic and racial identity in adolescence: implications for psychosocial, academic, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Seaton, Eleanor K; Markstrom, Carol; Quintana, Stephen; Syed, Moin; Lee, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth J; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; French, Sabine; Yip, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The construction of an ethnic or racial identity is considered an important developmental milestone for youth of color. This review summarizes research on links between ethnic and racial identity (ERI) with psychosocial, academic, and health risk outcomes among ethnic minority adolescents. With notable exceptions, aspects of ERI are generally associated with adaptive outcomes. ERI are generally beneficial for African American adolescents' adjustment across all three domains, whereas the evidence is somewhat mixed for Latino and American Indian youth. There is a dearth of research for academic and health risk outcomes among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents. The review concludes with suggestions for future research on ERI among minority youth. PMID:24490891

  16. The development of ureteric strictures after ureteroscopic treatment for ureteric calculi: A long-term study at two academic centres

    PubMed Central

    El-Abd, Ahmed S.; Suliman, Mohammed G.; Abo Farha, Mohamed O.; Ramadan, Ahmed R.; El-Tatawy, Hassan H.; El-Gamal, Osama M.; El-Gamal, Samir A.; Figenshau, Robert; El Abd, Shawky A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of symptomatic and ‘silent’ obstruction after ureteroscopic procedures. Patients and methods In all, 1980 patients underwent ureteroscopy for ureteric calculi in two large centres. The methods of disintegration, auxiliary procedures used and type of stenting were considered. Intraoperative complications, in addition to the size and site of the stone, were assessed in relation to postoperative obstruction. The mean (range) follow-up was 42 (12–68) months, with patients assessed after 3–6 months and yearly thereafter. The postoperative evaluation included an assessment of pain, renal ultrasonography, a plain abdominal film, intravenous urography, and a diuretic renal scan in some cases to confirm obstruction. Results The success rate of stone removal was 98.5%. The failures were related to the size of the stone (>2 cm; P < 0.001). In eight patients there was a ureteric perforation, and six of these developed a ureteric stricture. A stricture also occurred in 12 patients (0.6%) during the follow-up; these included nine of 204 with stones of >2 cm (4.4%), compared to three (0.17%) of 1746 patients with stones of <2 cm (P < 0.001). Fourteen patients presented with pain (0.7%), and five had no obstruction, while in nine (0.46%) the pain was associated with obstruction. There was silent obstruction in three cases (0.15%). The negative and positive predictive values for pain were 99.8% and 64.3%, respectively. Conclusions Radiographic surveillance for stricture formation and obstruction is mandatory in patients who are symptomatic after ureteroscopy, and for up to 18 months in patients with intraoperative complications or with a stone of >2 cm in the proximal ureter. PMID:26019943

  17. Generation X: implications for faculty recruitment and development in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Janet; Brown, Ann J

    2005-03-01

    Differences and tensions between the Baby Boom generation (born 1945-1962) and Generation X (born 1963-1981) have profound implications for the future of academic medicine. By and large, department heads and senior faculty are Boomers; today's residents and junior faculty are Generation X'ers. Looking at these issues in terms of the generations involved offers insights into a number of faculty development challenges, including inadequate and inexpert mentoring, work-life conflicts, and low faculty morale. These insights suggest strategies for strengthening academic medicine's recruitment and retention of Generation X into faculty and leadership roles. These strategies include (1) improving career and academic advising by specific attention to mentoring "across differences"--for instance, broaching the subject of formative differences in background during the initial interaction; adopting a style that incorporates information-sharing with engagement in problem solving; offering frequent, frank feedback; and refraining from comparing today to the glories of yesterday; to support such improvements, medical schools should recognize and evaluate mentoring as a core academic responsibility; (2) retaining both valued women and men in academic careers by having departments add temporal flexibility and create and legitimize less-than-full-time appointments; and (3) providing trainees and junior faculty with ready access to educational sessions designed to turn their "intellectual capital" into "academic career capital."Given the trends discussed in this article, such supports and adaptations are indicated to assure that academic health centers maintain traditions of excellence. PMID:15734801

  18. Capturing Psychologists' Work in Academic Health Settings: The Role of the Educational Value Unit (EVU).

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Eugene J; Gallagher, Katie

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes how psychology faculty positions in academic health centers (AHCs) have evolved to meet the changing needs in healthcare. In that context, the roles of psychologists have expanded significantly to include a wide array of clinical responsibilities, teaching and supervisory roles, administrative functions, research initiatives, and academic scholarship. Traditionally, faculty compensation plans have been calculated through the use of Relative Value Units which are primarily based on clinical service delivery, hence, incomplete when attempting to account for these growing academic responsibilities. This paper reviews the need to expand the ways in which the work provided by psychologists is appropriately identified and compensated for in AHCs. Drawing upon six models utilized in other areas of medical education, this paper describes the potential utility of incorporating Educational Value Units as a metric for capturing this expanding set of academic responsibilities and systematically incorporating them into a psychologist's job design. Recommendations for future considerations are provided. PMID:26894750

  19. The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p < 0.05) in the population of university students being analyzed. Conclusions Engagement has been shown to be one of the many factors, which are positively involved, in the academic achievements of college students. PMID:23446005

  20. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    PubMed

    Stearns, N S

    1986-04-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators. PMID:3708191

  1. A Rural District's WISH Spurs Student Health, Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    Big dreams often start small. For the Wayne County Public Schools in eastern North Carolina, those dreams started with the vision to improve adolescent health care at school. Now seven years later, the system is proud to operate five full-time school-based health centers, which have contributed to a decline in teen-age pregnancies and an increase…

  2. Imagining value, imagining users: academic technology transfer for health innovation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Fiona Alice; Sanders, Carrie B; Lehoux, Pascale

    2009-04-01

    Governments have invested heavily in the clinical and economic promise of health innovation and express increasing concern with the efficacy and efficiency of the health innovation system. In considering strategies for 'better' health innovation, policy makers and researchers have taken a particular interest in the work of universities and related public research organizations: How do these organizations identify and transfer promising innovations to market, and do these efforts make best use of public sector investments? We conducted an ethnographic study of technology transfer offices (TTOs) in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada, to consider the place of health and health system imperatives in judgments of value in early-stage health innovation. Our analysis suggests that the valuation process is poorly specified as a set of task-specific judgments. Instead, we argue that technology transfer professionals are active participants in the construction of the innovation and assign value by 'imagining' the end product in its 'context of use'. Oriented as they are to the commercialization of health technology, TTOs understand users primarily as market players. The immediate users of TTOs' efforts are commercial partners (i.e., licensees, investors) who are capable of translating current discoveries into future commodities. The ultimate end users - patients, clinicians, health systems - are the future consumers of the products to be sold. Attention to these proximate and more distal users in the valuation process is a complex and constitutive feature of the work of health technology transfer. At the same time, judgements about individual technologies are made in relation to a broader imperative through which TTOs seek to imagine and construct sustainable innovation systems. Judgments of value are rendered sensible in relation to the logic of valuation for systems of innovation that, in turn, configure users of health innovation in systemic ways. PMID:19231055

  3. Practice what you preach: developing person-centred culture in inpatient mental health settings through strengths-based, transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Paul; Field, John; Molloy, Luke; Yu, Nickolas; Holmes, Douglas; Pile, Emily

    2013-08-01

    The experience of nursing staff and consumers in inpatient mental health wards is often reported as being negative. Efforts to improve culture and practice have had limited success, with ineffective leadership, staff resistance, and unresponsive organisational culture identified as common barriers to change. Practice development has been promoted as an approach to developing person-centred culture that enables professional development through participation, learning and empowerment. For person-centred practice to flourish, organisational leadership at all levels must reflect the same principles. In preparation for the opening of a new integrated mental health service, an inpatient mental health team participated in a practice development project. An action research approach was used to facilitate a series of "away days," initially with the nursing team and then other members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). Transformational leadership principles were adopted in the facilitation of team activities underpinned by strengths and solution-focused practices. Evaluation of the project by staff members was very positive and there was a high level of participation in practice development activities. The project resulted in the creation of a development plan for the ward, which prioritised five key themes: person-centred care, personal recovery, strengths-based principles, and evidence-based and values-based care. The project outcomes highlight the importance of leadership, which parallels the ideals promoted for clinical practice. PMID:23909671

  4. Behavioral Health's Challenge to Academic, Scientific, and Professional Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.

    1982-01-01

    Asserts that psychologists can contribute to a reduction in national health expenditures by focusing on such illness- and accident-causing behaviors as smoking, alcohol use, improper diet, and speeding and the nonuse of seat belts in cars. (GC)

  5. School nurse case management for children with chronic illness: health, academic, and quality of life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Keehner Engelke, Martha; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B; Swanson, Melvin

    2008-08-01

    More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with asthma, diabetes, severe allergies, seizures, or sickle-cell anemia in 5 different school districts who were provided case management by school nurses. The children ranged in age from 5 to 19 years. At the end of the school year, children experienced an improvement in quality of life and gained skills and knowledge to manage their illness more effectively. Classroom participation, grades, and participation in extracurricular activities also increased for many children. The study provides evidence of the positive impact school nurses have on children with chronic illness and suggests ways they can measure the outcomes of their interventions. PMID:18757353

  6. Creating the Exceptional Patient Experience in One Academic Health System

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas; Daniels, Chrissy; Paine, Marilynn; Gresh, Brian; Betz, A. Lorris

    2016-01-01

    Whether patient satisfaction scores can act as a catalyst for improving health care is highly debated. Some argue that pursuing patient satisfaction is overemphasized and potentially at odds with providing good care because it leads providers to overtest and overtreat patients and to bend to unreasonable patient demands, all to improve their ratings. Others cite studies showing that high patient satisfaction scores correlate with improved health outcomes. Ideally, assessing patient satisfaction metrics will encourage empathy, communication, trust, and shared decision making in the health care delivery process. From the patient’s perspective, sharing such metrics motivates physicians to provide patient-centered care and meets their need for easily accessible information about their providers. In this article, the authors describe a seven-year initiative, which began in 2008, to change the culture of the University of Utah Health Care system to deliver a consistently exceptional patient experience. Five factors affected the health system’s ability to provide such care: (1) a lack of good decision-making processes, (2) a lack of accountability, (3) the wrong attitude, (4) a lack of patient focus, and (5) mission conflict. Working groups designed initiatives at all levels of the health system to address these issues. What began as a patient satisfaction initiative evolved into a model for physician engagement, values-based employment practices, enhanced professionalism and communication, reduced variability in performance, and improved alignment of the mission and vision across hospital and faculty group practice teams. PMID:26606723

  7. Creating the Exceptional Patient Experience in One Academic Health System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian S; Miller, Thomas; Daniels, Chrissy; Paine, Marilynn; Gresh, Brian; Betz, A Lorris

    2016-03-01

    Whether patient satisfaction scores can act as a catalyst for improving health care is highly debated. Some argue that pursuing patient satisfaction is overemphasized and potentially at odds with providing good care because it leads providers to overtest and overtreat patients and to bend to unreasonable patient demands, all to improve their ratings. Others cite studies showing that high patient satisfaction scores correlate with improved health outcomes. Ideally, assessing patient satisfaction metrics will encourage empathy, communication, trust, and shared decision making in the health care delivery process. From the patient's perspective, sharing such metrics motivates physicians to provide patient-centered care and meets their need for easily accessible information about their providers. In this article, the authors describe a seven-year initiative, which began in 2008, to change the culture of the University of Utah Health Care system to deliver a consistently exceptional patient experience. Five factors affected the health system's ability to provide such care: (1) a lack of good decision-making processes, (2) a lack of accountability, (3) the wrong attitude, (4) a lack of patient focus, and (5) mission conflict. Working groups designed initiatives at all levels of the health system to address these issues. What began as a patient satisfaction initiative evolved into a model for physician engagement, values-based employment practices, enhanced professionalism and communication, reduced variability in performance, and improved alignment of the mission and vision across hospital and faculty group practice teams. PMID:26606723

  8. Concentrations and size distributions of airborne influenza A viruses measured indoors at a health centre, a day-care centre and on aeroplanes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Marr, Linsey C

    2011-08-01

    The relative importance of the aerosol transmission route for influenza remains contentious. To determine the potential for influenza to spread via the aerosol route, we measured the size distribution of airborne influenza A viruses. We collected size-segregated aerosol samples during the 2009-2010 flu season in a health centre, a day-care facility and onboard aeroplanes. Filter extracts were analysed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Half of the 16 samples were positive, and their total virus concentrations ranged from 5800 to 37,000 genome copies m(-3). On average, 64 per cent of the viral genome copies were associated with fine particles smaller than 2.5 µm, which can remain suspended for hours. Modelling of virus concentrations indoors suggested a source strength of 1.6±1.2×10(5) genome copies m(-3) air h(-1) and a deposition flux onto surfaces of 13±7 genome copies m(-2) h(-1) by Brownian motion. Over 1 hour, the inhalation dose was estimated to be 30±18 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), adequate to induce infection. These results provide quantitative support for the idea that the aerosol route could be an important mode of influenza transmission. PMID:21300628

  9. Characteristics of Academic Health Departments: Initial Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Barlow, Patrick; Brownson, Ross C.; Amos, Kathleen; Keck, C. William

    2016-01-01

    Academic Health Departments (AHDs) represent collaborative relationships between public health academia and practice. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of AHD characteristics, to document the extent of collaboration between organizations in an AHD, and to explore the benefits of AHDs. An electronic survey on the AHD was sent to members of the Academic Health Department Learning Community – a virtual learning community with 338 members. There were 110 valid responses to the survey, with 65 indicating they were currently in an AHD partnership. Thirty-two percent of AHDs had been established > 10 years; 64% were engaged in joint research activities; and, while 92% of respondents placed a high value on improving the competencies of students, almost half placed a high value on improving the competencies of faculty. This study can be a springboard for further research on the impact of AHDs on practice, academia, and ultimately community health. PMID:25668013

  10. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Patricia P.

    2003-01-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings. PMID:12883559

  11. Lessons learned about coordinating academic partnerships from an international network for health education.

    PubMed

    Luo, Airong; Omollo, Kathleen Ludewig

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing trend of academic partnerships between U.S., Canadian, and European health science institutions and academic health centers in low- and middle-income countries. These partnerships often encounter challenges such as resource disparities and power differentials, which affect the motivations, expectations, balance of benefits, and results of the joint projects. Little has been discussed in previous literature regarding the communication and project management processes that affect the success of such partnerships. To fill the gap in the literature, the authors present lessons learned from the African Health Open Educational Resources Network, a multicountry, multiorganizational partnership established in May 2008. The authors introduce the history of the network, then discuss actively engaging stakeholders throughout the project's life cycle (design, planning, execution, and closure) through professional development, relationship building, and assessment activities. They focus on communication and management practices used to identify mutually beneficial project goals, ensure timely completion of deliverables, and develop sustainable sociotechnical infrastructure for future collaborative projects. These activities yielded an interactive process of action, assessment, and reflection to ensure that project goals and values were aligned with implementation. The authors conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and how the partnership project may serve as a model for other universities and academic health centers in high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that are interested in or currently pursuing international academic partnerships. PMID:24072125

  12. Contributions of Ecological School Mental Health Services to Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth; Spies, Rob; Champion, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an ecological framework for school mental health services that differs in important ways from existing service delivery models. The model is based on research describing ecological frameworks underlying students' school success. Ecological characteristics of schools and classrooms that promote academic success are described…

  13. Assessment of Ecological Factors as an Integral Part of Academic and Mental Health Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, Jim; Lekwa, Adam J.; Klingbeil, David A.; Cormier, Damien C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of ecological factors that affect individual mental health or academic functioning is an important component of educational and psychological consultation. Researchers and practitioners have conceptualized such ecological or environmental factors in a variety of ways and from a broad range of perspectives. In this article we…

  14. Investing in Academic Science for Allied Health Students: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Gagnon, Janelle L.; Moring-Parris, Riana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of allied health CTE students and teachers in a new academic science class designed to strengthen science preparation and postsecondary pathways. Situated within a partnership between the community hospital and an urban school district, this case study drew upon the perspectives of the students, the hospital…

  15. The Relationship between Mental Health, Acculturative Stress, and Academic Performance in a Latino Middle School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…

  16. Work Stressors, Health and Sense of Coherence in UK Academic Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinman, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships between job-specific stressors and psychological and physical health symptoms in academic employees working in UK universities. The study also tests the main and moderating role played by sense of coherence (SOC: Antonovsky, 1987 in work stress process). SOC is described as a generalised resistance…

  17. Personal, Health, Academic, and Environmental Predictors of Stress for Residence Hall Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusselier, Lauri; Dunn, Brian; Wang, Yongyi; Shelley, Mack C., II; Whalen, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied contributors to stress among undergraduate residence hall students at a midwestern, land grant university using a 76-item survey consisting of personal, health, academic, and environmental questions and 1 qualitative question asking what thing stressed them the most. Of 964 students selected at random, 462 (48%) responded to…

  18. Nurse Educators' Consensus Opinion on Using an Academic Electronic Health Record: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Darlene S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the opinions of nurse educators in the state of North Dakota (ND) who were using the academic Electronic Health Record (EHR) known as SimChart. In this dissertation research study, factors that either hindered or facilitated the introduction of SimChart in nursing programs in ND were examined.…

  19. The Effect on Academic Health Centers of Tertiary Care in Community Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, David A.; Rosenfeld, Lisa A.

    1984-01-01

    The growing cost of medical education and the provision of care to the indigent can be endangered by the dilution of revenue sources traditionally available to the academic health centers but which are being taken over by suburban hospitals. (Author/MLW)

  20. Productivity and Academic Assessment in Brazil: Challenges for Qualitative Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosi, Maria Lucia Magalhaes

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges to the qualitative health research approach, under the regime of productivity that rules current academic evaluation in many countries. The analysis considers aspects common to several contexts, illustrating the discussion with the Brazilian context and, more specifically, within the dynamics of the collective…

  1. Perceived Academic Control: Mediating the Effects of Optimism and Social Support on College Students' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…

  2. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  3. Academic Stress and Health: Exploring the Moderating Role of Personality Hardiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Eid, Jarle; Laberg, Jon C.; Johnsen, Bjorn H.; Bartone, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Attending university is a pleasurable experience for many students. Yet for others it represents a highly stressful time of extensive studying and pressure to meet the requirements of academia. Academic stress is associated with a variety of negative outcomes such as physical illness and deteriorating mental health. This paper explores the…

  4. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  5. Leadership Practices of Clinical Trials Office Leaders in Academic Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naser, Diana D.

    2012-01-01

    In the ever-changing clinical research environment, academic health centers seek leaders who are visionary and innovative. Clinical trials offices across the country are led by individuals who are charged with promoting growth and change in order to maximize performance, develop unique research initiatives, and help institutions achieve a…

  6. A Survey of the Usability of Digital Reference Services on Academic Health Science Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Cheryl; Allen, Maryellen

    2006-01-01

    Reference interactions with patrons in a digital library environment using digital reference services (DRS) has become widespread. However, such services in many libraries appear to be underutilized. A study surveying the ease and convenience of such services for patrons in over 100 academic health science library Web sites suggests that…

  7. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  8. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Promoting Mental Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    This highly engaging, eminently practical book provides essential resources for implementing social and emotional learning (SEL) in any K-12 setting. Numerous vivid examples illustrate the nuts and bolts of this increasingly influential approach to supporting students' mental health, behavior, and academic performance. Helpful reproducibles are…

  9. Major Differences: Variations in Undergraduate and Graduate Student Mental Health and Treatment Utilization across Academic Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Zhou, Sasha; Wagner, Blake, III; Beck, Katie; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores variations in mental health and service utilization across academic disciplines using a random sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N = 64,519) at 81 colleges and universities. We report prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, and self-injury, and rates of help-seeking across disciplines, including results…

  10. Advancing LGBT Health at an Academic Medical Center: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Calder, Daniel; Flesch, Judd D; Hirsh, Rebecca L; Higginbotham, Eve; Tkacs, Nancy; Crawford, Beverley; Fishman, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Academic health centers are strategically positioned to impact the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations by advancing science, educating future generations of providers, and delivering integrated care that addresses the unique health needs of the LGBT community. This report describes the early experiences of the Penn Medicine Program for LGBT Health, highlighting the favorable environment that led to its creation, the mission and structure of the Program, strategic planning process used to set priorities and establish collaborations, and the reception and early successes of the Program. PMID:26788778

  11. Commentary: choice--the need for a thorough and open discussion: implications for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Michael; Lofgren, Richard

    2012-06-01

    The reality is that choice in health care may be limited or substantially curtailed in the future. To imply that the U.S. health care system can achieve the needed cost savings without such restrictions is not productive and may be potentially deceptive. Continued unfiltered, unlimited choice will only continue to drive more utilization and costs. Academic health centers (AHCs) should take a leadership role in expanding the public dialogue regarding health care reform and its likely need to limit choice at some level while preparing for the inevitable related evolution of AHCs' core clinical programs, relationships, and strategies. PMID:22643376

  12. Provider-sponsored virtual communities for chronic patients: improving health outcomes through organizational patient-centred knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, Warren J; Choo, Chun Wei

    2003-12-01

    Patients with long-term chronic disease experience numerous illness patterns and disease trends over time, resulting in different sets of knowledge needs than patients who intermittently seek medical care for acute or short-term problems. Health-care organizations can promote knowledge creation and utilization by chronic patients through the introduction of a virtual, private, disease-specific patient community. This virtual socialization alters the role of chronic disease patients from external consumers of health-care services to a 'community of practice' of internal customers so that, with the tacit support of their health-care organization, they have a forum supporting the integration of knowledge gained from the experiences of living with chronic disease in their self-management. Patient-centred health-care organizations can employ the virtual community to direct and support the empowerment of chronic patients in their care. PMID:15040797

  13. Consultation on the Libyan health systems: towards patient-centred services

    PubMed Central

    El Oakley, Reida M.; Ghrew, Murad H.; Aboutwerat, Ali A.; Alageli, Nabil A.; Neami, Khaldon A.; Kerwat, Rajab M.; Elfituri, Abdulbaset A.; Ziglam, Hisham M.; Saifenasser, Aymen M.; Bahron, Ali M.; Aburawi, Elhadi H.; Sagar, Samir A.; Tajoury, Adel E.; Benamer, Hani T.S.

    2013-01-01

    The extra demand imposed upon the Libyan health services during and after the Libyan revolution in 2011 led the ailing health systems to collapse. To start the planning process to re-engineer the health sector, the Libyan Ministry of Health in collaboration with the World Health Organisation (WHO) and other international experts in the field sponsored the National Health Systems Conference in Tripoli, Libya, between the 26th and the 30th of August 2012. The aim of this conference was to study how health systems function at the international arena and to facilitate a consultative process between 500 Libyan health experts in order to identify the problems within the Libyan health system and propose potential solutions. The scientific programme adopted the WHO health care system framework and used its six system building blocks: i) Health Governance; ii) Health Care Finance; iii) Health Service Delivery; iv) Human Resources for Health; v) Pharmaceuticals and Health Technology; and vi) Health Information System. The experts used a structured approach starting with clarifying the concepts, evaluating the current status of that health system block in Libya, thereby identifying the strengths, weaknesses, and major deficiencies. This article summarises the 500 health expert recommendations that seized the opportunity to map a modern health systems to take the Libyan health sector into the 21st century. PMID:23359277

  14. Assembling GHERG: Could "academic crowd-sourcing" address gaps in global health estimates?

    PubMed

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Marušić, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)'s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative - "Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group" (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines - a form of "academic crowd-sourcing". The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the "gap areas" where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts. PMID:26445671

  15. Assembling GHERG: Could “academic crowd–sourcing” address gaps in global health estimates?

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Marušić, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-01-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)’s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative – “Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group” (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines – a form of “academic crowd–sourcing”. The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the “gap areas” where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts. PMID:26445671

  16. Comprehensive Health and Physical Education. Colorado Academic Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Preparing students for the 21st century cannot be accomplished without a strong and sustained emphasis on all students' health and wellness. It no is longer acceptable to think of "gym class" and "hygiene lessons." Today's world has exploded with physical, mental, and social influences that affect not only learning in school, but also the lifelong…

  17. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 64 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2007-2008, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 240,955 volumes, spent a total of $240,019,298, and employed 2,304…

  18. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 65 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2006-2007, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 244,188 volumes, spent a total of $244,188,020, and employed 2,395 FTE…

  19. Academic Stress and Health Changes in Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Wayne A.; Summerfield, Liane

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a study, involving 35 female undergraduates, which examined the correlation between the health of the students, as measured by self-reported incidence of illness and directly observable physiological (blood pressure) measures, and the frequency and perceived stress of examinations and assignments. (IAH)

  20. An Evaluation of a Voluntary Academic Medical Center Website Designed to Improve Access to Health Education among Consumers: Implications for E-Health and M-Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hollingsworth, Nicole Rosella

    2012-01-01

    Academic Medical Centers across the United States provide health libraries on their web portals to disseminate health promotion and disease prevention information, in order to assist patients in the management of their own care. However, there is a need to obtain consumer input, consumer satisfaction, and to conduct formal evaluations. The purpose…

  1. Do academic knowledge brokers exist? Using social network analysis to explore academic research-to-policy networks from six schools of public health in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role—serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as ‘inter-group connectors’. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the ‘connector/betweenness’ measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional ‘betweenness centrality’, provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health

  2. Do academic knowledge brokers exist? Using social network analysis to explore academic research-to-policy networks from six schools of public health in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C

    2016-06-01

    The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role-serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as 'inter-group connectors'. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the 'connector/betweenness' measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional 'betweenness centrality', provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health policies. PMID

  3. Renovation and expansion of an academic health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    Horres, M M; Hitt, S

    1984-01-01

    Planning is described for the renovation, expansion, and principal design features of the Health Sciences Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The three-and-a-half-year construction project resulted in the addition of three floors over the existing building and a complete renovation of the original floor space. An architectural summary provides statistics on project costs and building capacities. Images PMID:6743879

  4. Placing gender at the centre of health programming: challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Carol; Garcia Moreno, Claudia

    2002-06-01

    In this paper we argue that a gender analysis is fundamental to health and health planning. We begin with a definition of gender and related concepts including equity and equality. We discuss why gender is key to understanding all dimensions of health including health care, health seeking behaviour and health status, and how a gender analysis can contribute to improved health policies and programming. Despite the many reasons for incorporating gender issues in health policies and programmes many obstacles remain, including the lack of attention to gender in the training of health professionals and the lack of awareness and sensitivity to gender concerns and disparities in the biomedical community. We argue that the key to placing gender values firmly in place in Health for All renewal is a change in philosophy at all levels of the health sector and suggest ways in which such a change can be implemented in the areas of policy, research, training and practical programmes and interventions. PMID:12113453

  5. Eliminating traditional reference services in an academic health sciences library: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Stephanie J

    2011-01-01

    Question: How were traditional librarian reference desk services successfully eliminated at one health sciences library? Setting: The analysis was done at an academic health sciences library at a major research university. Method: A gap analysis was performed, evaluating changes in the first eleven months through analysis of reference transaction and instructional session data. Main Results: Substantial increases were seen in the overall number of specialized reference transactions and those conducted by librarians lasting more than thirty minutes. The number of reference transactions overall increased after implementing the new model. Several new small-scale instructional initiatives began, though perhaps not directly related to the new model. Conclusion: Traditional reference desk services were eliminated at one academic health sciences library without negative impact on reference and instructional statistics. Eliminating ties to the confines of the physical library due to staffing reference desk hours removed one significant barrier to a more proactive liaison program. PMID:22022221

  6. Women's Health and Women's Leadership in Academic Medicine: Hitting the Same Glass Ceiling?

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The term “glass ceiling” refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond “fixing the women” to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health. PMID:18954235

  7. Improving state Medicaid policies with comparative effectiveness research: a key role for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Zerzan, Judy T; Gibson, Mark; Libby, Anne M

