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Sample records for academic issues related

  1. Academic Libraries: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leacy

    1996-01-01

    Discusses issues and trends affecting Canadian academic libraries that were major themes at the 1996 Canadian Library Association annual conference in Halifax (Nova Scotia). Topics include government funding decreases; restructuring in education and library services; consortia; library cooperation and collaboration; computer networks; interlibrary…

  2. At Issue: Academic Integrity, an Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2009-01-01

    Academic integrity is central to the heart of any academic institution, yet the topic is a complex one. This bibliography addresses the subjects of copyright and plagiarism. Resources for exploring common campus copyright and fair use issues seek to answer common, frequently misunderstood questions such as what exactly does "copyright" mean? What…

  3. Assistive Technology and Academic Libraries: Legal Issues and Problem Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.

    2009-01-01

    Legal issues have increasingly come to the forefront in academic libraries in recent years. Most of these issues involve The Rehabilitation Act, Section 504 (1973) or Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), complaints related to discriminatory practices with regard to accommodations or assistive technologies. This article provides a brief synopsis…

  4. Housework Is an Academic Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiebinger, Londa; Gilmartin, Shannon K.

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are likely not to be interested in thinking about housework. Housework is, however, related to the life of the mind. Scientists wear clean clothes to the lab, eat food procured and prepared by someone, and live in reasonably clean houses. This labor used to be done by stay-at-home wives. Now, housework is often done by wives and…

  5. Ethical Issues in Academic Substance Abuse Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Several important ethical issues need to be addressed both by the consultant and the organization in the field of academic substance abuse consultation. Various problems face the university-based academician who consults with agencies and organizations, such as consultant abuse, i.e., when a consultant is hired on the basis of title and academic…

  6. Departmental Issues in Dual-Academic Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, Anita P.; Cunningham, Michael R.

    This paper discusses issues pertaining to the recruitment and hiring of dual-career academic couples by universities and psychology departments. Studies have shown that both husbands and wives in dual psychologist couples are more productive in number of publications, paper presentations, and grants awarded than their single counterparts, yet many…

  7. Sexual Harassment as an Ethical Issue in Academic Life. Issues in Academic Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie Pickering

    This book provides a full examination of sexual harassment as an ethical issue in education. It considers issues raised by the definition, understanding, and regulation of campus sexual harassment and addresses the arguments that regulation may conflict with academic freedom and choice in relationships. Part 1 contains these chapters: (1) "Sexual…

  8. Reviewing Academic Books: Are There Ethical Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Edmund F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses bias in academic book reviewing due to the hierarchy of perceived excellence promoted by the academic and publishing industries and that favors authors from the most prestigious universities. Focuses on pre-publication reviewing of philosophical work and considers anonymity in journal peer reviewing and transparency in academic book…

  9. Enhancing Academic Performance: Issues in Target Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D.; Andrews, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Learning of subject matter and acquisition of academically relevant skills are important goals in enhancing academic achievement in the classroom. The results of 22 experiments reviewed in this article support the validity of the academic performance targets but not classroom behavior targets. Some limitations on these conclusions are discussed.…

  10. Beyond Academics: Challenging Issues Facing Community College Non-Academic Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Judith Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on identifying and exploring the significant current and emerging community college non-academic support service issues. These auxiliary services, not unlike academic or student affairs, support the community college mission and vision as well as students' academic success. Since December 2007, Americans have been…

  11. Academic Dishonesty Among College Students. Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maramark, Sheilah; Maline, Mindi Barth

    This monograph addresses some common questions about academic dishonesty in higher education and reviews issues affecting these institutions in light of existing research. The extent of academic dishonesty and the perception that it is increasing is examined. Three studies cited indicate that cheating is chronic and that 60 to 75 percent of…

  12. Job Evaluation Systems in Academic Libraries: Current Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Barbara J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the increasing managerial importance of job evaluation to libraries, compares typical job evaluation systems in academic libraries with innovative ones in selected academic settings and notes that job evaluation development has resulted in libraries focusing on specific personnel issues and developing new directions in the job evaluation…

  13. Textbook Issues: Economic Pressures and Academic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The rising cost of college textbooks has recently become a topic of intense public debate. It is perceived as a significant barrier to college attendance, and an assortment of legislative remedies has been proposed. This position paper of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges explains that profit is just one of a complex series of…

  14. Supply Issues for Science Academics in Australia: Now and in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daniel; Smith, T. Fred

    2010-01-01

    Australia, like the rest of the developed world, is in the midst of dealing with notable issues related to the age structure of its academic workforce. These issues are widespread and have been articulated in the Australian context most comprehensively by Hugo (2008). This paper investigates issues with demographic change and other key factors…

  15. Academic and Student Affairs Issues Post Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Camille; Dennis, Raymonda; Jackson, Marian; Kenney, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several issues in the academic and student affairs areas faced by students and faculty in the post-Katrina destruction environment. Cases are used to illustrate the issues, and a call is made for increased disaster readiness plans.

  16. Academic Self-Efficacy in Study-Related Skills and Behaviours: Relations with Learning-related Emotions and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Background: Academic self-efficacy, when operationalized as mastery over domain-specific knowledge, has been found to be a predictor of academic achievement and emotions. Although academic emotions are also a predictor of academic achievement, there is limited evidence for reciprocal relations with academic achievement. Aims: To examine whether…

  17. Academic Freedom; To Teach and To Learn: Every Teacher's Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna S., Ed.

    The five chapters of this book on teachers' need and responsibility to prepare themselves for criticisms and attacks on their teaching methods and materials deal with the scope of censorship issues, the significance of academic freedom, recent judicial rulings, school-community tensions, and case studies of censorship cases. The first chapter,…

  18. Academic Spending versus Athletic Spending: Who Wins? Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Athletics are big business on many college campuses, but does this come with a price tag? This issue brief looks at academic and athletic spending in NCAA Division I public universities between 2005 and 2010. Among a host of findings, this brief shows that the athletic departments of most public colleges and universities competing in NCAA Division…

  19. Academic and Scientific Misconduct: Issues for Nursing Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Barbara C.; Hansen, Kenneth D.

    1995-01-01

    Academic and scientific misconduct is coming to public attention. Issues to be resolved include definitions of misconduct, provision for anonymity, role of whistleblowers, burden of proof, statute of limitations, due process, nature and application of sanctions, and potential for rehabilitation. (SK)

  20. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  1. Managing Information Technology: Facing the Issues. Track VI: Academic Computing Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers making up Track VI of the 1989 conference of the Professional Association for the Management of Information Technology in Higher Education (known as CAUSE, an acronym of the association's former name) are presented in this document. The focus of Track VI is on academic computing issues, and the papers include: "Loan-a-Mac: A…

  2. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  3. Labor Relations. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara, Comp.

    This paper examines labor issues that affect school employees. It is divided into four sections: school reform; teacher compensation; scope of bargaining; and collaborative (nonadversarial) bargaining. The longest section, which focuses on various reform movements in the schools, examines accountability, school choice, and the questions…

  4. The Relative Value Unit in academic geriatrics: incentive or impediment?

    PubMed

    Resnick, Neil M; Radulovich, Nichole

    2014-03-01

    Although the number of older adults is rapidly expanding, the number of healthcare professionals trained in geriatrics is small and declining. The reasons are multifaceted, but because responsibility for training such professionals resides largely in academic health centers (AHCs), their support for geriatrics is critical. As AHCs face increasing financial pressure, many are seeking metrics to measure productivity and the Relative Value Unit (RVU) may be the one most commonly selected. Yet little is known about the RVU's effect on geriatric programs. Review of the literature and a survey of the leaders of the Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs suggest that the advantages of an RVU-based metric are likely eclipsed by its negative impact on the care of older adults, the ability of academic geriatrics to accomplish its mission, and even the survival of geriatrics. If the RVU is to continue to be used as the index of productivity, it should be modified--by reweighting its codes (or by adding new ones)--and complemented by interventions to ensure patient access, care quality, and efficiency. Because an alternative metric, such as a Patient-based Value Unit may be preferable, this article describes the principles on which one might be based. Regardless, urgent action is required by all stakeholders to address this issue. Without it, the future of academic geriatrics--and with it the innovative care models, research, and training the nation needs to improve care and bend the cost curve--will be difficult if not impossible to sustain.

  5. The Work-Related Attitudes of Australian Accounting Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop-Vasileva, Aleksandra; Baird, Kevin; Blair, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the work-related attitudes of Australian accounting academics. A survey of 350 academics provides an insight into the specific organisational and institutional factors associated with the dissatisfaction, stress levels, and propensity to remain of academics. Of particular concern is the lower level of satisfaction and…

  6. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population. PMID:27215888

  7. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  8. Public Relations in Academic Libraries: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for public relations in academic libraries focuses on the results of interviews with 13 library directors on the subject of public relations. Highlights include public relations training; use of academic libraries by community members; public relations activities; fund-raising; and suggestions for further research.…

  9. Immigration Reform and Related Issues. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…

  10. Religion and Academic Freedom: Issues of Faith and Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliever, Lonnie D.

    1988-01-01

    Religious studies should be pluralistic, comparative, interdisciplinary, and objective. When these four criteria are met then the study of religion will be consistently academic and humanistic--free of partisan control, open to radical doubt, responsive to cultural interaction, and concerned with human enrichment. (MLW)

  11. Issues and Interventions Influencing the Academic Outcomes for Migrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Gordon D.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; De Alba, Roman Garcia

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the major factors and interventions affecting migrant students' academic performance/outcomes. Factors outside the school, such as poverty, family, and English language proficiency, are discussed. Next, factors inside the school, such as student records, credit accrual, and school curriculum, will be reviewed.…

  12. Listening to the World: Cultural Issues in Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Helen

    This book explores why students from other cultures often find it difficult to learn academic writing and understand its purpose in a U.S. university. The book discusses how these students' writing is influenced by cultures where people communicate indirectly and holistically, value the wisdom of the past, and downplay the individual in favor of…

  13. Teaching Science-Related Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Offers a brief introduction and resource list on teaching about science-related social issues. Provides three complete lesson plans for elementary, middle school, and high school use. The topics covered in the lessons are energy production and consumption in the United States; nuclear power concepts, issues, and controversies; and the arms race.…

  14. Academic Relations between Canada and China: 1970-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Martin

    This report reviews development of Sino-Canadian academic relations over the past 25 years. It offers an overview of four periods of Sino-Canadian academic relations (1970-79, 1979-83, 1983-89, and 1989-95), and briefly describes a number of programs in six areas: (1) foreign trade and economic cooperation, (2) foreign affairs and international…

  15. Student Participation and Parental Involvement in Relation to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…

  16. Investigating the Relationship of Resilience to Academic Persistence in College Students with Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relationships between measures of inter- and intrapersonal resilience and mental health were examined with respect to academic persistence in college students with mental health issues. A sample of 121 undergraduate students with mental health issues was recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling,…

  17. Issues of Gender and Personal Life for Women in Academic Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholer, Anne-Marie

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues of gender and personal life that arose during discussions with women scientists about factors contributing to their success in completing training and pursuing an academic career. Issues include gender discrimination, perception of reverse discrimination, efforts toward assisting junior women in science, and the possibility that…

  18. Passionate scholarship or academic safety: an ethical issue.

    PubMed

    Merryfeather, Lyn

    2015-03-01

    Are we passionate scholars or is academic safety something to which we aspire? Do we teach our students one thing and practice another? Are some forms of scholarship more acclaimed than others, some methodologies more acceptable? What are the ethical implications in these various questions? In this article, I outline my experiences, both as a student researcher and as an educator, that have brought me to ask these things. Holism is an ideal that many nursing students are taught and encouraged to bring to their practice, and yet holism does not seem, in many instances, to be supported in academia or in bedside practice. I suggest the possible causes for these difficulties and propose solutions. I suggest that the bedrock of ethical practice, both in the academy and with patients, is to bring all of who we are, the alchemic mystery of holism, to everything we do. PMID:24919600

  19. Passionate scholarship or academic safety: an ethical issue.

    PubMed

    Merryfeather, Lyn

    2015-03-01

    Are we passionate scholars or is academic safety something to which we aspire? Do we teach our students one thing and practice another? Are some forms of scholarship more acclaimed than others, some methodologies more acceptable? What are the ethical implications in these various questions? In this article, I outline my experiences, both as a student researcher and as an educator, that have brought me to ask these things. Holism is an ideal that many nursing students are taught and encouraged to bring to their practice, and yet holism does not seem, in many instances, to be supported in academia or in bedside practice. I suggest the possible causes for these difficulties and propose solutions. I suggest that the bedrock of ethical practice, both in the academy and with patients, is to bring all of who we are, the alchemic mystery of holism, to everything we do.

  20. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-12-31

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts.

  1. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  2. Annotated Bibliography of Recent Research Related to Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottarella, Karen, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an annotated bibliography of recent research related to academic advising. It includes research papers that focus on advising and a special section of the "Journal of Career Development" that is devoted to multicultural graduate advising relationships.

  3. Faculty vs. Administration: Rights Issues in Academic Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Margaret K.; Julius, Daniel J.

    The sharing of authority after collective bargaining is initiated in higher education institutions is addressed. Seven issues at the center of power struggle within organized institutions are looked at: long-range planning, retrenchment, promotion, appointment, nonrenewal, tenure, and management rights. An analysis of two-thirds of the bargaining…

  4. Academic and Pedagogical Issues in Teaching the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    This essay addresses six pedagogical issues that English language arts teachers should consider in preparing to use Holocaust literature to address "intolerance and bigotry" in their teaching. Teachers should ask themselves: (1) Does the literature unit emphasize anti-Semitism as a cause of the Holocaust?; (2) Does the unit provide all relevant…

  5. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  6. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  7. Teaching/Research Relations in Departments: The Perspectives of Built Environment Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Bridget; Jenkins, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the perceptions of built environment academics in four post-1992 universities in the UK on teaching/research relations. Whilst set in particular departments, institutions and disciplines, it addresses issues that are of central concern worldwide. This study indicates that securing effective teaching/research…

  8. Authorship Issues and Conflict in the U.S. Academic Chemical Community

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.; House, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    A survey on credit issues and related “responsible conduct of research” (RCR) behaviors was conducted with academic chemists in Ph.D. granting institutions in the U.S. Six hundred faculty members responded. Fifty percent of the respondents reported not receiving appropriate credit for contributions they had made to projects the results of which had been published, including when they themselves were students. Thirty percent of these individuals discussed this lack of credit with the “offending” individual, and as a consequence of those discussions, a small percentage of individuals were provided either co-authorship or an acknowledgment. The majority who did not enter into a discussion with the “offending” individual reported two primary reasons for not doing so: that they “could not imagine any good coming from such a conversation” and “I was afraid of being in a compromised situation.” A discussion of relationship asymmetry in the academic setting is provided. Confronting one’s colleague regarding credit is compared with whistleblowing, and the possible consequences of blacklisting are discussed. A number of recommendations for minimizing authorship disputes are provided. PMID:26155731

  9. Your idea and your university: issues in academic technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles D

    2011-06-01

    Research discoveries may lead to products for commercial development. A central consideration for the researcher is how involved she or he will be in the commercialization process. In some cases, a university out-licenses the intellectual property, whereas in other cases, the investigator may want to be involved in the development process and choose to start his or her own company to develop and possibly to manufacture and sell the product. Before undertaking such a challenge, however, the investigator-turned-entrepreneur must consider a variety of issues, including career goals, financial and time commitments, potential conflicts of interest and/or commitment, start-up funding, and his or her ability to run a company or step aside to allow business experts to make necessary decisions. This paper discusses some personal considerations in deciding to start a spinout company and provides information on some of the available government grants to assist you should you decide to undertake your product's commercial development. In particular, the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs of federal funding agencies often are the source of early funding for new biomedical companies.

  10. Your Idea and Your University: Issues in Academic Technology Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Structured Abstract Research discoveries may lead to products for commercial development. A central consideration for the researcher is how involved s/he will be in the commercialization process. In some cases a university out-licenses the intellectual property, while in other cases the investigator may want to be involved in the development process and choose to start his or her own company to develop, and possibly to manufacture and sell the product. Before undertaking such a challenge, however, the investigator-turned-entrepreneur must consider a variety of issues, including: career goals, financial and time commitments, potential conflicts of interest and/or commitment, start-up funding, as well as his or her ability to run a company or step aside to allow business experts to make necessary decisions. This article discusses some personal considerations in deciding to start a spin-out company and provides information on some of the available government grants to assist you should you decide to undertake your product’s commercial development. In particular, the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs of federal funding agencies are often the source of very early funding for new biomedical companies. PMID:21245769

  11. A National Issue: Whether the Teacher Turnover Effects Students' Academic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Loretta A.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    The high teacher turnover rate and low student academic performance are two urgent issues that threaten the education of America's children--our greatest resource. The technical core of schools nationally is to provide a quality education to produce literate generations to function in our global society. If the United States is to equip its young…

  12. Exploring Modes of Communication among Pupils in Brazil: Gender Issues in Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Adla B. M.; Villani, Carlos E.; do Nascimento, Silvania S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify gender issues in the academic performance of boys and girls during physics classes in a laboratory. The methodology adopted was the observation and interactions of pupils during eight classroom events. The interactions were recorded and events were informally discussed with the teacher. The school…

  13. Between- and Within-Domain Relations of Students' Academic Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.; Ludtke, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated between- and within-domain relations of academic emotions, including students' enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, and boredom experienced in mathematics, physics, German, and English classes (N = 542; Grades 8 and 11). Corroborating assumptions of domain specificity, the between-domains relations of these emotions were weak…

  14. Analysis of the Relation between Academic Procrastination, Academic Rational/Irrational Beliefs, Time Preferences to Study for Exams, and Academic Achievement: A Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinc; Bulus, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between academic rational/irrational beliefs, academic procrastination, and time preferences to study for exams and academic achievement by using the structural equation model. The sample consisted of 281 undergraduate students who filled in questionnaires at the 7-week-long summer course.…

  15. Academe-Industry Relations; Dreams, Fears, and Realities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumola, Peter B.

    2000-04-01

    The driving motives for relations between academe and industry are discussed from the perspective of both parties. Each side brings resources and needs to the relationship, with the perception that one party's resources are the other party's needs, and the expectation that these resources may be shared under the right conditions to satisfy the other's needs. The rules are quite straightforward. The challenge is to get both parties to agree on the definition of ``right conditions". This paper addresses the often different views of academe and industry regarding ``right conditions", and a simple methodology for achieving mutual satisfaction.

  16. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  17. Great expectations: stress and the medical family. 1987 Committee on Issues, Association for Academic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabri, P J; McDaniel, M D; Gaskill, H V; Garrison, R N; Hanks, J B; Maier, R V; Telford, G L

    1989-11-01

    The high divorce rate and significant stress experienced by families of academic surgeons stimulated the Committee on Issues of the Association of Academic Surgery to choose medical family stress as the topic for the 1987 Committee presentation at the annual meeting. The Committee hoped to provide insight into the cause of this stress and new strategies for coping with this pervasive problem. Forty-three percent of the 505 surgeons who entered the Association from 1981 through 1984 and 38% of their spouses responded to a questionnaire covering issues of time management, response to stress, child rearing, financial security, and spouse career. A panel consisting of Shirley P. Levine, M.D., Hiram C. Polk, Jr., M.D., and Lane A. Gerber, Ph.D., after discussing the questionnaire results, recommended realistic goal setting, specific prioritization of activities, recognition of the considerable contributions of the spouse, and insight into personal limitations as mechanisms for improving family function.

  18. Academic Self-Concept: Its Structure, Mechanism, and Relation to Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaodong

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research findings on academic self-concept, including the multidimensional character of academic self-concept, the role of frame of reference in academic self-concept formation, and the relationship between academic achievement and academic self-concept. Explores implications of this research for educational practice and suggests areas for…

  19. Academic Performance. INAR/NACIE Joint Issues Sessions. National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Annual Conference (22nd, San Diego, California, October 15, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Indian Education, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes two joint sessions held by the Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the National Advisory Council on Indian Education to hear testimony on issues related to the academic performance of Native American students. Educators, employers, parents, and tribal officials testified on the following topics: Native students' high…

  20. Examining the Role, Values, and Legal Policy Issues Facing Public Library Resources in Supporting Students to Achieve Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Azaiki, Steve; Nworgu, Queen Chioma

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present the role, values, and legal policy issues facing public Library resources in supporting students to achieve academic success. Research indicates that majority of people that own or work in the Library tend to ignore some of the vital roles, values and legal policy issues paramount to libraries. Some of these issues are…

  1. Environmental Awareness: Relating Current Issues to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents examples of incorporating environmental issues into lesson plans to raise the level of students' environmental awareness. Topics include: ecology, taxonomy, biochemistry, energy reactions, cell structure and function, genetics and development, and human biology. (JRH)

  2. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  3. The Longitudinal Relation between Academic Support and Latino Adolescents' Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether longitudinal trajectories of academic support from mothers, fathers, and teachers predicted trajectories of Latino adolescents' (N = 323) academic motivation. Findings indicated those boys' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' academic support and girls' perceptions of mothers' academic support declined throughout high…

  4. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Patricia P.

    2003-01-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings. PMID:12883559

  5. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Patricia P

    2003-07-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings.

  6. Relation of academic support from parents, teachers, and peers to Hong Kong adolescents' academic achievement: the mediating role of academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li

    2005-05-01

    The author tested a model hypothesizing that students' self-perceived academic support (from parents, teachers, and peers) is related to their achievement directly and indirectly through their own perceived academic engagement. The participants were 270 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, range = 14-20 years) from 3 grade levels (Forms 3-5, equivalent to Grades 9-11 in the United States) in a Hong Kong secondary school. The school principal and teachers helped to collect data based on these adolescents' responses to a self-report questionnaire, consisting of a demographic profile and 4 scales assessing their self-perceptions of the extent of parental, teacher, and peer support, and their own academic engagement. Academic achievement was measured by self-reported grades in math, English, and Chinese. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that adolescents' perceived parental, teacher, and peer support were all indirectly related to their academic achievement mediated by their own perceived academic engagement. The strength of the relationships, however, varied by support system, with perceived teacher support to achievement being the strongest, followed closely by perceived parental support, and then perceived peer support. In addition, both perceived parental support and perceived teacher support were directly related to academic achievement. However, perceived teacher support made the most total (direct and indirect) contribution to student achievement. Perceived peer support had the smallest, nonetheless significant, indirect relationship to academic achievement. However, the negative, direct influence of perceived peer support canceled out its positive, indirect influence on academic achievement. PMID:16779945

  7. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  8. Children with Cancer: School Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2009-01-01

    School gives purpose to a student's life. Today, students with cancer and cancer survivors are encouraged to continue their educational experiences to maintain a sense of normalcy. This manuscript discusses the research findings on medical, physical, and cognitive issues that students with cancer and cancer survivors may encounter in their…

  9. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  10. The relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement: the roles of Taiwanese students' academic beliefs and filial piety.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2012-01-01

    The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.

  11. Learning-related skills and academic achievement in academically at-risk first graders

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Carissa A.; Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    Using an academically at-risk, ethnically diverse sample of 744 first-grade children, this study tested a multi-method (i.e., child performance measures, teacher ratings, and peer ratings) measurement model of learning-related skills (i.e., effortful control [EC], behavioral self-regulation [BSR], and social competence [SC]), and their shared and unique contributions to children's reading and math achievement, above the effect of demographic variables. The hypothesized correlated factor measurement model demonstrated relatively good fit, with BSR and SC correlated highly with one another and moderately with EC. When entered in separate regression equations, EC and BSR each predicted children's reading and math achievement; SC only predicted reading achievement. When considered simultaneously, neither EC, BSR, nor SC contributed independently to reading achievement; however, EC had a direct effect on math achievement and an indirect effect on reading achievement via both BSR and SC. Implications for research and early intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25908886

  12. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  13. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  14. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD. PMID:20082971

  15. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  16. Strategies to Enhance Interpersonal Relations in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Judy K.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between interpersonal skills is positively correlated with effective academic advising. Professional academic advisors feel significant pressure to meet a wide array of student needs, increase retention rates, help students in their efforts of academic achievement and career exploration, and support institutions to excel in…

  17. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  18. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.220 Related Title III issues. Other related Title III requirements are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues....

  19. Anticancer oral therapy: emerging related issues.

    PubMed

    Banna, Giuseppe Luigi; Collovà, Elena; Gebbia, Vittorio; Lipari, Helga; Giuffrida, Pietro; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Condorelli, Rosaria; Buscarino, Calogero; Tralongo, Paolo; Ferraù, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The use of oral anticancer drugs has shown a steady increase. Most patients prefer anticancer oral therapy to intravenous treatment primarily for the convenience of a home-based therapy, although they require that the efficacy of oral therapy must be equivalent and toxicity not superior than those expected with the intravenous treatment. A better patient compliance, drug tolerability, convenience and possible better efficacy for oral therapy as compared to intravenous emerge as the major reasons to use oral anticancer agents among oncologists. Inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variations in the bioavailability of oral anticancer drugs may be more relevant than for intravenous agents. Compliance is particularly important for oral therapy because it determines the dose-intensity of the treatment and ultimately treatment efficacy and toxicity. Patient stands as the most important determinant of compliance. Possible measures for an active and safe administration of oral therapy include a careful preliminary medical evaluation and selection of patients based on possible barriers to an adequate compliance, pharmacologic issues, patient-focused education, an improvement of the accessibility to healthcare service, as well as the development of home-care nursing symptom-focused interventions. Current evidences show similar quality of life profile between oral and intravenous treatments, although anticancer oral therapy seems to be more convenient in terms of administration and reduced time lost for work or other activities. Regarding cost-effectiveness, current evidences are in favor of oral therapy, mainly due to reduced need of visits and/or day in hospital for the administration of the drug and/or the management of adverse events. PMID:20570443

  20. Ethical Issues Relating to Living Organ Donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Yang, T; Li, L; Ma, W

    2016-01-01

    Although great developments have been made in living organ donation, the ethical issues relating to living organ donation still face dilemmas in China. In this report, we discuss several ethical issues concerning living organ donation in China. It is argued that living organ donation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this report are carefully considered. PMID:27569914

  1. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  2. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden. PMID:24346044

  3. The Electronic Welcome Mat: The Academic Library Web Site as a Marketing and Public Relations Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Jeanie M.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the potential and reality of using the academic library Web site to market library resources and services, for fundraising, and to market special events. It explores such issues as the placement of a link to academic libraries from institutional home pages and the use of a library Web site to include links to news, exhibits,…

  4. Parent Academic Involvement as Related to School Behavior, Achievement, and Aspirations: Demographic Variations Across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, parent academic involvement was related to fewer behavioral problems, which were related to achievement and then aspirations. For the lower parental education group, parent academic involvement was related to aspirations but not to behavior or achievement. Parent academic involvement was positively related to achievement for African Americans but not for European Americans. Parent academic involvement may be interpreted differently and serve different purposes across sociodemographic backgrounds. PMID:15369527

  5. Academic Literacies and Systemic Functional Linguistics: How Do They Relate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline; Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen & Pletzen,…

  6. Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

  7. Academic Promotion in Malaysian Public Universities: A Critical Look at Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azman, Norzaini; Che Omar, Ibrahim; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md

    2016-01-01

    The expansion and transformation of Malaysian universities have generated major changes in the nature of academic employment and the structure of academic promotion in higher education institutions. These changes have considerable implications, in particular for the policy and practice of academic promotion in the public universities. We argue…

  8. The Longitudinal Relation between Academic/Cognitive Skills and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Laws, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood. Participants were 221…

  9. Interpersonal Values and Academic Performance Related to Delinquent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Luque De La Rosa, Antonio; Martos Martínez, África; Barragán Martín, Ana Belén; Simón Márquez, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the relation between delinquent behaviors, interpersonal values, and academic performance. It also analyzes the possible protective function of interpersonal values against delinquent behaviors. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire (IVQ) was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire (A-D) was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 students of Compulsory Secondary Education, aged from 14 to 17 years. The results show that individuals who fail a subject as well as those who repeat a course present higher means in delinquent behaviors. Repeaters present higher means in the values of recognition and leadership, and non-repeaters in the value stimulation, whereas students who do not fail obtain higher scores in the value benevolence. Students with high levels of recognition, independence, and leadership, as well as students with low levels of conformity and benevolence display significantly higher levels of delinquent behaviors. Lastly, the probability of presenting a high level of delinquent behaviors is greater in individuals with: high independence, high leadership, high recognition, low benevolence, and low conformity. PMID:27799914

  10. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so. PMID:21707258

  11. How do medical journalists treat cancer-related issues?

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Haruka; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kishi, Yukiko; Yuji, Koichiro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients can obtain information about their illness through a variety of media sources. Therefore, it is important to know how medical journalists treat cancer-related issues; to that end, we sent self-administered questionnaires to 364 journalists in 82 organisations who had reported on medical issues for the Japanese media, asking for their reasons for reporting on cancer-related issues and the difficulties they had faced. The most common reason for reporting on health-related issues was their personal interest in a particular issue (n = 36). They mainly covered conventional therapies (n = 33), healthcare policy (n = 30), new therapies (n = 25), and diagnosis (n = 25). All of the journalists that were surveyed experienced some difficulties in reporting health issues. Significant concerns included the quality of information (n = 36), social impact (n = 35), lack of technical knowledge (n = 35), and difficulty in understanding technical terms (n = 35). Journalists commonly used personal networks, including physicians, as information sources (n = 42), as well as social media (e.g., e-mail, Twitter and Facebook) (n = 32). Topic selection was biased, with 35 of 48 journalists having never reported on topics concerning hospices. Physicians were the most trusted source of information about cancer, and journalists attached high importance to interviewing them. As medical knowledge is advancing rapidly, journalists may have increasing difficulty covering cancer-related issues. PMID:25729415

  12. Academic Dishonesty: The Link between Academics and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    There have been many studies done and much research completed on the problem of academic dishonesty at the college and university level. However, there is a dearth of studies done on academic dishonesty as it relates to the legal issues and trends related to higher education administration. The purpose of this research is to analyze the issues,…

  13. The Academic Journey of University Students on Facebook: An Analysis of Informal Academic-Related Activity over a Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivian, Rebecca; Barnes, Alan; Geer, Ruth; Wood, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an observation of 70 university students' use of their personal social network site (SNS), Facebook, over a 22-week university study period. The study sought to determine the extent that university students use their personal SNSs to support learning by exploring frequencies of academic-related content and topics being…

  14. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept. PMID:25344993

  15. Academic Use of Digital Resources: Disciplinary Differences and the Issue of Progression Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Bob; Jones, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the use of digital resources by academic staff in a single UK University and its influence on academic practice over a two to three year period. The paper describes two linked studies that address several of the themes regarding the impact of electronic resources identified in this special edition. In particular it provides…

  16. Issues in the Creation and Coordination of an Academic Computing Help Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Leslie A.

    Academic computing directors must focus on what actions and policies make a well-coordinated academic computing help desk function effectively. Keeping in mind the needs of both the client and the support team, the key components of a well-managed help desk include: accessing help easily; sorting support team jobs effectively; distributing support…

  17. Web 2.0 Authorship: Issues of Referencing and Citation for Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kathleen; Thompson, Celia; Clerehan, Rosemary; Sheard, Judithe; Hamilton, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 authoring forms such as wikis and blogs, social bookmarking, and audio and video podcasting pose a challenge to academic authorship traditions. This paper reviews the provisions made in major academic referencing and citation style guides for acknowledging content and ideas that may be published using these new web authoring forms. It…

  18. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  19. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  20. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  1. Academic self-concept and academic achievement: relations and causal ordering.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. A positive self-concept is valued as a desirable outcome in many disciplines of psychology as well as an important mediator to other outcomes. AIMS. The present review examines support for the reciprocal effects model (REM) that posits academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other - and its extension to other achievement domains. METHOD. We review theoretical, methodological, and empirical support for the REM. Critical features in this research are a theoretical emphasis on multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and a methodological focus on a construct validity approach to evaluating the REM. RESULTS. Consistent with these distinctions, REM research and a comprehensive meta-analysis show that prior ASC has direct and indirect effects on subsequent achievement, whilst the effects of self-esteem and other non-academic components of self-concept are negligible. We then provide an overview of subsequent support for the generality of the REM for: young children, cross-cultural, health (physical activity), and non-elite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. CONCLUSION. This research is important in demonstrating that increases in ASC lead to increases in subsequent academic achievement and other desirable educational outcomes. Findings confirm that not only is self-concept an important outcome variable in itself, it also plays a central role in affecting other desirable educational outcomes. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:21391964

  2. Exercise Is Positively Related to Adolescents' Relationships and Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…

  3. The Question of Academic Freedom: Universal Right or Relative Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Lanford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, we interrogate the role of academic freedom in the 21st century by describing its historical genesis in the modern university, its association with the concept of tenure, and how it is reinterpreted by different cultural and social contexts. Afterwards, we examine traditional infringements by national governments upon academic…

  4. Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept among Adolescent Students with Disabilities over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenheiser, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that academic achievement and self-concept among adolescents in the general education population are positively related (e.g., Huang, 2011). For students with disabilities, however, the correlation between academic achievement and self-concept is sometimes negative and non-significant (Daniel & King, 1995; Feiwell,…

  5. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  6. The Relation between Prospective Teachers' Goal Orientations and Academic E-Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicak, Ali; Arslan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between prospective teachers' goal orientations and academic e-dishonesty behaviors, and also the effects of their goal orientations on academic e-dishonesty behaviors. This research was conducted with correlational method. Participants of the study were 669 prospective teachers attending at…

  7. The Relation between Pre-Service Music Teachers' Psychological Resilience and Academic Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokus, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relation between pre-service music teachers' psychological resilience and academic achievement levels and to determine what variables influence their psychological resilience levels. The study sample consisted of students enrolled in a music education program in the 2013-2014 academic year (N = 333). In respect with…

  8. Relations among Maternal Parenting Style, Academic Competence, and Life Satisfaction in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Candice Y.-W.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lai, Beatrice P.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The relations among maternal concern and restrictiveness, self-evaluated academic competence, and life satisfaction were explored in a short-term longitudinal study of 346 7th-grade students (126 males and 220 females) in Hong Kong. The authors found that perceived maternal concern, academic competence, and life satisfaction significantly declined…

  9. Preservice Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Its Relation to Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…

  10. Issues for academic health centers to consider before implementing a balanced-scorecard effort.

    PubMed

    Zelman, W N; Blazer, D; Gower, J M; Bumgarner, P O; Cancilla, L M

    1999-12-01

    Because of changes in the health care environment, it is likely that strategic planning and management will become much more important to academic health centers (AHCs) than in the past. One approach to strategic planning and management that is gaining the considerable interest of health care organizations is the balanced scorecard. Based on a year's experience in examining this management tool, and on early implementation efforts, the authors critically evaluate the applicability of the balanced-scorecard approach at AHCs in relation to two fundamental questions: Does the decentralized nature of most AHCs mitigate the potential usefulness of the balanced-scorecard approach? Are the balanced scorecard's four perspectives (learning and growth, internal; customer; and financial) appropriate for AHCs, which are neither for-profit nor manufacturing organizations? The authors conclude that (1) the unique characteristics of AHCs may mitigate the full benefit of the balanced-scorecard approach, and (2) in cases where it is used, some key modifications must be made in the balanced-scorecard approach to account for those unique characteristics. For example, in a corporation, the key question from the financial perspective is "To succeed financially, how should we appear to our stockholders?" But in an AHC, this question must be revised to "What financial condition must we achieve to allow us to accomplish our mission?"

  11. Some Thoughts on the Issue of Making the Liberal Science Courses More Appealing to Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman

    2008-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the Liberal Science courses and explores the mechanisms whereby the courses can be made more attractive to academics in the Faculty of Science and Technology (FST) at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Nutrition and cancer: issues related to treatment and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Witham, Gary

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews nutritional issues related to cancer treatment and further explores nutritional needs pertinent to cancer survivorship. It examines the major problems with nutrition when patients undergo the main cancer treatment modalities of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Particular attention is paid to long-term dietary advice in acknowledgement of the improved effectiveness of cancer treatment and the chronic nature of the condition.

  13. Issues Related to Equipment and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    A multi-year project was initiated to examine production equipment issues related to implementation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The purposes of the research project were to determine foodservice directors' opinions regarding use and appropriateness of equipment in school foodservice, to identify the number and variety of menu…

  14. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. Memo No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard; Russell, Pam

    This memo is an update of a previous memo to the Special Committee on Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. It lists the suggestions that have been submitted by Committee members to staff as of February 21, 1991; and includes suggestions made since the January 24, 1991 meeting of the Special Committee. The suggestions are broken down…

  15. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and... conflict minerals originating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries. Roundtable... reporting regulations regarding the use of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo...

  16. University Students' Perceptions of Issues Related to Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert, Jr.; Lawver, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews with 390 of 400 college students revealed an overall favorable impression of food safety and agriculture's impact on the economy and environment. Males were more positive about animal welfare and production agriculture. Gender, college major, and hometown were related to attitudes about agriculture issues. (SK)

  17. Everyday Issues Related to Justice and Other Gospel Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J.

    This manual presents situations that occur in the lives of most children and suggests to the teacher related activities which might cause students to reflect on the deeper meaning and significance of the situations. It seeks to make the teacher, and thus students, aware of the fact that peace, justice, and other value issues are part of daily…

  18. Academic Advising Issues in Pennsylvania's Community Colleges. A Summary of the Proceedings of the Conference on Academic Advising in Pennsylvania's Community Colleges (Williamsport, Pennsylvania, March 26-27, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William J., Ed.

    This conference proceedings provides a summary of presentations on five academic advising issues of concern to Pennsylvania's community colleges. The first topic addressed during the conference was "Models of Academic Advising." The presentation by Richard A. Kratz, Preston Pulliams, John Hariston, Dolores Hill, and Sharon Gavin described four…

  19. The Symbolic Role of Academic Boards in University Academic Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2013-01-01

    While much research on quality assurance in higher education has centred on issues related to the impact on teaching and learning and academic staff, there is a significant gap in the area of quality assurance and academic governance. Within Australia the roles of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates) have…

  20. Supporting the students most in need: academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in relation to within-year academic growth.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Sterett H; Nellis, Leah M; Martínez, Rebecca S; Kirk, Megan

    2011-06-01

    Academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in relation to academic skill growth across one academic year were examined in the study. Participants included 193 5th-grade students. Teachers collected curriculum-based measures (CBM) of reading and math on three occasions as part of routine academic benchmarks, and researchers collected student-reported measures of academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in the spring of the same academic year. Results indicated that academic self-efficacy was positively related to fall reading and math CBM scores and that perceived teacher support was unrelated to fall scores or growth across the academic year. Academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support interacted in relation to math CBM growth such that low levels of perceived teacher support were related to greater growth, particularly for students with high academic self-efficacy. Follow-up analyses indicated that students with the lowest fall CBM scores and smallest growth rates reported higher levels of perceived teacher support, suggesting that teachers support the students most in need.

  1. Professional Culture Fit and Work-Related Quality of Life in Academic Departments: A Phenomenographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales Opazo, Tatiana Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Although quality of life (QoL) has been a highly investigated issue over the last decades, there is still little agreement on its definition, and even less information about the validity of its measurements in specific settings. Additionally, in complex institutions like a university, functional units such as academic department usually are more…

  2. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  3. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  5. Academic Research at a South African Higher Education Institution: Quality Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the research was to critically analyse how a university context influences the quality of academics' research output. Wenger's social theory of learning was used as theoretical framework. The investigation involved an ethnographic case study of the research culture at one college at the institution. Data collection was mainly by means…

  6. Affirmative Development: Cultivating Academic Ability. Critical Issues in Contemporary American Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    According to Gordon and Bridglall, the ability to learn is more of a developed human capacity than a fixed aptitude with which one is born. They argue that the emergence of academic ability is associated with exposure to specialized cultures that privilege the attitudes, knowledge, and skills that schools reward. Children who are born to and…

  7. Integrated Services: Key to Academic Success. coNCepts. Issue 1, Winter 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, April D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    In order to be competitive in today's world, it is necessary for North Carolina to have a well-educated workforce. Quality schools, including effective leadership, excellent teachers, and improved academic standards and rigor, are a significant factor in these endeavors. However, good schooling starts well before a student ever steps foot into a…

  8. Controversy over Student's Art Exhibit at Yale Raises Issues of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the controversy surrounding a Yale University art student, Aliza Shvarts, who told the campus newspaper that she had repeatedly inseminated herself artificially and then induced abortions as part of her senior thesis. The controversy has created massive reverberations throughout academe, especially in the already hotly…

  9. The College-Level Academic Skills Test: A Review of the 1989 Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H.

    Florida's Commissioner of Education recently appointed a task force to review current standards for the College-Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) and the effect of raising the levels of passing scores that are proposed for 1989. There is now a sufficient history of the CLAST to provide an understanding of the program's benefits and liabilities.…

  10. The Influence of Parental Separation and Divorce on Adolescent Academic Achievement: Developmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisivoccia, Joseph Dominick

    Parental separation and divorce can have a critically adverse effect on the academic performance and achievement of adolescent students. The psychological and social disadvantages can significantly interfere with students reaching their full potential for success in school. Information is provided on the scope of divorce in society and its…

  11. Artificial intelligence issues related to automated computing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornfeck, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.

  12. Materials Issues Related to Catalysts for Treatment of Diesel Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Daw, C Stuart; Hoard, John W.; Hammer, T.

    2005-01-01

    The driver for lean NO{sub x} treatment is the need to meet regulatory standards for diesel engines and gasoline direct injection spark-ignited engines that offer better fuel economy. Efforts over the last decade have been focused toward finding an active lean NO{sub x} catalyst that can reduce NO{sub x} under oxidizing conditions or strategies such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR), plasma-catalysis, plasma catalyst SCR, and lean NO{sub x} traps with varying degrees of success. At present, it appears that SCR with urea and lean NO{sub x} traps are the leading contender technologies for commercial deployment. Key issues that remain to be resolved for these two technologies include byproduct formation, dosing control, and durability. In this review, we summarize material-related issues that are unique to each of these technologies, and point out the improvements necessary to facilitate their deployment.