    2011-06-01

    After the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is fully implemented, Medicaid will be the largest single health care payer in the United States. Each U.S. state controls the size and scope of the medicine benefit beyond the federally mandated minimum; however, regulations that require balanced budgets and prohibit deficit spending limit each state's control. In a recessionary environment with reduced revenue, state Medicaid programs operate under a fixed or shrinking budget. Thus, the state Medicaid experience of providing high-quality care under explicit financial limits can inform Medicare and private payers of measures that control per-capita costs without adversely affecting health outcomes. The academic medicine community must play an expanded role in filling evidence gaps in order to continuously improve health policy making among U.S. states. The Drug Effectiveness Review Project and the Medicaid Evidence-based Decisions Project are two multistate Medicaid collaborations that leverage academic health center researchers' comparative effectiveness research (CER) projects to answer policy-relevant research questions. The authors of this article highlight how academic medicine can support states' health policies through CER and how CER-driven benefit-design choices can help states meet their cost and quality needs. PMID:21512359

  8. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health. PMID:18954235

  9. Perspective: global medicine: opportunities and challenges for academic health science systems.

    PubMed

    Ackerly, D Clay; Udayakumar, Krishna; Taber, Robert; Merson, Michael H; Dzau, Victor J

    2011-09-01

    Globalization is having a growing impact on health and health care, presenting challenges as well as opportunities for the U.S. health care industry in general and for academic health science systems (AHSSs) in particular. The authors believe that AHSSs must develop long-term strategies that address their future role in global medicine. AHSSs should meet global challenges through planning, engagement, and innovation that combine traditional academic activities with entrepreneurial approaches to health care delivery, research, and education, including international public-private partnerships. The opportunities for U.S.-based AHSSs to be global health care leaders and establish partnerships that improve health locally and globally more than offset the potential financial, organizational, politico-legal, and reputational risks that exist in the global health care arena. By examining recent international activities of leading AHSSs, the authors review the risks and the critical factors for success and discuss external policy shifts in workforce development and accreditation that would further support the growth of global medicine. PMID:21785305

  10. Academic Medicine's Critical Role in the "Third Curve" of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Paz, Harold L

    2016-05-01

    Over the last several years, the health care landscape has changed at an unprecedented rate due to new economic and regulatory forces ushered in by the Affordable Care Act and the introduction of innovative technologies, such as personalized medicine, that are poised to open the door to consumer-driven health care. Tremendous pressure exists on academic health centers to rapidly evolve clinically while not abandoning their unique academic mission. The convergence of personalized medicine, new digital technologies, and changes in health professionals' scope of practice alongside new payment structures will accelerate the move to a patient-centered health system. In this Commentary, the author argues that these new tools and resources must be embraced to improve the health of patients. With the traditional, fee-for-service model of care as "Curve I" and the post-Flexner era of population-based medicine as "Curve II," the author identifies the emergence of "Curve III," which is characterized by patient-centered, consumer-directed models of care. As the old models of health care undergo transition and the impact of technology and analytics grow, future practitioners must be trained to embrace this change and function effectively in the "third curve" of consumer-driven health care. PMID:27008361

  11. Workplan for European Centre for Environment and Health: Report on a Working Group (Rome, Italy, October 29-31, October 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    After the European Charter on Environment and Health was approved at the Minsterial Conference in Frankfurt-am-Main, in December 1989, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Italian Government covened a working group to study the desirability and feasibility of setting up a European Centre on Environment and Health (ECEH). The main purpose of…

  12. A comparison of death recording by health centres and civil registration in South Africans receiving antiretroviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leigh F; Dorrington, Rob E; Laubscher, Ria; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Wood, Robin; Fox, Matthew P; Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Prozesky, Hans; Tanser, Frank; Davies, Mary-Ann; Boulle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is uncertainty regarding the completeness of death recording by civil registration and by health centres in South Africa. This paper aims to compare death recording by the two systems, in cohorts of South African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods Completeness of death recording was estimated using a capture–recapture approach. Six ART programmes linked their patient record systems to the vital registration system using civil identity document (ID) numbers and provided data comparing the outcomes recorded in patient files and in the vital registration. Patients were excluded if they had missing/invalid IDs or had transferred to other ART programmes. Results After exclusions, 91,548 patient records were included. Of deaths recorded in patients files after 2003, 94.0% (95% CI: 93.3–94.6%) were recorded by civil registration, with completeness being significantly higher in urban areas, older adults and females. Of deaths recorded by civil registration after 2003, only 35.0% (95% CI: 34.2–35.8%) were recorded in patient files, with this proportion dropping from 60% in 2004–2005 to 30% in 2010 and subsequent years. Recording of deaths in patient files was significantly higher in children and in locations within 50 km of the health centre. When the information from the two systems was combined, an estimated 96.2% of all deaths were recorded (93.5% in children and 96.2% in adults). Conclusions South Africa's civil registration system has achieved a high level of completeness in the recording of mortality. However, the fraction of deaths recorded by health centres is low and information from patient records is insufficient by itself to evaluate levels and predictors of ART patient mortality. Previously documented improvements in ART mortality over time may be biased if based only on data from patient records. PMID:26685125

  13. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference. PMID:24399160

  14. A community-academic partnership to address racial/ethnic health disparities through grant-making.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Michelle A; Fox, Ashley; Simon, Ellen P; Horowitz, Carol R

    2013-11-01

    Because they focus on culturally and contextually specific health determinants, participatory approaches are well-recognized strategies to reduce health disparities. Yet, few models exist that use academic and community members equally in the grant funding process for programs aimed at reducing and eliminating these disparities. In 2008, the Communities IMPACT Diabetes Center in East Harlem, New York, developed a partnered process to award grants to community groups that target the social determinants of diabetes-related disparities. Community and academic representatives developed a novel strategy to solicit and review grants. This approach fostered equality in decision-making and sparked innovative mechanisms to award $500,000 in small grants. An evaluation of this process revealed that most reviewers perceived the review process to be fair; were able to voice their perspectives (and those perspectives were both listened to and respected); and felt that being reviewers made them better grant writers. Community-academic partnerships can capitalize on each group's strengths and knowledge base to increase the community's capacity to write and review grants for programs that reduce health disparities, providing a local context for addressing the social determinants of health. PMID:24179281

  15. Alternative funding for academic medicine: experience at a Canadian Health Sciences Center.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Paul; Shortt, S E D; Walker, D M C

    2004-03-01

    In 1994 the School of Medicine of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, its clinical teachers, and the three principal teaching hospitals initiated a new approach to funding, the Alternative Funding Plan, a pragmatic response to the inability of fee-for-service billing by clinical faculty to subsidize the academic mission of the health sciences center. The center was funded to provide a package of service and academic deliverables (outputs), rather than on the basis of payment for physician clinical activity (inputs). The new plan required a new governance structure representing stakeholders and raised a number of important issues: how to reconcile the preservation of physician professional autonomy with corporate responsibilities; how to gather requisite information so as to equitably allocate resources; and how to report to the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care in order to demonstrate accountability. In subsequent iterations of the agreement it was necessary to address issues of flexibility resulting from locked-in funding levels and to devise meaningful performance measures for departments and the center as a whole. The authors conclude that the Alternative Funding Plan represents a successful innovation in funding for an academic health sciences center in that it has created financial stability, as well as modest positive effects for education and research. The Ontario government hopes to replicate the model at the province's other four health sciences centers, and it may have applicability in any jurisdiction in which the costs of medical education outstrip the capacity of faculty clinical earnings. PMID:14985191

  16. How hyper are we? A look at hypermedia management in academic health sciences libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Widzinski, L

    1993-01-01

    Advances in instruction-delivery technology have a direct impact on academic media centers. New technology challenges librarians philosophically, financially, and ethically to provide access to information and instructional systems. Each institution has a unique set of circumstances governing decisions to provide access to hypermedia. If patron needs are met satisfactorily through labs outside the library, it may not be necessary for the library to incorporate hypermedia into its collection. Other library media centers may serve as a main point of access, or a substantial alternative computing resource may exist in departments or professional schools. Regardless of which route is taken, hypermedia is a viable instructional delivery system and can coexist with traditional services. Future studies on various aspects of hypermedia and multimedia management should be encouraged. Academic health sciences librarians would benefit from the study of hypermedia and multimedia collection-development policies, equipment, and personnel management. As computer networking of multimedia and image databases becomes available, it will be interesting to see the role academic health sciences libraries assume in integrating these data-bases with traditional information-delivery systems. Changing technology and instructional methods will affect budgets as well as library relationships with academic departments and computing centers. PMID:8428192

  17. Centres of excellence.

    PubMed

    Watson, J M

    1980-05-16

    The present Government may not be enthusiastic about health centres. But Dr Joyce M. Watson, of Glasgow University Department of General Practice and based at Woodside Health Centre in Glasgow, writes with enthusiasm of their advantages for the practice of medicine and the care of patients. PMID:10247174

  18. Direct facility funding as a response to user fee reduction: implementation and perceived impact among Kenyan health centres and dispensaries.

    PubMed

    Opwora, Antony; Kabare, Margaret; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing pressure for reduction of user fees, but this can have adverse effects by decreasing facility-level funds. To address this, direct facility funding (DFF) was piloted in Coast Province, Kenya, with health facility committees (HFCs) responsible for managing the funds. We evaluated the implementation and perceived impact 2.5 years after DFF introduction. Quantitative data collection at 30 public health centres and dispensaries included a structured interview with the in-charge, record reviews and exit interviews. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with the in-charge and HFC members at 12 facilities, and with district staff and other stakeholders. DFF procedures were well established: HFCs met regularly and accounting procedures were broadly followed. DFF made an important contribution to facility cash income, accounting for 47% in health centres and 62% in dispensaries. The main items of expenditure were wages for support staff (32%), travel (21%), and construction and maintenance (18%). DFF was perceived to have a highly positive impact through funding support staff such as cleaners and patient attendants, outreach activities, renovations, patient referrals and increasing HFC activity. This was perceived to have improved health worker motivation, utilization and quality of care. A number of problems were identified. HFC training was reportedly inadequate, and no DFF documentation was available at facility level, leading to confusion. Charging user fees above those specified in the national policy remained common, and understanding of DFF among the broader community was very limited. Finally, relationships between HFCs and health workers were sometimes characterized by mistrust and resentment. Relatively small increases in funding may significantly affect facility performance when the funds are managed at the periphery. Kenya plans to scale up DFF nationwide. Our findings indicate this is warranted, but should include improved training

  19. Direct facility funding as a response to user fee reduction: implementation and perceived impact among Kenyan health centres and dispensaries

    PubMed Central

    Opwora, Antony; Kabare, Margaret; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure for reduction of user fees, but this can have adverse effects by decreasing facility-level funds. To address this, direct facility funding (DFF) was piloted in Coast Province, Kenya, with health facility committees (HFCs) responsible for managing the funds. We evaluated the implementation and perceived impact 2.5 years after DFF introduction. Quantitative data collection at 30 public health centres and dispensaries included a structured interview with the in-charge, record reviews and exit interviews. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with the in-charge and HFC members at 12 facilities, and with district staff and other stakeholders. DFF procedures were well established: HFCs met regularly and accounting procedures were broadly followed. DFF made an important contribution to facility cash income, accounting for 47% in health centres and 62% in dispensaries. The main items of expenditure were wages for support staff (32%), travel (21%), and construction and maintenance (18%). DFF was perceived to have a highly positive impact through funding support staff such as cleaners and patient attendants, outreach activities, renovations, patient referrals and increasing HFC activity. This was perceived to have improved health worker motivation, utilization and quality of care. A number of problems were identified. HFC training was reportedly inadequate, and no DFF documentation was available at facility level, leading to confusion. Charging user fees above those specified in the national policy remained common, and understanding of DFF among the broader community was very limited. Finally, relationships between HFCs and health workers were sometimes characterized by mistrust and resentment. Relatively small increases in funding may significantly affect facility performance when the funds are managed at the periphery. Kenya plans to scale up DFF nationwide. Our findings indicate this is warranted, but should include improved training

  20. Academic Health Systems Management: The Rationale Behind Capitated Contracts

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Paul A.; Butz, David A.; Greenfield, Lazar J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine why hospitals enter into “capitated” contracts, which often generate accounting losses. The authors’ hypothesis is that hospitals coordinate contracts to keep beds full and that in principal, capitated contracts reflect sound capacity management. Summary Background Data In high-overhead industries, different consumers pay different prices for similar services (e.g., full-fare vs. advanced-purchase plane tickets, full tuition vs. financial aid). Some consumers gain access by paying less than total cost. Hospitals, like other high-overhead business enterprises, must optimize the use of their capacity, amortizing overhead over as many patients as possible. This necessity for enhanced throughput forces hospitals and health systems to discount empty beds, sometimes to the point where they incur accounting losses serving some payors. Methods The authors analyzed the cost accounting system at their university teaching hospital to compare hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) lengths of stay (LOS), variable direct costs (VDC), overhead of capitated patients, and reimbursement versus other payors for all hospital discharges (n = 29,036) in fiscal year 1998. The data were analyzed by diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), length of stay (LOS), insurance carrier, proximity to hospital, and discharge disposition. Patients were then distinguished across payor categories based on their resource utilization, proximity to the hospital, DRG, LOS, and discharge status. Results The mean cost for capitated patients was $4,887, less than half of the mean cost of $10,394 for the entire hospitalized population. The mean capitated reimbursement was $928/day, exceeding the mean daily VDC of $616 but not the total cost of $1,445/day. Moreover, the mean total cost per patient day of treating a capitated patient was $400 less than the mean total cost per day for noncapitated patients. The hospital’s capitated health maintenance organization (HMO) patients made up 16

  1. Public Health, Academic Medicine, and the Alcohol Industry’s Corporate Social Responsibility Activities

    PubMed Central

    Robaina, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry’s economic interests. PMID:23237151

  2. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests. PMID:23237151

  3. Strategic Planning as a Tool for Achieving Alignment in Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Higginbotham, Eve J.; Church, Kathryn C.

    2012-01-01

    After the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in March 2010, there is an urgent need for medical schools, teaching hospitals, and practice plans to work together seamlessly across a common mission. Although there is agreement that there should be greater coordination of initiatives and resources, there is little guidance in the literature to address the method to achieve the necessary transformation. Traditional approaches to strategic planning often engage a few leaders and produce a set of immeasurable initiatives. A nontraditional approach, consisting of a Whole-Scale (Dannemiller Tyson Associates, Ann Arbor, MI) engagement, appreciative inquiry, and a balanced scorecard can, more rapidly transform an academic health center. Using this nontraditional approach to strategic planning, increased organizational awareness was achieved in a single academic health center. Strategic planning can be an effective tool to achieve alignment, enhance accountability, and a first step in meeting the demands of the new landscape of healthcare. PMID:23303997

  4. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P < 0.05 for both). Furthermore, swimming and less shoe wearing habits showed a significant prevalence of S. mansoni and hookworm infections, respectively. Conclusion. The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. PMID:27335860

  5. The prevalence of major potential drug-drug interactions at a University health centre pharmacy in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy-Dixon, Tracia-Gay; Gossell-Williams, Maxine; Hall, Jannel; Anglin-Brown, Blossom

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify major potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) on prescriptions filled at the University Health Centre Pharmacy, Mona Campus, Jamaica. Methods: This investigation utilised a cross-sectional analysis on all prescriptions with more than one drug that were filled at the Health Centre Pharmacy between November 2012 and February 2013. Potential DDIs were identified using the online Drug Interactions Checker database of Drugs.com. Results: During the period of the study, a total of 2814 prescriptions were analysed for potential DDIs. The prevalence of potential DDIs found during the study period was 49.82%. Major potential DDIs accounted for 4.7 % of the total number of interactions detected, while moderate potential DDIs and minor potential DDIs were 80.8 % and 14.5 % respectively. The three most frequently occurring major potential DDIs were amlodipine and simvastatin (n=46), amiloride and losartan (n=27) and amiloride and lisinopril (n=16). Conclusion: This study has highlighted the need for educational initiatives to ensure that physicians and pharmacists collaborate in an effort to minimise the risks to the patients. These interactions are avoidable for the most part, as the use of online tools can facilitate the selection of therapeutic alternatives or guide decisions for closer patient monitoring and thus reduce the risks of adverse events. PMID:26759615

  6. Reflections on Government Service Rotations by an Academic Health Education Professional.

    PubMed

    Green, Lawrence W

    2016-02-01

    This reflection is on a health education professional's rotation from professor in a school of public health to a government position and back parallels that of Professor Howard Koh's journey to Assistant Secretary of Health, one level higher in the same federal bureaucracy. We both acknowledge the steep learning curve and some bureaucratic hassles and mazes that can attend government service, but similarly conclude that ". . . it was worth it." In this personalized case, I weigh some of the specific learning experiences and challenges I faced while in the government against the needs of the field of health promotion for more such revolving-door experiences among academic public health professionals. From my argument that to get more evidence-based practice we need more practice-based evidence, I conclude that more experience in practice among those returning to academia will render their teaching and research more relevant to the needs for evidence in policy and practice. PMID:26747714

  7. Academic health center teaching hospitals in transition: a perspective from the field.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, S T; Colloton, J W; Levey, S

    1997-01-01

    A study of 11 Academic Health Center Teaching Hospitals (ATHs) in 11 states found that cost reduction programs, internal reorganizations, reengineering, benchmarking, and broadened entrepreneurial activity were prominent among the strategic initiatives reported in dealing with an increasingly turbulent environment. Although none of the ATHs had experienced negative net margins, we conclude that today's competitive healthcare system requires ATHs be reimbursed separately for their educational and other societally related costs to assist them in competing on a level playing fields. PMID:9543922

  8. Assessment of Service Desk Quality at an Academic Health Sciences Library.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Amy E; DeBerg, Jennifer; Kiscaden, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Due to an identified need for formal assessment, a small team of librarians designed and administered a survey to gauge the quality of customer service at their academic health sciences library. Though results did not drive major changes to services, several important improvements were implemented and a process was established to serve as a foundation for future use. This article details the assessment process used and lessons learned during the project. PMID:27391179

  9. How big should an integrated health care delivery system be at an academic medical center?

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1995-07-01

    The author defines integrated health care delivery systems and comments that there are few such systems now but many in various stages of development. The size of such a system can be described in terms of the number of patients it serves, including their health status and utilization of care, the geographic configuration of the served area, the number of physicians, and the scope and extent of the facilities network. There are a variety of factors that influence a system's size; the author concentrates on the factors that an academic medical center must consider when formulating system-size goals. He discusses (1) the influence of how the institution structures itself to survive; (2) the effects of technology, innovation, and health care costs on the size and organization of these systems; and (3) the effects of the specific characteristics of the institutions' missions of education, research, and patient care. Real numbers describing integrated systems are presented as they relate to three possible institutional goals: economic viability, academic viability, and academic leadership. The author explains why academic medical centers should not try to be only tertiary or quaternary care providers for other integrated health care delivery systems, but at the same time emphasizes that there is no easy or inexpensive way for centers to develop their own systems. Alternative structures for integrated systems are discussed, such as "disease management systems" being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, an "end-to-end linkage" approach, and various ideas to include "captive markets," such as prisoners, university students, and members of communities for the elderly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7612122

  10. Academic Institutionalization of Community Health Services: Way Ahead in Medical Education Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Policy on medical education has a major bearing on the outcome of health care delivery system. Countries plan and execute development of human resource in health, based on the realistic assessments of health system needs. A closer observation of medical education and its impact on the delivery system in India reveals disturbing trends. Primary care forms backbone of any system for health care delivery. One of the major challenges in India has been chronic deficiency of trained human resource eager to work in primary care setting. Attracting talent and employing skilled workforce seems a distant dream. Talking specifically of the medical education, there are large regional variations, urban - rural divide and issues with financing of the infrastructure. The existing design of medical education is not compatible with the health care delivery system of India. Impact is visible at both qualitative as well as quantitative levels. Medical education and the delivery system are working independent of each other, leading outcomes which are inequitable and unjust. Decades of negligence of medical education regulatory mechanism has allowed cropping of multiple monopolies governed by complex set of conflict of interest. Primary care physicians, supposed to be the community based team leaders stand disfranchised academically and professionally. To undo the distorted trajectory, a paradigm shift is required. In this paper, we propose expansion of ownership in medical education with academic institutionalization of community health services. PMID:24478994

  11. Responding to the Marketplace: Workforce Balance and Financial Risk at Academic Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Retchin, Sheldon M

    2016-07-01

    Elsewhere in this issue, Welch and Bindman present research demonstrating that academic health centers (AHCs) continue to disproportionately comprise specialists and subspecialist faculty physicians compared with community-based physician groups. This workforce composition has served AHCs well through the years-specialists fuel the clinical engine of the major tertiary and quaternary missions of AHCs, and they also dominate much of the clinical and translational research enterprise. AHCs are not alone-less than one-third of U.S. physicians practice primary care. However, health reform has prompted many health systems to reconsider this configuration. Payers, employers, and policy makers are shifting away from fee-for-service toward value-based care. Large community-based physician groups and their parent health systems appear to be far ahead of AHCs with a more balanced physician workforce. Many are leveraging their emphasis on primary care to participate in population health initiatives, such as accountable care organizations, and some own their own health plans. These approaches largely assume some element of financial risk and require both a more balanced workforce and an infrastructure to accommodate the management of covered lives. It remains to be seen whether AHCs will reconsider their own physician specialty composition to emphasize primary care-and, if they do, whether the traditional academic model, or a more community-based approach, will prevail. PMID:27224298

  12. School Mental Health Early Interventions and Academic Outcomes for At-Risk High School Students: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Ball, Annahita; Gibson, Jennifer E.; Lize, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The current educational policy context in the United States necessitates that school-based programs prioritize students' academic outcomes. This review examined the quantitative research on school mental health (SMH) early interventions and academic outcomes for at-risk high school students. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this…

  13. Academic Majors and Subject-Area Certifications of Health Education Teachers in the United States, 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardina, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify academic preparation and subject-area certifications of K-12 public school staff teaching at least one health education class during 2011-2012 academic year. In general, teachers who are well qualified to teach a subject area are more likely to positively affect student achievement. Methods: Data…

  14. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    PubMed Central

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-01-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices. PMID:10219477

  15. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    PubMed

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-04-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices. PMID:10219477

  16. A Service Design Thinking Approach for Stakeholder-Centred eHealth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunji

    2016-01-01

    Studies have described the opportunities and challenges of applying service design techniques to health services, but empirical evidence on how such techniques can be implemented in the context of eHealth services is still lacking. This paper presents how a service design thinking approach can be applied for specification of an existing and new eHealth service by supporting evaluation of the current service and facilitating suggestions for the future service. We propose Service Journey Modelling Language and Service Journey Cards to engage stakeholders in the design of eHealth services. PMID:27577366

  17. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres. PMID:26950568

  18. Health-promotion in the context of ageing and migration: a call for person-centred integrated practice

    PubMed Central

    Lood, Qarin; Ivanoff, Synneve Dahlin; Dellenborg, Lisen; Mårtensson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Objective For the aim of improving the implementation of a health-promoting intervention for older persons who are born abroad, this study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of facilitators and barriers for their possibilities to support a healthy ageing in the context of migration. Methods Qualitative data were collected from four focus groups with health professionals who all had experience of working with older persons who are born abroad. Data were analysed with the guidance from the method developed by Krueger and Casey, progressing from an empirical to an abstract level. Results Five different conditions were found to influence supporting healthy ageing in the context of migration: Sense of belonging through significant others, Emotional bonds to a place called home, Expectations on health and support during the ageing process, Mutual understanding as a means for communication and Heterogeneity as a point of departure. The one comprehensive theme complexity describes how those aspects are interrelated in a complex and unpredictable way. Conclusions The results point at the need for focusing on each person's experiences and health expectations, and the study provides a foundation for future research on the integration of whole-system and person-centred practice. PMID:24605072

  19. The Heart of the Matter: Placing the Arts at the Centre of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Considers how Joe Winston's article, "Drug Education through Creating Theatre in Education" (RIDE, 6[1]) provides a useful evaluation of an aspect of Catalyst Theatre in Health Education's work. Outlines the ways in which Catalyst has placed the arts at the center of the health promotion process. (SG)

  20. Holism, health and data - managing the person-centred digital haystack.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    There is currently very legitimate pressure to change the function of health information systems to more explicitly serve and support the individual. Concurrently other support services to health, including condition monitoring, social care and intelligent housing, add to the complexity of patient health related data. A paradigm shift is needed, to recognize that many agencies and systems outside as well as within the health sector all work to support the citizen's health, yet the essential integrated view is not being provided, even though much needed not least by the citizen and their agents. Broker technologies can enable this new paradigm. Moreover, a move to identifying the patient's appointments and support services would enable a daily life dimension to be given due weight, and would recognize the patient's viewpoint in wanting to live an ordered life, not one subservient and reactive to the delivery of care by providers. PMID:20543353

  1. Population Health and the Academic Medical Center: The Time Is Right

    PubMed Central

    Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing the health of populations, whether defined as persons receiving care from a healthcare delivery system or more broadly as persons in a region, is emerging as a core focus in the era of healthcare reform. To achieve this goal requires an approach in which preventive care is valued and “non-medical” determinants of patients’ health are engaged. For large multi-mission systems such as academic medical centers, navigating the evolution to a population-oriented paradigm across the domains of patient care, education, and research poses real challenges but also offers tremendous opportunities, as important objectives across each mission begin to align with external trends and incentives. In clinical care, opportunities exist to improve capacity for assuming risk, optimize community benefit, and make innovative use of advances in health information technology. Education must equip the next generation of leaders to understand and address population-level goals in addition to patient-level needs. And the prospects for research to define strategies for measuring and optimizing the health of populations have never been stronger. A remarkable convergence of trends has created compelling opportunities for academic medical centers to advance their core goals by endorsing and committing to advancing the health of populations. PMID:24556766

  2. Mentor training within academic health centers with Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Zainab; Rebello, Tahilia J; Richards, Boyd F; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-10-01

    Multiple studies highlight the benefits of effective mentoring in academic medicine. Thus, we sought to quantify and characterize the mentoring practices at academic health centers (AHCs) with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). Here we report findings pertaining specifically to mentor training at the level of the KL2 mentored award program, and at the broader institutional level. We found only four AHCs did not provide any form of training. One-time orientation was most prevalent at the KL2 level, whereas formal face-to-face training was most prevalent at the institutional level. Despite differences in format usage, there was general consensus at both the KL2 and institutional level about the topics of focus of face-to-face training sessions. Lower-resource training formats utilized at the KL2 level may reveal a preference for preselection of qualified mentors, while institutional selection of resource-heavy formats may be an attempt to raise the mentoring qualifications of the academic community as a whole. The present work fits into the expanding landscape of academic mentoring literature and sets the framework for future longitudinal, outcome studies focused on identifying the most efficient strategies to develop effective mentors. PMID:24127925

  3. Academic medicine: a key partner in strengthening the primary care infrastructure via teaching health centers.

    PubMed

    Rieselbach, Richard E; Crouse, Byron J; Neuhausen, Katherine; Nasca, Thomas J; Frohna, John G

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, a worsening shortage of primary care physicians, along with structural deficiencies in their training, threaten the primary care system that is essential to ensuring access to high-quality, cost-effective health care. Community health centers (CHCs) are an underused resource that could facilitate rapid expansion of the primary care workforce and simultaneously prepare trainees for 21st-century practice. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program, currently funded by the Affordable Care Act, uses CHCs as training sites for primary-care-focused graduate medical education (GME).The authors propose that the goals of the THCGME program could be amplified by fostering partnerships between CHCs and teaching hospitals (academic medical centers [AMCs]). AMCs would encourage their primary care residency programs to expand by establishing teaching health center (THC) tracks. Modifications to the current THCGME model, facilitated by formal CHC and academic medicine partnerships (CHAMPs), would address the primary care physician shortage, produce physicians prepared for 21st-century practice, expose trainees to interprofessional education in a multidisciplinary environment, and facilitate the rapid expansion of CHC capacity.To succeed, CHAMP THCs require a comprehensive consortium agreement designed to ensure equity between the community and academic partners; conforming with this agreement will provide the high-quality GME necessary to ensure residency accreditation. CHAMP THCs also require a federal mechanism to ensure stable, long-term funding. CHAMP THCs would develop in select CHCs that desire a partnership with AMCs and have capacity for providing a community-based setting for both GME and health services research. PMID:24128617

  4. Does Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Context of a Rural School Mental Health Programme Have an Impact on Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Kurt D.; Albright, Abby; Jameson, John Paul; Sale, Rafaella; Massey, Cameron; Kirk, Alex; Egan, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health difficulties among children and adolescents, schools have become a suitable context for providing psychological services to those who may otherwise go untreated. The co-occurrence of mental health impairments and academic problems has been widely cited, and many school mental health (SMH) programmes have begun…

  5. The economics of academic health sciences libraries: cost recovery in the era of big science.

    PubMed

    Williams, T L; Lemkau, H L; Burrows, S

    1988-10-01

    With launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s, science and technology became a high priority in the United States. During the two decades since, health sciences libraries have experienced changes in almost all aspects of their operations. Additionally, recent developments in medical care and in medical education have had major influences on the mission of health science libraries. In the unending struggle to keep up with new technologies and services, libraries have had to support increasing demands while they receive a decreasing share of the health care dollar. This paper explores the economic challenges faced by academic health sciences libraries and suggests measures for augmenting traditional sources of funding. The development of marketing efforts, institutional memberships, and fee-based services by the Louis Calder Memorial Library, University of Miami School of Medicine, is presented as a case study. PMID:3224223

  6. Towards sustainable partnerships in global health: the case of the CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases in Peru.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cárdenas, María K; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Lazo-Porras, María; Moscoso-Porras, Miguel; Pesantes, M Amalia; Ponce, Vilarmina; Araya, Ricardo; Beran, David; Busse, Peter; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G; Mohr, David C; Pan, William; Peiris, David; Perel, Pablo; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; Trujillo, Antonio J; Wells, Jonathan C K; Yan, Lijing L; García, Héctor H; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Human capital requires opportunities to develop and capacity to overcome challenges, together with an enabling environment that fosters critical and disruptive innovation. Exploring such features is necessary to establish the foundation of solid long-term partnerships. In this paper we describe the experience of the CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, as a case study for fostering meaningful and sustainable partnerships for international collaborative research. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases was established in 2009 with the following Mission: "We support the development of young researchers and collaboration with national and international institutions. Our motivation is to improve population's health through high quality research." The Centre's identity is embedded in its core values - generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality- and its trajectory is a result of various interactions between multiple individuals, collaborators, teams, and institutions, which together with the challenges confronted, enables us to make an objective assessment of the partnership we would like to pursue, nurture and support. We do not intend to provide a single example of a successful partnership, but in contrast, to highlight what can be translated into opportunities to be faced by research groups based in low- and middle-income countries, and how these encounters can provide a strong platform for fruitful and sustainable partnerships. In defiant contexts, partnerships require to be nurtured and sustained. Acknowledging that all partnerships are not and should not be the same, we also need to learn from the evolution of such relationships, its key successes, hurdles and failures to contribute to the promotion of a culture of global solidarity where mutual goals, mutual gains, as well as mutual responsibilities are the norm. In so doing, we will all contribute to instil a new culture

  7. The effect of the National Essential Medicines Policy on health expenditures and service delivery in Chinese township health centres: evidence from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Guo, Bin; Fu, Wenqi; Hao, Yanhua; Cui, Yu; Huang, Weidong; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The government of China has introduced a National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in the new round of health system reform. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether the NEMP can play a role in curbing the rise of medical expenditures without disrupting the availability of healthcare services at township hospitals in China. Design This study adopted a pre–post treatment-control study design. A difference-in-differences method and fixed-effects model for panel data were employed to estimate the effect of the NEMP. Setting Chongqing, Jiangsu and Henan Province, in China, in 2009 and 2010. Participants 296 township health centres. Outcome measures Outcomes for health expenditures were average outpatient drug expenses per visit, average inpatient drug expenses per discharged patient, average outpatient expenses per visit and average inpatient expenses per discharged patient. Outcomes for care delivery were the numbers of visits per certified doctor per day and the numbers of hospitalised patients per certified doctor per day. Results The township health centres that were enrolled in the NEMP reported 26% (p<0.01) lower drug expenditures for inpatient care. An 11% (p<0.05) decrease in average inpatient expenditures per discharged patient was found following the implementation of the NEMP. The impacts of the NEMP on average outpatient expenditures and outpatient drug expenditures were not statistically significant at the 5% level. No statistically significant associations were found between the NEMP and reduction in quantity of health service delivery. Conclusions The NEMP was significant in its effect in reducing inpatient medication and health service expenditures. This study shows no evidence that the quantity of healthcare service declined significantly after introduction of the NEMP over the study period, which suggests that if appropriate matching policies are introduced, the side effects of the NEMP can be counteracted to some degree

  8. The department of internal medicine: hub of the academic health center response to the aging imperative.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, W R

    2000-08-15

    In the 21st century, geriatrics will increasingly dominate U.S. health care as the median age of the population progressively increases. Academic departments of geriatrics have been created in nations that have already experienced this shift. As an alternative strategy that builds on traditional strengths of academic medicine in the United States, departments of internal medicine should lead a multidepartmental, pan-institutional response to the aging imperative. Recognition of gerontology and geriatric medicine as central to the missions of internal medicine in clinical care, education, and research must be increased. In the process, academic departments of internal medicine will develop a high level of geriatric expertise and will launch many programs that address this challenge. Successful development of geriatric programs will serve as a catalyst to strengthen the integration among and between generalists and subspecialists. This will entail developing optimal sites and systems of geriatric care--at different levels of care and over time--that can enhance the geriatric education of medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians. The study of aging and geriatric health care will also become an integral part of departmental research, in its subspecialty divisions as well as its divisions of general internal medicine and geriatrics. This strategy is urgently recommended as both a challenge and an opportunity for all departments of internal medicine. PMID:10929171

  9. Capacity building for long-term community-academic health partnership outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M Kathryn; Felix, Holly C; Cottoms, Naomi; Olson, Mary; Shelby, Beatrice; Huff, Anna; Colley, Dianne; Sparks, Carla; McKindra, Freeman

    2014-01-01

    Too often, populations experiencing the greatest burden of disease and disparities in health outcomes are left out of or ineffectively involved in academic-led efforts to address issues that impact them the most. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach increasingly being used to address these issues, but the science of CBPR is still viewed by many as a nascent field. Important to the development of the science of CBPR is documentation of the partnership process, particularly capacity building activities important to establishing the CBPR research infrastructure. This paper uses a CBPR Logic Model as a structure for documenting partnership capacity building activities of a long-term community-academic partnership addressing public health issues in Arkansas, U.S. Illustrative activities, programs, and experiences are described for each of the model’s four constructs: context, group dynamics, interventions, and outcomes. Lessons learned through this process were: capacity building is required by both academic and community partners; shared activities provide a common base of experiences and expectations; and creating a common language facilitates dialogue about difficult issues. Development of community partnerships with one institutional unit promoted community engagement institution-wide, enhanced individual and partnership capacity, and increased opportunity to address priority issues. PMID:25750694

  10. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history

    PubMed Central

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation. PMID:12883579

  11. Comparative Effectiveness on Cognitive Asthma Outcomes of the SHARP Academic Asthma Health Education and Counseling Program and a Non-Academic Program.

    PubMed

    Kintner, Eileen; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C Nathan; Stoddard, Debbie; Gomes, Melissa; Harmon, Phyllis; Van Egeren, Laurie A

    2015-12-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality is higher among older school-age children and early adolescents than other age groups across the lifespan. NIH recommended expanding asthma education to schools and community settings to meet cognitive outcomes that have an impact on morbidity and mortality. Guided by the acceptance of asthma model, an evidence-guided, comprehensive school-based academic health education and counseling program, Staying Healthy-Asthma Responsible & Prepared™ (SHARP), was developed. The program complements existing school curricula by integrating biology, psychology, and sociology content with related spelling, math, and reading and writing assignments. Feasibility, benefits, and efficacy have been established. We compared the effectiveness of SHARP to a non-academic program, Open Airways for Schools, in improving asthma knowledge and reasoning about symptom management. A two-group, cluster-randomized, single-blinded design was used with a sample of 205 students in grades 4-5 with asthma and their caregivers. Schools were matched prior to randomization. The unit of analysis was the student. Certified elementary school teachers delivered the programs during instructional time. Data were collected from student/caregiver dyads at baseline and at 1, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. In multilevel modeling, students enrolled in the academic SHARP program demonstrated significant (p< .001) improvement in asthma knowledge and reasoning over students enrolled in the non-academic program. Knowledge advantages were retained at 24 months. Findings support delivery in schools of the SHARP academic health education program for students with asthma. PMID:26296595

  12. LIS-lnterlink-connecting laboratory information systems to remote primary health-care centres via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Clark, B; Wachowiak, B; Crawford, E W; Jakubowski, Z; Kabata, J

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using the Internet to securely deliver patient laboratory results, and the system has subsequently gone into routine use in Poland. The system went from design to pilot and then to live implementation within a four-month period, resulting in the LIS-Interlink software product. Test results are retrieved at regular intervals from the BioLink(TM) LIS (Laboratory Information System), encrypted and transferred to a secure area on the Web server. The primary health-care centres dial into the Internet using a local-cell service provided by Polish Telecom (TP), obtain a TCP/IP address using the TP DHCP server, and perform HTTP 'get' and 'post' operations to obtain the files by secure handshaking. The data are then automatically inserted into a local SQL database (with optional printing of incoming reports)for cumulative reporting and searching functions. The local database is fully multi-user and can be accessed from different clinics within the centres by a variety of networking protocols. PMID:18924820

  13. Information needs and seeking behaviour among health professionals working at public hospital and health centres in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Universal access to information for health professionals is a need to achieve “health for all strategy.” A large proportion of the population including health professionals have limited access to health information in resource limited countries. The aim of this study is to assess information needs among Ethiopian health professionals. Methods A cross sectional quantitative study design complemented with qualitative method was conducted among 350 health care workers in Feburary26-June5/2012. Pretested self-administered questionnaire and observation checklist were used to collect data on different variables. Data entry and data analysis were done using Epi-Info version 3.5.1 and by SPSS version19, respectively. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were applied to describe study objectives and identify the determinants of information seeking behaviours respectively. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess the association between a factor and an outcome variable. Results The majority of the respondents acknowledged the need of health information to their routine activities. About 54.0% of respondents lacked access to health information. Only 42.8% of respondents have access to internet sources. Important barriers to access information were geographical, organizational, personal, economic, educational status and time. About 58.0% of the respondents accessed information by referring their hard copies and asking senior staff. Age, sex, income, computer literacy and access, patient size, work experience and working site were significantly associated with information needs and seeking behaviour. Conclusions The health information seeking behaviour of health professional was significant. The heaklth facilities had neither informationcenter such as library, nor internet facilities. Conducting training on managing health information, accessing computer and improving infrastructures are important interventions to facilitate evidence based

  14. Feeding the fledgling repository: starting an institutional repository at an academic health sciences library.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ann; Kipnis, Dan

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Scott Memorial Library at Thomas Jefferson University started an institutional repository (IR), the Jefferson Digital Commons (JDC) . Originally intended as a showcase for faculty scholarship, it has evolved to serve also as a university press for original journals and newsletters, and as an institutional archive. Many lessons have been learned about marketing techniques, common IR issues, and advantages of an IR for a library. IR recruitment has come to be viewed as yet another form of collection development and has been integrated into all forms of the Library's outreach. Jefferson's academic health sciences environment has proven similar to other academic environments on issues of acceptance and participation. PMID:19384712

  15. Financial sustainability of academic health centers: identifying challenges and strategic responses.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Jim P; Li, Tao; Shiyanbola, Oyewale O; Jacobson, Janelle J

    2014-06-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) play a vital role in the health care system. The training of health care personnel and delivery of health care services, especially to the most complex and financially challenged patients, has been a responsibility increasingly shouldered by AHCs over the years. Additionally, AHCs play a significant role in researching and developing new treatment protocols, including discovering and validating new health technologies. However, AHCs face unique financial challenges in fulfilling their social mission in the health care system. Reforms being implemented under the Affordable Care Act and shifting economic patterns are threatening the financial sustainability of AHCs.The authors review challenges facing AHCs, including training new health care professionals with fewer funding resources, disproportionate clinical care of complex and costly patients, charity care to uninsured and underinsured, and reduced research funding opportunities. Then, they provide a review of some potential solutions to these challenges, including new reimbursement methods, improvements in operational efficiency, price regulation, subsidization of education, improved decision making and communication, utilization of industrial management tools, and increasing internal and external cooperation. Devising solutions to the evolving problems of AHCs is crucial to improving health care delivery in the United States. Most likely, a combination of market, government, and system reforms will be needed to improve the viability of AHCs and assist them in fulfilling their social and organizational missions. PMID:24871234

  16. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health to Kentucky’s LHDs seeking national public health accreditation. PMID:25806362

  17. Strengthening public health education in population and reproductive health through an innovative academic partnership in Africa: the Gates partners experience.

    PubMed

    Oni, Gbolahan; Fatusi, Adesegun; Tsui, Amy; Enquselassie, Fikre; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer; Taulo, Frank; Quakyi, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Poor reproductive health constitutes one of the leading public health problems in the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We report here an academic partnership that commenced in 2003 between a US institution and six universities in SSA. The partnership addresses the human resources development challenge in Africa by strengthening public health education and research capacity to improve population and reproductive health (PRH) outcomes in low-resource settings. The partnership's core activities focused on increasing access to quality education, strengthening health research capacity and translating scholarship and science into policy and practices. Partnership programmes focused on the educational dimension of the human resources equation provide students with improved learning facilities and enhanced work environments and also provide faculty with opportunities for professional development and an enhanced capacity for curriculum delivery. By 2007, 48 faculty members from the six universities in SSA attended PRH courses at Johns Hopkins University, 93 PRH courses were offered across the six universities, 625 of their master's students elected PRH concentrations and 158 had graduated. With the graduation of these and future student cohorts, the universities in SSA will systematically be expanding the number of public health practitioners and strengthening programme effectiveness to resolve reproductive health needs. Some challenges facing the partnership are described in this article. PMID:20614360

  18. [Effects of pharmacy market deregulation regarding patient-centred drug care in Germany from a health economics perspecitve].

    PubMed

    Rumm, R; Böcking, W

    2013-03-01

    This article analyses the impact of a potential deregulation Germany's pharmacy market by allowing foreign ownership of pharmacies and removing the limit of the number pharmacies that can be owned by a pharmacist. Based on a mathematical model and empirical values of foreign countries, scenarios for the German market are calculated and the impact on all participants of the health care system analysed. The key outcomes are:- A deregulation would enables the creation of pharmacy chains- In all simulated scenarios the total number of pharmacies would drastically grow- The increased pharmacy density improves patient centred drug care- The competition among pharmacies increases and leads to the closure of many independently owned and operated pharmacies. PMID:23423941

  19. Health from Space to Ground- A Centre to Foster Italy Impressive Achievements in Space Medicine and Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Mario; Ambesi-Impimbato, Francesco Saverio

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes the project for a new strategic asset currently emerging within the Italian scientific community in the field of Space Medicine and Biotechnology: an Italian Centre for Health from Space to Ground, dedicated to transferring biomedical methodologies from Space to Earth applications (for rehabilitation, prevention, degenerative diseases treatment), to co-operate with existing similar centers to gather and disseminate data, resources and facilities. This need originates by the convergence between a very active science community, (fostered by the Italian space Agency and the recently founded the Italian Society for Space Biomedicine and Biotechnology - ISSBB) and ALTEC SpA, a public/private company incorporated in Turin by Thales Alenia Space Italy, ASI, a local consortium among local authorities and Finmeccanica, which is very active in supporting Science in Space.

  20. Identification of Alcohol Disorders at a University Mental Health Centre, Using the CAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Helen E.; Tisdall, Gordon W.

    1994-01-01

    Examined usefulness of CAGE in screening for alcohol use disorders in university students (n=110) attending campus psychiatric health service. Fourteen students were identified as having current alcohol use disorder by means of Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Results suggest that CAGE is able in this population to detect usually mild…

  1. Health, Education and Poverty Reduction. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    It is generally agreed that spending on education and health is key to poverty reduction, but simply allocating more resources to these sectors does not ensure that poverty actually declines. On the basis of four in-depth case studies (on Indonesia, Madagascar, Peru and Tanzania) and three Technical Papers on malnutrition and primary education in…

  2. Cost analysis of awake versus asleep deep brain stimulation: a single academic health center experience.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R Lorie; Geddes, Jonah; McCartney, Shirley; Burchiel, Kim J

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The objective of this study was to compare the cost of deep brain stimulation (DBS) performed awake versus asleep at a single US academic health center and to compare costs across the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Clinical Database. METHODS Inpatient and outpatient demographic and hospital financial data for patients receiving a neurostimulator lead implant (from the first quarter of 2009 to the second quarter of 2014) were collected and analyzed. Inpatient charges included those associated with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) procedure code 0293 (implantation or replacement of intracranial neurostimulator lead). Outpatient charges included all preoperative charges ≤ 30 days prior to implant and all postoperative charges ≤ 30 days after implant. The cost of care based on reported charges and a cost-to-charge ratio was estimated. The UHC database was queried (January 2011 to March 2014) with the same ICD-9 code. Procedure cost data across like hospitals (27 UHC hospitals) conducting similar DBS procedures were compared. RESULTS Two hundred eleven DBS procedures (53 awake and 158 asleep) were performed at a single US academic health center during the study period. The average patient age ( ± SD) was 65 ± 9 years old and 39% of patients were female. The most common primary diagnosis was Parkinson's disease (61.1%) followed by essential and other forms of tremor (36%). Overall average DBS procedure cost was $39,152 ± $5340. Asleep DBS cost $38,850 ± $4830, which was not significantly different than the awake DBS cost of $40,052 ± $6604. The standard deviation for asleep DBS was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05). In 2013, the median cost for a neurostimulator implant lead was $34,052 at UHC-affiliated hospitals that performed at least 5 procedures a year. At Oregon Health & Science University, the median cost was $17,150 and the observed single academic health center cost for a neurostimulator lead implant was

  3. Bridging Student Health Risks and Academic Achievement through Comprehensive School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Cynthia Wolford; Cinelli, Bethann; James, Tammy C.; Groff, Patti

    1997-01-01

    Research confirms a direct link between student health risk behavior and education outcomes, education behaviors, and student attitudes. This article discusses barriers to comprehensive school health programming; summarizes relevant information concerning several health-risk behaviors (intentional injuries, diet, physical activity, sexual-risk…

  4. Social Determinants of Dementia and Caregivers’ Perspectives in the Field Practice Villages of Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvennainallur

    PubMed Central

    Gurukartick, J; Dongre, Amol R; Shah, Dharav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To find out the prevalence of dementia in the study population and its social determinants. (2) To explore the family caregivers’ perceptions and their support needs. Materials and Methods - Study Setting: This study was undertaken in the field practice area of 55 villages of three Primary Health Centres in Villupuram District of Tamil Nadu. Study Design: An exploratory mixed-methods study design, where a qualitative method (key informant interview) was followed by a quantitative method (survey). Sample Size: A representative sample of 1300 respondents was selected by two-stage sampling. Analysis: Manual content analysis was done for qualitative data. Multiple logistic regression was performed on quantitative data. Results: The prevalence of dementia among study sample was found to be 3.1%. The determinants for dementia were age, sex, socioeconomic status, and previous involvement in family decision making and cardiovascular risk factors. The family caregivers strongly felt that caregiving interferes with their personal and professional life; they also felt that caregiving is an integral part of Indian culture, and the elderly prefer home-based care. Caregivers preferred government owned public health facility for medical care. All the responding caregivers strongly felt that they are not adequately trained in caregiving. Conclusions and Recommendations: Routine screening of elderly for early identification of dementia and its medical and social risk factors should be initiated in primary health care facility. Care of caregivers should be seen as an integral part of dementia care program. PMID:26962277

  5. Academic and behavioral limitations and health-related quality of life in school-age survivors of bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Koomen, Irene; Raat, Hein; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag; Grobbee, Diederick E; Roord, John J; van Furth, Marceline

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe health-related quality of life of postmeningitic children and to examine the association between academic and/or behavioral limitations and health-related quality of life. One hundred and eighty-two children (mean age 9.7 years; range 5.3-14.2) were selected randomly from a cohort of 674 school-age children who recovered from non-Haemophilus influenzae type B bacterial meningitis. These children had neither meningitis with 'complex onset', nor prior cognitive or behavioral problems, nor severe disease sequelae. On average 7.4 years after meningitis, they were evaluated using an 'Academic Achievement Test' and their parents filled in the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Health Questionnaire, and the Health Utilities Index. The long-term incidence of academic and/or behavioral limitations was 32%. Overall health-related quality of life of the postmeningitic children was decreased in comparison with that of a reference population of schoolchildren. The group of postmeningitic children with academic and/or behavioral limitations showed the most marked decrease in quality of life, especially concerning psychosocial health, cognition and family life. The negative effects on quality of life were not significantly influenced by age, gender, causative pathogen, presence of minor neurological impairment, or presence of hearing impairment. In conclusion, health-related quality of life of postmeningitic children is decreased, particularly of those with academic and/or behavioral limitations. PMID:16110936

  6. Air pollution around schools is linked to poorer student health and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Mohai, Paul; Kweon, Byoung-Suk; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry

    2011-05-01

    Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children's schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children's health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates-a potential indicator of poor health-and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary. PMID:21543420

  7. Masculinities and young men's sex education needs in Ireland: problematizing client-centred health promotion approaches.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Abbey; Howlett, Etaoine; Drennan, Jonathan; Brady, Dympna

    2005-12-01

    In recent decades, dominant discourses in health promotion have emphasized empowerment, client participation and the notion of people identifying and being facilitated to meet their own health needs. However, there has been little analysis of the concept of 'need' and the possibility, at least, that the fulfillment of some such self-defined needs are not in the interest of social justice and equality. In this article, we present an account of the sex education needs of secondary school pupils from their own perspectives, and problematize the concept of self-identified needs in health education. Twenty-nine focus group interviews were conducted with 226 secondary school pupils in Ireland, and data were subjected to a qualitative analysis. Findings suggested that young men tended to prioritize practical guidance that would provide them with the skills and confidence to take the lead in sexual encounters, and display competence in the act of penetrative sex. We argue that these self-defined sex education needs emanate from a culture of traditional masculinity where, for a male, one's place in the pecking order is derived from one's capacity to conquer, lead and display mastery with regard to sex. In the discussion, we attempt to unpack the notion of clients identifying their own needs and the concept of empowerment as it relates to our data, in the context of gender-based structural inequalities. PMID:16159943

  8. Alma Ata and health for all by the year 2000. The roles of academic institutions.

    PubMed

    Bryant, J H; Zuberi, R W; Thaver, I H

    1991-06-01

    The title of this article raises a complex set of questions. To begin, what happened at Alma Ata and the goal that emanated from it-Health for All by the Year 2000--are themselves controversial matters. At least there are some who are strongly critical of those events and ideas. Even without linking academic institutions with Alma Ata and HFA/2000, a controversy is spawned when one asks about the roles of such institutions in dealing with societal problems--which problems should a university address, and how deeply does a university become engaged in them, particularly if it carries the university out of the cloister into the trenches of societal conflict? Linking academic institutions with Alma Ata and HFA/2000 deepens the controversy but also provides a framework for examining the basic principles on which each is based, and for testing those principles against the realities of real world problems of health development. This article draws on recent critical assessments of both sides of the equation: a recent Consultative Committee to the Director General of WHO that analyzes the successes and failures of PHC development to date, and lays out conditions for greater effectiveness in the future; and the Technical Discussions of WHO on the Roles of Universities in the Strategy for Health for All that review traditional and progressive arguments about the roles of universities in their societies, and how HFA can be seen as fitting into that debate. The thinking contained in these documents provides ample opportunity to examine whether or not academic institutions should have a role that relates to Alma Ata and Health for All, and, in the end, takes the position that, indeed, this is an appropriate role for those universities prepared to make the commitment. The point is also made that such involvement cannot be effective if the scale of the institutional commitment is marginal--it must be substantial and institution-wide. An example is given of the Aga Khan University

  9. Emerging opportunities for educational partnerships between managed care organizations and academic health centers.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, D B; Veloski, J J

    1998-01-01

    Medical schools, teaching hospitals, and managed care organizations have a vested interest in shaping the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the next generation of physicians who must adapt to significant changes in the financing and delivery of health care. This article summarizes the rationale for educational partnerships between managed care and academic medicine based on a review of three decades of well-documented experimentation in the literature. Discussed are some of the most important characteristics of the successful partnerships being forged in the current healthcare environment based on new kinds of relationships between faculty and non-university clinician educators. What had been referred to in previous decades as the "teaching-HMO" is now being complemented by community-based links between academic health centers and managed care plans. Several public and private sources have been generous in providing venture capital to support many of these innovations. However, their continued operation will depend on models for health care networks that can identify and manage the revenue and costs associated with the missions of education, clinical services, and research. PMID:9614788

  10. Monograph use at an academic health sciences library: the first three years of shelf life

    PubMed Central

    Blecic, Deborah D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the circulation of monographs during the first three years of shelf life at an academic health sciences library. Method: A record was kept of monographs added to the circulating collection from mid-1994 to mid-1995. After three years, each monograph was located and the number of times it circulated during the first, second, and third year of shelf life determined by counting checkout stamps on the circulation slip. Results: Of the 1,958 monographs studied, 1,674 had complete data for the first three years of shelf life. Of those 1,674 titles, 81.48% circulated at least once. A total of 7,659 circulations were recorded; 38.69% occurred in the first year of shelf life, 32.37% in the second year, and 28.95% in the third year. The data did not fit the well-known 80/20 rule. Instead, approximately 38% of monographs accounted for 80% of circulation. A small percentage, 2.21%, of monographs accounted for a substantial percentage of circulation, 21.84%. Conclusions: A large percentage of the monographs circulated and use did not decline sharply with age within the first three years of shelf life, indicating a high demand for monographs at this academic health sciences library. These results, combined with the findings of earlier studies, suggested two possibilities. First, academic health sciences libraries might exhibit use of a higher percentage of monograph acquisitions than other types of libraries; or, second, a low monograph-to-user ratio might result in a higher percentage of monographs being used. Perhaps both factors contributed to the results found in this study. Further investigation would be needed to determine the extent to which library type and monograph-to-user ratio influenced monograph use. PMID:10783969

  11. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1) To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2) To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1) To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1) in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2) To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1) to determine care received. 3) To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2). 4) To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2). 5) To undertake document analysis to appraise

  12. The presence of academic health sciences libraries on Facebook: the relationship between content and library popularity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Norton, Hannah F; Tennant, Michele R

    2012-01-01

    Social networks such as Facebook allow libraries to be proactive in reaching their users. While some libraries have popular Facebook pages, it remains unclear what attracts users to these pages. This study evaluates relationships between libraries' Facebook page content and popularity. An analysis of 72 academic health sciences libraries' Facebook pages showed positive correlations between number of library fans and number of tabs, photos, events, and wall posts on Facebook. Libraries posting videos had significantly more fans than libraries without them. This study contributes to an understanding of correlations between content and popularity on Facebook, with implications for library outreach. PMID:22559180

  13. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565

  14. Roles of managers in academic health centers: strategies for the managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kristina L

    2002-03-01

    This article addresses survival strategies of academic health centers (AHCs) in responding to market pressures and government reforms. Using six case studies of AHCs, the study links strategic changes in structure and management to managerial role performance. Utilizing Mintzberg's classification of work roles, the roles of liaison, monitor, entrepreneur, and resource allocator were found to be used by top-level managers as they implement strategies to enhance the viability of their AHCs. Based on these new roles, the study recommends improving management practices through education and training as well as changing organizational culture to support management decision making and foster the continued growth of managers and their AHCs. PMID:11944815