  13. Adiposity and Physical Activity Are Not Related to Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Monique M.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Newton, Robert; Sothern, Melinda; Webber, Larry S.; Davis, Allison B.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: 1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and 2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated. Method Participants were 1963 children in fourth through sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in four content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for three days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. Additionally, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as “extremely obese” and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as >= 1.2 times the 95th percentile. Results Results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. Additionally, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges. Conclusion These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data. PMID:22617499

  14. To Get Involved or Not: The Relation among Extracurricular Involvement, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Farr, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation among extracurricular involvement in psychology-related activities, satisfaction, and academic achievement in graduating psychology majors. We surveyed 71 seniors (53 women and 18 men, M[subscript age] = 24.84 years) about their involvement in psychology-related activities (e.g., Psi Chi, serving as a research…

  15. Contingent Employment in Academic Careers: Relative Deprivation among Adjunct Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Turnley, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article utilizes relative deprivation theory to examine the careers of non-tenure-track instructors and research associates. Demographic status, motivations for accepting contingent employment, and standards of comparison used to assess the quality of the job were all related to the degree of relative deprivation experienced by adjunct…

  16. The Academic Preparation Recommended by Public Relations Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Gay; Cottone, Laura Perkins

    Questionnaires were mailed to 261 agencies involved in public relations and publicity services, 56 agencies involved in advertising, and public relations directors of 183 corporations and other nonagency organizations in order to determine the knowledge and skill areas important to agency and organizational public relations employers. In an effort…

  17. Adherence issues related to sublingual immunotherapy as perceived by allergists

    PubMed Central

    Scurati, Silvia; Frati, Franco; Passalacqua, Gianni; Puccinelli, Paola; Hilaire, Cecile; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and is widely used in clinical practice in many European countries. The clinical efficacy of SLIT has been established in a number of clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, because SLIT is self-administered by patients without medical supervision, the degree of patient adherence with treatment is still a concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception by allergists of issues related to SLIT adherence. Methods: We performed a questionnaire-based survey of 296 Italian allergists, based on the adherence issues known from previous studies. The perception of importance of each item was assessed by a VAS scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results: Patient perception of clinical efficacy was considered the most important factor (ranked 1 by 54% of allergists), followed by the possibility of reimbursement (ranked 1 by 34%), and by the absence of side effects (ranked 1 by 21%). Patient education, regular follow-up, and ease of use of SLIT were ranked first by less than 20% of allergists. Conclusion: These findings indicate that clinical efficacy, cost, and side effects are perceived as the major issues influencing patient adherence to SLIT, and that further improvement of adherence is likely to be achieved by improving the patient information provided by prescribers. PMID:20622914

  18. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  19. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, D.; Watt, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  20. Academic-industrial relations before the blockbuster drugs: lessons from the Harvard Committee on Pharmacotherapy, 1939-1943.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, Scott H; Greene, Jeremy A

    2011-04-01

    Increasing discussion has developed in recent years over the nature of the relationship between academic medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. This article narrates the history of a little-known attempt at Harvard Medical School between 1939 and 1943 to establish an interdisciplinary, academic-industrial Committee on Pharmacotherapy to enhance and rationalize the relationship between the field of academic research in pharmacotherapeutics and the pharmaceutical industry. Using original archival materials, the authors depict the functioning of the committee, which was headed by Soma Weiss and included such members as Fuller Albright, Henry Beecher, and Walter Cannon. The committee would be collectively funded by seven pharmaceutical companies and was to be predicated on collaboration, both across the entire university and between academia and industry. It was expected to transform the bench-to-bedside study and testing of therapeutic compounds, to redefine the teaching of pharmacotherapy, and to create a unified forum through which to discuss the overall academic-industrial relationship and more specific issues such as patents. Unfortunately, the program proved to be short-lived, the victim of such contingent factors as the untimely death of Soma Weiss and America's entry into World War II, as well as such more fundamental factors as the inadequate and temporary nature of the funding stream and unresolved tensions regarding the goals of the committee on the part of both the medical school and its industry supporters. Nevertheless, these early forays into collaborative bench-to-bedside translational research and the rationalization of academic-industrial relations remain instructive today.

  1. Academic-industrial relations before the blockbuster drugs: lessons from the Harvard Committee on Pharmacotherapy, 1939-1943.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, Scott H; Greene, Jeremy A

    2011-04-01

    Increasing discussion has developed in recent years over the nature of the relationship between academic medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. This article narrates the history of a little-known attempt at Harvard Medical School between 1939 and 1943 to establish an interdisciplinary, academic-industrial Committee on Pharmacotherapy to enhance and rationalize the relationship between the field of academic research in pharmacotherapeutics and the pharmaceutical industry. Using original archival materials, the authors depict the functioning of the committee, which was headed by Soma Weiss and included such members as Fuller Albright, Henry Beecher, and Walter Cannon. The committee would be collectively funded by seven pharmaceutical companies and was to be predicated on collaboration, both across the entire university and between academia and industry. It was expected to transform the bench-to-bedside study and testing of therapeutic compounds, to redefine the teaching of pharmacotherapy, and to create a unified forum through which to discuss the overall academic-industrial relationship and more specific issues such as patents. Unfortunately, the program proved to be short-lived, the victim of such contingent factors as the untimely death of Soma Weiss and America's entry into World War II, as well as such more fundamental factors as the inadequate and temporary nature of the funding stream and unresolved tensions regarding the goals of the committee on the part of both the medical school and its industry supporters. Nevertheless, these early forays into collaborative bench-to-bedside translational research and the rationalization of academic-industrial relations remain instructive today. PMID:21346508

  2. Relational Integration as a Predictor of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Stefan; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Schmidt-Atzert, Lothar; Buhner, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed at applying a broad model of cognitive functions to predict performance in science and language courses at school as well as performance in a science course at university. We hypothesized that performance in science courses was predominantly related to the cognitive function known as relational integration, whereas…

  3. Issues Related to Development of Anti-Epileptogenic Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Pitkänen, Asla; Nehlig, Astrid; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Dudek, F. Edward; Friedman, Daniel; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Jensen, Frances E.; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Kapur, Jaideep; Klitgaard, Henrik; Löscher, Wolfgang; Mody, Istvan; Schmidt, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several preclinical proof-of-concept studies have provided evidence for positive treatment effects on epileptogenesis. However, none of these hypothetical treatments has advanced to clinic. The experience in other fields of neurology such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has indicated several problems in the design of pre-clinical studies which likely contribute to failures in translating the positive preclinical data to clinic. The Working Group on “Issues related to development of anti-epileptogenic therapies” of the International League Against Epilepsy and the American Society for Epilepsy has considered the possible problems that arise when moving from proof-of-concept antiepileptogenesis (AEG) studies to preclinical AEG trials, and eventually to clinical AEG trials. This article summarizes the discussions and provides recommendations on how to design a preclinical AEG monotherapy trial in adult animals. We specifically address study design, animal and model selection, number of studies needed, issues related to administration of the treatment, outcome measures, statistics, and reporting. In addition, we give recommendations for future actions to advance the pre-clinical AEG testing. PMID:23909852

  4. Indirect Effects in the Peer Victimization-Academic Achievement Relation: The Role of Academic Self-Concept and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…

  5. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  6. [The subject in academic literature on healthcare management: notes on the issue of autonomy].

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Ana Lucia; Martins, Carla Macedo; Geisler, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses concepts of the 'subject' in academic literature on Healthcare Management. The corpus of the survey consists of papers published in journals in the Collective Health field over the past five years. The papers examined for this analysis consider that (healthcare) work in the context of capitalism is based on an antinomy that we call "autonomy-control", striving to explore the possibilities of surmounting this antinomy in each concept. The analysis lists three different concepts of the subject: psychological-cognitivist, psychoanalytical-subjectivist and historical-communicative. This paper also discusses the relationship between these concepts of subject and their possibilities of producing autonomy on one hand, and the capitalist organization of culture and labor on the other. PMID:18813538

  7. Ethical issues related to epilepsy care in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    There are three major issues of ethical concern related to epilepsy care in the developing world. First, is it ethical for a developing country to channel its limited resources from direct epilepsy care to research? The main considerations in addressing this question are the particular research questions to be addressed and whether such research will bring direct benefits to the local community. Second, in a country with limited resources, when does ignoring the high treatment gap become an ethical issue? This question is of particular concern when the community has enough resources to afford treatment for its poor, yet is not providing such care because of gross wastage and misallocation of the national resources. Third, do countries with plentiful resources have an ethical responsibility to help relieve the high epilepsy treatment gap of poor countries? Indeed, we believe that reasonable health care is a basic human right, and that human rights transcend national boundaries. Although health care is usually the responsibility of the nation-state, many modern states in the developing world are arbitrary creations of colonization. There is often a long process from the establishment of a political-legal state to a mature functional nation. During the long process of nation building, help from neighboring countries is often required.

  8. Academic Freedom and the Inclusive University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sharon E., Ed.; Pavlich, Dennis, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore issues related to academic freedom and the inclusive university. The first section, Clarifying Concepts in Ideology, Language, and Law, contains these chapters: (1) Whats Sauce for One Goose: The Logic of Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish); (2) Academic Freedom: Rights as Immunities and Privileges (Frederick…

  9. Issues Related to the Updated 2014 Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in South Korea. The Joint Committee for the Development of Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis published the Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis in 2011 to provide evidence-based practical recommendations to health care workers caring for patients with TB in South Korea. After reviewing recent national and international scientific data on TB, the committee updated the Korean guidelines for TB in 2014. This article presents some practical issues related to the 2014 updated guidelines: namely use of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis - polymerase chain reaction assay and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of TB, as well as medical treatment for patients with multidrug-resistant TB.

  10. Mitigating Issues Related to the Modeling of Insurgent Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan; Weiss, Lora; Whitaker, Elizabeth

    Modeling the specific motivations and influences related to an individual's decision to become involved in insurgent warfare presents its own collection of unique challenges. The difficulty of the problem often necessitates simplifications that, while making the task more manageable, may inadvertently 'smooth away' critical aspects of the problem. Augmenting the challenge is that research into the motivations of terrorism has found there is not a definitive set of variables that serve as reliable indicators of an individual's involvement. This paper addresses techniques aimed toward mitigating issues that manifest in the modeling of insurgent recruitment so that these complications do not lessen the viability of models that are used in the prediction and evaluation of terrorist activity.

  11. Issues in Postsecondary Education. Update on Academic, Professional, Career, and Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The special issue contains articles which focus on the opportunities for deaf high school graduates who want to go on to postsecondary education. Following an introduction by C. Williams is an interview with Gallaudet College's former Director of Admissions titled "Screening In--The Admissions Policy at Gallaudet College. An Interview with Bernard…

  12. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  13. Creating environments that foster academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Tippitt, Michelle Pixley; Ard, Nell; Kline, Juanita Reese; Tilghman, Joan; Chamberlain, Barbara; Meagher, P Gail

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies related to academic dishonesty within the nursing student population have been published; however, little has been written in the nursing literature regarding academic integrity and means of promoting this value. In addition to the many short-term solutions to prevent cheating and dissuade academic misconduct that are offered, solutions that promote long-term affective changes underlying the acquisition of academic integrity are needed. This article provides a context for discussions related to academic integrity, explores issues facing faculty when dealing with this challenge, and offers short-term and long-term strategies for creating environments that foster academic integrity. PMID:19753858

  14. The Impact of Social Support on the Relation between Stress from Daily Life Issues and Depression among East Asian International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hong-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Moderation effects of social support on the relation between stress resulting from five daily life issues (i.e., acculturation, second language, academic performance, interpersonal relationships, and financial concerns) and psychological distress (i.e., the level of depression) among China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan international students…

  15. Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

  16. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  17. Medical and ethical issues in genetic screening--an academic view.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, N A

    1996-10-01

    This article is intended to acquaint those whose principal concerns are the health and safety of workers with genetic screening and some of the medical and ethical issues it raises. Population-based genetic screening increasingly is being considered for predicting future disease in the person being screened. A major problem in screening for alleles that contribute to the development of common, multifactorial disorders is low sensitivity and positive predictive value. In many instances, no demonstrably effective prophylaxis or treatment is available to help those with positive test results. This creates ethical problems of assuring that testing is in the person's best interest and raises in turn issues of autonomy, discrimination, and privacy. Instead of screening for genetic predispositions to harm from workplace exposures, other means of improving the health of workers may bring greater benefits to a higher proportion of workers. The current state of genetic tests for chronic beryllium disease are considered. None are suitable for screening.

  18. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

  19. Legislative and regulatory issues related to reusable launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinemann, Manfred K. A.

    1996-03-01

    The development of reusable launch systems with private investment funds for primarily commercial launch services raises a number of novel legal and regulatory issues. The issues discussed include requirements for a whole new spectrum of safety and environmental issues; new certification rules, procedures and oversight organizations; liability and jurisdiction definitions, taxation treatments; government commitments and/or participation in commercial enterprises; and international legal and business issues. The satisfactory solution to all of these issues is a necessary condition for the development and operation of reusable launch vehicles to be a viable commercial enterprise.

  20. Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, N J G J

    2003-01-01

    The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms. PMID:12926703

  1. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  2. The Relative Influence of Values and Identities on Academic Dishonesty: A Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Within sociological-social psychology values are an emerging topic of substantive interest. Building on identity theory this study tests the relative salience of values versus role-identities as a predictor of a student's participation in academic dishonesty. This study finds that for a general population of students values are a significant…

  3. Positive Teacher and Peer Relations Combine to Predict Primary School Students' Academic Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results…

  4. Academic Self-Concept and Emotion Relations: Domain Specificity and Age Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Cronjaeger, Hanna; Frenzel, Anne C.; Ludtke, Oliver; Hall, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between academic self-concepts and the emotions of enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, and boredom as experienced in mathematics, physics, German, and English classes (N=1710; grades 8 and 11). In line with our hypotheses derived from appraisal-based emotion theories and self-efficacy research,…

  5. Relations between Student Perceptions of Their School Environment and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gietz, Carmen; McIntosh, Kent

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student perceptions of their school environment (specifically, safety and inclusion in the school, experiences being bullied, and clear expectations for behaviour) and their relation with academic achievement at the school level. Participants were students in 969 elementary schools and 73 middle schools who took part in a…

  6. Modeling the Relations among Parental Involvement, School Engagement and Academic Performance of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Alwan, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    The author proposed a model to explain how parental involvement and school engagement related to academic performance. Participants were (671) 9th and 10th graders students who completed two scales of "parental involvement" and "school engagement" in their regular classrooms. Results of the path analysis suggested that the…

  7. Relation of Social-Cognitive Factors to Academic Satisfaction in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Singley, Daniel; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Schmidt, Janet A.; Schmidt, Linda C.

    2007-01-01

    Lent (2004) posited a model of domain-specific and overall life satisfaction in which social-cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, environmental supports, and perceived goal progress) play key roles. In this study, the authors examined the relation of these variables to academic satisfaction. Participants were 153 engineering…

  8. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  9. Investigating Grit and Its Relations with College Students' Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Hussain, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    We investigated grit and its relations with students' self-regulated learning (SRL) and academic achievement. An ethnically diverse sample of 213 college students completed an online self-report survey that included the Grit Short scale (Duckworth and Quinn "Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2)," 166-174, 2009), seven indicators of…

  10. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  11. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control: Relations to School Engagement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report,…

  12. The Relative Effectiveness of Academic and Practicum Training on Developing Behavior Modification Skills in Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Luke S., Jr.

    This paper is concerned with evaluating the Parent Training Program component of the Parent Training Technology System. The specific problem assessed was the relative influence of academic and practicum training on developing behavior modification skills in parents who work with their own psychotic and mentally retarded children. Three parents…

  13. Student-Related Variables as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Some Undergraduate Psychology Students in Barbados

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayombo, Grace Adebisi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined some student-related variables (interest in higher education, psychological resilience and study habit) as predictors of academic achievement among 131 (M (mean) = 28.17, SD (standard deviation) = 1.61) first year psychology students in the Introduction to Developmental Psychology class in UWI (The University of the West…

  14. Torn between Study and Leisure: How Motivational Conflicts Relate to Students' Academic and Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grund, Axel; Brassler, Nina K.; Fries, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research on motivational conflicts indicates that students' difficulties during studying may result from tempting alternatives in the leisure domain. In the present set of studies, we addressed the question of whether academic motivation inversely has negative spillover effects on students' leisure-related functioning, too. In the first 2 studies…

  15. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sembiring, Maximus Gorky

    2015-01-01

    Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…

  16. Quality of Parental Homework Involvement: Predictors and Reciprocal Relations with Academic Functioning in the Reading Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined predictors of the quality of parental homework involvement and reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and students' reading achievement and academic functioning in a reading-intensive subject (German). Data from 2,830 students in nonacademic tracks and their parents who were surveyed in both…

  17. A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

  18. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  19. Role of Academic Self-Efficacy in Moderating the Relation between Task Importance and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…

  20. Teachers' Feedback on Homework, Homework-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, José Carlos; Suárez, Natalia; Rosário, Pedro; Vallejo, Guillermo; Cerezo, Rebeca; Valle, António

    2015-01-01

    The authors intended to (a) identify the association between gender or grade level and teachers' homework (HW) feedback and (b) examine the relationship between teachers' HW feedback, HW-related behaviors (e.g., amount of HW completed), and academic achievement. Four hundred fifty-four students (Grades 5-12) participated in this study. The results…

  1. Teacher Leadership Styles as They Relate to Academic Gain for Unsuccessful Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertiz, Virginia C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This article describes: (1) problems observed in adolescent and young adult dropouts and potential dropouts; (2) key propositions of Hershey and Blanchard's leadership model; (3) research related to the usefulness of various degrees of relationship and structure, the key dimensions of the leadership model, for academically unsuccessful youth; and…

  2. Parental Beliefs and Values Related to Family Risk, Educational Intervention, and Child Academic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Frances A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relation of child-rearing beliefs and values of parents of children entering kindergarten to children's academic achievements. Examined effects of a child-centered educational preschool program for socioeconomically disadvantaged children on parents' beliefs and values. Parents of children at risk differed from other parents in beliefs…

  3. Positive teacher and peer relations combine to predict primary school students' academic skill development.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes.

  4. Positive teacher and peer relations combine to predict primary school students' academic skill development.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes. PMID:25751095

  5. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues.

    PubMed

    Rottier, Bart L; Eber, Ernst; Hedlin, Gunilla; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Mantzourani, Eva; Kulkarni, Neeta

    2015-06-01

    Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  6. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  7. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently completed a detailed study of the technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. While political factors were excluded, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk will elaborate on the study. The primary conclusion, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons."

  8. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.

  9. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  10. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  11. Predictors of Academic-Related Stress in College Students: An Examination of Coping, Social Support, Parenting, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tara; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined potential predictors of the academic-related stress experienced by college students. In particular, the relationships among the coping strategies used by college students, social support, the parenting style used by college students' mothers and fathers, college students' experience of anxiety, and academic-related stress were…

  12. Out on the Web: The Relationship between Campus Climate and GLBT-Related Web-based Resources in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciszek, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the perceived campus environment for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students at colleges and universities and how academic libraries have deployed GLBT-related resources on the Web. Recommendations are made for increasing GLBT-related materials and information in academic libraries.…

  13. Cabin Safety Issues Related to Pre-Departure and Inflight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting the human element in cabin safety issues and concerns.

  14. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed. Finally, possible problems and future needs for research will be highlighted.

  15. Damage Tolerance Issues as Related to Metallic Rotorcraft Dynamic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Elber, W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper issues related to the use of damage tolerance in life managing rotorcraft dynamic components are reviewed. In the past, rotorcraft fatigue design has combined constant amplitude tests of full-scale parts with flight loads and usage data in a conservative manner to provide "safe life" component replacement times. In contrast to the safe life approach over the past twenty years the United States Air Force and several other NATO nations have used damage tolerance design philosophies for fixed wing aircraft to improve safety and reliability. The reliability of the safe life approach being used in rotorcraft started to be questioned shortly after presentations at an American Helicopter Society's specialist meeting in 1980 showed predicted fatigue lives for a hypothetical pitch-link problem to vary from a low of 9 hours to a high in excess of 2594 hours. This presented serious cost, weight, and reliability implications. Somewhat after the U.S. Army introduced its six nines reliability on fatigue life, attention shifted towards using a possible damage tolerance approach to the life management of rotorcraft dynamic components. The use of damage tolerance in life management of dynamic rotorcraft parts will be the subject of this paper. This review will start with past studies on using damage tolerance life management with existing helicopter parts that were safe life designed. Also covered will be a successful attempt at certifying a tail rotor pitch rod using damage tolerance, which was designed using the safe life approach. The FAA review of rotorcraft fatigue design and their recommendations along with some on-going U.S. industry research in damage tolerance on rotorcraft will be reviewed.

  16. Examining the reciprocal relation between academic motivation and substance use: effects of family relationships, self-esteem, and general deviance.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J A; Duncan, S C

    1997-12-01

    The present study examined the reciprocal relation between academic motivation and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use across four annual assessments during adolescence. Data were obtained from 435 adolescents, 13 to 17 years of age at the first assessment, and their mothers. The results of generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis suggested inverse reciprocal relations across time between academic motivation and both cigarette and marijuana use. Reciprocal relations between academic motivation and alcohol use were not found, possibly due to the normative use of this substance. The examination of mediational mechanisms, including general deviance, self-esteem and family relationships, suggested that the relation between marijuana use and, for younger adolescents, cigarette use and academic motivation is not direct but is indirect, mediated through the general deviance of the adolescent. Deviance, self-esteem, and, for the youngest adolescents, family relationships mediated the relation between academic motivation and subsequent marijuana use.