  15. Addressing the “Global Health Tax” and “Wild Cards”: Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young “expat” global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  16. Availability and Continuity of Care for Maternal Health Services in the Primary Health Centres in Nnewi, Nigeria (January - March 2010)

    PubMed Central

    Nnebue, Chinomnso C.; Ebenebe, Uzo E.; Duru, Chukwuma B.; Egenti, Nonye B.; Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Ibeh, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In some primary health care settings, even where the health services are not available, provisions are not made to ensure continuity of care. This study aimed to determine the availability and level of continuity of care for maternal health services in the primary health centers (PHCs) in Nnewi, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Using multistage sampling technique, 280 women utilizing maternal health services from four randomly selected public PHCs in Nnewi, Nigeria were chosen for the study. Data collection employed a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results: The mean ± standard deviation for age of the respondents was 29.2 ± 5.9 years. The facilities studied provided out-patient services, but the only in-patient services provided was for women who delivered or those in labor. None of the facilities is equipped to provide even basic essential obstetric care services. None had standardized a protocol for referring clients, referral forms, a transport system, or a community loan scheme in place. Forty-four (15.7%) women were referred for care outside of the PHCs for the following reasons: Lack of drugs and supplies (9.1%); lack of equipment (90.9%), lack of skilled personnel (45.5%) among others. Conclusions: This study showed that despite the unavailability of some services, appropriate strategies were not in place to ensure the coherent pattern of services within and between the PHCs and other levels of care. Delivery to the clients of comprehensive and integrated maternal health services, and efficient referral systems are thus recommended. PMID:27076882

  17. Patient-centred access to health care: conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Access is central to the performance of health care systems around the world. However, access to health care remains a complex notion as exemplified in the variety of interpretations of the concept across authors. The aim of this paper is to suggest a conceptualisation of access to health care describing broad dimensions and determinants that integrate demand and supply-side-factors and enabling the operationalisation of access to health care all along the process of obtaining care and benefiting from the services. Methods A synthesis of the published literature on the conceptualisation of access has been performed. The most cited frameworks served as a basis to develop a revised conceptual framework. Results Here, we view access as the opportunity to identify healthcare needs, to seek healthcare services, to reach, to obtain or use health care services, and to actually have a need for services fulfilled. We conceptualise five dimensions of accessibility: 1) Approachability; 2) Acceptability; 3) Availability and accommodation; 4) Affordability; 5) Appropriateness. In this framework, five corresponding abilities of populations interact with the dimensions of accessibility to generate access. Five corollary dimensions of abilities include: 1) Ability to perceive; 2) Ability to seek; 3) Ability to reach; 4) Ability to pay; and 5) Ability to engage. Conclusions This paper explains the comprehensiveness and dynamic nature of this conceptualisation of access to care and identifies relevant determinants that can have an impact on access from a multilevel perspective where factors related to health systems, institutions, organisations and providers are considered with factors at the individual, household, community, and population levels. PMID:23496984

  18. Promoting Tobacco Cessation in a Community-Based Women’s Health Centre

    PubMed Central

    Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Eggert, Thomas; Puca, Zachary G; DuPont, Nefertiti; Erwin, Deborah O; Fox, Chester H; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Objective This report assesses the impact of a series of education sessions delivered to office staff on the delivery of smoking cessation services among patients seeking care at a community-based women’s health center. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the delivery of smoking cessation services to patients in a medical office before and after office staff attended a series of 3 educational sessions intended to increase their knowledge and self-efficacy to address cessation. Delivery of smoking cessation services was documented through a systematic review of medical records using a structured abstraction form. Results While nearly all smokers (93%) were asked about smoking status at their last office visit, few smokers at baseline or follow-up were assessed for interest in setting a quit date or offered pharmacotherapy. Referrals to the smokers quit line increased from <1% at baseline to 8% at follow-up (p<0.001) and “any assistance” also showed a modest but significant increase (<1% baseline, 9% follow-up, p<0.001). Conclusion This evaluation failed to identify clinical meaningful changes in the delivery of smoking cessation services in this women’s health office before and after completion of a series of educational interventions for office staff. It is anticipated that the implementation of patient centered medical homes, and EMR systems, will help to enhance the delivery of smoking cessation services to women seeking medical care. PMID:27127729

  19. Building academic health centers' capacity to shape and respond to comparative effectiveness research policy.

    PubMed

    VanLare, Jordan M; Conway, Patrick H; Rowe, John W

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the focus on comparative effectiveness research (CER), the funding available to support it, and the range of possible effects of CER policy on academic health centers (AHCs) have increased substantially. CER has implications for the research, education, and clinical care components of AHCs' missions. The current funding and policy environment have created specific opportunities for AHCs to shape and respond to CER policies across the four dimensions of the CER enterprise: research, human and scientific capital, data infrastructure, and translation and dissemination. Characteristics such as the degree of physician-hospital integration, the status of a health information technology infrastructure, and the presence of a well-developed cross-functional health services research capacity linked to the care delivery enterprise could help AHCs respond to these opportunities and influence future policies. AHCs are also essential to the development of methodologies and the training of the next cadre of researchers. Further, a focus on understanding what works in health care and increasing adoption of evidence-based practice must become embedded in the fabric of AHCs. Those AHCs most successful in responding to the CER challenge may leverage it as a point of differentiation in the marketplace for health care and lead transformational improvements in health. PMID:21512371

  20. [GPs' self-perception of their own role compared with hospital, ambulatory, academic, and health organisation physicians].

    PubMed

    Daghio, Maria Monica; Gaglianò, Giuseppe; Bevini, Massimo; Cadioli, Tiziano; Delvecchio, Carlo; Guidetti, Patrizia; Lorenzetti, Manuela; Fattori, Giuseppe; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria

    2005-05-01

    Aim of the present study was to explore how the 76 general practitioners (GPs) - serving Carpi district (90,000 residents) - value their own role compared with the hospital, ambulatory, academic, and health organisation physicians'. GPs had a positive self-image only in comparison with health organisation doctors (7 vs 7 grades). GPs disappointed with themselves when comparing their role with ambulatory (-1.6 grades), academic (-1.9 grades) and hospital doctors (-2.2 grades). Secondarily, GPs perceived patients' valuing their professional role mostly 'subordinate' to the other physicians', except health organisation colleagues'. PMID:15977651

  1. Linking Health Services Research to Education at an Academic Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Risa P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Emory University (Georgia) Center for Clinical Evaluation Sciences is designed as an analytical resource for the university's health care delivery system and to promote health services research across the university. It also has potential as a resource for training medical students, house staff, and faculty in the evaluative clinical sciences.…

  2. COST Action “EuroTelepath”: digital pathology integration in electronic health record, including primary care centres

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Digital pathology includes the information technology that allows for the management of information, including data and images, generated in an anatomic pathology department. COST Action IC0604 The integration of digital slides in the electronic health record is one of the main objectives of COST Action IC0604 “Telepathology Network in Europe” (EURO-TELEPATH). Fostering use of medical informatics standards and adapting them to current needs is needed to manage efficiently extremely large medical images, like digital slide files. Digital slides in Pathology Digital slides can play a role in disease prevention, primary diagnosis, and second opinion. In all these tasks, automated image analysis can also be a most valuable tool. Interoperability in pathology information systems In order to achieve an efficient interoperability between pathology information systems with other clinical information systems, obtaining a seamless integration of pathology images (gross pictures and digital slides) with LIS-Pathology Information system in a web environment is an important task. Primary care information systems should also be included in the integration, since primary care centres play an essential role in the generation of clinical information and specimen collection. A common terminology, based in SNOMED CT is also needed. Conclusions Main barrier in the integration of digital slides in pathology workflow and eHealth record is the cost of current digital slide scanners. Pathology information system vendors should participate in standardization bodies. PMID:21489201

  3. How Social Relationships Influence Academic Health in the "Enterprise University": An Insight into Productivity of Knowledge Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    The comparatively poor mental health status of academics at Australian universities compared with the general Australian workforce poses a public health challenge. Productivity of knowledge workers is a key issue for the new economy. Using the case of one university, I interviewed employees stratified by level of employment and showed that their…

  4. Becoming an Academic: The Reconstruction of Identity by Recently Appointed Lecturers in Nursing, Midwifery and the Allied Health Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Caroline; Boyd, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the workplace learning experiences of recently appointed lecturers in UK higher education in nursing, midwifery and the allied health professions. Health care practitioners, appointed to academic posts in Universities, are experts in their respective clinical fields and hold strong practitioner identities developed through…

  5. Academic affairs and global health: how global health electives can accelerate progress towards ACGME milestones.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Alison Schroth; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Sanson, Tracy; Mowafi, Hani; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2015-12-01

    Global health electives (GHEs) have become a standard offering in many residency programs. Residency electives should aid residents in achieving outcomes in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency domains. In this paper, the authors review existing literature and provide expert opinion to highlight how global health electives can complement traditional training programs to assist residents in achieving ACGME milestones, using emergency medicine residency as an example. Recommendations are provided for identifying exemplary global health electives and for the development of institutional global health elective curricula in order to facilitate milestone achievement. Global health electives can advance progress towards ACGME milestones; however, they may vary greatly in terms of potential for learner advancement. Electives should thus be rigorously vetted to ensure they meet standards that will facilitate this process. Given that milestones are a newly introduced tool for assessing resident educational achievement, very little research is available currently to directly determine impacts, and further study will be needed. PMID:26628320

  6. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398

  7. Living through conflict and post-conflict: experiences of health workers in northern Uganda and lessons for people-centred health systems

    PubMed Central

    Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Providing people-centred health systems—or any systems at all—requires specific measures to protect and retain healthcare workers during and after the conflict. This is particularly important when health staff are themselves the target of violence and abduction, as is often the case. This article presents the perspective of health workers who lived through conflict in four districts of northern Uganda—Pader, Gulu, Amuru, and Kitgum. These contained more than 90% of the people displaced by the decades of conflict, which ended in 2006. The article is based on 26 in-depth interviews, using a life history approach. This participatory tool encouraged participants to record key events and decisions in their lives, and to explore areas such as their decision to become a health worker, their employment history, and their experiences of conflict and coping strategies. These were analyzed thematically to develop an understanding of how to protect and retain staff in these challenging contexts. During the conflict, many health workers lost their lives or witnessed the death of their friends and colleagues. They also experienced abduction, ambush and injury. Other challenges included disconnection from social and professional support systems, displacement, limited supplies and equipment, increased workload and long working days and lack of pay. Health workers were not passive in the face of these challenges, however. They adopted a range of safety measures, such as mingling with community members, sleeping in the bush, and frequent change of sleeping place, in addition to psychological and practical coping strategies. Understanding their motivation and their views provides an important insight how to maintain staffing and so to continue to offer essential health care during difficult times and in marginalized areas. PMID:25274642

  8. The establishment of an academic health sciences library in a developing country: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, L S

    1991-07-01

    The development of a Faculty of Medical Sciences (FMS) and an academic health sciences library for the University of the West Indies (UWI) has proven to be a polemical and political issue due to the depressed economy of the country. Although FMS is still shrouded in politics and controversy after its inaugural year, the Medical Sciences Library (MSL) has expanded its dimensions and is actively developing a biomedical information network within the country. This will result in better dissemination and control of biomedical information. The library now participates in joint projects with other health sciences libraries in the country with the goal of joint automated listings of holdings and shared cataloging projects. This paper examines the development of the library and explains the difficulties experienced in its developmental stages due to politics, the delay in appointment of a medical sciences librarian, and the financial decline in the local economy. PMID:1884084

  9. What do clinicians want? Interest in integrative health services at a North Carolina academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Dirkse, Deborah; Eadie, Dee; Pennington, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Background Use of complementary medicine is common, consumer driven and usually outpatient focused. We wished to determine interest among the medical staff at a North Carolina academic medical center in integrating diverse therapies and services into comprehensive care. Methods We conducted a cross sectional on-line survey of physicians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants at a tertiary care medical center in 2006. The survey contained questions on referrals and recommendations in the past year and interest in therapies or services if they were to be provided at the medical center in the future. Results Responses were received from 173 clinicians in 26 different departments, programs and centers. There was strong interest in offering several specific therapies: therapeutic exercise (77%), expert consultation about herbs and dietary supplements (69%), and massage (66%); there was even stronger interest in offering comprehensive treatment programs such as multidisciplinary pain management (84%), comprehensive nutritional assessment and advice (84%), obesity/healthy lifestyle promotion (80%), fit for life (exercise and lifestyle program, 76%), diabetes healthy lifestyle promotion (73%); and comprehensive psychological services for stress management, including hypnosis and biofeedback (73%). Conclusion There is strong interest among medical staff at an academic health center in comprehensive, integrated services for pain, obesity, and diabetes and in specific services in fitness, nutrition and stress management. Future studies will need to assess the cost-effectiveness of such services, as well as their financial sustainability and impact on patient satisfaction, health and quality of life. PMID:17291340

  10. Reference librarians' perceptions of the issues they face as academic health information professionals

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Carol S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Leaders in the profession encourage academic health sciences librarians to assume new roles as part of the growth process for remaining vital professionals. Have librarians embraced these new roles? Objectives: This research sought to examine from the reference librarians' viewpoints how their roles have changed over the past ten years and what the challenges these changes present as viewed by both the librarians and library directors. Method: A series of eight focus groups was conducted with reference librarians from private and public academic health sciences libraries. Directors of these libraries were interviewed separately. Results: Reference librarians' activities have largely confirmed the role changes anticipated by their leaders. They are teaching more, engaging in outreach through liaison initiatives, and designing Web pages, in addition to providing traditional reference duties. Librarians offer insights into unanticipated issues encountered in each of these areas and offer some creative solutions. Directors discuss the issues from their unique perspective. Conclusion: Librarians have identified areas for focusing efforts in lifelong learning. Adult learning theory, specialized databases and resources needed by researchers, ever-evolving technology, and promotion and evaluation of the library are areas needing attention. Implications for library education and continuing professional development are presented. PMID:15098052

  11. Assessing the Queuing Process Using Data Envelopment Analysis: an Application in Health Centres.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Komal A; Emrouznejad, Ali; Dey, Prasanta K

    2016-01-01

    Queuing is one of the very important criteria for assessing the performance and efficiency of any service industry, including healthcare. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is one of the most widely-used techniques for performance measurement in healthcare. However, no queue management application has been reported in the health-related DEA literature. Most of the studies regarding patient flow systems had the objective of improving an already existing Appointment System. The current study presents a novel application of DEA for assessing the queuing process at an Outpatients' department of a large public hospital in a developing country where appointment systems do not exist. The main aim of the current study is to demonstrate the usefulness of DEA modelling in the evaluation of a queue system. The patient flow pathway considered for this study consists of two stages; consultation with a doctor and pharmacy. The DEA results indicated that waiting times and other related queuing variables included need considerable minimisation at both stages. PMID:26558394

  12. Rationality, practice variation and person-centred health policy: a threshold hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hamm, Robert M; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Hozo, Iztok; Van den Ende, Jef

    2015-12-01

    Variation in practice of medicine is one of the major health policy issues of today. Ultimately, it is related to physicians' decision making. Similar patients with similar likelihood of having disease are often managed by different doctors differently: some doctors may elect to observe the patient, others decide to act based on diagnostic testing and yet others may elect to treat without testing. We explain these differences in practice by differences in disease probability thresholds at which physicians decide to act: contextual social and clinical factors and emotions such as regret affect the threshold by influencing the way doctors integrate objective data related to treatment and testing. However, depending on a theoretical construct each of the physician's behaviour can be considered rational. In fact, we showed that the current regulatory policies lead to predictably low thresholds for most decisions in contemporary practice. As a result, we may expect continuing motivation for overuse of treatment and diagnostic tests. We argue that rationality should take into account both formal principles of rationality and human intuitions about good decisions along the lines of Rawls' 'reflective equilibrium/considered judgment'. In turn, this can help define a threshold model that is empirically testable. PMID:26639018

  13. Leadership in academic health centers in the US: a review of the role and some recommendations.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The leadership of the US's most complex academic health centers (AHCs)/medical centers requires individuals who possess a high level of clinical, organizational, managerial, and interpersonal skills. This paper first outlines the major attributes desired in a dean/vice president of health affairs before then summarizing the educational opportunities now generally available to train for such leadership and management roles. For the most part, the masters in health administration (MHA), the traditional MBA, and the numerous alternatives primarily available at universities are considered far too general and too lacking in emotional intelligence tutoring to be particularly relevant for those who aspire to these most senior leadership positions. More appropriate educational options for these roles are discussed: (a) the in-house leadership and management programs now underway at some AHCs for those selected early on in their career for future executive-type roles as well as for those who are appointed later on to a chair, directorship or similar position; and (b) a more controversial approach of potentially establishing at one or a few universities, a mid-career, professional program (a maximum of 12 months and therefore, being completed in less time than an MBA) leading to a masters degree in academic health center administration (MHCA) for those who aspire to fill a senior AHC leadership position. The proposed curriculum as outlined herein might be along the lines of some carefully designed masters level on-line, self-teaching modules for the more technical subjects, yet vigorously emphasizing integrate-type courses focused on enhancing personal and professional team building and leadership skills. PMID:25595014

  14. Behind bars: the compelling case for academic health centers partnering with correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Trestman, Robert L; Ferguson, Warren; Dickert, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs), particularly those that are publicly funded institutions, have as their mission the treatment of disadvantaged populations, the training of the next generation of clinicians, and the development and dissemination of new knowledge to reduce the burden of disease and improve the health of individuals and populations. Incarcerated populations have the most prevalent and acute disease burden and health disparities in the United States, even in comparison with inner-city populations. Yet, only a small proportion of AHCs have reached out to incarcerated populations to fulfill their mission. Those AHCs that have partnered with correctional facilities have overcome concerns about the value and popularity of "training behind bars"; the cost, liability, and pragmatics of caring for a medically complicated population; and the viability of correctional health research and extramural research funding. They have done so to great benefit to patients, students, and faculty. Partnering with correctional facilities to provide health care offers opportunities for AHCs to fulfill their core missions of clinical service, education, and research, while also enhancing their financial stability, to the benefit of all. In this Commentary, the authors discuss, based on their experiences, these concerns, how existing partnerships have overcome them, and the benefits of such relationships to both AHCs and correctional facilities. PMID:25054416

  15. The potential conflict between policy and ethics in caring for undocumented immigrants at academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Cacari Stone, Lisa; Steimel, Leah; Vasquez-Guzman, Estela; Kaufman, Arthur

    2014-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are at the forefront of delivering care to the diverse medically underserved and uninsured populations in the United States, as well as training the majority of the health care workforce, who are professionally obligated to serve all patients regardless of race or immigration status. Despite AHCs' central leadership role in these endeavors, few consolidated efforts have emerged to resolve potential conflicts between national, state, and local policies that exclude certain classifications of immigrants from receiving federal public assistance and health professionals' social missions and ethical oath to serve humanity. For instance, whereas the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides a pathway to insurance coverage for more than 30 million Americans, undocumented immigrants and legally documented immigrants residing in the United States for less than five years are ineligible for Medicaid and excluded from purchasing any type of coverage through state exchanges. To inform this debate, the authors describe their experience at the University of New Mexico Hospital (UNMH) and discuss how the UNMH has responded to this challenge and overcome barriers. They offer three recommendations for aligning AHCs' social missions and professional ethics with organizational policies: (1) that AHCs determine eligibility for financial assistance based on residency rather than citizenship, (2) that models of medical education and health professions training provide students with service-learning opportunities and applied community experience, and (3) that frontline staff and health care professionals receive standardized training on eligibility policies to minimize discrimination towards immigrant patients. PMID:24556759

  16. The Connecticut Latino Behavioral Health System: A culturally informed community-academic collaboration.

    PubMed

    Paris, Manuel; Silva, Michelle A; Diaz, Esperanza; Bedregal, Luis E; Cole, Robert A; Añez-Nava, Luis M

    2016-05-01

    The Connecticut Latino Behavioral Health System (LBHS) represents a culturally informed community-academic collaboration that includes agencies focused on mental health, addictions, behavioral health within community health centers, and social rehabilitation; the Yale University Department of Psychiatry; and the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services. The core mission of the LBHS is to expand and enhance the provision of recovery-oriented, and culturally and linguistically appropriate, services to the monolingual Spanish-speaking community in parts of South Central Connecticut. This article outlines the rationale and need for such a collaboration to meet the needs of an underrepresented and underserved ethnic minority group. The process by which these entities came together to develop and successfully implement systemic strategies is described in the context of 2 overarching priorities: (a) workforce development, and (b) access to services. The authors also highlight lessons learned that have informed the decision-making process since the inception of the LBHS, and future directions to ensure that it is prepared to meet changing consumer needs and systemic priorities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148948

  17. How Good Is Our School? The Child at the Centre: The Health Promoting School--The Role of Local Authorities and Their Partners. Self-Evaluation Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To become effective health promoting establishments which achieve the maximum impact on children, young people and families and on the local community, schools and pre-school centres need to operate within a strategic framework developed at the highest levels within their local council and community area. Effective councils are committed to…

  18. The global network of WHO Collaborating Centres for nursing and midwifery development: a policy approach to health for all through nursing and midwifery excellence.

    PubMed

    Carty, Rita M

    2005-01-01

    In response to the complexities of health services delivery within the context of cultures, world events, medical technologies, and natural and manmade disasters, WHO recognized the need for external resources to assist it to meet its goals. In line with WHO's policy that research in the field of health is best advanced by assisting, coordinating and utilizing the activities of existing institutions, WHO Collaborating Centres were developed to support WHO with external expertise at the local, country and international levels. Of the 1,000 Collaborating Centres worldwide representing all the major health disciplines, 36, in 19 different countries, are dedicated to nursing and midwifery services, education, research and policy. These 36 Centres have joined forces as the Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centres for Nursing and Midwifery Development. Since its inception in 1987, the Global Network has developed into a significant force in international nursing leadership. Its far-reaching sphere of influence, its communications technology and its ability to develop collaborative projects, enable it to have a significant impact on the health of the people of the world. PMID:16308615

  19. Forging successful academic-community partnerships with community health centers: the California statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) experience.

    PubMed

    Fowkes, Virginia; Blossom, H John; Mitchell, Brenda; Herrera-Mata, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Increased access to insurance under the Affordable Care Act will increase demands for clinical services in community health centers (CHCs). CHCs also have an increasingly important educational role to train clinicians who will remain to practice in community clinics. CHCs and Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) are logical partners to prepare the health workforce for the future. Both are sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration, and they share a mission to improve quality of care in medically underserved communities. AHECs emphasize the educational side of the mission, and CHCs the service side. Building stronger partnerships between them can facilitate a balance between education and service needs.From 2004 to 2011, the California Statewide AHEC program and its 12 community AHECs (centers) reorganized to align training with CHC workforce priorities. Eight centers merged into CHC consortia; others established close partnerships with CHCs in their respective regions. The authors discuss issues considered and approaches taken to make these changes. Collaborative innovative processes with program leadership, staff, and center directors revised the program mission, developed common training objectives with an evaluation plan, and defined organizational, functional, and impact characteristics for successful AHECs in California. During this planning, centers gained confidence as educational arms for the safety net and began collaborations with statewide programs as well as among themselves. The AHEC reorganization and the processes used to develop, strengthen, and identify standards for centers forged the development of new partnerships and established academic-community trust in planning and implementing programs with CHCs. PMID:24280858

  20. Towards people-centred health systems: a multi-level framework for analysing primary health care governance in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Abimbola, Seye; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence that non-government health system actors can individually or collectively develop practical strategies to address primary health care (PHC) challenges in the community, existing frameworks for analysing health system governance largely focus on the role of governments, and do not sufficiently account for the broad range of contribution to PHC governance. This is important because of the tendency for weak governments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We present a multi-level governance framework for use as a thinking guide in analysing PHC governance in LMICs. This framework has previously been used to analyse the governance of common-pool resources such as community fisheries and irrigation systems. We apply the framework to PHC because, like common-pool resources, PHC facilities in LMICs tend to be commonly owned by the community such that individual and collective action is often required to avoid the 'tragedy of the commons'-destruction and degradation of the resource resulting from lack of concern for its continuous supply. In the multi-level framework, PHC governance is conceptualized at three levels, depending on who influences the supply and demand of PHC services in a community and how: operational governance (individuals and providers within the local health market), collective governance (community coalitions) and constitutional governance (governments at different levels and other distant but influential actors). Using the example of PHC governance in Nigeria, we illustrate how the multi-level governance framework offers a people-centred lens on the governance of PHC in LMICs, with a focus on relations among health system actors within and between levels of governance. We demonstrate the potential impact of health system actors functioning at different levels of governance on PHC delivery, and how governance failure at one level can be assuaged by governance at another level. PMID:25274638

  1. Towards people-centred health systems: a multi-level framework for analysing primary health care governance in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Abimbola, Seye; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Although there is evidence that non-government health system actors can individually or collectively develop practical strategies to address primary health care (PHC) challenges in the community, existing frameworks for analysing health system governance largely focus on the role of governments, and do not sufficiently account for the broad range of contribution to PHC governance. This is important because of the tendency for weak governments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We present a multi-level governance framework for use as a thinking guide in analysing PHC governance in LMICs. This framework has previously been used to analyse the governance of common-pool resources such as community fisheries and irrigation systems. We apply the framework to PHC because, like common-pool resources, PHC facilities in LMICs tend to be commonly owned by the community such that individual and collective action is often required to avoid the ‘tragedy of the commons’—destruction and degradation of the resource resulting from lack of concern for its continuous supply. In the multi-level framework, PHC governance is conceptualized at three levels, depending on who influences the supply and demand of PHC services in a community and how: operational governance (individuals and providers within the local health market), collective governance (community coalitions) and constitutional governance (governments at different levels and other distant but influential actors). Using the example of PHC governance in Nigeria, we illustrate how the multi-level governance framework offers a people-centred lens on the governance of PHC in LMICs, with a focus on relations among health system actors within and between levels of governance. We demonstrate the potential impact of health system actors functioning at different levels of governance on PHC delivery, and how governance failure at one level can be assuaged by governance at another level. PMID:25274638

  2. 25 CFR 36.83 - How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN... a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health services? A student...

  3. 25 CFR 36.83 - How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN... a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health services? A student...

  4. Organizational Factors that Influence Information Technology Diffusion in Academic Health Sciences Centers

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify the organizational factors which influence the diffusion of end user online literature searching, the computer-based patient record, and electronic mail systems in academic health sciences centers in the United States. Design: A total of 1335 individuals working in informatics and library areas at 67 academic health sciences centers in the U.S. were surveyed. Multivariate techniques were used to evaluate the relationship between the set of six organizational factors and two measures of innovation diffusion. Measurements: A Guttman-like scale was developed to measure infusion, or depth or sophistication, of each of the three innovations at each institution. Diffusion was measured by a question previously developed for another study. Six independent variables were measured via five formerly developed scales and one new one. Results: The overall response rate was 41%. The set of organizational variables produced significant results in the diffusion of each of the three innovations, with individual variables influencing diffusion to varying degrees. The same set produced significant results in relation to infusion only for online searching. There was little or no correlation between infusion and diffusion for each innovation. Conclusion: Organizational attributes are important predictors for diffusion of information technology innovations. Individual variables differ in their effect on each innovation. The set of attributes seems less able to predict infusion. It is recommended that both infusion and diffusion be measured in future studies because there is little relation between them. It is further recommended that individuals charged with implementing information technology in the health sciences receive training in managing organizational issues. PMID:9067876

  5. Perspective: Strategies for Developing Biostatistics Resources in an Academic Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Leah J.; Carter, Rickey E.; Finkelstein, Dianne; Harrell, Frank E.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Macaluso, Maurizio; Mazumdar, Madhu; Nietert, Paul J.; Oster, Robert A.; Pollock, Brad H.; Roberson, Paula K.; Ware, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Biostatistics—the application of statistics to understanding health and biology—provides powerful tools for developing research questions, designing studies, refining measurements, analyzing data, and interpreting findings. Biostatistics plays an important role in health-related research, yet biostatistics resources are often fragmented, ad hoc, or oversubscribed within academic health centers (AHCs). Given the increasing complexity and quantity of health-related data, the emphasis on accelerating clinical and translational science, and the importance of conducting reproducible research, the need for the thoughtful development of biostatistics resources within AHCs is growing. In this article, the authors identify strategies for developing biostatistics resources in three areas: (1) recruiting and retaining biostatisticians; (2) efficiently using biostatistics resources; and (3) improving biostatistical contributions to science. AHCs should consider these three domains in building strong biostatistics resources, which they can leverage to support a broad spectrum of research. For each of the three domains, the authors describe the advantages and disadvantages of AHCs creating centralized biostatistics units rather than dispersing such resources across clinical departments or other research units. They also address the challenges biostatisticians face in contributing to research without sacrificing their individual professional growth or the trajectory of their research team. The authors ultimately recommend that AHCs create centralized biostatistics units, as this approach offers distinct advantages both to investigators who collaborate with biostatisticians as well as to the biostatisticians themselves, and it is better suited to accomplish the research and education missions of AHCs. PMID:23425984

  6. A National Benchmarking Survey of Student Counselling Centres/Units in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilliers, C. D.; Pretorius, K.; van der Westhuizen, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    Students experience various challenges during their studies, such as personal problems, academic difficulties and mental health problems. Therefore, student counselling centres/units play a valuable role in providing support systems for students in need. The most frequent problems South African students experience are relationship problems and…

  7. Changing the future of health professions: embedding interprofessional education within an academic health center.

    PubMed

    Blue, Amy V; Mitcham, Maralynne; Smith, Thomas; Raymond, John; Greenberg, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    Institutions are increasingly considering interprofessional education (IPE) as a means to improve health care and reduce medical errors in the United States. Effective implementation of IPE within health professions education requires a strategic institutional approach to ensure longevity and sustainability. In 2007, the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) established Creating Collaborative Care (C), an IPE initiative that takes a multifaceted approach to weaving interprofessional collaborative experiences throughout MUSC's culture to prepare students to participate in interprofessional, collaborative health care and research settings.In this article, the authors describe C's guiding conceptual foundation and student learning goals. They present its implementation framework to illustrate how C is embedded within the institutional culture. It is housed in the provost's office, and an overarching implementation committee functions as a central coordinating group. Faculty members develop and implement C activities across professions by contributing to four collaborating domains-curricular, extracurricular, faculty development, and health care simulation-each of which captures an IPE component. The authors provide examples of IPE activities developed by each domain to illustrate the breadth of IPE at MUSC. The authors believe that MUSC's efforts, including the conceptual foundation and implementation framework, can be generalized to other institutions intent on developing IPE within their organizational cultures. PMID:20671454

  8. Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre: a model for adolescent friendly HIV management and reproductive health for adolescents in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkala, Busisiwe; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Sekoane, Itumeleng; Sonqishe, Bulelwa; Gray, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre, an adolescent program specifically established to provide voluntary counseling and testing as well as management of HIV-positive young people in Soweto, South Africa. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis, using clinic records of young people accessing services from 2008 to 2012, was conducted. Of the 11,522 who tested, 7689 (67%) were females. The total number of HIV infections was 410, with an HIV prevalence of 3.6% (95% CI 3.2-3.9%). More females (332, 4% vs. 72, 2%; p < 0.0001) were HIV-infected than males. Of those testing HIV positive, 109 (26.5%) had a median CD4 cell count of 491 (IQR 345-686) cells/mm(3). Only 12/410 individuals (2.9%) were eligible for antiretroviral treatment and 10 (2.4%) of those successfully received treatment. The program observed that young people testing HIV positive would not return for follow up blood specimens or confirmatory results. Future programs should consider innovative ways of retaining adolescents in care to reduce potential HIV transmissions that could lead to deteriorating health. PMID:25599113

  9. The Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) Conceptual Model to Promote Mental Health for Adolescents with ASD.

    PubMed

    Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L

    2016-06-01

    Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable. PMID:27072681

  10. Factors associated to referral of tuberculosis suspects by private practitioners to community health centres in Bali Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The contrast between the low proportion of tuberculosis (TB) suspects referred from private practitioners in Bali province and the high volume of TB suspects seeking care at private practices suggests problems with TB suspect referral from private practitioners to the public health sector. We aimed to identify key factors associated with the referral of TB suspects by private practitioners. Methods We conducted a case-control study conducted in Bali province, Indonesia. The cases were private practitioners who had referred at least one TB suspect to a community health centre between 1 January 2007 and the start of data collection, while the controls were private practitioners who had not referred a single TB suspect in the same time. Results The following factors were independently associated with referral of TB suspects by private practitioners: having received information about the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) strategy (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1 – 3.8), ever having been visited by a district TB program officer (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0 – 4.5), availability of TB suspect referral forms in the practice (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.5-5.2), and less than 5 km distance between the private practice and the laboratory for smear examination (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.0). Conclusions Education and exposure of private practitioners to the TB program improves referral of TB suspects from private practitioners to the national TB program. We recommend that the TB program provides all private practitioners with information about the DOTS strategy and TB suspect referral forms, and organizes regular visits to private practitioners. PMID:24165352

  11. Initial integration of chiropractic services into a provincially funded inner city community health centre: a program description

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Steven R.; Toth, Audrey; Kanovsky, Joel; Olin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background: The burden of fees for chiropractic services rendered often falls on the patient and must be provided out-of-pocket regardless of their socioeconomic status and clinical need. Universal healthcare coverage reduces the financial barrier to healthcare utilization, thereby increasing the opportunity for the financially disadvantaged to have access to care. In 2011 the Canadian Province of Manitoba initiated a pilot program providing access to chiropractic care within the Mount Carmel Clinic (MCC), a non-secular, non-profit, inner city community health centre. Objective: To describe the initial integration of chiropractic services into a publically funded healthcare facility including patient demographics, referral patterns, treatment practices and clinical outcomes. Method: A retrospective database review of chiropractic consultations in 2011 (N=177) was performed. Results: The typical patient referred for chiropractic care was a non-working (86%), 47.3(SD=16.8) year old, who self-identified as Caucasian (52.2%), or Aboriginal (35.8%) and female (68.3%) with a body mass index considered obese at 30.4(SD=7.0). New patient consultations were primarily referrals from other health providers internal to the MCC (71.2%), frequently primary care physicians (76%). Baseline to discharge comparisons of numeric rating scale scores for the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacroiliac and extremity regions all exceeded the minimally clinically important difference for reduction in musculoskeletal pain. Improvements occurred over an average of 12.7 (SD=14.3) treatments, and pain reductions were also statistically significant at p<0.05. Conclusion: Chiropractic services are being utilized by patients, and referring providers. Clinical outcomes indicate that services rendered decrease musculoskeletal pain in an inner city population. PMID:26816049

  12. Cultures in conflict: a challenge to faculty of academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Magill, M K; Catinella, A P; Haas, L; Hughes, C C

    1998-08-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are experiencing turmoil in all three of their traditional missions of teaching, research, and patient care. The authors examine origins of universities and medical education to place in historical context the stresses affecting AHCs at the end of the 20th century. They describe the cultures of the university to suggest strategies for successful adaptation to these stresses. Clashes of values and norms of the cultures within universities and AHCs can hinder effective adaptation to external change. Administrators, researchers, teachers, and clinicians can have strongly conflicting perspectives. For example, business skill is of increasing importance to the survival of the clinical enterprise, but not typically valued by faculty members. University faculty have often considered accountability as antithetical to academic freedom, and, until recently, accountability was not strongly demanded of AHCs. The authors conclude that AHC faculty must transcend the outdated view that the roles of the scholar, scientist, and healer are in opposition to those of the leader and manager. If AHCs are to survive and prosper through their current cultural transition, their faculty must understand all these roles as part of their intellectual and organizational responsibility. PMID:9736847

  13. Establishing an Integrative Medicine Program Within an Academic Health Center: Essential Considerations.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Post, Diana E; Hrbek, Andrea L; O'Connor, Bonnie B; Osypiuk, Kamila; Wayne, Peter M; Buring, Julie E; Levy, Donald B

    2016-09-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) refers to the combination of conventional and "complementary" medical services (e.g., chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, mindfulness training). More than half of all medical schools in the United States and Canada have programs in IM, and more than 30 academic health centers currently deliver multidisciplinary IM care. What remains unclear, however, is the ideal delivery model (or models) whereby individuals can responsibly access IM care safely, effectively, and reproducibly in a coordinated and cost-effective way.Current models of IM across existing clinical centers vary tremendously in their organizational settings, principal clinical focus, and services provided; practitioner team composition and training; incorporation of research activities and educational programs; and administrative organization (e.g., reporting structure, use of medical records, scope of clinical practice) and financial strategies (i.e., specific business plans and models for sustainability).In this article, the authors address these important strategic issues by sharing lessons learned from the design and implementation of an IM facility within an academic teaching hospital, the Brigham and Women's Hospital at Harvard Medical School; and review alternative options based on information about IM centers across the United States.The authors conclude that there is currently no consensus as to how integrative care models should be optimally organized, implemented, replicated, assessed, and funded. The time may be right for prospective research in "best practices" across emerging models of IM care nationally in an effort to standardize, refine, and replicate them in preparation for rigorous cost-effectiveness evaluations. PMID:27028029

  14. Gastro-enteritis outbreak among Nordic patients with psoriasis in a health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Hanne M; Guerin, Philippe J; Nygård, Karin; Hjertqvist, Marika; de Jong, Birgitta; Rose, Angela MC; Kuusi, Markku; Durr, Ulrike; Rojas, AG; Mør, Cato; Aavitsland, Preben

    2004-01-01

    Background Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, Sweden and Finland. The patient group was scheduled to stay until 8 November. A new group of patients were due to arrive from 7 November. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess the extent of the outbreak, to identify the source and mode of transmission and to prevent similar problems in the following group. Results Altogether 41% (48/116) of persons staying at the centre fell ill. Norovirus infection was suspected based on clinical presentations and the fact that no bacteria were identified. Kaplan criteria were met. Five persons in this outbreak were hospitalised and the mean duration of diarrhoea was 3 days. The consequences of the illness were more severe compared to many other norovirus outbreaks, possibly because many of the cases suffered from chronic diseases and were treated with drugs reported to affect the immunity (methotrexate or steroids). During the two first days of the outbreak, the attack rate was higher in residents who had consumed dried fruit (adjusted RR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–7.1) and strawberry jam (adjusted RR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9–4.1) than those who did not. In the following days, no association was found. The investigation suggests two modes of transmission: a common source for those who fell ill during the two first days of the outbreak and thereafter mainly person to person transmission. This is supported by a lower risk associated with the two food items at the end of the outbreak. Conclusions We believe that the food items were contaminated by foodhandlers who reported sick before the outbreak started. Control measures were successfully implemented; food buffets were banned, strict hygiene measures were implemented and sick personnel stayed at home >48 hours after last symptoms. PMID:15511300

  15. Monitoring the referral system through benchmarking in rural Niger: an evaluation of the functional relation between health centres and the district hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bossyns, Paul; Abache, Ranaou; Abdoulaye, Mahaman S; Miyé, Hamidou; Depoorter, Anne-Marie; Van Lerberghe, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study is to establish a benchmark for referral rates in rural Niger so as to allow interpretation of routine referral data to assess the performance of the referral system in Niger. Methods Strict and controlled application of existing clinical decision trees in a sample of rural health centres allowed the estimation of the corresponding need for and characteristics of curative referrals in rural Niger. Compliance of referral was monitored as well. Need was matched against actual referral in 11 rural districts. The referral patterns were registered so as to get an idea on the types of pathology referred. Results The referral rate benchmark was set at 2.5 % of patients consulting at the health centre for curative reasons. Niger's rural districts have a referral rate of less than half this benchmark. Acceptability of referrals is low for the population and is adding to the deficient referral system in Niger. Mortality because of under-referral is highest among young children. Conclusion Referral patterns show that the present programme approach to deliver health care leaves a large amount of unmet need for which only comprehensive first and second line health services can provide a proper answer. On the other hand, the benchmark suggests that well functioning health centres can take care of the vast majority of problems patients present with. PMID:16608534

  16. Towards a Unified Taxonomy of Health Indicators: Academic Health Centers and Communities Working Together to Improve Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J.; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton “Mickey”; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public’s health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators. The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy’s application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  17. Out-of-School-Time Academic Programs to Improve School Achievement: A Community Guide Health Equity Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, John A.; Hahn, Robert A.; Proia, Krista K.; Truman, Benedict I.; Johnson, Robert L.; Muntaner, Carles; Fielding, Jonathan E.; Jones, Camara Phyllis; Fullilove, Mindy T.; Hunt, Pete C.; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Milstein, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Context Low-income and minority status in the United States are associated with poor educational outcomes, which, in turn, reduce the long-term health benefits of education. Objective This systematic review assessed the extent to which out-of-school-time academic (OSTA) programs for at-risk students, most of whom are from low-income and racial/ethnic minority families, can improve academic achievement. Because most OSTA programs serve low-income and ethnic/racial minority students, programs may improve health equity. Design Methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. An existing systematic review assessing the effects of OSTA programs on academic outcomes (Lauer et al 2006; search period 1985–2003) was supplemented with a Community Guide update (search period 2003–2011). Main Outcome Measure Standardized mean difference. Results Thirty-two studies from the existing review and 25 studies from the update were combined and stratified by program focus (ie, reading-focused, math-focused, general academic programs, and programs with minimal academic focus). Focused programs were more effective than general or minimal academic programs. Reading-focused programs were effective only for students in grades K-3. There was insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness on behavioral outcomes and longer-term academic outcomes. Conclusions OSTA programs, particularly focused programs, are effective in increasing academic achievement for at-risk students. Ongoing school and social environments that support learning and development may be essential to ensure the longer-term benefits of OSTA programs. PMID:26062096

  18. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537

  19. Quality Assessment of Acute Inpatient Pain Management in an Academic Health Center.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richard J; Reid, M Carrington; Chused, Amy E; Evans, Arthur T

    2016-02-01

    The quality of acute inpatient pain management remains suboptimal and poorly understood. In this retrospective study, we analyze acute pain management practice in a large academic health center using several quality indicators. Not surprisingly, despite high rate of pain assessment, many patients still have frequent, prolonged, and unrelieved severe pain episodes. Upon examination of naloxone administration, we identify potential inappropriate opioid prescription practices such as the use of wrong opioids in hepatic and renal failure and simultaneous use of multiple short-acting opioids. Most importantly, we find that chronic opioid users appear to suffer the most in terms of undertreatment of pain as well as opioid overdose, highlighting the urgent need to target this underserved population of patients. PMID:25106418

  20. An ethical framework for identifying, preventing, and managing conflicts confronting leaders of academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2004-11-01

    Leaders of academic health centers (AHCs) hold positions that by their very nature have a high potential for ethical conflict. The authors offer an ethical framework for identifying, preventing, and managing conflicts in the leadership of AHCs. This framework is based on and implements both the ethical concept of AHCs as fiduciary organizations and also the legitimate interests of various stakeholders. The authors describe practical steps that can be tools for the preventive-ethics leadership of AHCs that enable leaders to avoid strategic ambiguity and strategic procrastination and replace these with transparency. The ethical framework is illustrated by applying it to an organizational case study. The major contribution of the ethical framework is that it transforms decision making from simply negotiating power struggles to explicitly identifying and making ethical decisions based on the legitimate interests and fiduciary responsibilities of all stakeholders. PMID:15504771

  1. Forging stronger partnerships between academic health centers and patient-driven organizations.

    PubMed

    Gallin, Elaine K; Bond, Enriqueta; Califf, Robert M; Crowley, William F; Davis, Pamela; Galbraith, Richard; Reece, E Albert

    2013-09-01

    In this article, the authors review the unique role that patient-driven organizations, such as patient advocacy groups and voluntary health organizations (PAG/VHOs), play in translational and clinical research. The importance of fostering collaborations between these organizations and U.S. academic health centers (AHCs) is also discussed. Although both the PAG/VHO community and AHCs are heterogeneous, and although not all organizations are well governed or provide independent, well-researched views, there are many outstanding, well-managed, independent PAG/VHOs in the United States whose missions overlap with those of AHCs. The characteristics of effective PAG/VHOs that would serve as excellent partners for AHCs are discussed, and examples are provided regarding their many contributions, which have included advancing research on rare diseases, recruiting patients for clinical trials, and establishing patient registries and biospecimen banks. The authors present feedback obtained from informal discussions with PAG/VHO staff, as well as a survey of a small sample of organizations, that has identified bureaucratic processes, negotiating intellectual property rights, and institutional review board (IRB) delays as the most problematic areas of interactions with AHCs. Actions are suggested for building effective partnerships between the two sectors and the activities that AHCs should undertake to facilitate their interactions with PAG/VHOs including streamlining contract review and IRB processes and finding ways to better align the incentives motivating academic clinical and translational investigators with the goals of PAG/VHOs. This article is one product of the Clinical Research Forum's Partnering with Patient Advocacy Groups Initiative. PMID:23887007

  2. The Asia Pacific Academic Consortium for Global Public Health and medicine: stabilizing south-south academic collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K

    2011-09-01

    Developmental strategies over the last 4 decades have generally tended to transfer knowledge and technology along north-south axes as trickle-down theories in development, especially in health knowledge transfers, prevailed. Limited efforts in development assistance for health (DAH) were made to promote south-south cooperation for basic health needs. Globalization with increased educational networks and development health assistance has enhanced the potential for more effective south-south partnerships for health. The stages of development in a consortium and key catalysts in the metamorphosis to a south-south partnership are identified: leadership, resources, expertise, visibility participation, and dynamism of a critical mass of young professionals. PMID:21896357

  3. Air pollution and health implications of regional electricity transfer at generational centre and design of compensation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relhan, Nemika

    India's electricity generation is primarily from coal. As a result of interconnection of grid and establishment of pithead power plants, there has been increased electricity transfer from one region to the other. This results in imbalance of pollution loads between the communities located in generation vis-a-vis consumption region. There may be some states, which are major power generation centres and hence are facing excessive environmental degradation. On the other hand, electricity importing regions are reaping the benefits without paying proper charges for it because present tariff structure does not include the full externalities in it. The present study investigates the distributional implications in terms of air pollution loads between the electricity generation and consumption regions at the state level. It identifies the major electricity importing and exporting states in India. Next, as a case study, it estimates the health damage as a result of air pollution from thermal power plants (TPPs) located in a critically polluted region that is one of the major generator and exporter of electricity. The methodology used to estimate the health damage is based on impact pathway approach. In this method, air pollution modelling has been performed in order to estimate the gridded Particulate Matter (PM) concentration at various receptor locations in the study domain. The air quality modeling exercise helps to quantify the air pollution concentration in each grid and also apportion the contribution of power plants to the total concentration. The health impacts as a result of PM have been estimated in terms of number of mortality and morbidity cases using Concentration Response Function (CRF's) available in the literature. Mortality has been converted into Years of Life Lost (YOLL) using life expectancy table and age wise death distribution. Morbidity has been estimated in terms of number of cases with respect to various health end points. To convert this health

  4. A qualitative study of the role of workplace and interpersonal trust in shaping service quality and responsiveness in Zambian primary health centres

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Stephanie M; Chipukuma, Julien M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human decisions, actions and relationships that invoke trust are at the core of functional and productive health systems. Although widely studied in high-income settings, comparatively few studies have explored the influence of trust on health system performance in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines how workplace and inter-personal trust impact service quality and responsiveness in primary health services in Zambia. Methods: This multi-case study included four health centres selected for urban, peri-urban and rural characteristics. Case data included provider interviews (60); patient interviews (180); direct observation of facility operations (two weeks/centre) and key informant interviews (14) that were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Case-based thematic analysis incorporated inductive and deductive coding. Results: Findings demonstrated that providers had weak workplace trust influenced by a combination of poor working conditions, perceptions of low pay and experiences of inequitable or inefficient health centre management. Weak trust in health centre managers’ organizational capacity and fairness contributed to resentment amongst many providers and promoted a culture of blame-shifting and one-upmanship that undermined teamwork and enabled disrespectful treatment of patients. Although patients expressed a high degree of trust in health workers’ clinical capacity, repeated experiences of disrespectful or unresponsive care undermined patients’ trust in health workers’ service values and professionalism. Lack of patient–provider trust prompted some patients to circumvent clinic systems in an attempt to secure better or more timely care. Conclusion: Lack of resourcing and poor leadership were key factors leading to providers’ weak workplace trust and contributed to often-poor quality services, driving a perverse cycle of negative patient–provider relations across the four sites. Findings highlight the importance

  5. Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…

  6. Model of Work-Related Ill Health of Academic Staff in a South African Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothmann, S.; Barkhuizen, N.; Tytherleigh, M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationships between burnout, ill health, job demands and resources, and dispositional optimism in a higher education institution in South Africa. A survey design was used. The study population (N = 279) consisted of academic staff working in a higher education institution. The Maslach Burnout…

  7. Three-Year Longitudinal Study of School Behavior and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Comprehensive Expanded School Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Brian P.; Sander, Mark A.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Vanden Berk, Eric; Johnson, James

    2014-01-01

    While there has been encouraging growth in the number of expanded school mental health programs (ESMH) across the country, few programs rigorously evaluate long-term academic outcomes associated with receipt of these services. This study examined the effects of services from an ESMH program on school behavior (number of out-of-school suspensions…

  8. Health Maintenance Organizations and Academic Medical Centers. Proceedings of a National Conference (Colorado Springs, Colorado, October 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, James I., Ed.; Nevins, Madeline M., Ed.

    In October 1980 a national conference on health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) was held by the Association of American Medical Colleges and supported by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, in response to inquiries about the advantages and disadvantages of AMC affiliation with or sponsorship of HMOs.…

  9. Using the Personal Background Preparation Survey to Identify Health Science Professions Students at Risk for Adverse Academic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Ronald; McKee, John C.; Kim, Mira

    2009-01-01

    In the first predictive validity study of a diagnostic and prescriptive instrument for averting adverse academic status events (AASE) among multiple populations of diverse health science professions students, entering matriculates' personal background and preparation survey (PBPS) scores consistently significantly predicted 1st- or 2nd-year AASE.…

  10. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  11. Academic health centers and community health centers partnering to build a system of care for vulnerable patients: lessons from Carolina Health Net.

    PubMed

    Denham, Amy C; Hay, Sherry S; Steiner, Beat D; Newton, Warren P

    2013-05-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are challenged to meet their core missions in a time of strain on the health care system from rising costs, an aging population, increased rates of chronic disease, and growing numbers of uninsured patients. AHCs should be leaders in developing creative solutions to these challenges and training future leaders in new models of care. The authors present a case study describing the development, implementation, and early results of Carolina Health Net, a partnership between an AHC and a community health center to manage the most vulnerable uninsured by providing access to primary care medical homes and care management systems. This partnership was formed in 2008 to help transform the delivery of health care for the uninsured. As a result, 4,400 uninsured patients have been connected to primary care services. Emergency department use by enrolled patients has decreased. Patients have begun accessing subspecialty care within the medical home. More than 2,200 uninsured patients have been assisted to enroll in Medicaid. The experience of Carolina Health Net demonstrates that developing a system of care with primary care and wrap-around services such as pharmacy and case management can improve the cost-effectiveness and quality of care, thereby helping AHCs meet their broader missions. This project can serve as a model for other AHCs looking to partner with community-based providers to improve care and control costs for underserved populations. PMID:23524915

  12. Creating a longitudinal integrated clerkship with mutual benefits for an academic medical center and a community health system.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills.Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment.Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations' leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers. PMID:24867551

  13. Creating a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship with Mutual Benefits for an Academic Medical Center and a Community Health System

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills. Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment. Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations’ leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers. PMID:24867551

  14. Psychological health and academic success in rural Appalachian adolescents exposed to physical and sexual interpersonal violence.

    PubMed

    Martz, Denise M; Jameson, John Paul; Page, Amy Dellinger

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) in adolescence is a serious public health concern and may have lasting behavioral effects and implications for adult relationships. Adolescents from 2 rural Appalachian high schools in 2011/2012 were surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance (YRBS) survey, which assessed (a) physical IPV within a dating relationship, (b) sexual IPV (defined as forced sex/rape), and (c) those who experienced both. We present baseline rates of each form of IPV for these rural male and female adolescents and assessed the strength and statistical significance of these associations between physical and sexual IPV and other risk factors using χ2 tests and relative risk ratios. Results suggested that each form of IPV was associated with greater risk for depression and suicidal behaviors, substance use, risky sexual behaviors for both sexes, and lower academic grades for females. Relative risk ratios tended to be more robust and statistically significant for females compared with males on most risk behaviors. Furthermore, victimization for both forms of IPV was more pernicious for these students than either form of IPV alone. We discuss the implications of these results for students, parents, school personnel, and mental health providers in these communities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148751

  15. The ebb and flow model: a philosophy of organizational learning in the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Dimario, Francis J

    2012-02-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) have traditionally been a vibrant locale for cutting-edge medical research, androgogic education and innovative clinical care for the most vexing diseases. While these pursuits have coexisted and flourished, the realities of the health-care business environment have demanded reformatting and emulation of a corporate organizational model. This evolution has impacted the core identities of the AHC and challenged individual medical-educators, clinician-scientists and basic science investigators to persist and succeed in this milieu. The AHC has a unique capacity to muster the innate learning drive of these individuals into an organizational mission as it balances the pressures exerted from both the internal and external environments. The AHC as an organization can be viewed as an experimental condition with modifiable variables to which its professionals can react, adapt to, and transform. Organizational learning and change implementation is in essence an experiment in human behavior modification. While all individuals are subject to change, merely assembling them in a single locale determines neither a predictable homogeneous outcome nor the success of their endeavor. This article highlights some of these propositions and offers a philosophical approach to advance the AHC as an organization through the creativity and innovation of its professional ranks. PMID:22670360

  16. Trends in reference usage statistics in an academic health sciences library

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Sandra L.; Hitchcock, Kristin; McGowan, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine reference questions asked through traditional means at an academic health sciences library and place this data within the context of larger trends in reference services. Methodology: Detailed data on the types of reference questions asked were collected during two one-month periods in 2003 and 2004. General statistics documenting broad categories of questions were compiled over a fifteen-year period. Results: Administrative data show a steady increase in questions from 1990 to 1997/98 (23,848 to 48,037, followed by a decline through 2004/05 to 10,031. The distribution of reference questions asked over the years has changed—including a reduction in mediated searches 2,157 in 1990/91 to 18 in 2004/05, an increase in instruction 1,284 in 1993/94 to 1,897 in 2004/05 and an increase in digital reference interactions 0 in 1999/2000 to 581 in 2004/05. The most commonly asked questions at the current reference desk are about journal holdings 19%, book holdings 12%, and directional issues 12%. Conclusions: This study provides a unique snapshot of reference services in the contemporary library, where both online and offline services are commonplace. Changes in questions have impacted the way the library provides services, but traditional reference remains the core of information services in this health sciences library. PMID:17252063

  17. Quality markers and use of electronic journals in an academic health sciences library*

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Judith L.; Nixon, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Patterns of use of electronic versions of journals supplied by an academic health sciences library were examined to determine whether they differed from patterns of use among corresponding print titles and to relate the applicability of print collection development practices to an electronic environment. Methods: Use data supplied by three major vendors of electronic journals were compared to reshelving data for corresponding print titles, impact factors, and presence on Brandon/Hill Lists. Results: In collections where one-click access from a database record to the full text of articles was possible, electronic use correlated with print use across journal pairs. In both versions, Brandon/Hill titles were used more frequently than non-Brandon/Hill titles, use had modest correlations with journals' impact factors, and clinical use appeared to be higher than research use. Titles that had not been selected for the library's print collections, but which were bundled into publishers' packages, received little use compared to electronic titles also selected in print. Conclusions: Collection development practices based on quality and user needs can be applied with confidence to the electronic environment. Facilitating direct connections between citation databases and the corresponding journal articles regardless of platform or publisher will support scholarship and quality health care. PMID:15243637

  18. Reflexive Research Ethics for Environmental Health and Justice: Academics and Movement-Building

    PubMed Central

    Cordner, Alissa; Ciplet, David; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Community-engaged research on environmental problems has reshaped researcher-participant relationships, academic-community interaction, and the role of community partners in human subjects protection and ethical oversight. We draw on our own and others’ research collaborations with environmental health and justice social movement organizations to discuss the ethical concerns that emerge in community-engaged research. In this paper we introduce the concept of reflexive research ethics: ethical guidelines and decision-making principles that depend on continual reflexivity concerning the relationships between researchers and participants. Seeing ethics in this way can help scientists conduct research that simultaneously achieves a high level of professional conduct and protects the rights, well-being, and autonomy of both researchers and the multiple publics affected by research. We highlight our research with community-based organizations in Massachusetts, California, and Alaska, and discuss the potential impacts of the community or social movement on the research process and the potential impacts of research on community or social movement goals. We conclude by discussing ways in which the ethical concerns that surface in community-engaged research have led to advances in ethical research practices. This type of work raises ethical questions whose answers are broadly relevant for social movement, environmental, and public health scholars. PMID:22690133

  19. Future's Learning Environments in Health Education: The Effects of Smart Classrooms on the Academic Achievements of the Students at Health College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevindik, Tuncay

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of smart classrooms on the academic achievement of the nursing students. The sample of the research included 66 Health College students in Elazig. The sampling group was randomly chosen from second year students of Nursing and Midwife Education. The research was carried out with experimental…

  20. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  1. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  2. Paraprofessional staff: a review and report on current duty assignment in academic health sciences libraries in North America.