  17. Academic Accommodations for Postsecondary Students with Mental Health Disabilities in Ontario, Canada: A Review of the Literature and Reflections on Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condra, Mike; Dineen, Mira; Gills, Helen; Jack-Davies, Anita; Condra, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of students with mental health disabilities (MHDs) are enrolling at Canadian colleges and universities. This review examines the challenges and complexities of meeting the unique needs of these students at Ontario's postsecondary institutions, with a specific focus on the issue of academic accommodations. These complexities…

  18. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education: The 1980's. Report on Four Conferences (1978-1980) of Academic Leaders and Executive Officers of Life Insurance Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol

    Fiscal issues in higher education are considered, based on four conferences attended by academic and business leaders. After an initial conference of college and life insurance company presidents at Princeton University in 1978, three regional meetings were held in Greensboro, North Carolina; Kalamazoo, Michigan; and Boston, Massachusetts.…

  19. An Action Research Study on the Influence of Gangsta Rap on Academic and Behavioral Issues of 5th Grade African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…

  20. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule). ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...

  1. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contact lenses and related issues. Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule). ... contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...

  2. ROV intervention issues relating to pipelay operations in ultra deepwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, S.E.; McCoy, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the water depths for some of the development projects of oil and gas fields. Not just in the installation of producing facilities, but of the transportation infrastructure. While ROVs are used extensively in support of deepwater pipelay operations, with the recent advances in J-Lay operations and the investigation into projects which may take this method to what is now being called ``ultra deepwater`` (i.e. 10,000 feet), there are new issues which must be addressed for continued ROV intervention to be successful. This paper will attempt to bring forth some of those issues and offer some potential solutions. It is necessary to begin thinking of these potential problem areas, as the solutions could impact the economics of the projects. These issues may well begin to influence the way the ROV industry further develops and refines it`s fleet to meet the needs of the authors clients in the future.

  3. Analysis of coaxial spray combustion flames and related numerical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to the simulation of strongly coupled multiphase flows in combustion hardware is sketched and its unique requirements highlighted. An example of a successful application to a coaxial injector flame is presented. Furthermore, several numerical issues that tend to interact with the physics of the problem are discussed with special regard to their potential impact on the choices of numerical parameters by the analyst. These include the issues of stability, numerical diffusivity, stiffness, and boundary conditions. The theme of this paper focuses on the intriguing relationships among the grid, the solution algorithm, and the actual physical mechanisms themselves.

  4. Outstanding issues related to thermospheric measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.; Doornbos, Eelco

    Semi-empirical thermospheric models are dependent on measurements made in orbit. Out-standing issues regarding the interpretation of those measurements and the effects on models are considered. These include the present state of knowledge of drag coefficients, long-term trends, instrument calibration, radiation pressure, and spacecraft geometry. Many recent and ongoing efforts to evaluate and improve thermospheric models will be described. The advent of attitude-controlled nanosatellites of simple shapes presents opportunities to resolve some of these outstanding issues in conjunction with the forthcoming SWARM program.

  5. Computer Use at Home and at School: does it Relate to Academic Performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gary G.; Du, Jianxia

    Analyzing data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to 1992, this report examines how computer use produces generic benefit to all children and differential benefits to minority and poor children. Specifically, the authors examined computer use at home vis-a-vis computer use at school in relation to the academic performance of disadvantaged children and their peers (defined by race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status). Home computer use typifies socially differentiated opportunities, whereas school computer use promises generic benefits for all children. The findings suggest that with other relevant conditions constant, (a) disadvantaged children did not lag far behind their peers in computer use at school, but they were much less likely to use computers at home; (b) computer use at home was far more significant than computer use at school in relation to high academic performance; (c) wing a computer at school seemed to have dubious effects on learning—taking computer science courses at school related consistently to low performance far both disadvantaged children and their peers, (d) disadvantaged children benefited less than other children from computer use, including computer use at home; and (e) compared to their peers, disadvantaged children's academic performance seemed less predictable by computer use and other predictor variables.

  6. CSI related dynamics and control issues in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Eric; Ramey, Madison

    1993-01-01

    The research addressed includes: (1) CSI issues in space robotics; (2) control of elastic payloads, which includes 1-DOF example, and 3-DOF harmonic drive arm with elastic beam; and (3) control of large space arms with elastic links, which includes testbed description, modeling, and experimental implementation of colocated PD and end-point tip position controllers.

  7. Problems and Issues Related to Legislative Process: The State Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reibman, Jeanette F.

    Issues of concern to higher education in Pennsylvania and possible roles for the state government are addressed by a state senator. The difficulty of providing postsecondary education in view of reduced funds is noted. It is suggested that the expectation that adult students will help solve the problem of fewer traditional aged college students…

  8. Methodological issues in HIV-related social research in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Olayiwola; Joseph, Richard; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche; Dike, Nkem; Aderinto, Adeyinka A

    2013-12-01

    This paper is about methodological issues in a community-wide study in Nigeria on an infectious disease, namely HIV/AIDS. The study was designed to ascertain the risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and how that can be tackled in order to bring about behavioural change. The research team believed at the onset that a study on the interplay between HIV/AIDS and sensitive issues like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study and/or using interview schedule. This paper reviews the essence of cross-disciplinary approach; team building; as well as the use of a non-participatory observational approach in data collection. It also shows why ample consideration was given to ethical issues which are often glossed over in social research in developing countries. The lessons from the study underscore the methodological imperatives in social research that focus on sensitive issues in largely non-literate context like Nigeria. Although there are formidable challenges in community-based studies in largely non-literate societies, nevertheless they could easily be surmounted if there are ample time and resources to navigate the various sticking points.

  9. Contemporary Issues in U.S.-Mexico Relations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy; Kim, Pearl; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Nunez, Lucia; Valadez, Martin

    The lessons in this 3-part series are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the relationship between the United States and Mexico, with emphasis on multiple perspectives, conflict and cooperation, and interdependence. This curriculum unit, Part 2, examines three contemporary issues: immigration, the North American Free Trade…

  10. Issues Relating to the Assessment of Flexible Efficient Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacke, Phil L.

    An integral dimension in the concept of flexible efficient reading is the process of skimming, which is defined as the reading behavior in which information is processed without looking at all or most of the words in continuous printed discourse. Measurement of flexible reading efficiency presents problems which revolve around four major issues.…

  11. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  12. Caregiving, Marriage and Work Related Issues as Differentiated by Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastorello, Thomas; And Others

    A recently published national profile of caregivers of the frail elderly suggests potentially negative consequences of caregiving for work and employment for as many as one-third of the employed caregivers in a large 1983 sample. The study was undertaken to explore a comprehensive set of issues on informal caregiving and to determine the extent to…

  13. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  14. Issues related to SPR joints subjected to fatigue loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.

    2016-05-01

    SPR joints will represent an alternative solution to spot welding in automotive field. However, their fatigue behavior shows several critical issues. After a brief introduction of this new solution, different crack modes are described, emphasizing the parameters that characterize them, i.e. the applied loads, the geometry of the joint and other phenomenon as fretting, vibration and corrosion.

  15. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  16. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  17. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  18. Student Voices: A Phenomenological Exploration of Minority Girls' Experiences and Beliefs Related to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpren, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    For decades, measures of academic outcomes have demonstrated the underachievement of minority students. The purpose of this study was to include student voices in a discussion of achievement by exploring the experiences and beliefs of minority girls that related to academic achievement in one single-sex urban high school. Moreover, the research…

  19. Investigating a New Model of Time-Related Academic Behavior: Procrastination and Timely Engagement by Motivational Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Kamden K.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of time-related academic behavior (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) in the academic context. Specifically, this study aimed to build a new model for understanding these behaviors in a motivational framework by using motivational orientation to frame these…

  20. Development and Validation of a 2 x 2 Model of Time-Related Academic Behavior: Procrastination and Timely Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Kamden K.; Cho, YoonJung; Steele, Misty R.; Bridges, Stacey L.

    2013-01-01

    Procrastination is an educational concern for classroom instructors because of its negative psychological and academic impacts on students. However, the traditional view of procrastination as a unidimensional construct is insufficient in two regards. First, the construct needs to be viewed more broadly as time-related academic behavior,…

  1. Twelve Commandments of Human Relations for the Diverse Academic Environment of Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William Young; Swartz, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying proven industrial relations approaches and sound management practice to address a range of diversity issues in higher education. Issues addressed include the need to set a clear and consistent direction, the importance of effective policy setting and enforcement, the value of positive reinforcement, and the…

  2. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  3. Ethical issues regarding related and nonrelated living organ donors.

    PubMed

    Testa, Giuliano

    2014-07-01

    The ethics of the clinical practice of transplanting human organs for end-stage organ disease is a fascinating topic. Who is the "owner" of the transplantable organs of a deceased, brain-dead patient? Who should have a right to receive these organs? Who set the boundaries between a living donor's autonomy and a "paternalistic" doctor? What constitutes a proper consent? These questions are only some of the ethical issues that have been discussed in the last 60 years. All of these ethical issues are intensified by the fact that supply of human organs does not match demand, and that, as a consequence, living-donor organ transplantation is widely utilized. The aim of this article is not to be exhaustive but to present the general ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice as applied to organ transplantation. Moreover, the topic of reimbursement for organ donation is also discussed. PMID:24705806

  4. Chlorofluorocarbon environmental issues related to conservation acquisition in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Recent scientific evidence strongly suggests that the release of large quantities of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases into the atmosphere will result in environmentally harmful long-term effects. Because of those effects, a massive worldwide effort is currently under way to ban their use. At request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a literature search to identify the issues surrounding the CFC phaseout. The search was focused on how these issues impact the commercial building sector. Information was obtained that describes: How the release of CFCs into the atmosphere may affect the global environment; legislative and regulatory programs initiated to restrict CFCs; potential impacts the reduced CFC supply will have on commercial buildings; the most promising CFC substitute technologies; and the potential costs of CFC restriction. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Compensability of, and legal issues related to, coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Luann

    2007-09-01

    Legal issues that may develop when treating patients with coccidioidomycosis include allegations of medical malpractice, claims for workers' compensation benefits, and civil actions against business owners. In states where the disease is most prevalent, California recognizes cocci diodomycosis as a compensable condition, although Arizona does not. In civil actions, the state courts have not imposed liability on any business or institution for those that claim to have developed cocci diodomycosis on or near the premises of the business.

  6. [An exploration of the issues involved in family related research].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Li; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Mei Chang; Weng, Li-Chueh

    2007-06-01

    Nowadays, health care delivery systems are changing from hospital-based services to more family-oriented or community-oriented care. The development of family nursing and family research is the focus of more attention than ever before. A family is composed of individuals. It combines the characteristics of individuals and collective groups, which makes family research more complex than studies of individuals. Consequently, research into family-oriented areas presents additional challenges concerning conceptual methodological issues. This article focuses on the issues of family research concepts, research designs, definitions of family, sampling, study tools, and data analysis. In order to promote high-quality family research outcomes, we propose below suggestions to serve as a guide to conducting family research: (1) identify the definition of family involved in a particular research question and choose a suitable methodology; (2) determine the number of family members and un its of analysis on theoretical bases; (3) select high-validity, high-reliability research tools in answering research questions; (4) analysis methods must match the concept of family and the characteristics of the units of analysis; (5) ethical issues must be respected in the recruitment of family members. PMID:17554671

  7. Opportunity to Learn: A Key Access and Validity Issue of Academic Assessments for Students with Disabilities. Research Brief 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliot, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    An underlying assumption in our current test-based accountability system is that all participating students have an opportunity to learn the tested academic content. For students with disabilities (SWDs), this assumption is stated clearly in federal legislation intended to ensure their access to the same academic standards that define the general…

  8. Issues in the Articulation of "Impact": The Responses of UK Academics to "Impact" as a New Measure of Research Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on the emergence of an impact agenda and its incorporation as a feature of the academic contract in UK universities. It focuses on the depositions of senior academic managers across a range of social science research centres, as they critically reflect upon their organizational strategy for capturing and communicating the…

  9. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Elby, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell`s inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ``modal`` interpretations pick out the desired ``preferred`` basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ``explain`` EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ``watered down`` causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks.

  10. Hemisphere Preference Test: psychometric properties and relations with academic performance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano Barreno, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored, in adolescents, the dimensionality (factorial structure), reliability (internal consistency and test-retest stability) and predictive validity (in relation with academic grades) of the Hemispheric Preference Test (HPT), a widely used self-report index of thinking styles among adults. A sample of 990 Spanish adolescents aged 10-14 completed HPT and reported their academic grades. Results indicated a two-factor structure for HPT that can be interpreted in terms of left- and right-Hemisphere Preference (HP). The two-factor structure was clearer in boys compared to girls. The internal consistency and test-retest at 6 and 12 months were satisfactory. Left-HP scores decreased with age whereas girls obtained a higher mean score on right-HP sub-scale. Finally, Left-HP accounted for a significant variance percentage on academic grades after controlling for age and sex. Results suggested that Spanish version of the HPT was effective and reliable among adolescents.

  11. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940

  12. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  13. Levothyroxine: therapeutic use and regulatory issues related to bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-06-01

    Levothyroxine is the overwhelming choice of clinicians for the treatment of hypothyroidism and for the suppression of goitre and thyroid nodules in selected cases. The monitoring of serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone is necessary for appropriate dosage adjustment of levothyroxine. Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic index: both underdosage (subclinical hypothyroidism) and excessive dosage (subclinical hyperthyroidism) are associated with adverse symptoms and pathophysiological effects and are to be avoided. The consequent necessity for careful titration of doses has had an impact on the issue of switchability, or bioequivalence, of the various marketed levothyroxine products. In this article, the basis for concern about currently accepted standards of the FDA for pharmacological bioequivalence are examined in the context of levothyroxine. The history and status of the recent request by the FDA for a new drug application for all levothyroxine products, and its impact on the market leader Synthroid, is also discussed.

  14. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  15. Health and safety issues relating to Maine's fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Allison P; Roy, Joyce; Stacey-Scott, Norma; Joy, Joanne E A; Bogdan, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Agricultural Safety and Health Program performed a needs assessment to determine the health and safety concerns of Maine's fishing community. Information for the assessment was obtained from clinicians, focus groups of wives of fishers, and government agencies. Reports from the United States Coast Guard showed that during 1993-1994, sixty-five people were injured on commercial fishing vessels and eight people died. Decompression illness was the most frequently reported non-fatal injury (n = 15). Chronic injuries reported by clinicians included back pain, tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, dysbaric osteonecrosis. Clinicians and family members were also concerned about hand and arm infections from the bait and sun exposure. Family health issues and access to care are addressed in the report. Recommendations include, in part, increasing surveillance, reducing barriers to access, increasing clinicians' knowledge about the fishing industry, and fostering collaboration between agencies providing health and safety information to fishers.

  16. Issues related to criticality safety analysis for burnup credit applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-12-01

    Spent fuel transportation and storage cask designs based on a burnup credit approach must consider issues that are not relevant in casks designed under a fresh fuel loading assumption. Parametric analyses are required to characterize the importance of fuel assembly and fuel cycle parameters on spent fuel composition and reactivity. Numerical models are evaluated to determine the sensitivity of criticality safety calculations to modeling assumptions. This paper discusses the results of studies to determine the effect of two important modeling assumptions on the criticality analysis of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) spent fuel: (1) the effect of assumed burnup history (i.e., specific power during and time-dependent variations in operational power) during depletion calculations, and (2) the effect of axial burnup distributions on the neutron multiplication factor calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) conceptual cask design.

  17. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  18. An exploration of key issues and potential solutions that impact physician wellbeing and professional fulfillment at an academic center

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Keri J.S.; Trockel, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physician wellness is a vital element of a well-functioning health care system. Not only is physician wellness empirically associated with quality and patient outcomes, but its ramifications span individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal levels. The purpose of this study was to explore academic physicians’ perceptions about their work-related wellness, including the following questions: (a) What are the workplace barriers and facilitators to their wellness? (b) What workplace solutions do theythinkwouldimprove their wellness? (c)What motivates their work? and (d) What existing wellness programs are they aware of? Methods. A multi-method design was applied to conduct a total of 19 focus group sessions in 17 clinical departments. All academic faculty ranks and career lines were represented in the 64 participating physicians, who began the sessions with five open-ended survey questions pertaining to physician wellness in their work environment. Participants entered their answers into a web-based survey program that enabled anonymous data collection. The initial survey component was followed by semi-structured focus group discussion. Data analysis of this qualitative study was informed by the general inductive approach as well as a review of extant literature through September 2015 on physician wellness, professional fulfillment, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, burnout and work-life. Results. Factors intrinsic to the work of physicians dominated the expressed reasons for work motivation. These factors all related to the theme of overall contribution, with categories of meaningful work, patient care, teaching, scientific discovery, self-motivation and matching of career interests. Extrinsic factors such as perceptions of suboptimal goal alignment, inadequate support, restricted autonomy, lack of appreciation, and suboptimal compensation and benefits dominated the risk of professional dissatisfaction. Discussion. Our findings indicate that the

  19. An exploration of key issues and potential solutions that impact physician wellbeing and professional fulfillment at an academic center.

    PubMed

    Schrijver, Iris; Brady, Keri J S; Trockel, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physician wellness is a vital element of a well-functioning health care system. Not only is physician wellness empirically associated with quality and patient outcomes, but its ramifications span individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal levels. The purpose of this study was to explore academic physicians' perceptions about their work-related wellness, including the following questions: (a) What are the workplace barriers and facilitators to their wellness? (b) What workplace solutions do theythinkwouldimprove their wellness? (c)What motivates their work? and (d) What existing wellness programs are they aware of? Methods. A multi-method design was applied to conduct a total of 19 focus group sessions in 17 clinical departments. All academic faculty ranks and career lines were represented in the 64 participating physicians, who began the sessions with five open-ended survey questions pertaining to physician wellness in their work environment. Participants entered their answers into a web-based survey program that enabled anonymous data collection. The initial survey component was followed by semi-structured focus group discussion. Data analysis of this qualitative study was informed by the general inductive approach as well as a review of extant literature through September 2015 on physician wellness, professional fulfillment, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, burnout and work-life. Results. Factors intrinsic to the work of physicians dominated the expressed reasons for work motivation. These factors all related to the theme of overall contribution, with categories of meaningful work, patient care, teaching, scientific discovery, self-motivation and matching of career interests. Extrinsic factors such as perceptions of suboptimal goal alignment, inadequate support, restricted autonomy, lack of appreciation, and suboptimal compensation and benefits dominated the risk of professional dissatisfaction. Discussion. Our findings indicate that the

  20. Reading-Writing Relationships in First and Second Language Academic Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…

  1. Perceptions of the Prevalence and Seriousness of Academic Dishonesty in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimble, Mark; Stevenson-Clarke, Peta

    2005-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a fundamental issue for the academic integrity of higher education institutions, and one that has lately been gaining increasing media attention. This study reports on a survey of 1206 students and 190 academic staff across four major Queensland universities in relation to student academic misconduct. The aim of the survey…

  2. Academic cheating as a function of defense mechanisms and object relations.

    PubMed

    Juni, Samuel; Gross, Julie; Sokolowska, Joanna

    2006-06-01

    This study examined relationships between academic cheating behaviors by using self-reports of past cheating behavior, providing a situational experiment with the opportunity to cheat, and evaluating defense mechanisms and object relations as measured by the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Subjects included 75 female and 8 male university students ranging in age from 18 to 51 years (M=25.5, SD=6.9). Analysis showed variations in students' self-reported cheating history relative to their measured object relations status and type of defense mechanisms. Actual cheating in the experimental setting was not significantly related to any of these variables. Findings are discussed based on a critique of heterogeneity of the cheating construct.

  3. Higher Education Academic Salaries in the UK. CEE DP 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mark; Vignoles, Anna; Walker, James

    2007-01-01

    The recent industrial action taken by the Association of University Teachers (AUT) has given the issue of academic pay high prominence in the UK press. There appears to be a remarkable consensus that higher education academic salaries are too low, relative to other groups of workers in the UK, and that this is leading to an academic "brain drain".…

  4. Ethical and legal issues relating to abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1989-04-01

    At least 1 million teenagers in the United States get pregnant every year; 350,000 teenagers choose to terminate their pregnancies by abortion. Doctors who examine teenagers usually find that their patients come in fairly late, and some teenagers may carry their pregnancy to term while others request abortions as late as the 2nd trimester. Abortion as well as full-term pregnancy are procedures that carry extreme mental stress. Many teenagers that go through with either procedure suffer mental breakdowns. Adolescents' stages of moral development can be classified into a 3 major categories: preconventional; conventional; or postconventional. Preconventional behavior may consist of worry about the reactions of individuals holding power over the adolescent's life; conventional behavior may consist of the adolescent conforming, as well as maintaining societal rules; and postconventional behavior may consist of the wishes of the adolescent outweighing societal expectations in their decision-making. The legal aspects concerning adolescents seeking abortions are governed by the "mature minor doctrine". Some abortions can be performed on adolescents without parental support; however, recent court decisions have provided certain measures for "immature minors." Recent debates on ethical and moral issues have been on the autonomy of the adolescent to make decisions on their own and the rights of the fetus versus the mother. Counseling is available for adolescents unsure of what decisions to make the unable to get support from their families.

  5. [Related reproductive issues on male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong-cai; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a most common inherited renal disease, about 50% with a family history, although the exact etiology not yet clear. To date, ADPKD, a multisystem disorder without effective preventive and therapeutic means, has been shown to be detrimental to human health. Recent studies show that severe oligoasthenozoospermia, necrospermia, immotile sperm, azoospermia, epididymal cyst, seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct cyst found in male ADPKD patients may lead to male infertility, though the specific mechanisms remain unknown. Structural anomaly of spermatozoa, defect of polycystin, mutation of PKD genes, and micro-deletion of the AZF gene could be the reasons for the higher incidence of abnormal semen quality in male ADPKD patients. Assisted reproductive techniques can increase the chances of pregnancy, whereas the health of the offspring should be taken into consideration. This article presents an overview of reproductive issues concerning infertile male ADPKD patients from the perspective of the morbidity, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis, and management of the disease. PMID:26738331

  6. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  7. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  8. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials. PMID:3602637

  9. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  10. Problematic Issues Related to the Systematic Teaching of Affective Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruff, Frances K.; Roberts, Jane M. E.

    This paper presents a discussion of three problem areas that were delineated during the course of a field test designed to assess the effects of the "Heartsmart Adventures," an interpersonal skills curriculum developed from the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) Theory as described by William C. Schutz. Students and teachers…

  11. Should relatives witness resuscitation? Ethical issues and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenczweig, C

    1998-01-01

    In winning second prize in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Carolyn Rosenczweig raised questions about the role patients' family members should be allowed to play during resuscitative efforts by medical staff. She concluded that even though their presence might complicate resuscitation attempts, "blanket policies that exclude all relatives from being present seem a knee-jerk reaction." PMID:9526478

  12. Relating Work and Education. Current Issues in Higher Education 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Dyckman; Ferris, William, Eds.

    The relationship between education and work is examined in relation to improving the quality of life. Part one provides a philosophical framework in which the authors reject the idea that work and education should be oriented toward porducing goods and making money, but should contribute to the growth and development of the workers. Part two…

  13. Kenyan government to establish special tribunal for HIV-related issues.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 21 January 2010, Kenyan government officials formally announced the creation of the first-ever tribunal dedicated to hearing legal issues related to HIV/AIDS. Among other things, the Tribunal will handle issues relating to the transmission of HIV; confidentiality of medical information and records; testing; access to healthcare services; discriminatory acts and policies; and HIV-related research.

  14. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  15. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  16. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  17. Delay related issues in integrated voice and data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J. G.

    1981-06-01

    The described investigation is concerned with the problem of transmitting voice with data in a computer communications network. The motivations for considering mixed voice and data traffic in such a shared network environment include the advent of new voice related applications with the technology now existing to economically support them, and the desire to plan for and design future integrated networks for reasons of economy and flexibility. Attention is given to the problem of variable delays in a shared network environment handling voice traffic. Previous work in packetized voice, as well as various approaches to integrated voice and data transmission, are reviewed. These approaches may be regarded as enhanced versions of circuit, packet, and hybrid switching. The impact of network interfacing and delay considerations for voice traffic is discussed.

  18. Accelerators for charged particle therapy: PAMELA and related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is a dreadful disease that will affect one in three people at some point in their life; radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cancer treatment, and contributes about 40% to the successful treatment of cancer. Charged Particle Therapy uses protons and other light ions to deliver the lethal dose to the tumor while being relatively sparing of healthy tissue and, because of the finite range of the particles, is able to avoid giving any dose to vital organs. While there are adequate technologies currently available to deliver the required energies and fluxes, the two main technologies (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) have limitations. PAMELA (the Particle Accelerator for MEdicaLApplications) uses the newly-developed non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerator concepts to deliver therapeutically relevant beams. The status of the development of the PAMELA conceptual design is discussed.

  19. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Some issues related to evidence-based implantology.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty.

  1. Processing and post-processing issues related to polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Chad David

    1998-12-01

    In Chapter 1, the effect of heat sealing variables on seal strength of a linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was examined. Blown films were heat sealed for various times and temperatures so that the films ranged from partially to fully melted. A temperature of 115sp°C or higher was required to form a good seal and was related to the heterogeneous composition of the LLDPE studied. At 115sp°C, the lower molecular weight, more highly branched chains easily diffused across the interface. However, because these chains represented a small fraction of the crystallinity and the molecular weight was low, they contributed much less than the full peel strength. Conversely, chains with less branching represented the main fraction of crystallinity (anchors for tie chains) and the highest molecular weights (more entanglements). Only at temperatures where the higher molecular weight, less branched chains began to melt and diffuse across the interface could high peel strengths be achieved. In Chapter 2, a novel coextrusion process used to create microlayered hierarchically structured films is described. With this technology, two or three polymers can be multiplied into tens or thousands of alternating layers. This unique coextrusion process can be used to combine polymers of widely dissimilar solid state morphologies and properties into unique layered and gradient structures. In addition, the effect of the viscosity ratio of the component materials and the effect of the layer multiplier geometry on the layer structure and uniformity was investigated. In Chapter 3, the development of a breathable film produced by the microlayer process is described. Two systems were produced: one with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and CaCOsb3-filled LLDPE and the other with PEO and CaCOsb3-filled polypropylene. The water vapor transport (WVT) behavior of these films was measured and related to the tortuousity of the path through the PEO and filled polyolefin domains. PEO is water soluble and has

  2. Nutritional and growth issues related to child neglect.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Drennen, Chloe R

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect and obesity are major public health problems that undermine children's health and contribute to lifelong disparities. Most of the past research has focused on relations between child neglect and failure to thrive. This article finds that evidence linking child neglect with obesity is mixed. In a recent meta-analysis, five of the eight studies reviewed did not find an increased risk of obesity among neglected children. The case study and three longitudinal studies that reported a relationship between neglect and obesity were conducted among young children, and used caregiver or teacher/clinician definitions of neglect, rather than referrals to state protective service agencies. Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system associated with neglect has been implicated, but further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may increase children's risk for obesity. Findings suggest that under some conditions neglect may increase the risk for excessive weight gain, and that high body mass index may be an indicator of possible neglect. By exploring both possibilities, clinicians can promote children's healthy growth and development and prevent subsequent health disparities. PMID:25369579

  3. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  4. Academic Freedom 2--A Human Rights Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    The ten essays in this book examine issues related to academic freedom and university autonomy. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, providing an overview of the situation in universities worldwide, including national and international initiatives to promote academic freedom. It also discusses the role of the World University Service in this…

  5. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Robinson, Lara R.; Myers, Sonya S.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children’s effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children’s effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children’s effortful control primarily account for variation in children’s academic adjustment. The associations between children’s effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children’s internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572

  6. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    PubMed

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L; Morris, Michael D S; Robinson, Lara R; Myers, Sonya S; Aucoin, Katherine J; Keyes, Angela W; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children's effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children's effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children's effortful control primarily account for variation in children's academic adjustment. The associations between children's effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children's internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572

  7. HIV-Related Knowledge and Perceptions by Academic Major: Implications for University Interventions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; La Place, Lisa L; Menn, Mindy; Wilson, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology majors, those who self-reported being "completely knowledgeable" about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, and business (PMEB) (OR = 0.41, P = 0.047) or education, humanities, and social sciences majors (OR = 0.25, P = 0.004). PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV (OR = 0.86, P = 0.004) and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life (OR = 2.14, P = 0.012), but less detrimental to their mental well-being (OR = 0.58, P = 0.042). Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health.

  8. HIV-Related Knowledge and Perceptions by Academic Major: Implications for University Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; La Place, Lisa L.; Menn, Mindy; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology majors, those who self-reported being “completely knowledgeable” about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, and business (PMEB) (OR = 0.41, P = 0.047) or education, humanities, and social sciences majors (OR = 0.25, P = 0.004). PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV (OR = 0.86, P = 0.004) and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life (OR = 2.14, P = 0.012), but less detrimental to their mental well-being (OR = 0.58, P = 0.042). Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health. PMID:24660165

  9. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  10. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  11. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... Retention and Other Related Issues.'' The guidance document provides OHRP's first formal guidance on this... (73 FR 72804). OHRP received comments on the draft guidance document from 30 individuals...

  12. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  13. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519

  14. Academic-related stress among graduate students in nursing in a Jamaican school of nursing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kimarie; Anderson-Johnson, Pauline; McPherson, Andrea Norman

    2016-09-01

    Graduate students perceive their education as highly stressful, have consistently rated their stress levels as above average and have consistently scored above average on stress scales. The consequences of stress include negative academic outcomes, reduction in cognitive ability, impaired coping and incompletion of graduate studies. Stress is also associated with physical and psychological symptoms such as altered appetite, sleep pattern disturbances and headache. A descriptive correlational design was used to determine the perceived levels and sources of academic-related stress among students enrolled in a Master of Science in Nursing (MScN) degree programme at school of nursing in urban section of Jamaica. The Perceived Stress Scale-14 and Stress Survey were used to collect data from the 81 students enrolled in full or part time study in the MScN programme. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. The majority (50.9%) were moderately stressed while 22.8% and 24.6% had high and low levels of stress respectively. Stress associated with the preparation for and prospect of final examinations received the highest overall mean stress rating, causing "a lot of stress". Attendances at classes and relationships with lecturers received the lowest mean stress rating. Research was not listed as a stressor. PMID:27577990

  15. Academic-related stress among graduate students in nursing in a Jamaican school of nursing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kimarie; Anderson-Johnson, Pauline; McPherson, Andrea Norman

    2016-09-01

    Graduate students perceive their education as highly stressful, have consistently rated their stress levels as above average and have consistently scored above average on stress scales. The consequences of stress include negative academic outcomes, reduction in cognitive ability, impaired coping and incompletion of graduate studies. Stress is also associated with physical and psychological symptoms such as altered appetite, sleep pattern disturbances and headache. A descriptive correlational design was used to determine the perceived levels and sources of academic-related stress among students enrolled in a Master of Science in Nursing (MScN) degree programme at school of nursing in urban section of Jamaica. The Perceived Stress Scale-14 and Stress Survey were used to collect data from the 81 students enrolled in full or part time study in the MScN programme. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. The majority (50.9%) were moderately stressed while 22.8% and 24.6% had high and low levels of stress respectively. Stress associated with the preparation for and prospect of final examinations received the highest overall mean stress rating, causing "a lot of stress". Attendances at classes and relationships with lecturers received the lowest mean stress rating. Research was not listed as a stressor.

  16. Qualitative and Political Issues Impacting Academic Medical Center Strategic Planning--A Methodological Approach. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; And Others

    A simulation model of an academic medical center that was developed to aid in strategic planning and policy analysis is described. The model, designated MCM for Medical Center Model, was implemented at the School of Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and the private practices of the faculty in the clinical departments at University…

  17. Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

    Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…

  18. Distance Education MBA Students: An Investigation into the Use of an Orientation Course to Address Academic and Social Integration Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather; Jugdev, Kam

    2006-01-01

    Distance education programmes warrant the use of innovative intervention practices to enhance student learning experiences. Academic and social empathy by faculty has been shown to enhance student retention in programmes along with their critical thinking abilities. Using Holmberg's theory of teaching-learning conversations as the guiding…

  19. Linking Learning and Health: A Pilot Study of Medical Students' Perceptions of the Academic Impact of Various Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, William D.; Wheat, Mary E.; Lerner, Burton A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess medical students' experience with a wide variety of health concerns and their perceptions of the impact of these health concerns on their academic performance. Methods: The National College Health Assessment (NCHA) was administered to all students enrolled at a single medical school during the spring term of 2005. Results:…

  20. Do We Really Have an Internet Problem? Statistics, Credibility and Issues Concerning Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubbage, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems with patron Internet access in academic libraries and describes a study conducted at Northwestern University (Illinois) that used Internet tracking software to assess user Internet behavior. Topics include Internet use policies; pornography; and loss of control over library services and information content that is provided. (LRW)

  1. Assessment as an Equity Issue in Higher Education: Comparing the Perceptions of First Year Students, Course Coordinators, and Academic Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Merrilyn; Gannaway, Deanne; Hughes, Clair

    2011-01-01

    Assessment practices that aim to promote both quality and equity may be compromised in a higher education market where students are consumers and grades the currency exchanged for measures of success. In such a climate, academics report feeling pressured to make course content and assessment less challenging in order to obtain positive student…

  2. Comparison of Personal, Social and Academic Variables Related to University Drop-out and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Ana; Esteban, María; Fernández, Estrella; Cervero, Antonio; Tuero, Ellián; Solano, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of university has serious consequences not only for the student who drops out but also for the institution and society as a whole. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, there is a need for broader knowledge of the context in which it occurs. Yet research on the subject often focuses on variables that, although they affect drop-out rates, lie beyond a university’s control. This makes it hard to come up with effective preventive measures. That is why a northern Spanish university has undertaken a ex post facto holistic research study on 1,311 freshmen (2008/9, 2009/10, and 2010/11 cohorts). The study falls within the framework of the ALFA-GUIA European Project and focuses on those drop-out factors where there is scope for taking remedial measures. This research explored the possible relationship of degree drop-out and different categories of variables: variables related to the educational stage prior to university entry (path to entry university and main reason for degree choice), variables related to integration and coexistence at university (social integration, academic integration, relationships with teachers/peers and value of the living environment) financial status and performance during university studies (in terms of compliance with the program, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and class attendance). Descriptive, correlational and variance analyses were conducted to discover which of these variables really distinguish those students who drop-out from their peers who complete their studies. Results highlight the influence of vocation as main reason for degree choice, path to university entry, financial independency, social and academic adaptation, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and program compliance in the studied phenomenon. PMID:27803684

  3. Relations between Inhibitory Control and the Development of Academic Skills in Preschool and Kindergarten: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Hume, Laura E.; Allan, Darcey M.; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is evidence that young children's inhibitory control (IC) is related to their academic skills, the nature of this relation and the role of potential moderators of it are not well understood. In this meta-analytic study, we summarized results from 75 peer-reviewed studies of preschool and kindergarten children (14,424 children;…

  4. The Contributions of "Hot" and "Cool" Executive Function to Children's Academic Achievement, Learning-Related Behaviors, and Engagement in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Laura L.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Nathanson, Lori; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) refers to higher order thought processes considered foundational for problem-solving. EF has both "cool" cognitive and "hot" emotional components. This study asks: (a) what are the relative contributions of "hot" and "cool" EF to children's academic achievement? (b) What are the relative contributions of "hot" and "cool"…

  5. The Influence of Racism-Related Stress on the Academic Motivation of Black and Latino/a Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sneva, Jacob N.; Beehler, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of racism-related stress on the academic and psychological factors affecting the success of 151 Black and Latino/a college students enrolled at several predominantly White universities in the northeastern United States. Institutional racism-related stress was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation but…

  6. Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

  7. Relations between inhibitory control and the development of academic skills in preschool and kindergarten: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Hume, Laura E; Allan, Darcey M; Farrington, Amber L; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Although there is evidence that young children's inhibitory control (IC) is related to their academic skills, the nature of this relation and the role of potential moderators of it are not well understood. In this meta-analytic study, we summarized results from 75 peer-reviewed studies of preschool and kindergarten children (14,424 children; 32-80 months old [M = 54.71 months; SD = 9.70]) across a wide range of socioeconomic status. The mean effect size (r) across studies was .27 (95% confidence interval [.24, .29]), indicating a moderate and statistically significant association between self-regulation and academic skills. The association between IC and academic skills was moderated by type of IC behavior task (i.e., hot vs. cool behavior task), by method of assessing IC (i.e., behavior task vs. parent report), and by academic subject (i.e., literacy vs. math), but not by other methods of assessing IC (i.e., behavior task vs. teacher report, parent report vs. teacher report) or by grade (i.e., preschool vs. kindergarten). The results of this meta-analysis suggest that there are preferred methods for assessing IC (i.e., cool behavior tasks, teacher reports) that should be considered when examining the relations between IC and academic skills in young children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Relations between inhibitory control and the development of academic skills in preschool and kindergarten: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Hume, Laura E; Allan, Darcey M; Farrington, Amber L; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Although there is evidence that young children's inhibitory control (IC) is related to their academic skills, the nature of this relation and the role of potential moderators of it are not well understood. In this meta-analytic study, we summarized results from 75 peer-reviewed studies of preschool and kindergarten children (14,424 children; 32-80 months old [M = 54.71 months; SD = 9.70]) across a wide range of socioeconomic status. The mean effect size (r) across studies was .27 (95% confidence interval [.24, .29]), indicating a moderate and statistically significant association between self-regulation and academic skills. The association between IC and academic skills was moderated by type of IC behavior task (i.e., hot vs. cool behavior task), by method of assessing IC (i.e., behavior task vs. parent report), and by academic subject (i.e., literacy vs. math), but not by other methods of assessing IC (i.e., behavior task vs. teacher report, parent report vs. teacher report) or by grade (i.e., preschool vs. kindergarten). The results of this meta-analysis suggest that there are preferred methods for assessing IC (i.e., cool behavior tasks, teacher reports) that should be considered when examining the relations between IC and academic skills in young children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25069051

  9. Touching the Screen: Issues Related to the Use of Touchscreen Technology in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Geoff; Edwards, Suzy; McNamara, Sue; Walker, Ian; Ziguras, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research that investigated use of touchscreens by children in early childhood and junior primary settings by introducing touchscreens in five classrooms in Melbourne, Australia. Five themes were identified, relating to developmental issues, input device performance, technical issues, individual differences in children's use of…

  10. SPECIAL ISSUE OF ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Atmospheric Environment provides a selection of papers that were presented at the 2005 AAAR PM Supersites Program and Related Studies International Specialty Conference held in Atlanta, GA, 7-11 February 2005. Topics of papers in this issue range from the e...

  11. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed.

  12. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed. PMID:26010383

  13. Academic Mobility, Language, and Cultural Capital: The Experience of Transnational Academics in British Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pherali, Tejendra Jnawali

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the experiences of transnational academics teaching and researching in British higher education institutions (HEI). Although there is a plethora of studies related to the issues of international students and Western academics teaching abroad, very little has been written about the recent global phenomenon in which…

  14. Does Youth Psychotherapy Improve Academically Related Outcomes? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Thomas W.; Slaten, Christopher D.; Sorenson, Carey; Glover-Russell, Jaquaye; Merson, David N.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the impact of psychotherapy on youth academic performance, the authors located and examined 83 studies of youth psychotherapy that contained 102 treatment comparisons. Results revealed a d = 0.46 overall effect size, with a d = 0.50 effect size for mental health outcomes, and a d = 0.38 effect size for academically related…

  15. Relation of Gender, Course Enrollment, and Grades to Distinct Forms of Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, L. C.; Kirkpatrick, K. M.; Burgoon, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A thorough understanding of academic dishonesty and the students who engage in it is necessary to develop appropriate policies and educational interventions to discourage such actions. The present study examines the frequency of academic dishonesty and the characteristics (i.e. gender, course enrollment, and grades) of students who engage in…

  16. Between-Domain Relations of Academic Emotions: Does Having the Same Instructor Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Ludtke, Oliver; Hall, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that academic emotions are largely organized along domain-specific lines. In the present study (N = 1,687; Grades 8/11), the authors explored the domain specificity of academic emotions in terms of the moderating influence of having the same versus a different course instructor across domains. The authors evaluated…

  17. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  18. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  19. International note: The relationship between achievement goals and academic-related boredom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-06-01

    In a sample of 520 Chinese high school students, the present study aimed to replicate the prior Western findings about the relationship between achievement goals and academic boredom. Our findings indicated that mastery-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals predicted academic boredom, but mastery-avoidance goals and performance-approach goals did not. PMID:25828547

  20. Students' Academic Motivation: Relations with Parental Warmth, Autonomy Granting, and Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Turner, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation we assessed the relationships between perceptions of parenting and student's academic motivation and success. College students completed a series of questionnaires assessing perceptions of parental warmth, autonomy granting, and supervision, and perceptions of academic control. Findings revealed different models for males and…

  1. International note: The relationship between achievement goals and academic-related boredom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-06-01

    In a sample of 520 Chinese high school students, the present study aimed to replicate the prior Western findings about the relationship between achievement goals and academic boredom. Our findings indicated that mastery-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals predicted academic boredom, but mastery-avoidance goals and performance-approach goals did not.

  2. Co-Relates between Anxiety and Academic Achievement in Teacher Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Shivani; Sharma, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the major predictors of academic performance. Teacher trainees with anxiety disorder display a passive attitude in their studies such as lack of interest in learning, poor performance in exams, and on lesson plans & assignments. This research observes the relationship between level of anxiety and academic achievement of…

  3. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  4. Relation between Assertiveness, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Psychosocial Adjustment among International Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…

  5. Beyond Collusion and Resistance: Academic-Management Relations within the Neoliberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Cris; Davidson, Miri

    2014-01-01

    As an early pioneer of market-led institutional reforms and New Public Management policies, New Zealand arguably has one of the most "neoliberalised" tertiary education sectors in the world. This article reports on a recent academic dispute concerning the attempt by management to introduce a new category of casualised academic employee…

  6. The Relative Influences of Neutralizing Behavior and Subcultural Values on Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curasi, Carolyn F.