    PubMed

    Makinen, R H; Speer, S

    1993-04-01

    This paper reviews paraprofessional employment in libraries and examines the trend toward assigning increasingly complex duties to academic library paraprofessionals. During the spring of 1989, directors of academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed to determine the duties assigned to paraprofessionals. The results show that paraprofessionals are assigned a wide range of duties, including supervising functional areas, such as circulation and interlibrary loan, and some tasks often considered professional, such as original cataloging and in-depth reference work. The findings illustrate the importance of the paraprofessional to librarianship. PMID:8472000

  3. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success. PMID:26151232

  4. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  5. Shaping the Future of Academic Health Centers: The Potential Contributions of Departments of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Warren P.; DuBard, C. Annette

    2006-01-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) must change dramatically to meet the changing needs of patients and society, but how to do this remains unclear. The purpose of this supplement is to describe ways in which departments of family medicine can play leadership roles in helping AHCs evolve. This overview provides background for case studies and commentaries about the contribution of departments of family medicine in 5 areas: (1) ambulatory and primary care, (2) indigent care, (3) education in community and international settings, (4) workforce policy and practice, and (5) translational research. The common theme is a revitalization of the relationship between AHCs and the communities they serve across all missions. Family medicine leadership can provide dramatic organizational improvement in primary and ambulatory care networks and foster opportunities for leadership by AHCs in improving the health of the population. Departments of family medicine can also play a leading role in developing new partnerships with community-based organizations, managing the care of the indigent, and developing new curricula in community and international settings. Finally, family medicine departments and their faculty have a central role in helping AHCs respond to workforce needs and in developing translational research that emphasizes the health of the population and effectiveness of care. AHCs are a public good that must now evolve substantially to meet the needs of patients and society. By pushing for substantial change, by helping to reinvigorate the relationship between AHCs and the communities they serve, and by emphasizing fundamental innovation in clinical care, teaching, and research, family medicine can help lead the renewal of the AHC. PMID:17003157

  6. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH)'s experience in setting and meeting priorities. Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met. In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities. This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled researchers and stakeholders to

  7. Declining mortality among HIV-positive indigenous people at a Vancouver indigenous-focused urban-core health care centre

    PubMed Central

    Klakowicz, Piotr; Zhang, Wen; Colley, Guillaume; Moore, David; Tu, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine mortality rates among HIV-positive indigenous people and others after initiation of HIV care improvements based on the chronic care model to address high HIV-related mortality. Design Retrospective cohort preintervention-to-postintervention evaluation study. Setting Urban-core primary health care centre focused on indigenous people in Vancouver, BC. Participants Individuals infected with HIV. Intervention Adoption of the chronic care model to improve HIV care over time. Main outcome measures All-cause mortality and HIV-related mortality rates, overall and from preintervention (2007 to 2009) to postintervention (2010 to 2012), by indigenous ethnicity, were calculated from clinical data linked with the provincial HIV treatment clinical registry. Results Of the 546 eligible study patients, 323 (59%) self-identified as indigenous. Indigenous persons had higher all-cause mortality compared with other patients (14% vs 8%, P = .035; 6.25 vs 4.02 per 100 person-years [PYRs], P = .113), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.77 (95% CI 0.95 to 3.30). Indigenous persons also had higher HIV-related mortality (6% vs 2%, P = .027; 2.50 vs 0.89 per 100 PYRs, P = .063), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.88 (95% CI 0.93 to 8.92). Between 2007 to 2009 and 2010 to 2012, a significant decline was observed in all-cause mortality for indigenous patients (10.00 to 5.00 per 100 PYRs, P = .023) and a non-significant decline was observed in other patients (7.21 to 2.97 per 100 PYRs, P = .061). A significant decline in HIV-related mortality was also seen for indigenous patients (5.56 to 1.80 per 100 PYRs, P = .005). Conclusion Despite the overall higher risk of death among indigenous patients compared with others, the decline in mortality in HIV-positive indigenous patients after the initiation of efforts to improve HIV care at the clinic further support HIV primary care informed by indigenous issues and the adoption of the chronic care model.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Factors Associated with Meningococcal Meningitis Annual Incidence at the Health Centre Level in Niger, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Paireau, Juliette; Collard, Jean-Marc; Idi, Issa; Moulia-Pelat, Jean-Paul; Mueller, Judith E.; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis (MM) recurrently strike the African Meningitis Belt. This study aimed at investigating factors, still poorly understood, that influence annual incidence of MM serogroup A, the main etiologic agent over 2004–2010, at a fine spatial scale in Niger. Methodology/Principal Findings To take into account data dependencies over space and time and control for unobserved confounding factors, we developed an explanatory Bayesian hierarchical model over 2004–2010 at the health centre catchment area (HCCA) level. The multivariate model revealed that both climatic and non-climatic factors were important for explaining spatio-temporal variations in incidence: mean relative humidity during November–June over the study region (posterior mean Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) = 0.656, 95% Credible Interval (CI) 0.405–0.949) and occurrence of early rains in March in a HCCA (IRR = 0.353, 95% CI 0.239–0.502) were protective factors; a higher risk was associated with the percentage of neighbouring HCCAs having at least one MM A case during the same year (IRR = 2.365, 95% CI 2.078–2.695), the presence of a road crossing the HCCA (IRR = 1.743, 95% CI 1.173–2.474) and the occurrence of cases before 31 December in a HCCA (IRR = 6.801, 95% CI 4.004–10.910). At the study region level, higher annual incidence correlated with greater geographic spread and, to a lesser extent, with higher intensity of localized outbreaks. Conclusions Based on these findings, we hypothesize that spatio-temporal variability of MM A incidence between years and HCCAs result from variations in the intensity or duration of the dry season climatic effects on disease risk, and is further impacted by factors of spatial contacts, representing facilitated pathogen transmission. Additional unexplained factors may contribute to the observed incidence patterns and should be further investigated. PMID:24852960

  9. Run the numbers. Case study: using management accounting in an academic health care setting.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Olga; Ortiz, Cesar A

    2003-03-01

    Management accounting can help administrators manage academic physician practices. Its basic cost-capturing systems can instill accountability and behavior modification in those directly responsible. PMID:12661223

  10. The importance of including both a child perspective and the child's perspective within health care settings to provide truly child-centred care.

    PubMed

    Söderbäck, Maja; Coyne, Imelda; Harder, Maria

    2011-06-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) asserts the right of every child to self-determination, dignity, respect, non-interference, and the right to make informed decisions. The provision of quality care in health services tailored to children's preferences means that health professionals have a responsibility to ensure children's rights, and that the child is encouraged and enabled to make his or her view known on issues that affect them. This paper will help illuminate and differentiate between a child perspective and the child's perspective in health care settings. The issues are supported with research which illustrates the different perspectives. Both perspectives are required to perceive and encounter children as equal human beings in child-centred health care settings. PMID:21685225

  11. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    PubMed

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors. PMID:23187027

  12. The Effects of Corporatization on Academic Medical Centers. How Will the Corporatization of Health Care Influence Health Professions Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Marvin R.

    Areas of agreement/conflict between academic medical centers and investor owned corporations are considered. Academic medical centers are part of the university system, which is responsible for education, research, and the related public good (e.g., nurturing of professions). Major areas for a potential confluence of interest between the academic…

  13. What role does transactional sex play in the HIV/STI and reproductive health risk behaviour among high-tier entertainment centre workers in China?

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; LeVasseur, Michael T; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jiangfang; Mao, Jingshu; Peng, Yanhui; Zhou, Feng; DiCarlo, Abby L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth over the last three decades has led to increased population wealth and the proliferation of entertainment centres where people can conduct business, relax and meet new people. Little is known about the sexual risk behaviours of employees at high-tier entertainment centres. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by comparing HIV risk perception and sexual and reproductive health behaviours among female and male employees at three high-tier entertainment centres in two cities in China, comparing those who report a history of transactional sex to those who do not. In both cities, participants who reported a history of transactional sex were more likely than those without a history of transactional sex to report multiple sexual partnerships, more lifetime sexual partners, a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), having anal sex and/or recent abortions, and were more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk for STIs/HIV. However, risk behaviour was also high among those with no history of transactional sex. These findings highlight the need for targeted sexual and reproductive health initiatives for employees in these work settings. PMID:26274897

  14. What role does transactional sex play in the HIV/STI and reproductive health risk behaviour among high-tier entertainment centre workers in China?

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; LeVasseur, Michael T.; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jiangfang; Mao, Jingshu; Peng, Yanhui; Zhou, Feng; DiCarlo, Abby L.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    China’s rapid economic growth over the last three decades has led to increased population wealth and the proliferation of entertainment centres where people can conduct business, relax and meet new people. Little is known about the sexual risk behaviours of employees at high-tier entertainment centres. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by comparing HIV risk perception and sexual and reproductive health behaviours among female and male employees at three high-tier entertainment centres in two cities in China, comparing those who report a history of transactional sex to those who do not. In both cities, participants who reported a history of transactional sex were more likely than those without a history of transactional sex to report multiple sexual partnerships, more lifetime sexual partners, a history of STIs, having anal sex and/or recent abortions, and were more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk for STIs/HIV. However, risk behaviour was also high among those with no history of transactional sex. These findings highlight the need for targeted sexual and reproductive health initiatives for employees in these work settings. PMID:26274897

  15. Governance of the academic health center: striking the balance between service and scholarship.

    PubMed

    Wietecha, Mark; Lipstein, Steven H; Rabkin, Mitchell T

    2009-02-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) rank among the most complex organizations. Spanning the domains of university, clinical practice, hospital, and research, AHCs encompass a range of strikingly different business models, each with its own economic potential. The ability to bring these diverse enterprises actively working together has been the unique strength of the AHC as a vehicle of patient care, education, and discovery. Unfortunately, the AHC has also proved at times to be a frustrating organizational matrix of indecision wrought by different aims and distributed influence, presenting substantial challenges to the success of these institutions. The question of how best to organize the fiduciary and executive management structures of the AHC continues to be the subject of much interest to those trustees responsible for these complex institutions. Although the question of what is the best governance model for an AHC is sometimes approached in simple terms of "one leader, or multiple," success is more likely defined by how well other critical factors are organized and managed. These include considerations of governance, including selection and education of key trustees, their ability to access key data for their specific institution and the AHC as a whole, performance evaluation of the operating executives with respect to both specific institutional criteria and those for the AHC as a whole, and management oversight by boards across the AHC. When more than one governing body is involved, joint participation of boards and key executives is recommended for selected aspects of these processes. PMID:19174659

  16. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful. PMID:23018336

  17. Building a transcontinental affiliation: a new model for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Sostman, H Dirk; Forese, Laura L; Boom, Marc L; Schroth, Lynn; Klein, Arthur A; Mushlin, Alvin I; Hagale, John E; Pardes, Herbert; Girotto, Ronald G; Gotto, Antonio M

    2005-11-01

    The recent affiliation of The Methodist Hospital (TMH) with Weill Medical College (WMC) of Cornell University and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital is the first transcontinental primary affiliation between major, not-for-profit academic health centers (AHCs) in the United States. The authors describe the process followed, the issues involved, the initial accomplishments, and the opportunities envisioned. The key enablers of this affiliation were a rapid process, mutual trust based on existing professional relationships, and commitment to the project by Board leadership. Because of their geographic separation, the parties were not competitors in providing clinical care to their regional populations. The affiliation is nonexclusive, but is reciprocally primary in New York and Texas. Members of the TMH medical staff are eligible for faculty appointments at WMC. The principal areas of collaboration will be education, research, quality improvement, information technology, and international program development. The principal challenge has been the physical distance between the parties. Although extensive use of videoconferencing has been successful, personal contact is essential in establishing relationships. External processes impose a slower sequence and tempo of events than some might wish. This new model for AHCs creates exciting possibilities for the tripartite mission of research, education, and patient care. Realizing the potential of these opportunities will require unconstrained ideas and substantial investment of time and other critical resources. Since many consider that AHCs are in economic and cultural crisis, successful development of such possibilities could have importance beyond the collective interests of these three institutions. PMID:16249304

  18. [Health Education for Men by the Federal Centre of Health Education: A Contribution to the Presentation of Men as unaware of Health? (1970-1990)].

    PubMed

    Pfütsch, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a close consideration about the gender-specific contents of health education campaigns in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1970 to 1990. By using educational publications issued by the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (BZgA), it is shown which breaks and continuities emerged and which kinds of role models are thereby conveyed. Whereas the health education of the 1950s and 1960s was characterised by a didactical approach towards men and women, this changed as from the 1970s. By deconstructing exemplary education campaigns and including internal files of the BZgA, it can be shown, that the societal discourse on the feminism in the FRG contributed to the fact, that during the 1970s the switch has been made to an increased use of positive role models. However, within the men-specific health education there was no break; the health deficiency discourse was still applied in many and diverse ways in order to describe male health behaviour and knowledge. PMID:26219193

  19. Predicting Academic Success of Health Science Students for First Year Anatomy and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Evans, Tess; Chivers, Paola T.

    2016-01-01

    Students commencing tertiary education enter through a number of traditional and alternative academic pathways. As a result, tertiary institutions encounter a broad range of students, varying in demographic, previous education, characteristics and academic achievement. In recent years, the relatively constant increase in tertiary applications in…

  20. Intrinsic Motivation to Learn: The Nexus between Psychological Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily; Smith, Liana; Hirchert, Tyrell

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) to learn, if cultivated, can lead to many academic and social/emotional improvements among K-12 students. This article discusses intrinsic motivation to learn as it relates to Self Determination Theory and the trouble with relying solely on extrinsic motivators. The academic benefits of IM in the specific subject areas of…

  1. Spirituality and Health Education: A National Survey of Academic Leaders UK.

    PubMed

    Culatto, A; Summerton, C B

    2015-12-01

    Whole person care is deemed important within UK medical practice and is therefore fundamental in education. However, spirituality is an aspect of this often neglected. Confusion and discomfort exists regarding how care relating to issues of spirituality and health (S&H) should be delivered. Different interpretations have even led to disciplinary action with professionals seeking to address these needs [ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/4409168/Nurse-suspended-for-offering-to-prayfor-patients-recovery.html ]. Previous research shows 45% of patients want spiritual needs to be addressed within their care (Jackson and Summerton 2008). Two-thirds of healthcare professionals want to do this. However, lack of knowledge is a significant barrier (Moynihan 2008). Little is known regarding how Medical schools address S&H, only one limited study exists in the literature (Koenig et al. in Int J Psychiat Med 40: 391-8, 2010). Thirty-two UK educational institutions were surveyed. The chosen survey was compiled by Koenig and Meador (Spirituality and Health in Education and Researc. Duke University, Durham, 2008). Fifty-nine academics were contacted across UK medical schools, and the response rate was 57.6%. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. 5.6% institutions provide required and dedicated S&H teaching, 63.4% provided it as an integrated component. Nearly 40% felt staff were not adequately trained to teach S&H but welcomed opportunities for training. S&H is given value in undergraduate education but with little evidence of formal teaching. Institutions feel that this area is addressed within other topic delivery, although previous studies have shown integrating S&H with PBL leads to poor clinical performance (Musick et al. in Acad Psychiatry 27(2):67-73, 2003). Seminars or lectures are students' preferred methods of learning (Guck and Kavan in Med Teach 28(8):702-707, 2006). Further consideration should be given towards S&H delivery and training for

  2. Model for collaboration: a rural medicine and academic health center teleradiology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Slyke, Mark A.; Eggli, Douglas F.; Prior, Fred W.; Salmon, William; Pappas, Gregory; Vanatta, Fred; Goldfetter, Warren; Hashem, Said

    1996-05-01

    A pilot project was developed to explore the role of subspecialty radiology support to rural medicine sites over a long-distance network. A collaborative relationship between 2 rural radiology practices and an academic health was established. Project objectives included: (1) Does the subspecialty consultation significantly change diagnosis patterns at the rural site? (2) Is there value added as measured by improved clinical care or an overall decreased cost of care? (3) Can a collaborative model be economically self-supportive? (4) Does the collaborative model encourage and support education and collegial relationships? Two rural hospitals were selected based on the level of imaging technology and willingness to cooperate. Image capture and network technology was chosen to make the network process transparent to the users. DICOM standard interfaces were incorporated into existing CT and MRI scanners and a film digitizer. Nuclear medicine images were transferred and viewed using a proprietary vendor protocol. Relevant clinical data was managed by a custom designed PC based Lotus Notes application (Patient Study Tracking System: PaSTS) (Pennsylvania Blue Shield Institute). All data was transferred over a Frame Relay network and managed by the Pennsylvania Commonwealth sponsored PA Health Net. Images, other than nuclear medicine, were viewed on a GE Advantage viewing station using a pair of 2 X 2.5 K gray scale monitors. Patient text data was managed by the PaSTS PC and displayed on a separate 15' color monitor. A total of 476 radiology studies were networked into the AHC. Randomly chosen research studies comprised 82% of the case work. Consultative and primary read cases comprised 17% and 1% respectively. The exercise was judged effective by both rural sites. Significant findings and diagnoses were confirmed in 73% of cases with discrepant findings in only 4%. One site benefited by adopting more advanced imaging techniques increasing the sophistication of radiology

  3. The Bamako Initiative: Primary Health Care Experience. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippenberg, Rudolph; And Others

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987 World Health Organization's Regional Assembly, the Ministers of Health of the African States launched the Bamako Initiative, an effort aimed at reorganizing the health system to ensure universal, permanent accessibility of maternal and child health services. Three conditions were initially seen as necessary for success: improvement…

  4. Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent.

    PubMed

    Nwaka, Solomon; Ochem, Alexander; Besson, Dominique; Ramirez, Bernadette; Fakorede, Foluke; Botros, Sanaa; Inyang, Uford; Mgone, Charles; Adae-Mensah, Ivan; Konde, Victor; Nyasse, Barthelemy; Okole, Blessed; Guantai, Anastasia; Loots, Glaudina; Atadja, Peter; Ndumbe, Peter; Sanou, Issa; Olesen, Ole; Ridley, Robert; Ilunga, Tshinko

    2012-01-01

    A pool of 38 pan-African Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in health innovation has been selected and recognized by the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI), through a competitive criteria based process. The process identified a number of opportunities and challenges for health R&D and innovation in the continent: i) it provides a direct evidence for the existence of innovation capability that can be leveraged to fill specific gaps in the continent; ii) it revealed a research and financing pattern that is largely fragmented and uncoordinated, and iii) it highlights the most frequent funders of health research in the continent. The CoEs are envisioned as an innovative network of public and private institutions with a critical mass of expertise and resources to support projects and a variety of activities for capacity building and scientific exchange, including hosting fellows, trainees, scientists on sabbaticals and exchange with other African and non-African institutions. PMID:22838941

  5. Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A pool of 38 pan-African Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in health innovation has been selected and recognized by the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI), through a competitive criteria based process. The process identified a number of opportunities and challenges for health R&D and innovation in the continent: i) it provides a direct evidence for the existence of innovation capability that can be leveraged to fill specific gaps in the continent; ii) it revealed a research and financing pattern that is largely fragmented and uncoordinated, and iii) it highlights the most frequent funders of health research in the continent. The CoEs are envisioned as an innovative network of public and private institutions with a critical mass of expertise and resources to support projects and a variety of activities for capacity building and scientific exchange, including hosting fellows, trainees, scientists on sabbaticals and exchange with other African and non-African institutions. PMID:22838941

  6. The Irish Centre for Talented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilheany, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Conducting potency tests on penicillin, discussing rocket technology with a NASA astronaut, analysing animal bone fragments from medieval times, these are just some of the activities which occupy the time of students at The Irish Centre for Talented Youth. The Centre identifies young students with exceptional academic ability and then provides…

  7. Behind the scenes of the PRIME intervention: designing a complex intervention to improve malaria care at public health centres in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    DiLiberto, Deborah D.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Nankya, Florence; Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; Taaka, Lilian; Nayiga, Susan; Kamya, Moses R.; Haaland, Ane; Chandler, Clare I. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Uganda, health system challenges limit access to good quality healthcare and contribute to slow progress on malaria control. We developed a complex intervention (PRIME), which was designed to improve quality of care for malaria at public health centres. Objective Responding to calls for increased transparency, we describe the PRIME intervention's design process, rationale, and final content and reflect on the choices and challenges encountered during the design of this complex intervention. Design To develop the intervention, we followed a multistep approach, including the following: 1) formative research to identify intervention target areas and objectives; 2) prioritization of intervention components; 3) review of relevant evidence; 4) development of intervention components; 5) piloting and refinement of workshop modules; and 6) consolidation of the PRIME intervention theories of change to articulate why and how the intervention was hypothesized to produce desired outcomes. We aimed to develop an intervention that was evidence-based, grounded in theory, and appropriate for the study context; could be evaluated within a randomized controlled trial; and had the potential to be scaled up sustainably. Results The process of developing the PRIME intervention package was lengthy and dynamic. The final intervention package consisted of four components: 1) training in fever case management and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs); 2) workshops in health centre management; 3) workshops in patient-centred services; and 4) provision of mRDTs and antimalarials when stocks ran low. Conclusions The slow and iterative process of intervention design contrasted with the continually shifting study context. We highlight the considerations and choices made at each design stage, discussing elements we included and why, as well as those that were ultimately excluded. Reflection on and reporting of ‘behind the scenes’ accounts of intervention design may

  8. Nurse Managers' Perceptions Related to Their Leadership Styles, Knowledge, and Skills in These Areas—A Viewpoint: Case of Health Centre Wards in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating—were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic—to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356

  9. Nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas-a viewpoint: case of health centre wards in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356

  10. Avoiding "culture rejection" in healthcare mergers and acquisitions: how New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services minimized the culture risk when forming Unison Health and Community Services.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Among the requirements for a successful merger or acquisition are strategic rationale, rigorous due diligence, the right price and revenue and cost synergies. However, bridging the culture gap between organizations is frequently overlooked. The leaders of New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services explicitly considered culture in their merger to form Unison Health and Community Services, and they used employee engagement surveys to assess culture in their merger planning and post-merger integration. How Unison Health leaders avoided the risk of culture rejection to achieve a successful merger, and the lessons learned from their experience, is the focus of this article. PMID:24863313

  11. Identifying challenges for academic leadership in medical universities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Masiello, Italo

    2010-05-01

    CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance. PMID:20518985

  12. The PILI ‘Ohana Project: A Community-Academic Partnership to Achieve Metabolic Health Equity in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Kekauoha, Puni; Dillard, Adrienne; Yoshimura, Sheryl; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Hughes, Claire; Townsend, Claire KM

    2014-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have higher rates of excess body weight and related medical disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, compared to other ethnic groups in Hawai‘i. To address this metabolic health inequity, the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Intervention (PILI) ‘Ohana Project, a community-academic partnership, was formed over eight years ago and developed two community-placed health promotion programs: the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP) to address overweight/obesity and the Partners in Care (PIC) to address diabetes self-care. This article describes and reviews the innovations, scientific discoveries, and community capacity built over the last eight years by the PILI ‘Ohana Project's (POP) partnership in working toward metabolic health equity. It also briefly describes the plans to disseminate and implement the PLP and PIC in other NHPI communities. Highlighted in this article is how scientific discoveries can have a real-world impact on health disparate populations by integrating community wisdom and academic expertise to achieve social and health equity through research. PMID:25535599

  13. The PILI 'Ohana Project: a community-academic partnership to achieve metabolic health equity in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Kekauoha, Puni; Dillard, Adrienne; Yoshimura, Sheryl; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Hughes, Claire; Townsend, Claire Km

    2014-12-01

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have higher rates of excess body weight and related medical disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, compared to other ethnic groups in Hawai'i. To address this metabolic health inequity, the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Intervention (PILI) 'Ohana Project, a community-academic partnership, was formed over eight years ago and developed two community-placed health promotion programs: the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP) to address overweight/obesity and the Partners in Care (PIC) to address diabetes self-care. This article describes and reviews the innovations, scientific discoveries, and community capacity built over the last eight years by the PILI 'Ohana Project's (POP) partnership in working toward metabolic health equity. It also briefly describes the plans to disseminate and implement the PLP and PIC in other NHPI communities. Highlighted in this article is how scientific discoveries can have a real-world impact on health disparate populations by integrating community wisdom and academic expertise to achieve social and health equity through research. PMID:25535599

  14. The ethical controversies of office-based dispensing in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Whitaker-Worth, Diane; Shahriari, Mona; Slade, Karren; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Office dispensing of cosmecuticals has become a widespread practice in private dermatology offices and even has begun to appear in academic dermatology settings. Proponents of the practice state that in-office dispensing is beneficial for the patient and the physician and can be ethically accomplished with the patient remaining the primary concern of the care provider. This requires the maintenance of professionalism and the sale of efficacious, reasonably priced products that are not misrepresented. Opponents believe that in-office dispensing undermines the physician- patient relationship and may produce an inherent conflict of interest. In academia, additional concerns include how students and residents perceive this activity. Does selling products negatively affect professionalism in an academic environment? In an academic teaching environment there is a paramount need to model ethical behavior to medical students and residents. We will discuss the opposition and rationalization for the practice of in-office dispensing in academic teaching settings. PMID:22902225

  15. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health. PMID:26552201

  16. Commentary: Personalized health planning and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: an opportunity for academic medicine to lead health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dinan, Michaela A; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Snyderman, Ralph

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) mandates the exploration of new approaches to coordinated health care delivery--such as patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and disease management programs--in which reimbursement is aligned with desired outcomes. PPACA does not, however, delineate a standardized approach to improve the delivery process or a specific means to quantify performance for value-based reimbursement; these details are left to administrative agencies to develop and implement. The authors propose that coordinated care can be implemented more effectively and performance quantified more accurately by using personalized health planning, which employs individualized strategic health planning and care relevant to the patient's specific needs. Personalized health plans, developed by providers in collaboration with their patients, quantify patients' health and health risks over time, identify strategies to mitigate risks and/or treat disease, deliver personalized care, engage patients in their care, and measure outcomes. Personalized health planning is a core clinical process that can standardize coordinated care approaches while providing the data needed for performance-based reimbursement. The authors argue that academic health centers have a significant opportunity to lead true health care reform by adopting personalized health planning to coordinate care delivery while conducting the research and education necessary to enable its broad clinical application. PMID:20844424

  17. Lessons Learned From a Community–Academic Initiative: The Development of a Core Competency–Based Training for Community–Academic Initiative Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Sergio; Kapadia, Smiti; Islam, Nadia; Cusack, Arthur; Kwong, Sylvia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the importance of community health workers (CHWs) in strategies to reduce health disparities and the call to enhance their roles in research, little information exists on how to prepare CHWs involved in community–academic initiatives (CAIs). Therefore, the New York University Prevention Research Center piloted a CAI–CHW training program. Methods. We applied a core competency framework to an existing CHW curriculum and bolstered the curriculum to include research-specific sessions. We employed diverse training methods, guided by adult learning principles and popular education philosophy. Evaluation instruments assessed changes related to confidence, intention to use learned skills, usefulness of sessions, and satisfaction with the training. Results. Results demonstrated that a core competency–based training can successfully affect CHWs’ perceived confidence and intentions to apply learned content, and can provide a larger social justice context of their role and work. Conclusions. This program demonstrates that a core competency–based framework coupled with CAI-research–specific skill sessions (1) provides skills that CAI–CHWs intend to use, (2) builds confidence, and (3) provides participants with a more contextualized view of client needs and CHW roles. PMID:22594730

  18. Participatory Action Research in Public Mental Health and a School of Nursing: Qualitative Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership.