    2013-01-01

    The author examined the influence of neutralizing techniques and subcultural values on academic dishonesty using a sample of 327 ethnically diverse business majors. Findings suggest that both neutralizing behavior and subcultural norms are correlated with academic dishonesty; however, neutralization techniques have a stronger association. Findings…

  7. The Relation between Time Management Skills and Academic Achievement of Potential Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemaloglu, Necati; Filiz, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The "Time Management…

  8. A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study of Relations between Academic Achievement and Korean Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…

  9. Too Much of a Good Thing? How Breadth of Extracurricular Participation Relates to School-Related Affect and Academic Outcomes during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear…

  10. On being grateful and kind: results of two randomized controlled trials on study-related emotions and academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Ouweneel, Else; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large amount of research attention to engagement as well as positive psychology in a general context, there have been few attempts to increase academic well-being by means of positive psychological interventions. This article tests the potential of positive psychological interventions to enhance study-related positive emotions and academic engagement, and to reduce study-related negative emotions among university students. We modified two existing positive interventions that are aimed at increasing general happiness for use in an academic context. These interventions focused on "thoughts of gratitude" and "acts of kindness," respectively. The present study consisted of two randomized controlled trials with experimental (thoughts of gratitude or acts of kindness) and control conditions in which participants were monitored on a daily basis during the one-week intervention, and additional pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments were carried out. Results revealed that the gratitude intervention had a significant positive effect on daily positive emotions only. The kindness intervention had a positive influence on both positive emotions and academic engagement, though not in the long run. The results showed no effects on negative emotions in either of the two interventions. Positive psychological interventions seem to foster positive emotions and academic engagement, but do not decrease negative emotions.

  11. Stress and Academic Performance in Dental Students: The Role of Coping Strategies and Examination-Related Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, María; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martín

    2016-02-01

    Academic stress negatively affects students' performance. However, little is known of the processes that may be involved in this association. This study aimed to analyze how other variables such as coping strategies and exam-related self-efficacy could be related to academic stress and performance for dental students. An online survey, including measures of coping strategies, perceived stress, exam-related self-efficacy, and academic performance, was completed by undergraduate dental students in Madrid, Spain. Of the 275 students invited to take the survey, 201 participated (response rate 73.6%). Rational coping strategies (problem-solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support) were negatively associated with perceived stress (β=-0.25, p<0.01), whereas emotional coping strategies (venting negative emotions, negative auto-focus) were linked to increased academic stress (β=0.34, p<0.01). Moreover, rational and emotional coping strategies were, respectively, positively (β=0.16, p<0.05) and negatively (β=-0.22, p<0.01) associated with students' exam-related self-efficacy, and this relation was found to be partially mediated by the students' perceived stress (β=-0.30, p<0.01). Experiencing higher levels of stress during the examination period was found to be associated with poorer average grades (β=-0.21, p<0.01), but students' exam-related self-efficacy partially mediated this relation (β=0.23, p<0.01). Those students who perceived themselves as more efficient in completing examinations reported better grades. Using adequate coping strategies (i.e., rational coping) may help to reduce stress for dental students and, through their effect on exam-related self-efficacy appraisals, contribute to improved academic performance.

  12. Stress and Academic Performance in Dental Students: The Role of Coping Strategies and Examination-Related Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, María; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martín

    2016-02-01

    Academic stress negatively affects students' performance. However, little is known of the processes that may be involved in this association. This study aimed to analyze how other variables such as coping strategies and exam-related self-efficacy could be related to academic stress and performance for dental students. An online survey, including measures of coping strategies, perceived stress, exam-related self-efficacy, and academic performance, was completed by undergraduate dental students in Madrid, Spain. Of the 275 students invited to take the survey, 201 participated (response rate 73.6%). Rational coping strategies (problem-solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support) were negatively associated with perceived stress (β=-0.25, p<0.01), whereas emotional coping strategies (venting negative emotions, negative auto-focus) were linked to increased academic stress (β=0.34, p<0.01). Moreover, rational and emotional coping strategies were, respectively, positively (β=0.16, p<0.05) and negatively (β=-0.22, p<0.01) associated with students' exam-related self-efficacy, and this relation was found to be partially mediated by the students' perceived stress (β=-0.30, p<0.01). Experiencing higher levels of stress during the examination period was found to be associated with poorer average grades (β=-0.21, p<0.01), but students' exam-related self-efficacy partially mediated this relation (β=0.23, p<0.01). Those students who perceived themselves as more efficient in completing examinations reported better grades. Using adequate coping strategies (i.e., rational coping) may help to reduce stress for dental students and, through their effect on exam-related self-efficacy appraisals, contribute to improved academic performance. PMID:26834134

  13. The relation between teachers' personal teaching efficacy and students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurien, Sarah Anjali

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious and believe they are able to effectively teach science are more comfortable teaching science (Plourde, 2002) and more likely to commit classroom time to teaching science. Additionally, they are better equipped to challenge and support students as they develop their science skills and efficacy beliefs. Therefore, it was expected that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for science would be related to their students' science efficacy. Similarly, it was predicted that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for inquiry science would be related to their students' inquiry science efficacy. It was expected that the relation between teacher and student efficacy would not differ by students' gender. Data was collected from 26 middle school science teachers who were participating in a professional development program and 660 students from their classes. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses were completed to evaluate the relation between teacher and student efficacy for science and inquiry science. Planned analyses revealed no significant predictors of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. Exploratory analyses were then conducted which added student grade and a measure evaluating the quality of teacher-student relationships to the original HLM analyses. Results indicated a significant interaction between the quality of teacher-student relationships and student grade on the prediction of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. A discussion of the results along with limitations of the study and avenues for future research will be provided.

  14. The Compensatory Nature of Discipline-Related Knowledge and English-Language Proficiency in Reading English for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uso-Juan, Esther

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to estimate the contribution of discipline-related knowledge and English-language proficiency to reading comprehension in English for academic purposes (EAP) and, second, to specify the levels at which the compensatory effect between the two variables takes place for successful EAP reading. The…

  15. Goal Structures and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy: Their Relation and Association to Teaching Experience and Academic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Daugherty, Stacy G.

    2007-01-01

    Goal structures reflect the motivational beliefs promoted by the prevailing instructional policies and procedures within an academic setting. Teachers' sense of efficacy refers to individuals' judgments or beliefs regarding their ability to accomplish critical instructional tasks. The relation between these constructs and differences on the basis…

  16. African Americans and Boys : Understanding the Literacy Gap, Tracing Academic Trajectories, and Evaluating the Role of Learning-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, J. S.; Kizzie, Karmen T.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Cortina, Kai

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the racial and gender gap in the academic development of African American and White children from kindergarten to 5th grade. Their main goal was to determine the extent to which social and behavioral factors, including learning-related skills, problem behaviors, and interpersonal skills, explain these gaps and…

  17. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  18. Relations between Executive Function and Academic Achievement from Ages 5 to 17 in a Large, Representative National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in complex executive function (EF) in a large, representative sample (N = 2,036) aged 5 to 17 using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a). Relations between complex EF and academic achievement were examined on a sub-sample (N = 1,395) given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement–Revised (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989). Performance on the three complex EF tasks improved until at least age 15, although improvement slowed with increasing age and varied some across tasks. Moreover, the different developmental patterns in the correlations between completion time and accuracy provide clues to developmental processes. Examination of individual achievement subtests clarified the specific aspects of academic performance most related to complex EF. Finally, the correlation between complex EF and academic achievement varied across ages, but the developmental pattern of the strength of these correlations was remarkably similar for overall math and reading achievement, suggesting a domain-general relation between complex EF and academic achievement. PMID:21845021

  19. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  20. The "Perfect" Senior (VCE) Secondary Physical Education Teacher: Student Perceptions of Teacher-Related Factors That Influence Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Rachael J.; Telford, Amanda; Benson, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student academic performance in senior-secondary education increases student opportunities for employment, training and further education. The aim of this research was to identify students', completing the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Physical Education, perceptions of teacher-related factors that influence subject specific…

  1. Trajectories of Change and Relationship between Parent-Adolescent School-Related Conflict and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Irma; Keresteš, Gordana; Puklek Levpušc?ek, Melita

    2014-01-01

    The study explored changes in parent-adolescent school-related conflict rate and academic performance over a 5-year period among Croatian early adolescents and gender differences in these changes. Furthermore, it examined the relationship between conflict and achievement. The study was performed by applying an accelerated approach to overlapping…

  2. Business development activities at academic institutions as related to the education, training, and career development of the next generation of scientists and professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarhan, Kamran S.

    2007-06-01

    Every year large sums of tax payers money are used to fund scientific research at various universities. The result is outstanding new discoveries which are published in scientific journals. However, more often than not, once the funding for these research programs end, the results of these new discoveries are buried deep within old issues of technical journals which are archived in university libraries and are consequently forgotten. Ideally, these scientific discoveries and technological advances generated at our academic institutions should lead to the creation of new jobs for our graduating students and emerging scientists and professionals. In this fashion the students who worked hard to produce these new discoveries and technological advances, can continue with their good work at companies that they helped launch and establish. This article explores some of the issues related to new business development activities at academic institutions. Included is a discussion of possible ways of helping graduating students create jobs for themselves, and for their fellow students, through creation of new companies which are based on the work that they did during their course of university studies.

  3. Changes in academic adjustment and relational self-worth across the transition to middle school.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Allison M; Shim, Sungok Serena; Makara, Kara A

    2013-09-01

    Moving from elementary to middle school is a time of great transition for many early adolescents. The present study examined students' academic adjustment and relational self-worth at 6-month intervals for four time points spanning the transition from elementary school to middle school (N = 738 at time 1; 53 % girls; 54 % African American, 46 % European American). Grade point average (G.P.A.), intrinsic value for schoolwork, self-worth around teachers, and self-worth around friends were examined at every time point. The overall developmental trajectory indicated that G.P.A. and intrinsic value for schoolwork declined. The overall decline in G.P.A. was due to changes at the transition and across the first year in middle school. Intrinsic value declined across all time points. Self-worth around teachers was stable. The developmental trends were the same regardless of gender or ethnicity except for self-worth around friends, which was stable for European American students and increased for African American students due to an ascent at the transition into middle school. Implications for the education of early adolescents in middle schools are discussed. PMID:23873280

  4. Linear/Nonlinear Relations of Activity and Fitness with Children’s Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, David M.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing research base suggests the benefits of physical activity (PA) and aerobic fitness for children extend beyond overall health/well-being to include academic achievement (AA). The majority of research studies on relations of PA and fitness with AA have utilized linear-only analytic approaches, thereby precluding the possibility that PA and fitness could have a differing impact on AA for those more/less active or fit. Objective Evaluate both linear and non-linear associations of PA and aerobic fitness with children’s AA among a sample of 687 2nd and 3rd grade students from 17 Midwest schools. Study Design Using baseline data (fall 2011) from a larger 3-year intervention trial, multi-level regression analyses examined the linear and non-linear associations of AA with PA and with PACER laps (i.e., aerobic fitness), controlling for relevant covariates. Results Fitness, but not PA, had a significant quadratic association with both spelling and math achievement. Results indicate that 22–28 laps on the PACER was the point at which the associated increase in achievement per lap plateaued for spelling and math. Conclusions Increasing fitness could potentially have the greatest impact on children’s AA for those below the 50th fitness percentile on the PACER. PMID:24781896

  5. Relevance of a neurophysiological marker of attention allocation for children's learning-related behaviors and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Willner, Cynthia J; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Bierman, Karen L; Greenberg, Mark T; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related behaviors in high-risk populations could illuminate resilience processes. This study examined the relevance of a neurophysiological measure of controlled attention allocation, amplitude of the P3b event-related potential, for learning-related behaviors and academic performance in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. The sample consisted of 239 children from an urban, low-income community, approximately half of whom exhibited behavior problems at school entry (45% aggressive/oppositional; 64% male; 69% African American, 21% Hispanic). Results revealed that higher P3b amplitudes to target stimuli in a go/no-go task were associated with more adaptive learning-related behaviors in kindergarten. Furthermore, children's learning-related behaviors in kindergarten mediated a positive indirect effect of P3b amplitude on growth in academic performance from kindergarten to 1st grade. Given that P3b amplitude reflects attention allocation processes, these findings build on the scientific justification for interventions targeting young children's attention skills in order to promote effective learning-related behaviors and academic achievement within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.

  6. Relevance of a neurophysiological marker of attention allocation for children's learning-related behaviors and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Willner, Cynthia J; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Bierman, Karen L; Greenberg, Mark T; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related behaviors in high-risk populations could illuminate resilience processes. This study examined the relevance of a neurophysiological measure of controlled attention allocation, amplitude of the P3b event-related potential, for learning-related behaviors and academic performance in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. The sample consisted of 239 children from an urban, low-income community, approximately half of whom exhibited behavior problems at school entry (45% aggressive/oppositional; 64% male; 69% African American, 21% Hispanic). Results revealed that higher P3b amplitudes to target stimuli in a go/no-go task were associated with more adaptive learning-related behaviors in kindergarten. Furthermore, children's learning-related behaviors in kindergarten mediated a positive indirect effect of P3b amplitude on growth in academic performance from kindergarten to 1st grade. Given that P3b amplitude reflects attention allocation processes, these findings build on the scientific justification for interventions targeting young children's attention skills in order to promote effective learning-related behaviors and academic achievement within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. PMID:26053149

  7. Effects of academic-industry relations on the professional socialization graduate science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleman, Margaret Ann Phillippi

    This study asks if there has been a change in graduate student socialization in the biological sciences given the increased commercialism of life sciences. Drawing on the work of Steven Brint (1994) and Sheila Slaughter and Larry Leslie (1997) and Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades (2004), this study asks if graduate student socialization has shifted emphasis from the social and moral dimensions of work (social trustee professionalism) to the practical, technical, and commercial dimensions (expert professionalism). Building on the survey results of the Acadia Project (Swazey, Louis, & Anderson, 1994; Louis, Anderson & Rosenberg, 1995), this qualitative study uses interviews with 25 graduate science students at two A.A.U. research universities that have been heavily involved in academic-industry relations to see how the students were professionally socialized throughout their educational careers. The student configuration compares males and females, U.S. and international students, and those funded by the government versus those receiving at least partial support from industry. It uses critical professionalization theory as a framework. The study found that students' career goals and values were usually set before graduate school primarily by females in non-elite institutions, such as community colleges, women's and liberal arts colleges, and non-flagship state universities. Also, university science faculty tend to continue to socialize students---even those planning to go into industry---for the professoriate, as their prestige is based on placing proteges into other elite schools. U.S. females and most students going into academics or government labs had the values of social trustee professionals while those going into industry held those of expert professionals. The former were more likely to recognize situations involving conflicts of interest or commitment. Almost all the students were disillusioned by the grants and promotion and tenure systems. They feel both

  8. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  9. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  10. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  11. Associations between Health-Related Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement and Selected Academic Behaviors of Elementary and Middle School Students in the State of Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Alvarez, John; Zhang, Lei; Kolbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of school-based physical activity contexts have been recently associated with various measures of academic performance. Of these studies, a small number employing objective measures of student fitness have identified a relationship with academic achievements. However, even among these studies, the fitness-academic link has not been…

  12. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  13. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  14. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  15. The Status of Alternative Assessments through the 1990s: Performance and Authentic Assessments in Relation to Vocational-Technical Education Technical Skills, Workplace Skills, and Related Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Border, Barbara

    This study examines performance and authentic assessments related to job and academic skills. It begins with a general historical perspective that discusses the evolution of assessment systems used by education and industry in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan. The influence of federal policy also is discussed,…

  16. Resistance to Classroom Participation: Minority Students, Academic Discourse, Cultural Conflicts, and Issues of Representation in Whole Class Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John Wesley

    2011-01-01

    When trying to utilize class discussions as an effective pedagogical tool, teachers need to be aware of the conflicts that may arise due to issues of personal and cultural representation, linguistic differences, and misunderstandings of the tacit "rules" for participation. Because of cultural and linguistic variances in student populations, not…

  17. School Nurse Case Management for Children with Chronic Illness: Health, Academic, and Quality of Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelke, Martha Keehner; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B.; Swanson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with…

  18. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  19. Indirect and direct relations between aerobic fitness, physical activity, and academic achievement in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, K.; Hansen, D.M.; Szabo, A.N.; Lee, J.; Herrmann, S.D.; Donnelly, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that increasing physical activity (PA) improves academic achievement (AA) in children and that aerobic fitness is associated with both cognitive function and AA. However, it is not known how these variables are interrelated and analyses with adequate control for socioeconomic variables are needed. It was hypothesized that PA would not directly affect AA but would have an indirect effect on AA through its effect on aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesized mediation using path analysis. METHODS Cross-sectional data including AA, aerobic fitness, and daily PA assessed through accelerometry were collected from a large sample (N = 687) of 2nd and 3rd grade students. Demographic data were assessed via parent self-report. RESULTS A total of 401 students wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours on 3 days or more and were included in the final path analysis to evaluate potential relations among PA (predictor), aerobic fitness (mediator), and WIAT-III subtest standard scores (outcomes; i.e., reading, spelling, and mathematics). Findings showed a direct effect of PA on aerobic fitness (b = 0.009, p < 0.001) and an indirect effect (mediation) of PA via fitness on math achievement (b = 0.003, p < 0.01) after controlling for student’s grade, gender, body mass index, mother’s education level, and household income, as well as intraclass correlations among classes and schools. Neither PA nor aerobic fitness were correlated with WIAT-III reading or spelling scores. CONCLUSIONS Mediation analysis indicated that PA exerted an influence on math achievement through its effects on aerobic fitness but was not associated with reading or spelling achievement scores. PMID:25984236

  20. Prevalence of faecal incontinence and its related factors among patients in a Malaysian academic setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence data is essential for planning of healthcare services. The prevalence of faecal incontinence (FI) varies worldwide, and in Malaysia is not known. We sought to estimate its prevalence among patients with various conditions in a Malaysian academic setting. Method A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a convenience sample of adult patients and relatives who visited the Obstetrics and Gynaecology and General Surgery Clinics of University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) from June 2009 to February 2010. Data collected included patient demographics and pre-existing medical conditions known to be FI risk factors. Severity of FI was assessed using the Wexner Continence Scale (WCS). Results Among the 1000 subjects recruited into the study, 760 (76%) were female and the median age was 38 years with an inter-quartile range of 24 years. The prevalence of FI among the study subjects was found to be 8.3%. Among them, 63 subjects (75.9%) were determined to have mild FI as measured by the WCS. The proportions of patients with moderate and severe FI were 18.3% and 6.0%, respectively. FI was found to be significantly associated with older age, presence of diabetes mellitus and increased duration of defaecation. There was no statistically significant association between FI and sex, defaecation frequency, or history of surgery. Conclusion FI in our setting is prevalent enough to warrant targeted healthcare interventions, including the need to improve general public awareness of the condition in order to counter social stigma and embarrassment that may be faced by patients. PMID:24885285

  1. Relations of academic procrastination, rationalizations, and performance in a web course with deadlines.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, Bruce W

    2005-06-01

    This study compared students' academic procrastination tendency with the (1) frequency and nature of rationalizations used to justify procrastination, (2) self-regulation, and (3) performance in a web-based study strategies course with frequent performance deadlines. 106 college students completed the 16-item Tuckman Procrastination Scale, a measure of tendency to procrastinate, the Frequency of Use Self-survey of Rationalizations for Procrastination, and a 9-item self-regulation scale. Students' subsequent course performance was measured by total points earned. A linear regression with Academic Procrastination as the criterion variable and Rationalization score and Course Points as the predictor variables suggested academic procrastinators support procrastinating by rationalizing, not self-regulating, and thus put themselves at a disadvantage, with respect to evaluation in highly structured courses with frequent enforced deadlines. PMID:16173372

  2. Relations of academic procrastination, rationalizations, and performance in a web course with deadlines.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, Bruce W

    2005-06-01

    This study compared students' academic procrastination tendency with the (1) frequency and nature of rationalizations used to justify procrastination, (2) self-regulation, and (3) performance in a web-based study strategies course with frequent performance deadlines. 106 college students completed the 16-item Tuckman Procrastination Scale, a measure of tendency to procrastinate, the Frequency of Use Self-survey of Rationalizations for Procrastination, and a 9-item self-regulation scale. Students' subsequent course performance was measured by total points earned. A linear regression with Academic Procrastination as the criterion variable and Rationalization score and Course Points as the predictor variables suggested academic procrastinators support procrastinating by rationalizing, not self-regulating, and thus put themselves at a disadvantage, with respect to evaluation in highly structured courses with frequent enforced deadlines.

  3. Does academic dishonesty relate to unethical behavior in professional practice? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Harding, Trevor S; Carpenter, Donald D; Finelli, Cynthia J; Passow, Honor J

    2004-04-01

    Previous research indicates that students in engineering self-report cheating in college at higher rates than those in most other disciplines. Prior work also suggests that participation in one deviant behavior is a reasonable predictor of future deviant behavior. This combination of factors leads to a situation where engineering students who frequently participate in academic dishonesty are more likely to make unethical decisions in professional practice. To investigate this scenario, we propose the hypotheses that (1) there are similarities in the decision-making processes used by engineering students when considering whether or not to participate in academic and professional dishonesty, and (2) prior academic dishonesty by engineering students is an indicator of future decisions to act dishonestly. Our sample consisted of undergraduate engineering students from two technically-oriented private universities. As a group, the sample reported working full-time an average of six months per year as professionals in addition to attending classes during the remaining six months. This combination of both academic and professional experience provides a sample of students who are experienced in both settings. Responses to open-ended questions on an exploratory survey indicate that students identify common themes in describing both temptations to cheat or to violate workplace policies and factors which caused them to hesitate in acting unethically, thus supporting our first hypothesis and laying the foundation for future surveys having forced-choice responses. As indicated by the responses to forced-choice questions for the engineering students surveyed, there is a relationship between self-reported rates of cheating in high school and decisions to cheat in college and to violate workplace policies; supporting our second hypothesis. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrates connections between decision-making about both academic and professional dishonesty. If better

  4. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue.

  5. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330

  6. Recruiting, Training and Motivating Student Assistants in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Constantia

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of student academic library employees and reviews the related literature on the changing role of library student assistants. Highlights include changes in libraries' organizational structures; and administrative issues concerning recruitment, interviewing, training, motivation, and employee retention. (LRW)

  7. University studies science course selection and academic achievement in relation to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauge, Suzanne Elizabeth

    This research conducted at a southern regional university studied general education (University Studies - US) science course selection and academic success in US science in relation to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preference categories (SF, ST, NF and NT). Additionally, differences in type preferences among students with mathematics and/or reading competency were explored. Data was examined for 755 students enrolled in the freshman success seminar course between Fall 1989 and Spring 1995 who had completed the MBTI test as part of that class. US science courses examined were grouped by science study: earth science, biology, chemistry and physics. Academic success was defined as a grade of "C" or higher and proficiency criteria were dictated by the university catalog. The study's nonparametric test results did not find any significant differences between MBTI type preferences and the two main areas of focus, US science course selection and academic success in US science courses. However, significant proportional differences were found between type preferences in relation to student reading competency (sig. = .03), as well as, reading competency and academic success in science (sig. = .04) even though fairly weak relationships existed between the variables with contingency coefficients of .11 and .10 respectively. All other relationships tested proved not significant. Each type's course selection closely reflected the overall sample: Earth Science 52.3%, Biology 34%, Chemistry 7.5% and Physics 6.1%. Nearly one-fifth (19.7%) of the sample were not successful in their selected science course. Less than two-fifths (37.7%) of student sample were not mathematics and/or reading competent. Academically in science intuitive types tended to do better than sensing types and feeling types tended to better than thinking types (NF 2.41, NT 2.36, SF 2.29 and ST 2.23). Further analysis found the TF preference scale contributed more toward the significant differences in reading

  8. Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials.

  9. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  10. Examining the Dimensionality of Effortful Control in Preschool Children and its Relation to Academic and Socio-emotional Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct, associated with socio-emotional growth, academic performance, and psychopathology. EC is defined as the ability to execute goal directed behavior to inhibit or delay a prepotent response in favor of a subdominant response. Extant research indicates that EC might be multidimensional. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 234 preschoolers was used to determine if tasks designed to measure EC were best described by hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions or by a single factor. Analyses revealed that EC is best described by a single factor, even when variance associated with children’s language skills was removed. This EC factor was strongly related to measures of academic performance and significantly less related to measures of socio-emotional development. PMID:21553957

  11. The Portability of Computer-Related Educational Resources: An Overview of Issues and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty A.; De Diana, Italo

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of the articles in this special issue, which deals with the portability, or transferability, of educational computer software. Motivations for portable software relating to cost, personnel, and time are discussed, and factors affecting portability are described, including technical factors, educational factors, social/cultural…

  12. 78 FR 9020 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, which comprehensively reformed and... accompanying FNPRM, 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, the Commission sought comment on various issues relating to... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using...

  13. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  14. Telerobotic control issues related to real task applications in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    Recent findings concerning the definition of the expected control environment associated with the Space Station are examined. The range of expected near-term and far-term task applications for robotic systems is provided, and the essential control issues related to the application environment are derived. In addition, an approximate control envelope for teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems is established.

  15. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  16. Transition Issues Related to Students with Visual Disabilities. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erin, Jane N.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    Part of a series that provides practical resources to transition personnel on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this manual focuses on transition issues related to students with visual impairments. Chapter 1 discusses the nature of visual impairment and reactions to visual impairment. Chapter…

  17. Technical Note: Some Issues Related to the Selection of Polymers for Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Materials intended for use in aerospace oxygen systems are commonly screened for oxygen compatibility following NASA STD 6001. This standard allows qualification of materials based on results provided by only one test method. Potential issues related to this practice are reviewed and recommendations are proposed that would lead to improved aerospace oxygen systems safety.

  18. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments....

  19. Grid related issues for static and dynamic geometry problems using systems of overset structured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Grid related issues of the Chimera overset grid method are discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is considered. Current limitations of the approach are identified.

  20. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  1. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  2. 16 CFR 456.5 - Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules applicable to prescriptions for contact lenses and related issues. 456.5 Section 456.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE... may be found at 16 CFR part 315 (Contact Lens Rule)....

  3. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  4. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  5. Issues Relating to the Implementation and Management of an Integrated Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Carl; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Issues discussed relating to the University of Minnesota's Integrated Information Center (IIC) include the impact of the legal environment within which it must operate, its organizational structures, and its funding. In addition, the reactions of key stakeholders at the University of Minnesota to the model IIC are discussed. (two references) ( SD)

  6. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  7. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  8. Mediating Effects of Stress, Weight-Related Issues, and Depression on Suicidality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sydney S.; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. Participants: In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College…

  9. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  10. Weight-Related Issues and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine D.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with high body mass index (BMI), negative body image, and unhealthy weight control behaviors may be more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than others. Researchers have not fully investigated these relationships in a sample of college students. The authors collected data regarding several weight-related issues and…

  11. 76 FR 22340 - Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ..., Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 67060, November 1, 2010 (Mobility Fund NPRM), to use reserves... of Proposed Rulemaking, 76 FR 18476, April 4, 2011, proposes a variety of options for Tribal entities... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility...

  12. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  13. Issues in Relating Evaluation to Theory, Policy, and Practice in Continuing Education and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Reviews a number of issues relating to the results of evaluation studies: standards of acceptability; clinical vs. statistical significance; fallacies in the use of theory; and program, theory, measurement, and design failure. (Journal availability: Subscription Manager, MOBIUS, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720.) (SK)

  14. Japanese and American Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Toward Global Issues and Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter; Glenn, Allen; Mizoue, Yasushi; Meriwether, Crystal; Gardner, William

    1997-01-01

    Compared Japanese and U.S. preservice teachers' attitudes about global issues and global relations, surveying preservice elementary teachers at one Japanese and two American universities. Results indicated that the groups were moderately worldminded overall, and they differed significantly in their levels of worldmindedness. Four out of ten survey…

  15. Early Childhood Education: Status, Trends, and Issues Related to Electronic Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Donna

    As part of a broad investigation of the role of large-scale, satellite-based, educational telecommunication systems, the trends and issues in early childhood education in relation to electronic delivery are discussed in some detail. The population and numbers currently served by pre-primary programs, and school setting by type of control (public…

  16. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  17. The Interconnections Between Job Satisfaction and Work-Related Stress in Academic Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi; Wolverton, Marvin L.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    This study examined the interrelationships between stress, job satisfaction, and other exogenous influences among academic deans at American colleges and universities. A total of 579 deans from a sample of 360 colleges and universities responded to a mailed survey, which included the Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Questionnaire (Rizzo et al.,…

  18. A Time Lag Analysis of Temporal Relations between Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Two Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…

  19. Self- Versus Parent-Ratings of Industriousness, Affect, and Life Satisfaction in Relation to Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Davies, Janet E.; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. Aims: This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings…

  20. Type and Level of Position in Academic Libraries Related to Communication Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong

    1996-01-01

    Presents results of a study on communication channels used by academic librarians in different job categories and organizational levels. A literature review of information processing and internal and interdepartmental library communication is included. Face-to-face and telephone communication dominated as choice of medium. Public service and…

  1. An Examination of Factors Related to the Academic Performance of African-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, D'Errico M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that were predictive of academic performance of college students at Historically Black Colleges/Universities (HBCUs). The variables of interest included: seating choice, self-esteem, anxiety, stress and study habits. The sample consisted of 201 African-American undergraduate students. Participants…

  2. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools…

  3. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  4. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Relations to Emergent Academic Skills among Children in Germany and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Ragnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated a direct assessment of behavioral self-regulation (the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders; HTKS) and its contribution to early academic achievement among young children in Germany and Iceland. The authors examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of the HTKS, investigated gender differences in young…

  5. Relations between Technology, Parent Education, Self-Confidence, and Academic Aspiration of Hispanic Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haeseong; Lawson, Daniel; Williams, Helen Easterling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to test a theoretical model explaining the relationship between technology use, parent educational background, academic aspiration, and self-confidence as predictors of mathematics achievement across three immigrant groups. This study utilized data from the TIMSS 2007. To compare the effect size of technology use,…

  6. Making Trouble: Ethnographic Designs on Ruling Relations for Students and Teachers in Non-Academic Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, all Australian states require young people to be "earning or learning" until age 17. Secondary schools and vocational colleges now accommodate students for whom the conventional academic pathways of the past were not designed. The paper reflects on a project designed to explore the moral orders in these institutional settings…

  7. The Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment and Relative Age on Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagli, Ummuhan Yesil; Jones, Ithel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research findings suggest that there may be some academic benefits for those children whose kindergarten enrollment is delayed, and the risk of underachievement seems to be greater for children who are younger when they first enter kindergarten. Although kindergarten enrollment occurs naturally, certain child, family, and childcare…

  8. Relation between Academic Performance and Students' Engagement in Digital Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertheussen, Bernt Arne; Myrland, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of student engagement in digital learning activities on academic performance for 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate finance course. Interactive practice and exam problem files were available to each student, and individual download activity was automatically recorded during the first 50 days of the course.…

  9. Relations among Epistemological Beliefs, Academic Achievement, and Task Performance in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2007-01-01

    Students with differing profiles of epistemological beliefs--their beliefs about personal epistemology, intelligence, and learning--vary in thinking, reasoning, motivation, and use of strategies while working on academic tasks, each of which affect learning. This study examined students' epistemological beliefs according to gender, school…

  10. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  11. Relational Effects of Reading Motivation and Academic Achievement among Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…

  12. Experiences of the Relation between Teaching and Research: What Do Academics Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Jane; Bond, Carol H.

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with a small number of academic staff who had previously expressed strong views on the teaching-research relationship revealed substantial variation in their experiences of the relationship. Five qualitatively different experiences of the teaching-research relationship were evident, ranging from incompatibility, to transmission of new…

  13. The Relation of Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulatory Processes to Homework Completion and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer; Zimmerman, Barry J.

    This study examined individual differences in the ways students responded to a self-regulation learning training. It was predicted that students' motivational beliefs would be associated with at-risk college students' use of self-regulated learning strategies, homework completion, and academic performance. Participants were 58 college students in…

  14. How Are Task Reflexivity and Intercultural Sensitivity Related to the Academic Performance of MBA Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…

  15. Parental Involvement: How Does It Relate to Student Behavior and Academic Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Thaddues J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents are encouraged to be actively involved in the educational lives of their children regardless of the age of the children. Henderson and Berla (1996) asserted that parental involvement is linked to student success. Researchers have sought to understand the relationship between academic success and behavior. Previous research suggested that…

  16. The Relation between Youth Fear and Avoidance of Crime in School and Academic Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Kimberly L.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Lynch, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research analyzing fear of crime among adults, little is known about youth fear of crime in general and youth fear of crime in school, specifically. Moreover, among existing studies most emphasize causes of fear, with little discussion of avoidance or the academic consequences of these feelings and behaviors in school. This…

  17. Career-Related Success-Learning Experiences of Academically Underachieving Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margo A.; Perolini, Claudia M.; Fietzer, Alexander W.; Altschuler, Elizabeth; Woerner, Scott; Hashimoto, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Evidence has supported the effectiveness of educational and psychosocial interventions that include strengths and promote the competence enhancement of schoolchildren. Nevertheless, students in low-income, culturally diverse urban schools who are academically underachieving may be the least likely but most in need to experience feedback about…

  18. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  19. Direct and Relational Bullying among Primary School Children and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Sarah; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    The association between bullying behaviour and academic achievement was investigated in 1016 children from primary schools (6-7-year-olds/year 2: 480; 8-9-year-olds/year 4: 536). Children were individually interviewed about their bullying experiences using a standard interview. Key Stage I National Curriculum results (assessed at the end of year…

  20. Assessment of School Factors Related to Academic Achievement in Mathematics among Secondary School Students of Masaba South Sub County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onderi, Peter Omae; Okwara, Michael Okello; Raburu, Pam; Barongo, Samson; Mokaya, Evans; Mokogi, Henry; Omae, David

    2015-01-01

    Performance in mathematics in Masaba Sub-County, Kenya has been poor for many years. In 2010 the mean score was 3.2282, while in 2011 it had a mean score of 3.9528 and in 2012 it had a mean of 4.0660 which is far below the maximum mean of 12.00. The purpose of this study was to assess factors related to academic achievement in mathematics in…

  1. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  2. Issues surrounding the administration of a credit course for medical students: survey of US academic health sciences librarians*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jolene Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: For librarians developing a credit course for medical students, the process often involves trial and error. This project identified issues surrounding the administration of a credit course, so that librarians nationally can rely more upon shared knowledge of common practices and less upon trial and error. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the education services librarian at each medical school listed in the 2000 AAMC Data Book. A second questionnaire was sent to those librarians who did not return the first one. Results: Of the 125 librarians surveyed, 82 returned the questionnaire. Of those 82, only 11 offered a credit course for medical students, though 19 more were in the process of developing one. Data were gathered on the following aspects of course administration: credit course offerings, course listing, information learned to administer the course, costs associated with the course, relationships with other departments on campus, preparation for teaching and grading, and evaluation of the course. Conclusions: Because of small number of respondents offering a credit course and institutional variations, making generalizations about issues surrounding the administration of a credit course is difficult. The article closes with a list of recommendations for librarians planning to develop a course. PMID:15243642

  3. Relation of Neural Structure to Persistently Low Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Children with Differing Birth Weights

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Filipek, Pauline A.; Juranek, Jenifer; Bangert, Barbara; Hack, Maureen; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective Children with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500g) are at risk for academic underachievement, although less is known regarding the developmental course of these difficulties or their neural basis. This study examined whether cerebral tissue reductions related to VLBW are associated with poor patterns of growth in core academic skills. Method Children born <750 g, 750–1499 g or >2500 g completed measures of calculation, mathematical problem solving and word decoding at several time points spanning middle childhood and adolescence. Espy, Fang, Charak, Minich and Taylor (2009) used growth mixture modeling to identify two distinct growth trajectories (growth clusters) for each academic domain: an average achievement trajectory and a persistently low achievement trajectory. In this study, 97 of the same participants underwent MRI in late adolescence. MRI measures of cerebral tissue volume were used to predict the probability of low growth cluster membership for each domain. Results After adjusting for whole brain volume, each 1cm3 reduction in caudate volume was associated with a 1.7 – 2.1 fold increase in the odds of low cluster membership for each academic domain. Each 1mm2 decrease in corpus callosum surface area increased these odds approximately 1.02 fold. Reductions in cerebellar white matter volume were associated specifically with low calculation and decoding growth while reduced cerebral white matter volume was associated with low calculation growth. Findings were similar when analyses were confined to the VLBW groups. Conclusions Volumetric reductions in neural regions involved in connectivity, executive attention and motor control may help to explain heterogeneous academic growth trajectories amongst children with VLBW. PMID:23688218

  4. It's Not Just What You Know, It's Who You Know: Testing a Model of the Relative Importance of Social Networks to Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzuto, Tracey E.; LeDoux, Jared; Hatala, John Paul

    2009-01-01

    Applying three mathematical modeling techniques, this study proposes and tests the fit of an academic performance model, and then estimates the relative importance of four performance predictors: academic ability, performance goal orientation, educational technology use, and social network density. Drawing on social network theory, findings from…

  5. Relations among Academic Enablers and Academic Achievement in Children with and without High Levels of Parent-Rated Symptoms of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH…

  6. Supplemental Instruction: The Effect of Demographic and Academic Preparation Variables on Community College Student Academic Achievement in STEM-Related Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabitoy, Eric R.; Hoffman, John L.; Person, Dawn R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated variables associated with academic preparation and student demographics as predictors of academic achievement through participation in supplemental instruction (SI) programs for community college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. The findings suggest a differential impact of SI outcome for…

  7. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  8. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research.

  9. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S.; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S.; Fan, Jung-wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  10. Bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS: the Uganda experience.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, N K

    1998-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many other countries, there is a vacuum regarding an appropriate legal and ethical response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas much has been done to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a multidisciplinary way, very little has been done regarding legal and ethical issues. Hence, cases of claimants to have cures for AIDS, spiritual healers and sale of fake drugs plus unauthorized vaccine and drug trials are on the increase. The rights and needs of people infected with HIV/AIDS are not adequately addressed. The property rights of those affected by the pandemic continue to be abused. Therefore there is need to mobilize doctors, lawyers and human rights activists who should advocate and address these issues. This paper therefore highlights the critical bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. PMID:10396922

  11. On the issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Valerio; Chen, Xi Lin

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses technical issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions. Several difficulties are identified in this study when assessing the spatial average and 99th percentile value of the electric field. These issues are mainly attributed to the lack of clarity in the guideline specifications, which leads to inadequate or irreproducible results. Effects on compliance results due to such ambiguous procedures are hereby investigated, with particular focus on technical issues rather than biological ones. Examples spanning from simple canonical test cases to realistic applications have been selected to highlight the strong variability in dosimetry results. Based on our findings, revisiting the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines is strongly recommended, and proposed alternative solutions are outlined. PMID:24705441

  12. Examining the relation between ratings of executive functioning and academic achievement: Findings from a cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Veleiro, Alberto; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Mohammadi, Hiwa

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between academic performance and ratings of executive functioning in children aged 6–11 from four countries: Sweden, Spain, Iran, and China. Ratings of executive functioning were made by both parents and teachers using the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI). The results showed that the Chinese sample was generally rated as having more executive deficits compared to the other samples. The finding that executive functioning deficits are exacerbated in China is most likely the result of cultural biases. Boys were generally rated as having poorer executive functioning compared to girls, except in Iran where parents, but not teachers, rated girls as having poorer executive functioning compared to boys. However, this opposite pattern of results found for Iran is not likely to reflect true gender differences in executive functioning. Despite some differences in the levels of executive functioning across countries, both the inhibition and working memory subscales of the CHEXI were related to academic achievement in all four countries, except for CHEXI parent ratings in China. Altogether, the results indicate that the CHEXI may be used as a screening measure for early academic difficulties, although cultural biases clearly have to be taken into consideration. PMID:23075095

  13. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  14. French College Students’ Sports Practice and Its Relations with Stress, Coping Strategies and Academic Success

    PubMed Central

    Décamps, Greg; Boujut, Emilie; Brisset, Camille

    2012-01-01

    College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students’ sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular, or intensive) would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies, and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice. PMID:22514544

  15. French college students' sports practice and its relations with stress, coping strategies and academic success.

    PubMed

    Décamps, Greg; Boujut, Emilie; Brisset, Camille

    2012-01-01

    College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students' sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular, or intensive) would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies, and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.

  16. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    PubMed

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. PMID:25798959

  17. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  18. [Annual Reports for the Academic Year 1980-81 from 49 States, the District of Columbia and 3 Canadian Provinces Focusing on Problems, Issues, Achievements and Other Areas of Interest to the Postsecondary Education Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berve, Nancy M., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Annual reports are presented for the academic year 1980-1981 from 49 states (except Maine), the District of Columbia, and three Canadian provinces focusing on problems, issues, achievements, and other areas of interest to the postsecondary education community. Specific topics include the following: long-range plans for higher education,…

  19. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  20. Safety-related issues associated with implementing wireless systems in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, B. J.; Ewing, P. D.; Moore, M. R.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, wireless technology is not used as an integral element of safety-related systems in nuclear facilities. The most prevalent introductory uses of wireless technology are for in-facility communications among personnel and for supplemental information transmission. However, further system upgrades and implementations at new facilities might introduce wireless communications into safety-significant applications. This paper documents the deployment issues and implementation considerations that can contribute to the technical basis for guidance on wireless systems. (authors)

  1. Smog chamber experiments to test oxidant related control strategy issues. Final report 1978-81

    SciTech Connect

    Kamens, R.M.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.; Gerhardt, A.A.