    PubMed

    Mahone, Irma H; Farrell, Sarah P; Hinton, Ivora; Johnson, Robert; Moody, David; Rifkin, Karen; Moore, Kenneth; Becker, Marcia; Barker, Margaret

    2011-02-23

    An academic-community partnership between a school of nursing (SON) at a public university (the University of Virginia, or UVA) and a public mental health clinic developed around a shared goal of finding an acceptable shared decision making (SDM) intervention targeting medication use by persons with serious mental illness. The planning meetings of the academic-community partnership were recorded and analyzed. Issues under the partnership process included 1) clinic values and priorities, 2) research agenda, 3) ground rules, and 4) communication. Issues under the SDM content included: 1) barriers, 2) information exchange, 3) positive aspects of shared decision making, and 4) technology. Using participatory-action research (PAR), the community clinic was able to raise questions and concerns throughout the process, be actively involved in research activities (such as identifying stakeholders and co-leading focus groups), participate in the reflective activities on the impact of SDM on practice and policy, and feel ownership of the SDM intervention. PMID:22163075

  19. Academic Health Centers and Care of Undocumented Immigrants in the United States: Servant Leaders or Uncourageous Followers?

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Public dialogue and debate about the health care overhaul in the United States is centered on one contentious question: Is there a moral obligation to ensure that all people (including undocumented immigrants) within its borders have access to affordable health care? For academic health centers (AHCs), which often provide safety-net care to the uninsured, this question has moral and social implications. An estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants living in the United States (80% of whom are Latino) are uninsured and currently prohibited from purchasing exchange coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, even at full cost. The authors attempt to dispel the many misconceptions and distorted assumptions surrounding the use of health services by this vulnerable population. The authors also suggest that AHCs need to recalibrate their mission to focus on social accountability as well as the ethical and humanistic practice of medicine for all people, recognizing the significance of inclusion over exclusion in making progress on population health and health care. AHCs play a crucial role, both in educational policy and as a safety-net provider, in reducing health disparities that negatively impact vulnerable populations. Better health for all is possible through better alignment, collaboration, and partnering with other AHCs and safety-net providers. Through servant leadership, AHCs can be the leaders that this change imperative demands. PMID:24556781

  20. Academic health centers and care of undocumented immigrants in the United States: servant leaders or uncourageous followers?

    PubMed

    Acosta, David A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    Public dialogue and debate about the health care overhaul in the United States is centered on one contentious question: Is there a moral obligation to ensure that all people (including undocumented immigrants) within its borders have access to affordable health care? For academic health centers (AHCs), which often provide safety-net care to the uninsured, this question has moral and social implications. An estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants living in the United States (80% of whom are Latino) are uninsured and currently prohibited from purchasing exchange coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, even at full cost. The authors attempt to dispel the many misconceptions and distorted assumptions surrounding the use of health services by this vulnerable population. The authors also suggest that AHCs need to recalibrate their mission to focus on social accountability as well as the ethical and humanistic practice of medicine for all people, recognizing the significance of inclusion over exclusion in making progress on population health and health care. AHCs play a crucial role, both in educational policy and as a safety-net provider, in reducing health disparities that negatively impact vulnerable populations. Better health for all is possible through better alignment, collaboration, and partnering with other AHCs and safety-net providers. Through servant leadership, AHCs can be the leaders that this change imperative demands. PMID:24556781

  1. Pre-treatment practices among patients attending an Animal Bite Management clinic at a primary health centre in Haryana, North India.

    PubMed

    Salve, Harshal; Rizwan, S A; Kant, Shashi; Rai, Sanjay K; Kharya, Pradip; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Animal Bite Management (ABM) clinic in a primary health centre in the Faridabad district of Haryana. Information about socio-demographic characteristics, animal bite exposure and pre-treatment practices was obtained. Clinical examination determined the severity of the bite. All 619 patients who reported to the ABM clinic during January 2011 to December 2012 were included. Out of the total, 38% had applied chilli-oil paste, and 4% antiseptics to the wound as pre-treatment; only 30.6% had washed the wound with water. There was a direct association between traditional pre-treatment practices and delay in seeking treatment for animal bites which was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Health education of the general population with culturally appropriate Information, Education and Communication material is therefore a necessary strategy to reduce delay in seeking appropriate treatment. PMID:25540164

  2. Ten 10-Year Trends for the Future of Healthcare: Implications for Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Garson, Arthur; Levin, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    The threat to the United States' Academic Health Centers (AHCs) has been reported for the past decade, signified most importantly by the decrease in the perceived value of patient care delivered and a significant reduction in direct payments to physicians in AHCs. These reductions have required AHCs to become more efficient and increased pressures to become more productive in both patient care and research. The U.S. healthcare system continues to evolve in response to these challenges and the additional pressures of increasing costs and the increasing numbers of uninsured. Ten trends for the next decade are evident: 1) more patients, 2) more technology, 3) more information, 4) the patient as the ultimate consumer, 5) development of a different delivery model, 6) innovation driven by competition, 7) increasing costs, 8) increasing numbers of uninsured, 9) less pay for providers, and 10) the continued need for a new healthcare system. In response to these trends, AHCs will have to continue to improve efficiency by increasing cooperation between researchers, clinicians, and educators while demonstrating how they are “different” and “better” than the competition. The AHC has the tools and the personnel not only to improve patient care processes but also to understand how to decrease costs while maintaining quality. AHCs also have the size and expertise to establish control over geographic market share with services not available elsewhere. Such programs must be able to evolve and respond to market pressures, and the AHC must be an engine of innovation, continuously regenerating new knowledge and programs with “Centers of Excellence” and appropriate industry partnerships. Such progress is driven by better communication and greater sharing of information and collaboration at all levels, including building better physician referral networks. These accomplishments, driven by technology, will allow AHCs to improve quality of care and increase efficiency even

  3. Optimizing global health experiences in emergency medicine residency programs: a consensus statement from the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors 2011 Academic Assembly global health specialty track

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs have residents interested in participating in clinical rotations in other countries. However, the policies that each individual training program applies to this process are different. To our knowledge, little has been done in the standardization of these experiences to help EM residency programs with the evaluation, administration and implementation of a successful global health clinical elective experience. The objective of this project was to assess the current status of EM global health electives at residency training programs and to establish recommendations from educators in EM on the best methodology to implement successful global health electives. Methods During the 2011 Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) Academic Assembly, participants met to address this issue in a mediated discussion session and working group. Session participants examined data previously obtained via the CORD online listserve, discussed best practices in global health applications, evaluations and partnerships, and explored possible solutions to some of the challenges. In addition a survey was sent to CORD members prior to the 2011 Academic Assembly to evaluate the resources and processes for EM residents’ global experiences. Results Recommendations included creating a global health working group within the organization, optimizing a clearinghouse of elective opportunities for residents and standardizing elective application materials, site evaluations and resident assessment/feedback methods. The survey showed that 71.4% of respondents have global health partnerships and electives. However, only 36.7% of programs require pre-departure training, and only 20% have formal competency requirements for these global health electives. Conclusions A large number of EM training programs have global health experiences available, but these electives and the trainees may benefit from

  4. [The primary healthcare centres].

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Antonio; Maciocco, Gavino

    2014-04-01

    The central attributes of primary care are: first contact (accessibility), longitudinality (person- focused preventive and curative care overtime), patient-oriented comprehensiveness and coordination (including navigation towards secondary and tertiary care). Besides taking care of the needs of the individuals, primary health care teams are also looking at the community, especially when addressing social determinants of health. The rationale for the benefits for primary care for health has been found in: 1) greater access to needed services; 2) better quality of care; 3) a greater focus on prevention; 4) early management of health problems; 5) organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic non-communicable diseases. This paper describes the role of primary healthcare centres in strengthening community primary services and in reducing health inequalities. Furthemore, the experiences of Regional Health Services from Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna are discussed, with a brief overview of the literature. PMID:24770539

  5. Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents in Latin America are at high risk for unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, which often result in unsafe abortions or poor maternal health outcomes. Both young men and women in the region face an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health information, services and counselling. To date, many adolescent health programmes have targeted a single determinant of sexual and reproductive health. However, recent evidence suggests that the complexity of sexual and reproductive health issues demands an equally multi-layered and comprehensive approach. Methods This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation design of the community-embedded reproductive health care for adolescents (CERCA) study in three Latin American cities: Cochabamba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador) and Managua (Nicaragua). Project CERCA’s research methodology builds on existing methodological frameworks, namely: action research, community based participatory research and intervention-mapping. The interventions in each country address distinct target groups (adolescents, parents, local authorities and health providers) and seek improvement of the following sexual health behaviours: communication about sexuality, sexual and reproductive health information-seeking, access to sexual and reproductive health care and safe sexual relationships. In Managua, we implemented a randomised controlled study, and in Cochabamba and Cuenca we adopted a non-randomised controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CERCA interventions, in addition to a process evaluation. Discussion This research will result in a methodological framework that will contribute to the improved design and implementation of future adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01722084) PMID:23311647

  6. Student-Centred Outcomes of an E-Learning Course on Public Health in Hanoi and New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Quyen Le Thi; Nong, Vuong Minh; Maher, Rachel Marie; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Huyen Anh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Do, Huyen Phuc; Lai, Hoa Thi; Le, Huong Thi

    2014-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the satisfaction and improvement in learning outcomes of students taking a distance course in Public Health facilitated by the Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health at the Hanoi Medical University and the State University of New York at Albany. Methods: A total of 36 students participated in pre- and…

  7. Educating Youth About Health and Science Using a Partnership Between an Academic Medical Center and Community-based Science Museum

    PubMed Central

    Griest, Susan; Howarth, Linda C.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William; Carney, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Declining student interest and scholastic abilities in the sciences are concerns for the health professions. Additionally, the National Institutes of Health is committed to promoting more research on health behaviors among US youth, where one of the most striking contemporary issues is obesity. This paper reports findings on the impact of a partnership between Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry linked to a 17-week exhibition of BodyWorlds3 and designed to inform rural underserved youth about science and health research. Self-administered survey measures included health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and interest in the health professions. Four hundred four surveys (88% of participants) were included in analyses. Ninety percent or more found both the Body-Worlds (n = 404) and OHSU (n = 239) exhibits interesting. Dental care habits showed the highest level of intended behavior change (Dental = 45%, Exercise = 34%, Eating = 30%). Overall, females and middle school students were more likely than male and high school students, respectively, to state an intention to change exercise, eating and dental care habits. Females and high school students were more likely to have considered a career in health or science prior to their exhibit visit and, following the exhibit, were more likely to report that this intention had been reinforced. About 6% of those who had not previously considered a career in health or science (n = 225) reported being more likely to do so after viewing the exhibits. In conclusion, high quality experiential learning best created by community-academic partnerships appears to have the ability to stimulate interest and influence intentions to change health behaviors among middle and high school students. PMID:19350372

  8. Exploring academics' views on designs, methods, characteristics and outcomes of inclusive health research with people with intellectual disabilities: a modified Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Meijering, J V; Leusink, G; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H M J

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Medical Journal's (BMJ's) patient revolution strives for collaboration with patients in healthcare and health research. This paper studies collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in health research, also known as inclusive health research. Currently, transparency and agreement among academics is lacking regarding its main aspects, preventing upscaling of the patient revolution. Objective This study aims to gain agreement among academics on 3 aspects of inclusive health research for people with ID: (1) designs and methods, (2) most important characteristics and (3) outcomes. Design A Delphi study was conducted with academics with experience in inclusive (health) research and on people with ID. The study consisted of 2 sequential questionnaire rounds (n=24; n=17), followed by in-depth interviews (n=10). Results Academics agreed on (1) a collaborative approach to be most suitable to inclusive health research, (2) characteristics regarding the accessibility and facilitation of inclusive health research, and (3) several outcomes of inclusive health research for people with ID and healthcare. Other characteristics agreed on included: atmosphere, relationship, engagement, partnership and power. It was stressed that these characteristics ensure meaningful inclusion. Interviewed academics voiced the need for a tool supporting the facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. There was ambiguity as to what this tool should comprise and the extent to which it was possible to capture the complex process of inclusive health research. Discussion and conclusions This study underlines the need for transparency, facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. The need for in-depth interviews after 2 Delphi rounds underlines its complexity and context dependence. To increase process transparency, future research should focus on gaining insight into inclusive health research in its context. A tool could be developed

  9. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  10. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  11. Reaching the Students that Student-Centred Learning Cannot Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Student-centred learning has the potential to engage a more academically diverse student body than the more conventional teacher-centred approaches. In spite of the evidence in favour of student-centred learning, a recent study showed that it was ineffective for around 30% of undergraduates in a large and diverse group studying business operations…

  12. The Department of Health's research governance framework remains an impediment to multi-centre studies: findings from a national descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Kielmann, Tara; Tierney, Alison; Porteous, Rosemary; Huby, Guro; Sheikh, Aziz; Pinnock, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Objective We describe our experience of using the standard application form, designed to streamline applications for multi-centre research, to seek approval from all primary care organizations (PCOs) in England and Wales to undertake a single telephone interview with a health service manager. Design We sent applications (n=316), by email to each PCO, or consortium of PCOs, attaching a completed standard application form, the 15 required documents, and the approval we had been granted by the lead NHS organization. We maintained detailed records of the responses to our application, subsequent correspondence, additional paperwork requested, and time spent on the approval process. Setting The UK Research Governance Framework, which regulates all research conducted in health and social care settings. Participants All PCOs in England and Wales. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Time taken to obtain approval to undertake a telephone interview with a health service manager. Results We were unable to establish contact with 13 (4%) PCOs. Six months after submitting our application we had received approval from 259/316 (82%) PCOs and were still awaiting a verdict from 41 (13%). The median time to approval was 56 days (IQR 42-72). Overall, an estimated 318 staff-hours were spent completing supplementary forms, providing additional information and chasing up dormant applications. Conclusions Recent initiatives to ‘streamline’ research governance approval have failed to address the problems that face researchers undertaking multi-centre studies. There is an urgent need to develop a simpler process that allows low risk research to take place without threatening staff morale and endangering the quality of the research outputs. In the meantime, we advise researchers to allow far greater time than might reasonably be envisioned to obtain research governance approval. PMID:17470931

  13. Academic health sciences library Website navigation: an analysis of forty-one Websites and their navigation tools

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Stewart M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The analysis included forty-one academic health sciences library (HSL) Websites as captured in the first two weeks of January 2001. Home pages and persistent navigational tools (PNTs) were analyzed for layout, technology, and links, and other general site metrics were taken. Methods: Websites were selected based on rank in the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, with regional and resource libraries given preference on the basis that these libraries are recognized as leaders in their regions and would be the most reasonable source of standards for best practice. A three-page evaluation tool was developed based on previous similar studies. All forty-one sites were evaluated in four specific areas: library general information, Website aids and tools, library services, and electronic resources. Metrics taken for electronic resources included orientation of bibliographic databases alphabetically by title or by subject area and with links to specifically named databases. Results: Based on the results, a formula for determining obligatory links was developed, listing items that should appear on all academic HSL Web home pages and PNTs. Conclusions: These obligatory links demonstrate a series of best practices that may be followed in the design and construction of academic HSL Websites. PMID:15494756

  14. Effects of Soldiers' Deployment on Children's Academic Performance and Behavioral Health. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Amy; Chandra, Anita; Martin, Laurie T.; Setodji, Claude Messan; Hallmark, Bryan W.; Campbell, Nancy F.; Hawkins, Stacy; Grady, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Long and frequent deployments, with short dwell times in between, have placed stresses on Army children and families already challenged by frequent moves and parental absences. RAND Arroyo Center was asked by the Army to examine the effects of parental deployments on children's academic performance as well as their emotional and behavioral…

  15. Sports Participation and Academic Performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…

  16. Teachers' Academic Appraisals and Referral Decisions: The Effect of Sharing Health Information when Diabetes Is Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Melissa M.; Wodrich, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Two prior studies showed that giving teachers more information about a student's illness led them to make better attributions about that student's classroom problems and better classroom accommodations. In this study, 235 teachers appraised academic competence and judged whether to seek help or make a referral for a hypothetical student with type…

  17. The Relationship of High School Students in Inclusive Settings: Emotional Health and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Carolyn H.; Stith-Russell, Lafawndra S.

    2010-01-01

    Academic success has become increasingly important in determining future quality of life. Many educational programs and institutions at various levels stress the need for students to score well on standardized tests and other methods of evaluation, in order to demonstrate their knowledge of various concepts and skills. The relationship between…

  18. Eleven Years of Primary Health Care Delivery in an Academic Nursing Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Eugenie; Baisch, Mary Jo; Lundeen, Sally P.; Bell-Calvin, Jean; Kelber, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Client visits to an academic community nursing center (n=25,495) were coded and analyzed. Results show expansion of nursing practice and services, strong case management, and management of illness care. The usefulness of computerized clinical documentation system and of the Lundeen conceptional model of community nursing care was demonstrated.…

  19. The Academic, Behavioral, and Mental Health Status of Children and Youth at Entry to Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.; Reid, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Often considered a "last resort placement," residential settings serve a broad range of children who present significant risks. While much is known about emotional and behavioral functioning, less is known about academic strengths and limitations. This study evaluated 127 children at intake into a residential care program to determine demographic,…

  20. Testing Program Reveals Deficient Mathematics for Health Science Students Commencing University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Keith; Hoyne, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    In response to staff concerns about literacy and numeracy standards of commencing students, the School of Health Sciences at the University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA) Fremantle campus worked with academic support staff from the University's Academic Enabling and Support Centre (AESC) to develop a Post Entrance Numeracy Assessment (PENA).…

  1. Community capacity-building in disaster mental health resilience: a pilot study of an academic/faith partnership model.

    PubMed

    McCabe, O Lee; Marum, Felicity; Mosley, Adrian; Gwon, Howard S; Langlieb, Alan; Everly, George S; Kaminsky, Michael J; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    We describe an academic/faith partnership approach for enhancing the capacity of communities to resist or rebound from the impact of terrorism and other mass casualty events. Representatives of several academic health centers (AHCs) collaborated with leaders of urban Christian-, Jewish-, and Muslim faith-based organizations (FBOs) to design, deliver, and preliminarily evaluate a train-the-trainer approach to enhancing individual competencies in the provision of psychological first aid and in disaster planning for their respective communities. Evidence of partner commitment to, and full participation in, project implementation responsibilities confirmed the feasibility of the overall AHC/FBO collaborative model, and individual post-training, self-report data on perceived effectiveness of the program indicated that the majority of community trainees evaluated the interventions as having significantly increased their: (a) knowledge of disaster mental health concepts; (b) skills (self-efficacy) as providers of psychological first aid and bereavement support services, and (c) (with somewhat less confidence because of module brevity) capabilities of leading disaster preparedness planning efforts within their communities. Notwithstanding the limitations of such early-phase research in ensuring internal and external validity of the interventions, the findings, particularly when combined with those of earlier and subsequent work, support the rationale for continuing to refine this participatory approach to fostering community disaster mental health resilience, and to promoting the translational impact of the model. An especially important (recent) example of the latter is the formal recognition by local and state health departments of program-trained lay volunteers as a vital resource in the continuum of government assets for public health emergency preparedness planning and response. PMID:23350227

  2. Implementing health research through academic and clinical partnerships: a realistic evaluation of the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The English National Health Service has made a major investment in nine partnerships between higher education institutions and local health services called Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). They have been funded to increase capacity and capability to produce and implement research through sustained interactions between academics and health services. CLAHRCs provide a natural 'test bed' for exploring questions about research implementation within a partnership model of delivery. This protocol describes an externally funded evaluation that focuses on implementation mechanisms and processes within three CLAHRCs. It seeks to uncover what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Design and methods This study is a longitudinal three-phase, multi-method realistic evaluation, which deliberately aims to explore the boundaries around knowledge use in context. The evaluation funder wishes to see it conducted for the process of learning, not for judging performance. The study is underpinned by a conceptual framework that combines the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services and Knowledge to Action frameworks to reflect the complexities of implementation. Three participating CLARHCS will provide in-depth comparative case studies of research implementation using multiple data collection methods including interviews, observation, documents, and publicly available data to test and refine hypotheses over four rounds of data collection. We will test the wider applicability of emerging findings with a wider community using an interpretative forum. Discussion The idea that collaboration between academics and services might lead to more applicable health research that is actually used in practice is theoretically and intuitively appealing; however the evidence for it is limited. Our evaluation is designed to capture the processes and impacts of collaborative approaches for implementing research, and

  3. Who Are the High-Cost Users? A Method for Person-Centred Attribution of Health Care Spending

    PubMed Central

    Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Bronskill, Susan E.; Guan, Jun; Wodchis, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop person-centered episodes of care (PCE) for community-dwelling individuals in the top fifth percentile of Ontario health care expenditures in order to: (1) describe the main clinical groupings for spending; and (2) identify patterns of spending by health sector (e.g. acute care, home care, physician billings) within and across PCE. Data sources Data were drawn from population-based administrative databases for all publicly funded health care in Ontario, Canada in 2010/11. Study design This study is a retrospective cohort study. Data collection/extraction methods A total of 587,982 community-dwelling individuals were identified among those accounting for the top 5% of provincial health care expenditures between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011. PCE were defined as starting with an acute care admission and persisting through subsequent care settings and providers until individuals were without health system contact for 30 days. PCE were classified according to the clinical grouping for the initial admission. PCE and non-PCE costs were calculated and compared to provide a comprehensive measurement of total health system costs for the year. Principal findings Among this community cohort, 697,059 PCE accounted for nearly 70% ($11,815.3 million (CAD)) of total annual publicly-funded expenditures on high-cost community-dwelling individuals. The most common clinical groupings to start a PCE were Acute Planned Surgical (35.2%), Acute Unplanned Medical (21.0%) and Post-Admission Events (10.8%). Median PCE costs ranged from $3,865 (IQR = $1,712-$10,919) for Acute Planned Surgical to $20,687 ($12,207-$39,579) for Post-Admission Events. Inpatient acute ($8,194.5 million) and inpatient rehabilitation ($434.6 million) health sectors accounted for the largest proportions of allocated PCE spending over the year. Conclusions Our study provides a novel methodological approach to categorize high-cost health system users into meaningful person-centered episodes

  4. The role of academic health centers and their partners in reconfiguring and retooling the existing workforce to practice in a transformed health system.

    PubMed

    Fraher, Erin P; Ricketts, Thomas C; Lefebvre, Ann; Newton, Warren P

    2013-12-01

    Inspired by the Affordable Care Act and health care payment models that reward value over volume, health care delivery systems are redefining the work of the health professionals they employ. Existing workers are taking on new roles, new types of health professionals are emerging, and the health workforce is shifting from practicing in higher-cost acute settings to lower-cost community settings, including patients' homes. The authors believe that although the pace of health system transformation has accelerated, a shortage of workers trained to function in the new models of care is hampering progress. In this Perspective, they argue that urgent attention must be paid to retraining the 18 million workers already employed in the system who will actually implement system change.Their view is shaped by work they have conducted in helping practices transform care, by extensive consultations with stakeholders attempting to understand the workforce implications of health system redesign, and by a thorough review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature. Through this work, the authors have become increasingly convinced that academic health centers (AHCs)-organizations at the forefront of innovations in health care delivery and health workforce training-are uniquely situated to proactively lead efforts to retrain the existing workforce. They recommend a set of specific actions (i.e., discovering and disseminating best practices; developing new partnerships; focusing on systems engineering approaches; planning for sustainability; and revising credentialing, accreditation, and continuing education) that AHC leaders can undertake to develop a more coherent workforce development strategy that supports practice transformation. PMID:24128624

  5. Identifying and communicating the contributions of library and information services in hospitals and academic health sciences centers

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Eileen G.; Cogdill, Keith W.; Zach, Lisl

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces a systematic approach to identifying and communicating the value of library and information services (LIS) from the perspective of their contributions to achieving organizational goals. Methods: The contributions of library and information services (CLIS) approach for identifying and communicating the value of LIS draws on findings from a multimethod study of hospitals and academic health sciences centers. Results: The CLIS approach is based on the concept that an individual unit's value to an organization can be demonstrated by identifying and measuring its contributions to organizational goals. The CLIS approach involves seven steps: (1) selecting appropriate organizational goals that are meaningful in a specific setting; (2) linking LIS contributions to organizational goals; (3) obtaining data from users on the correspondence between LIS contributions and LIS services; (4) selecting measures for LIS services; (5) collecting and analyzing data for the selected measures; (6) planning and sustaining communication with administrators about LIS contributions; and (7) evaluating findings and revising selected goals, contributions, and services as necessary. Conclusions: The taxonomy of LIS contributions and the CLIS approach emerged from research conducted in hospitals and academic health sciences centers and reflect the mission and goals common in these organizations. However, both the taxonomy and the CLIS approach may be adapted for communicating the value of LIS in other settings. PMID:14762462

  6. Interdisciplinary Continuing Education in a Rural and Remote Area: The Approach of the Northern Educational Centre for Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; MacLean, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A case study of professional continuing education in palliative care delivered in rural northern Canada identified these effectiveness factors: interdisciplinary and participatory approach, responsiveness to rural health practitioners' practice context and work style, and integration of educational approaches with rural realities. (SK)

  7. School Centres for Teaching Excellence (SCTE): Understanding New Directions for Schools and Universities in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes a community collaborative approach for implementing Health and Physical Education (HPE) lessons within Gippsland primary schools (Victoria, Australia). The rural community collaborations reflected upon are embedded within the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) "School…

  8. Current Status of Infant Mental Health in Day-Care Centres in Japan: An Investigation of Okinawa and Aomori Prefectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Wake, Norie; Naka, Kuoichi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Ishizu, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Grasping both the extent and the actual situation of psychosomatic disorders, neurotic habits and developmental disorders of infancy and childhood is vital for their prevention and for taking appropriate measures to deal with the current situation. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of infant mental health in Japanese…

  9. Starting the data conversation: informing data services at an academic health sciences library*

    PubMed Central

    Read, Kevin B.; Surkis, Alisa; Larson, Catherine; McCrillis, Aileen; Graff, Alice; Nicholson, Joey; Xu, Juanchan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The research obtained information to plan data-related products and services. Methods Biomedical researchers in an academic medical center were selected using purposive sampling and interviewed using open-ended questions based on a literature review. Interviews were conducted until saturation was achieved. Results Interview responses informed library planners about researchers’ key data issues. Conclusions This approach proved valuable for planning data management products and services and raising library visibility among clients in the research data realm. PMID:26213504

  10. Aligning the Goals of Community-Engaged Research: Why and How Academic Health Centers Can Successfully Engage with Communities to Improve Health

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Lloyd; Cook, Jennifer; Ahmed, Syed M.; Yonas, Michael A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly viewed as the keystone to translational medicine and improving the health of the nation. In this article, the authors seek to assist academic health centers (AHCs) in learning how to better engage with their communities and build a CEnR agenda by suggesting five steps: defining community and identify partners; learning the etiquette of community engagement; building a sustainable network of CEnR researchers; recognizing that CEnR will require the development of new methodologies; and improving translation and dissemination plans. Health disparities that lead to uneven access to and quality of care as well as high costs will persist without a CEnR agenda that finds answers to both medical and public health questions. One of the biggest barriers toward a national CEnR agenda, however, are the historical structures and processes of an AHC – including the complexities of how institutional review boards operate, accounting practices and indirect funding policies, and tenure and promotion paths. Changing institutional culture starts with the leadership and commitment of top decision-makers in an institution. By aligning the motivations and goals of their researchers, clinicians, and community members into a vision of a healthier population, AHC leadership will not just improve their own institutions, but improve the health of the nation – starting with improving the health of their local communities, one community at a time. PMID:22373619

  11. Aligning the goals of community-engaged research: why and how academic health centers can successfully engage with communities to improve health.