    1982-03-01

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments were performed to address various issues relating to ozone (O3) production and oxidant control strategies. Temperature effects on single hydrocarbon-NOx systems were studied. Propylene-NOx systems were modeled with particular attention to peroxynitric acid chemistry. Mechanisms were developed to model the O3 reactions with the two major isoprene daughter products, methylvinylketone and methacrolein. Chamber systems with isoprene and O3 were also modeled.

  2. On the Conceptual Issues Surrounding the Notion of Relational Bohmian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Antonio; Ip, Pui Him

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a program to construct a non-relativistic relational Bohmian theory, that is, a theory of N moving point-like particles that dispenses with space and time as fundamental background structures. The relational program proposed is based on the best-matching framework originally developed by Julian Barbour. In particular, the paper focuses on the conceptual problems that arise when trying to implement such a program. It is argued that pursuing a relational strategy in the Bohmian context leads to a more parsimonious ontology than that of standard Bohmian mechanics without betraying the original motivations for adopting a primitive ontology approach to quantum physics. It is also shown how a relational Bohmian approach might clarify the issue of the timelessness of the dynamics resulting from the quantization of a classical relational system of particles.

  3. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  4. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  5. On How Editors of Academic Journals at Institutions of Higher Learning Should Resist Academic Corruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a hot issue in today's society. "Academic corruption" means that certain individuals in academic circles, driven by the desire for personal gain, resort to various kinds of nonnormative and unethical behavior in academic research activities. These include: academic self-piracy, academic piracy, copying and plagiarism,…

  6. The relation between third graders' after-school care and social, academic, and emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Vandell, D L; Corasaniti, M A

    1988-08-01

    Outcome differences associated with types of after-school care were explored among 150 white, predominantly middle-class third graders from a suburban school system. Children returned home to their mothers, attended day-care centers, stayed with sitters, or returned home alone or with siblings. No differences were found between latchkey and mother-care children in terms of their classroom sociometric nominations, academic grades, standardized test scores, conduct grades, self-reports of self-competence, or parent and teacher ratings of the children. Significant differences were found for children who attended day-care centers after school. These children received more negative peer nominations, made lower academic grades, and had lower standardized test scores than either mother-care or latchkey children. The children who stayed with sitters after school received more negative peer nominations than the latchkey and mother-care children but, in other areas, resembled these groups. These outcome differences were apparent in both divorced and intact families. Factors contributing to these differences are examined. PMID:3168625

  7. The relation between third graders' after-school care and social, academic, and emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Vandell, D L; Corasaniti, M A

    1988-08-01

    Outcome differences associated with types of after-school care were explored among 150 white, predominantly middle-class third graders from a suburban school system. Children returned home to their mothers, attended day-care centers, stayed with sitters, or returned home alone or with siblings. No differences were found between latchkey and mother-care children in terms of their classroom sociometric nominations, academic grades, standardized test scores, conduct grades, self-reports of self-competence, or parent and teacher ratings of the children. Significant differences were found for children who attended day-care centers after school. These children received more negative peer nominations, made lower academic grades, and had lower standardized test scores than either mother-care or latchkey children. The children who stayed with sitters after school received more negative peer nominations than the latchkey and mother-care children but, in other areas, resembled these groups. These outcome differences were apparent in both divorced and intact families. Factors contributing to these differences are examined.

  8. Paternalism in nursing and healthcare: central issues and their relation to theory.

    PubMed

    Cody, William K

    2003-10-01

    Paternalistic practices, wherein providers confer a treatment or service upon a person or persons without their consent, ostensibly by reason of their limited autonomy or diminished capacity, are widespread in healthcare and in societies around the world. In the United States, paternalism in health and human services is widespread and probably increasing with newly emergent forms. Numerous issues surround paternalistic practices. In this column, the author examines these issues in relation to theory development in healthcare and nursing as well as theory as a guide to practice. It is suggested that scientific and ethical knowing are not separate but must be united in theoretical structures that include both in unity, along with an appreciation of the infinite complexity of life as it is humanly lived. It is also suggested that nursing's unique theory base of frameworks that honor human dignity and focus on human experience offers an opportunity for leadership in further developing theoretical frameworks that transcend paternalistic practices.

  9. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  10. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  11. Google and Women’s Health-Related Issues: What Does the Search Engine Data Reveal?

    PubMed Central

    Baazeem, Mazin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women’s health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women’s most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. Methods We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. Results We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was “pregnancy and sex’ while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. Conclusion The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear. PMID:25422723

  12. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. PMID:27216025

  13. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors.

  14. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  15. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  16. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work. PMID:22088163

  17. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    PubMed

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. PMID:27208012

  18. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  19. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  20. Supporting Academic Workloads in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Carmel E.

    2015-01-01

    Academic workloads in online learning are influenced by many variables, the complexity of which makes it difficult to measure academic workloads in isolation. While researching issues associated with academic workloads, professional development stood out as having a substantive impact on academic workloads. Many academics in applied health degrees…

  1. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  2. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  3. Risk assessment related to veterinary biologicals: specific issues in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Ward, D E

    1995-12-01

    The author reviews both technical and socio-economic issues in developing nations, in relation to veterinary biologicals. Health risk assessment is a specific process to estimate the likelihood that animals, humans or ecological systems will be affected adversely by a chemical or physical agent, or biological product, under a specific set of conditions. Some technical issues (quality assurance, good manufacturing practice, education of end-users, field monitoring) apply equally well in developed, industrialised and in developing, pre-industrialised nations. Many regions have documented unique diseases (trypanosomosis, tick diseases, theileriosis) or high disease prevalence which may influence risk assessment results. This emphasises the need for scientifically-valid risk assessment methodologies in developing nations. Developing nations also have various socio-economic concerns, which may not be based on scientific fact but, nonetheless, affect trade in, and use of, veterinary biologicals. These non-scientific but perceived problems and issues are briefly discussed, and possible solutions are presented. The way in which countries deal with such perceived problems and issues in a context of internationally harmonised norms for risk assessment impinges on livestock farmers in developing nations. Finally, the author presents possible ways to correct the potentially widening cost gap between conventional, proven veterinary biologicals and newly-developed products. The results of risk assessment of veterinary biologicals influence risk management in both developed and less-developed nations. It is important to agree upon scientifically-based risk management guidelines which may be applied in all countries. The effect of the agreements of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on trade in veterinary biologicals in developing nations is reviewed.

  4. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing trends, consensus, and potential best practices emerging as States use or adapt existing legal regimes...

  5. 17 CFR 230.488 - Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination transactions. 230.488 Section... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Investment Companies; Business Development Companies § 230.488 Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

  6. Female Academics' Research Capacities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Socio-Cultural Issues, Personal Factors and Institutional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masika, Rachel; Wisker, Gina; Dabbagh, Lanja; Akreyi, Kawther Jameel; Golmohamad, Hediyeh; Bendixen, Lone; Crawford, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    In October 2010, an interdisciplinary group of female academics from a university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq initiated a collaborative research project with a UK university to investigate opportunities and challenges for female academics' research leadership in universities in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The project aimed to develop…

  7. Shock tube investigation of hydrodynamic issues related to inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. H.; Puranik, B. P.; Oakley, J. G.; Brooks, P. W.; Bonazza, R.

    A shock tube investigation of two hydrodynamic issues related to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is undertaken. ICF is a promising source of energy for the future. There has been a considerable increase in the interest in ICF with the development of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). However, much remains to be investigated before a useful yield is obtained from a fusion reaction for power generation. The physics involved in carrying out a fusion reaction combines hydrodynamics, plasma physics and radiation effects superimposed on each other, at extremely small scales, making the problem very complex. One such phenomenon occurring in the deuterium-tritium pellet implosion is the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occuring at each layer of the fuel which results in the mixing of the ablator with the fuel. This causes dilution of the fuel and reduces the yield of the reaction. Another issue is the impulsive loading of ICF reactor cooling tubes due to the shock wave produced as a result of the fusion reaction. These tubes must withstand the impulse of the shock wave. A shock tube provides an ideal environment to study these issues at large geometric scales with the isolation of hydrodynamics from other effects. A new vertical, square shock tube has been designed specifically for the purpose of studying these fluid flow phenomena from a fundamental point of view. The shock tube is vertical, with a large square inner cross-section and is designed to allow for the release of a M=5 shock into air at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we describe the new shock tube and related instrumentation in detail and present a few preliminary results on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and shock-cylinder interactions.

  8. Examination of the Relation between Academic Procrastination and Time Management Skills of Undergraduate Students in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Gürbüz; Boyraz, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research. Students' academic procrastination is explained through frequencies and…

  9. Global Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy Correlates: Relation of Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem among Emirati Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afari, Ernest; Ward, Graeme; Khine, Myint Swe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between global self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and academic performance among a sample of 255 college students in the United Arab Emirates. The widely used Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) and an academic self-efficacy scale, modified from (Jinks and Morgan, 1999) were used to assess…

  10. African American college students' health behaviors and perceptions of related health issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, D S; Goode, C R

    1994-03-01

    The authors identify specific health-related behaviors of African American college students and compare them with the students' perceptions of corresponding health issues. Among students surveyed, the rate of cigarette smoking (4%) was very low compared with smoking rates found in a national survey (14%); but alcohol consumption was relatively high (63%), although lower than the national average of 91%. More men than women smoked, but more women than men reported they drank alcoholic beverages. Most students (90.2%) said they did not usually eat breakfast, 73.6% reported that their diets were not nutritionally balanced, and the majority (55.4%) were not involved in daily physical activity. More than half (63%) of the students reported satisfactorily handling stress, and 74.1% indicated that they were sexually active. Respondents perceived the most important health issues facing college students as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), birth control, date rape, stress management, suicide, and alcohol and other drugs. PMID:8201133

  11. Issues related to the use of blood in food and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2014-01-01

    Blood has traditionally been used as a high protein ingredient in both human food and animal feed, with resulting economic, environmental and nutritional benefits. However, potentially serious health and safety issues related to blood consumption, particularly the risk of pathogenic or harmful metabolic materials, the infectivity of prion diseases, and the presence of identified allergens such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), are causing many consumers to shy away from any product containing either animal blood or ingredients derived from animal blood. Thus, despite the significant volumes of blood produced by slaughterhouses, blood is currently underutilized as a food ingredient. This article reviews the use of animal blood as an ingredient in food intended for human consumption or for animal feed and discusses the related consumer concerns.

  12. California Redefines Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.

    2003-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, University of California President Richard Atkinson forwarded to the U.C. Academic Senate a proposed revision of the existing regulation bearing on how university teachers should treat contentious and disputed issues, both political and academic, in their classrooms. The existing regulation on this matter, APM-010, had been…

  13. Arbitration in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  14. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  15. Grade, Pubertal Status, and Gender-Related Variations in Conflictual Issues among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Junior and senior high school students (N=279) completed measures of pubertal status, demographics, and Issues Checklist. Intensity of School Issues and Household Behavior Issues was greater among seventh and ninth graders than among eleventh graders. Self-Responsibility Issues were most intense among transpubertal adolescents. Boys perceived more…

  16. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  17. Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    This paper focuses on three academic labor market issues that researchers at Cornell University are addressing currently: (1) the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions; (2) the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries…

  18. Bio-ethical dilemmas related to medical treatment in pre-modern Jewish society, as a portal for raising current ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee

    2013-09-01

    Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482

  19. Emerging Public Relations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: An Academic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Public relations may be emerging in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), but the preparedness of public relations professionals in the United States is minimal. In a review of the status of intercultural exchange, three levels were examined in terms of the public relations situations: (1) opportunity for cultures to make contact; (2) the…

  20. Proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles: issues and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend to a significant degree on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance and nuclear materials accountability. The challenges for fast reactors and related fuel cycles are especially critical. They are being explored in the Generation IV Tnternational Forum (GIF) and the Tnternational Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, as well as by many states that are looking to these systems for the efficient lise of uranium resources and long-term energy security. How do any proliferation risks they may pose compare to other reactors, both existing and under development, and their fuel cycles? Can they be designed with intrinsic (technological) features to make these systems more proliferation resistant? What roles can extrinsic (institutional) features play in proliferation resistance? What are the anticipated safeguards requirements, and will new technologies and approaches need to be developed? How can safeguards be facilitated by the design process? These and other questions require a rethinking of proliferation resistance and the prospects for new technologies and other intrinsic and extrinsic features being developed that are responsive to specific issues for fast reactors and related fuel cycles and to the broader threat environment in which these systems will have to operate. There are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, but technology and design can playa role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating non-state threats. There will be a significant role for extrinsic factors, especially the various measures - from safeguards and physical protection to export controls - embodied in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. This paper will offer

  1. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas. PMID:27139205

  2. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas.

  3. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  4. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population.

  5. Review of Cross-Cultural Issues Related to Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  6. Health-related biotechnology in Africa: managing the legislative and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Andanda, A P

    2007-01-01

    The challenges that most African countries face in an attempt to join the ongoing quest for the development and transfer of the products derived from health biotechnology are threefold: High research costs, inadequate regulatory capacity and unfavourable intellectual property arrangements. It is argued in this paper that these challenges are representative of the legislative and regulatory issues that require proper management in order to enable African countries to focus on the key research areas that are related to the burden of diseases that are prevalent in the region and to harness the products of such research for the benefit of the region. This paper discusses the challenges involved in managing the legislative and regulatory issues in health biotechnology and proposes specific ideas on the way forward for Africa. The methodology used is a review of the manner in which three African countries, Cameroon, Kenya and Nigeria, have encountered and dealt with such regulatory challenges. The review is carried out from policy and legal analysis perspectives.

  7. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  8. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  9. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  10. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  11. Food for Thought on the "ABS Academic Journal Quality Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to the use of the Association of Business Schools' (ABS) "Academic Journal Quality Guide" within UK business schools. It also looks at several specific issues raised by the Chair of the British Accounting Association/British Accounting and Finance Association regarding the ratings for top…

  12. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits. PMID:19197587

  13. Approach and issues relating to shield material design to protect astronauts from space radiation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Shinn, J L; Thibeault, S A; Singleterry, R C; Simonsen, L C; Kim, M H

    2001-10-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given. PMID:12194183

  14. Approach and Issues Relating to Shield Material Design to Protect Astronauts from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Shinn, J. L.; Thibeault, S. A.; Singleterry, R. C.; Simonsen, L. C.; Kim, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Since aluminum (traditionally used in spacecraft to avoid potential radiation risks) leads to prohibitively expensive mission launch costs, alternative materials need to be explored. An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given.

  15. Introduction to the special issue on ''relations between gambling and alcohol use''.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherry H; Kushner, Matt G

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that gambling is an activity that is often combined with alcohol intake. Not only do the behaviors of drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, alcohol use disorders and pathological gambling are also commonly co-morbid conditions in both clinical and non-clinical samples. This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Gambling Studies focusing on cutting edge findings on the relations between gambling and alcohol use behaviors and their associated disorders. We set the stage for the following series of six novel empirical papers and integrative commentary by reviewing the theoretical pathways through which alcohol use and gambling disorders may be linked. We conclude by describing some of the novel contributions of each of the empirical studies from within the context of these theoretical models.

  16. Basic issues related to quantity and quality of health care, and quality assurance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jacobalis, S

    1989-01-01

    Issues and problems related to the needs for quantity and quality in health care have been presented. The need for quantity has been quite successfully addressed in the last 20 years. Better quality of health care is very much in the minds of policy makers, providers and the informed public. Quality assessment and assurance as a programmed and on-going process in individual hospitals is systematically promoted and developed. An accreditation system for hospitals is planned for the future. This paper has not been able to contribute anything of value to the current practice of quality assurance. The industrialized world has passed the stages Indonesia is now going through. To some Australian colleagues, this presentation perhaps has revealed that one of their closest neighbours is struggling hard to improve the quality of life of its people, despite the tremendous problems and constraints with which it is confronted. Australia has always provided a helping hand in this struggle.

  17. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Bath, Kevin G; Berg, Anne T; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Holmes, Gregory L; Jensen, Frances E; Kanner, Andres M; O'Brien, Terence J; Whittemore, Vicky H; Winawer, Melodie R; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E

    2013-08-01

    Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness--such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine--occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure.

  18. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  19. The Relative Importance of Academic Activities: Autonomous Values from the Canadian Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakwe, Carlton; Keavey, Kalen; Uzoka, Faith-Michael; Fedoruk, Alan; Osuji, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings on the contemporary idea of a university as defined by the relative importance of teaching, research, service, and collegiality in teaching-intensive universities. We also investigate Boyer's model of scholarship relative to the research--teaching--service nexus. Our findings show that while research is embraced…

  20. Public Relations Education in a Time of Change: Suggestions for Academic Relocation and Curriculum Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dirk C.

    Public relations education is frequently criticized as being misdirected and incapable of imparting necessary job skills. This essay argues that contemporary public relations training overemphasizes print journalism at the expense of managerial skills and social science theory. Further, traditional justifications for journalism-based public…

  1. College Students' Storytelling of Ethnicity-Related Events in the Academic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine storytelling of ethnicity-related events among college-going, emerging adults. A total of 280 ethnically diverse participants recounted a memory about a time in which they told a previously reported, ethnicity-related story to others. Analysis centered on the function of the telling and on to whom…

  2. Are University Students' Component Reading Skills Related to Their Text Comprehension and Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Ewald

    2005-01-01

    Among developing and poor readers, text comprehension is strongly related to word decoding accuracy and reading fluency. However, among relatively skilled adult readers, these aspects of reading skill are largely independent of one another. The reading of 193 second- and third-year students enrolled in an educational psychology course at a public…

  3. Academic dishonesty and attitudes towards academic dishonest acts: support for cognitive dissonance theory.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Storch, Jason B

    2003-02-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-reported academic dishonesty and attitudes towards dishonest academic behaviors in 244 college students. Analysis suggested that self-reported academic dishonesty and approval of academic dishonest behaviors were positively correlated.

  4. Economic Status of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and…

  5. Some Thoughts on English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP) and Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John

    2015-01-01

    Academic writing for research publication takes place around the globe, involving, according to a recent account, 5.5 million scholars, 2,000 publishers and 17,500 research/higher education institutions (Lillis & Curry 2010: 1). Because so many scholars whose first language is not English are now using English for publication purposes and…

  6. Selected Legal Issues Relating to Due Process and Liability in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elsa Kircher

    This booklet discusses due process for institutions of higher education and how principles of due process should shape the design of institutional procedures for resolution of conflicts affecting students, faculty, academic programs, and research. The booklet defines and explains various area of conflict, the role of due process, and key legal…

  7. Academic Governance Provided by Academic Boards within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Peters, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Academic boards play a key role in the maintenance of quality standards and the provision of strategic leadership on academic issues. The current research investigated the role provided at present to Australian universities through their academic boards. All universities described their academic boards as their principal academic body. The…

  8. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  9. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  10. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Historical, Ethical, and Legal Issues Associated With Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration. PMID:25031978

  11. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized. PMID:27573502

  12. Building on prior knowledge: schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-10-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite their fundamental importance. A preexisting schema has been shown to enhance memory by influencing the balance between activity within the medial-temporal lobe and the medial pFC during mnemonic processes such as encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Specifically, correctly encoding and retrieving information that is related to preexisting schemas appears rather related to medial prefrontal processing, whereas information unrelated or inconsistent with preexisting schemas rather relates to enhanced medial temporal processing and enhanced interaction between these structures. To further investigate interactions between these regions during conceptual encoding in a real-world university setting, we probed human brain activity and connectivity using fMRI during educationally relevant conceptual encoding carefully embedded within two course programs. Early second-year undergraduate biology and education students were scanned while encoding new facts that were either related or unrelated to the preexisting conceptual knowledge they had acquired during their first year of study. Subsequently, they were tested on their knowledge of these facts 24 hr later. Memory scores were better for course-related information, and this enhancement was associated with larger medial-prefrontal, but smaller medial-temporal subsequent memory effects. These activity differences went along with decreased functional interactions between these regions. Furthermore, schema-related medial-prefrontal subsequent memory effects measured during this experiment were found to be predictive of second-year course performance. These results, obtained in a real-world university setting, reveal brain

  13. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  14. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  15. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  16. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  17. Relations between Informational Sources, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2012-01-01

    As a cognitive-motivational construct, self-efficacy has been researched extensively and has involved two important lines of inquiries, namely the impact of sources of information on self-efficacy and the predictive effect of self-efficacy on learning outcomes. We proposed and tested the relations between the four major sources of information…

  18. Online Learning: Are Subjective Perceptions of Instructional Context Related to Academic Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which students' thoughts, feelings, and actions are associated with the nature of an online course and how that course relates to them personally. Following completion of an online course in aviation physiology, service academy undergraduates (N = 481) completed a survey that assessed several motivational,…

  19. Selected Factors Related to the Mathematics Academic Achievement of Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected factors related to the 8th grade mathematics achievement levels of English Language Learner (ELL) students in selected South Texas middle schools. The dependent variable, ELL mathematics achievement, was measured by the ELL student's raw score on the State of Texas Assessment of Academic…

  20. The Relations between Implicit Intelligence Beliefs, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and School Persistence Intentions: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud-Dubé, Andréanne; Guay, Frédéric; Talbot, Denis; Taylor, Geneviève; Koestner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to test a model in which the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students' school persistence intentions are mediated by intrinsic, identified, introjected, and external regulations. Six hundred and fifty students from a high school were surveyed. Contrary to expectations, results from ESEM analyses indicated…