    PubMed

    Michener, Lloyd; Cook, Jennifer; Ahmed, Syed M; Yonas, Michael A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2012-03-01

    Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly viewed as the keystone to translational medicine and improving the health of the nation. In this article, the authors seek to assist academic health centers (AHCs) in learning how to better engage with their communities and build a CEnR agenda by suggesting five steps: defining community and identifying partners, learning the etiquette of CE, building a sustainable network of CEnR researchers, recognizing that CEnR will require the development of new methodologies, and improving translation and dissemination plans. Health disparities that lead to uneven access to and quality of care as well as high costs will persist without a CEnR agenda that finds answers to both medical and public health questions. One of the biggest barriers toward a national CEnR agenda, however, are the historical structures and processes of an AHC-including the complexities of how institutional review boards operate, accounting practices and indirect funding policies, and tenure and promotion paths. Changing institutional culture starts with the leadership and commitment of top decision makers in an institution. By aligning the motivations and goals of their researchers, clinicians, and community members into a vision of a healthier population, AHC leadership will not just improve their own institutions but also improve the health of the nation-starting with improving the health of their local communities, one community at a time. PMID:22373619

  12. Perceptions of academic vulnerability associated with personal illness: a study of 1,027 students at nine medical schools. Collaborative Research Group on Medical Student Health.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L W; Warner, T D; Lyketsos, C; Frank, E; Ganzini, L; Carter, D

    2001-01-01

    About one quarter of the more than 69,000 medical students in this country suffer symptoms of mental illness, including 7% to 18% with substance use disorders. Subjective distress and physical health needs of medical students are also common and have been linked to training stresses. This first large-scale study of medical student health care examined students' physical and mental health concerns and their perceptions of academic vulnerability associated with personal illness. A 7-page, confidential written survey was given to 1,964 students at nine US medical schools in 1996 and 1997. A total of 1,027 students participated (52% response rate). Nearly all (90%) reported needing care for various health concerns, including 47% having at least one mental health or substance-related health issue. A majority of students expressed a preference for health care outside their training institution, largely due to confidentiality concerns, and 90% preferred health insurance allowing off-site care. Students expressed varying levels of concern about academic jeopardy in association with personal illness, with physical health problems such as arthritis causing the least concern and alcohol and drug abuse triggering the most concern. Consistent differences were detected in these views based on respondent's gender, training level, and institution. Most medical students perceive the need for personal health care. Nevertheless, fear of academic reprisal may prevent medical students from seeking necessary care for their health problems during training. This phenomenon may be linked in important but poorly recognized ways to emerging illness and to impairment among medical students and physicians. Women, minority, and clinical students appear more sensitive to the connection between health and academic vulnerability. Constructive implications for medical school curricula, policies, and health care services are discussed. PMID:11154710

  13. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Omidokun, Adedoyin D.; Ige, Olusimbo K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have assessed pregnant women's perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria. Objective Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Care centre in Ibadan, Nigeria. Results Known methods of PMTCT were: use of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) during pregnancy (75.0%), ART at birth (65.8%) and not breastfeeding (61.8%). Previous HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) was reported by 71%, significantly higher proportions of those who were married, in the third trimester of pregnancy or engaged in professional and/or skilled occupations had been tested. Regarding the HCT services provided, 92.2% understood the HIV-related health education provided, 89.7.2% reported that the timing was appropriate, 92.6% assessed the nurses’ approach as acceptable but 34.0% felt the test was forced upon them. Majority (79.6%) were aware of non-breastfeeding options of infant feeding, but only 3.5% were aware of exclusive breastfeeding for a stipulated period as an infant feeding option. Nevertheless, the majority of the women found the non-breast feeding option culturally unacceptable. Conclusion Women in this survey were knowledgeable about the methods of PMTCT, but had negative perceptions regarding certain aspects of the HCT services and the recommended non-breastfeeding infant feeding option. Health workers should provide client friendly services and infant feeding counselling that is based on current WHO recommendations and culturally acceptable.

  14. Linking Organizational Health in Jeddah Secondary Schools to Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqarni, Saleh Ali Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess organizational health (OH) in secondary schools in Jeddah district in Saudi Arabia. A second aim of the study was to compare the organizational health of these schools according to their rankings on student achievement tests, school type and the nature of the respondents' work. The Organizational Health Inventory (OHI),…

  15. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: A Review of the Influences and Risk Situations for Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Hai; Emmerton, Lynne; McKauge, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Health professions are increasingly focusing on the development of integrity and professionalism in students of Health disciplines. While it is expected that Health students will develop, and commit to, the highest standards of conduct as undergraduates, and henceforth through their careers, the pressures of assessment and external commitments may…

  16. Reflections on Government Service Rotations by an Academic Health Education Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    This reflection is on a health education professional's rotation from professor in a school of public health to a government position and back parallels that of Professor Howard Koh's journey to Assistant Secretary of Health, one level higher in the same federal bureaucracy. We both acknowledge the steep learning curve and some bureaucratic…

  17. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  18. Effects of Stress on Students' Physical and Mental Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…

  19. Using commercially available technology to assist in the delivery of person-centred health and social care.

    PubMed

    Martin, Suzanne; Rankin, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Videoconferencing (via ISDN at 128 kbit/s) was used between a service provider, the South and East Belfast Health and Social Services Trust, and clients at home. The equipment was used successfully by various health-care workers and was sufficient for the clinical requirements of professional staff. Our experience demonstrated that there are clinical benefits of telecare. The users perceived that the technology added to the quality of their lives. Clients reported feeling less isolated, more secure at home and more in control. The Trust is currently commissioning purpose-built accommodation for adults with cognitive impairment. The residents will be people who are on the verge of requiring institutional care. Presence sensors, appliance and door contacts will allow lifestyle patterns to be monitored. The system will notify the service provider's staff of variations from the norm for each resident. PMID:12217139

  20. Improvement in rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease management and prevention using a health centre-based continuous quality improvement approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major health concern for Aboriginal Australians. A key component of RHD control is prevention of recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) using long-term secondary prophylaxis with intramuscular benzathine penicillin (BPG). This is the most important and cost-effective step in RHD control. However, there are significant challenges to effective implementation of secondary prophylaxis programs. This project aimed to increase understanding and improve quality of RHD care through development and implementation of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) strategy. Methods We used a CQI strategy to promote implementation of national best-practice ARF/RHD management guidelines at primary health care level in Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory (NT), Australia, 2008–2010. Participatory action research methods were employed to identify system barriers to delivery of high quality care. This entailed facilitated discussion with primary care staff aided by a system assessment tool (SAT). Participants were encouraged to develop and implement strategies to overcome identified barriers, including better record-keeping, triage systems and strategies for patient follow-up. To assess performance, clinical records were audited at baseline, then annually for two years. Key performance indicators included proportion of people receiving adequate secondary prophylaxis (≥80% of scheduled 4-weekly penicillin injections) and quality of documentation. Results Six health centres participated, servicing approximately 154 people with ARF/RHD. Improvements occurred in indicators of service delivery including proportion of people receiving ≥40% of their scheduled BPG (increasing from 81/116 [70%] at baseline to 84/103 [82%] in year three, p = 0.04), proportion of people reviewed by a doctor within the past two years (112/154 [73%] and 134/156 [86%], p = 0.003), and proportion of people who received influenza vaccination (57

  1. The Symbolic Role of Academic Boards in University Academic Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2013-01-01

    While much research on quality assurance in higher education has centred on issues related to the impact on teaching and learning and academic staff, there is a significant gap in the area of quality assurance and academic governance. Within Australia the roles of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates) have…

  2. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2015-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation. Methods This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts) were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model. Results None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001) higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model. Conclusions These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level

  3. Early experiences on the feasibility, acceptability, and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests at peripheral health centres in Uganda-insights into some barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While feasibility of new health technologies in well-resourced healthcare settings is extensively documented, it is largely unknown in low-resourced settings. Uganda's decision to deploy and scale up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) in public health facilities and at the community level provides a useful entry point for documenting field experience, acceptance, and predictive variables for technology acceptance and use. These findings are important in informing implementation of new health technologies, plans, and budgets in low-resourced national disease control programmes. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study at 21 health centres in Uganda was undertaken in 2007 to elucidate the barriers and facilitators in the introduction of mRDTs as a new diagnostic technology at lower-level health facilities. Pre-tested interview questionnaires were administered through pre-structured patient exit interviews and semi-structured health worker interviews to gain an understanding of the response to this implementation. A conceptual framework on technology acceptance and use was adapted for this study and used to prepare the questionnaires. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes from the data. Results A total of 52 of 57 health workers (92%) reported a belief that a positive mRDT result was true, although only 41 of 57 (64%) believed that treatment with anti-malarials was justified for every positive mRDT case. Of the same health workers, only 49% believed that a negative mRDT result was truly negative. Factors linked to these findings were related to mRDT acceptance and use, including the design and characteristics of the device, availability and quality of mRDT ancillary supplies, health worker capacity to investigate febrile cases testing negative with the device and provide appropriate treatment, availability of effective malaria treatments, reliability of the health commodity supply chain, existing national policy recommendations

  4. Comparison of perceived quality amongst migrant and local patients using primary health care delivered by community health centres in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing good quality primary health care to all inhabitants is one of the Chinese Government’s health care objectives. However, information is scarce regarding the difference in quality of primary health care delivered to migrants and local residents respectively. This study aimed to compare patients’ perceptions of quality of primary health care between migrants and local patients, and their willingness to use and recommend primary health care to others. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. 787 patients in total were chosen from four randomly drawn Community Health Centers (CHCs) for interviews. Results Local residents scored higher than migrants in terms of their satisfaction with types of drugs available (3.62 vs. 3.45, p = 0.035), attitude of health workers (4.41 vs. 4.14, p = 0.042) and waiting time (4.30 vs. 3.86, p < 0.001). Even though there was no significant difference in overall satisfaction between local residents and migrants (4.16 vs. 3.91, p = 0.159), migrants were more likely to utilize primary health care as the first choice for their usual health problems (94.1% vs. 87.1%, p = 0.032), while local residents were more inclined to recommend Traditional Chinese Medicine to others (65.6% vs. 56.6%, p = 0.026). Conclusions Quality of primary health care given to migrants is less satisfactory than to local residents in terms of attitude of health workers and waiting time. Our study suggests quality of care could be improved through extending opening hours of CHCs and strengthening professional ethics education. Considering CHCs as the first choice by migrants might be due to their health insurance scheme, while locals’ recommendations for traditional Chinese medicine were possibly because of cultural differences. PMID:24779564

  5. The Palau AHEC--academizing the public health work plan: capacity development and innovation in Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Dever, Greg; Finau, Sitaleki; Kuartei, Stevenson; Durand, A Mark; Rykken, David; Yano, Victor; Untalan, Pedro; Withy, Kelley; Tellei, Patrick; Baravilala, Wame; Pierantozzi, Sandra; Tellei, Jullie

    2005-03-01

    The Palau Area Health Education Center (AHEC)--a program of the University of Hawaii's John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) and based at Palau Community College--was established in 2001 in response to the recommendations of the 1998 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report--Pacific Partnerships for Health--Charting a New Course for the 21st Century1. One of IOM's core recommendations was to promote the training of the primary health care workforce among the U.S.-Associated Pacific Islands. Since its inception in 2001, the Palau AHEC has coordinated overall 37 postgraduate and undergraduate courses in General Practice and Public Health taught by the University of Auckland Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the Fiji School of Medicine's School of Public Health and Primary Care (SPH&PC) in Palau, Yap State, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Currently 139 physicians, nurses, health administrators, and environmental health workers are registered as active students in Palau (58), Yap State (22), and the RMI (59). Notably, the Palau AHEC and the SPH&PC have worked in an innovative partnership with the Palau Ministry of Health to operationalize the MOH's public health work plan to implement a comprehensive community health survey of all 4,376 households in Palau, interviewing 79% of the total population, to determine Palau's health indicators. To accomplish this, the SPH&PC developed and taught a curriculum for Palau physicians and public health nurses on how to design the survey, gather, and analyze data in order to develop and implement appropriately responsive intervention and treatment programs to address Palau's old and newer morbidities. In early FY2005, two other Micronesian AHECs--the Yap State and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands AHECs--were funded through JABSOM administered grants which will also address the primary care training needs of Micronesia's remote and isolated health workforce. PMID:18181474

  6. Contemporary design for 'landmark' centre.

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    As one of the UK's largest builders of healthcare facilities, construction company Morgan Ashurst is accustomed to delivering complex, challenging hospital projects. The construction of a new oncology centre at Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton for Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust-- said to be the first new stand-alone radiotherapy centre to be built in the UK for almost 20 years--was no exception. Health Estate Journal reports. PMID:19711668

  7. Sustained health-economic effects after reorganisation of a Swiss hospital emergency centre: a cost comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Eichler, Klaus; Hess, Sascha; Chmiel, Corinne; Bögli, Karin; Sidler, Patrick; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Brügger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency departments (EDs) are increasingly overcrowded by walk-in patients. However, little is known about health-economic consequences resulting from long waiting times and inefficient use of specialised resources. We have evaluated a quality improvement project of a Swiss urban hospital: In 2009, a triage system and a hospital-associated primary care unit with General Practitioners (H-GP-unit) were implemented beside the conventional hospital ED. This resulted in improved medical service provision with reduced process times and more efficient diagnostic testing. We now report on health-economic effects. Methods From the hospital perspective, we performed a cost comparison study analysing treatment costs in the old emergency model (ED, only) versus treatment costs in the new emergency model (triage plus ED plus H-GP-unit) from 2007 to 2011. Hospital cost accounting data were applied. All consecutive outpatient emergency contacts were included for 1 month in each follow-up year. Results The annual number of outpatient emergency contacts increased from n=10 440 (2007; baseline) to n=16 326 (2011; after intervention), reflecting a general trend. In 2007, mean treatment costs per outpatient were €358 (95% CI 342 to 375). Until 2011, costs increased in the ED (€423 (396 to 454)), but considerably decreased in the H-GP-unit (€235 (221 to 250)). Compared with 2007, the annual local budget spent for treatment of 16 326 patients in 2011 showed cost reductions of €417 600 (27 200 to 493 600) after adjustment for increasing patient numbers. Conclusions From the health-economic point of view, our new service model shows ‘dominance’ over the old model: While quality of service provision improved (reduced waiting times; more efficient resource use in the H-GP-unit), treatment costs sustainably decreased against the secular trend of increase. PMID:23850883

  8. Using an academic-community partnership model and blended learning to advance community health nursing pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery. PMID:24720659

  9. The opinion and response of health professionals associated with academics about the research design and methods: A study

    PubMed Central

    Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Kujan, Omar Bashar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to survey the opinions and responses of health professionals in academics about their interest and experience in research, knowledge over study designs, and application of a common study design to find out the objectives behind any research study. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire containing three variables with 15 questions were sent to 300 health professionals associated with academics in the category of Bachelor/Master/Doctorate working at Al-Farabi Colleges campuses located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected manually, descriptive frequencies were generated and the variables were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. The knowledge scores between the qualification and gender were carried out using ANOVA and t-test. The final response rate was in conjuction to the statistician to exclude the uncompleted responses from the statistical analysis. Results: The results showed a discrepancy in the participation; of 95 health professionals, (40) were females and (55) were males. Bachelor (16), Masters (61) and Doctorate holders (18) gave their opinion. For the first variable (research experience), all the surveyed categories showed the same response. However, for the second variable (study design and research criteria) bachelor holders showed poor, but equal performance was reported to the master and doctorate holders. In the third variable (objectives and common designs), bachelor holders showed a poor response in contrast to the master and doctorate holders whose have mixed opinions. For knowledge scores, no significance was present between the master and doctorate holders. Conclusion: There is a lack of understanding of the research objectives and common designs frequently used in research studies particularly among the bachelor holders. Additional postgraduate education on research methods is recommended to improve the knowledge and practices of research. PMID:27114956

  10. Developing a Career in Global Health: Considerations for Physicians-in-Training and Academic Mentors

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brett D.; Kasper, Jennifer; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Thea, Donald M.; Herlihy, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Global health is an expansive field, and global health careers are as diverse as the practice of medicine, with new paths being forged every year. Interest in global health among medical students, residents, and fellows has never been higher. As a result, a greater number of these physicians-in-training are participating in global health electives during their training. However, there is a gap between the level of trainee interest and the breadth and depth of educational opportunities that prepare them for a career in global health. Objective Global health experiences can complement and enhance each step of traditional physician training, from medical school through residency and fellowship. Global health experiences can expose trainees to patients with diverse pathologies, improve physical exam skills by decreasing reliance on laboratory tests and imaging, enhance awareness of costs and resource allocation in resource-poor settings, and foster cultural sensitivity. The aim of this article is to describe issues faced by physicians-in-training and the faculty who mentor them as trainees pursue careers in global health. Methods We conducted a narrative review that addresses opportunities and challenges, competing demands on learners' educational schedules, and the need for professional development for faculty mentors. Conclusions A widening gap between trainee interest and the available educational opportunities in global health may result in many medical students and residents participating in global health experiences without adequate preparation and mentorship. Without this essential support, global health training experiences may have detrimental consequences on both trainees and the communities hosting them. We discuss considerations at each training level, options for additional training, current career models in global health, and challenges and potential solutions during training and early career development. PMID:23997872

  11. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries. PMID:12883582

  12. Socio-economic, clinical and biological risk factors for mother - to – child transmission of HIV-1 in Muhima health centre (Rwanda): a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three decades since the first HIV-1 infected patients in Rwanda were identified in 1983; the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome epidemic has had a devastating history and is still a major public health challenge in the country. This study was aimed at assessing socioeconomic, clinical and biological risk factors for mother – to – child transmission of HIV- in Muhima health centre (Kigali/Rwanda). Methods The prospective cohort study was conducted at Muhima Health centre (Kigali/Rwanda). During the study period (May 2007 – April 2010), of 8,669 pregnant women who attended antenatal visits and screened for HIV-1, 736 tested HIV-1 positive and among them 700 were eligible study participants. Hemoglobin, CD4 count and viral load tests were performed for participant mothers and HIV-1 testing using DNA PCR technique for infants. Follow up data for eligible mother-infant pairs were obtained from women themselves and log books in Muhima health centre and maternity, using a structured questionnaire. Predictors of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 679 exposed and followed-up infants, HIV-1 status was significantly associated with disclosure of HIV status to partner both at 6 weeks of age (non-disclosure of HIV status, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.68, CI 1.39 to 15.77, p < 0.05; compared to disclosure) and at 6 months of age (non-disclosure of HIV status, AOR, 3.41, CI 1.09 to 10.65, p < 0.05, compared to disclosure). A significant association between mother’s viral load (HIV-1 RNA) and infant HIV-1 status was found both at 6 weeks of age (> = 1000 copies/ml, AOR 7.30, CI 2.65 to 20.08, p < 0.01, compared to <1000 copies/ml) and at 6 months of age (> = 1000 copies/ml, AOR 4.60, CI 1.84 to 11.49, p < 0.01, compared to <1000 copies/ml). Conclusion In this study, the most relevant factors independently associated with increased risk of mother – to

  13. Adolescent mental health and academic functioning: empirical support for contrasting models of risk and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Lucier-Greer, Mallory; O'Neal, Catherine W; Arnold, A Laura; Mancini, Jay A; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2014-11-01

    Adolescents in military families contend with normative stressors that are universal and exist across social contexts (minority status, family disruptions, and social isolation) as well as stressors reflective of their military life context (e.g., parental deployment, school transitions, and living outside the United States). This study utilizes a social ecological perspective and a stress process lens to examine the relationship between multiple risk factors and relevant indicators of youth well-being, namely depressive symptoms and academic performance, as well as the mediating role of self-efficacy (N = 1,036). Three risk models were tested: an additive effects model (each risk factor uniquely influences outcomes), a full cumulative effects model (the collection of risk factors influences outcomes), a comparative model (a cumulative effects model exploring the differential effects of normative and military-related risks). This design allowed for the simultaneous examination of multiple risk factors and a comparison of alternative perspectives on measuring risk. Each model was predictive of depressive symptoms and academic performance through persistence; however, each model provides unique findings about the relationship between risk factors and youth outcomes. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers on how risk is conceptualized and suggestions for identifying at-risk youth. PMID:25373055

  14. The evolution of trauma surgery at a high-volume Canadian centre: implications for public health, prevention, clinical care, education and recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.; Das, Debanjana; Roberts, Derek J.; Vis, Christine; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Kortbeek, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma centres continue to evolve with respect to clinical care and their impact on public health. Despite improvements in patient outcomes, operative volumes, and therefore maintenance of surgical skills, has become a challenging issue. We sought to determine whether injury demographics and treatments at a high- volume centre changed over time. Methods We used the Alberta Trauma Registry to analyze all severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) patient admissions over a 16-year period (1995–2011). Results Of the 12 879 severely injured patients requiring admission, there was a 1.5-fold increase in the annual admission rate despite population normalization (p = 0.001). Over the 16-year interval, patients were older with a subsequent lower mortality (p = 0.001) and length of hospital stay (p = 0.007). In patients with the most severe ISS (≥ 48), there was no change in mortality (27%, p = 0.26). In 2011, falls were the most common mechanism compared with motor vehicle crashes (41% v. 23%; p < 0.001); this was a complete reversal compared with 1995 (25% v. 41%). Motorized recreational vehicle and motorcycle injuries also increased (p < 0.001). The mean number of operations performed by trauma surgeons decreased (laparotomies: 67 [17%] in 1995 v. 47 [5%] in 2011, p < 0.001). Thoracotomies and tracheostomies remained unchanged (p = 0.19). Conclusion Clinical care has improved despite an increasing overall volume of severely injured patient admissions. The number of operative interventions performed by trauma surgeons continues to decrease concurrent to a change in injury mechanisms. Despite these improvements, maintenance of technical skills among trauma surgeons has become an important issue. PMID:25427332

  15. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  16. Upscaling the recruitment and retention of human resources for health at primary healthcare centres in Lebanon: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Khodr, Hiba; Mourad, Yara; Yassoub, Rami; Abi Ramia, Jinane

    2016-05-01

    The sustainability of primary healthcare (PHC) worldwide has been challenged by a global shortage in human resources for health (HRH). This study is a unique attempt at systematically soliciting and synthesising the voice of PHC and community stakeholders on the HRH recruitment and retention strategies at the PHC sector in Lebanon, the obstacles and challenges hindering their optimisation and the recommendations to overcome such obstacles. A qualitative design was utilised, involving 22 semi-structured interviews with PHC experts in Lebanon conducted in 2013. Nvivo qualitative data analysis software was employed for the thematic analysis of data collected from interviews. Five comprehensive themes emerged: understanding PHC scope, HRH recruitment issues, HRH retention challenges, rural areas' specific challenges and stakeholders' recommendations. Analysis of stakeholders' responses revealed a lack of a unified understanding of the PHC scope impacting the capacity for appropriate HRH planning. Identified impediments to recruitment included the suboptimal supply of HRH, financial constraints and poor management. Retention difficulties were attributed to poor working environments, financial constraints and lack of professional development. There was consensus that HRH challenges faced were aggravated in rural areas, jeopardising the equitable access to PHC services of quality. Equitable access was also jeopardised by the reported shortage of female HRH in a sociocultural context where many females prefer providers of the same gender. The study sets the path towards upscaling recruitment and retention policies and practices through the endorsement of a nationally acknowledged PHC definition and scope, the sustainable development of the PHC workforce and through the implementation of targeted recruitment and retention strategies addressing rural settings and gender equity. Decision-makers and planners are urged to identify HRH as the most important input for the success

  17. Fully Aligned Academic Health Centers: A Model for 21st-Century Job Creation and Sustainable Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reece, E. Albert; Chrencik, Robert A.; Miller, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Alignment is the degree to which component parts of academic health centers (AHCs) work cohesively. Full alignment allows AHCs to act quickly and cohesively toward common goals and to take advantage of opportunities that present themselves, particularly where collaboration is essential. Maryland’s two major AHCs—University of Maryland Medicine (UMM) and Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM)—have experienced periods of significant misalignment during each of their histories. Their most recent periods of misalignment caused significant negative economic and academic impacts. However, the process of realigning their clinical and research missions has not only given them a renewed economic vigor but has also paid significant dividends for the state of Maryland, helping it weather the current recession much better than other regions of the country. The two AHCs’ continued economic success during the recession has led Maryland lawmakers to increasingly seek out their expertise in attempts to stimulate economic development. Indeed, UMM, JHM, and other fully aligned AHCs have shown that they can be powerful economic engines and offer a model of job growth and economic development in the 21st century. PMID:22622215

  18. The Effects of a Locally Developed mHealth Intervention on Delivery and Postnatal Care Utilization; A Prospective Controlled Evaluation among Health Centres in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Spigt, Mark; Tekie, Michael; Abdullah, Muna; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there are studies showing that mobile phone solutions can improve health service delivery outcomes in the developed world, there is little empirical evidence that demonstrates the impact of mHealth interventions on key maternal health outcomes in low income settings. Methods A non-randomized controlled study was conducted in the Amhara region, Ethiopia in 10 health facilities (5 intervention, 5 control) together serving around 250,000 people. Health workers in the intervention group received an android phone (3 phones per facility) loaded with an application that sends reminders for scheduled visits during antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care (PNC), and educational messages on dangers signs and common complaints during pregnancy. The intervention was developed at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Primary outcomes were the percentage of women who had at least 4 ANC visits, institutional delivery and PNC visits at the health center after 12 months of implementation of the intervention. Findings Overall 933 and 1037 women were included in the cross-sectional surveys at baseline and at follow-up respectively. In addition, the medical records of 1224 women who had at least one antenatal care visit were followed in the longitudinal study. Women who had their ANC visit in the intervention health centers were significantly more likely to deliver their baby in the same health center compared to the control group (43.1% versus 28.4%; Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.98 (95%CI 1.53–2.55)). A significantly higher percentage of women who had ANC in the intervention group had PNC in the same health center compared to the control health centers (41.2% versus 21.1%: AOR: 2.77 (95%CI 2.12–3.61)). Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that a locally customized mHealth application during ANC can significantly improve delivery and postnatal care service utilization possibly through positively influencing the behavior of health workers and their

  19. Viewpoints on Accreditation from Health Education Professionals and Administrators of Academic Professional Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Jay M.; Videto, Donna M.; Widdall, Christine L.; Chen, W. William; Airhihenbuwa, Collins; Allegrante, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The health education profession has made significant strides in promoting quality assurance for credentialing of health educators through a combination of individual certification and program approval and accreditation mechanisms. Although the profession has widely embraced individual certification, program accreditation has not been uniformly…

  20. The Relationship between Academic Achievement and School-Based Mental Health Services for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lisa O.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health issues among American adolescents and children can negatively impact their potential for school success. As many as 10% of students among the general education population suffer from psychiatric disorders, yet only between 1% and 5% of those students are being served. The effects of mental health difficulties are problematic for…