Science.gov

Sample records for academic labor market

  1. Academic Labor Markets and Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breneman, David W., Ed.; Youn, Ted I. K., Ed.

    As part of the Stanford Series on Education and Public Policy, academic careers and academic labor markets in American higher education are examined from a perspective based on both economic reasoning and sociological analysis. Research common to both fields is considered in a series of 10 essays that discuss the following subjects: "Studies…

  2. European Academic Labor Markets in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Even if convergences are to be observed among the orientations adopted by higher education policies in European countries, they still are characterized by strong national features. One of the most striking national patterns of each system is its academic labor market, salaries, status, recruitment procedures, workloads, career patterns, promotion…

  3. Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    This paper focuses on three academic labor market issues that researchers at Cornell University are addressing currently: (1) the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions; (2) the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries…

  4. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  5. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, Lowell L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  6. The Rhetoric of "Job Market" and the Reality of the Academic Labor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2003-01-01

    One way of describing the recent movement of thought about the academic labor system is as a series of waves. A "first wave" of labor consciousness emerged before 1970, propelling the self-organization of the academic work force, especially in public institutions, where more than half the faculty are unionized. This labor awareness was…

  7. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  8. The Structure of the Chinese Academic Labor Market, 1997-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Mujuan

    2009-01-01

    Universalism is critical to the development of science because it promotes the objectivity of knowledge. Particularism, on the other hand, evaluates scientists' contributions based on functionally irrelevant characteristics, including personal attributes and academic origins. Previous studies found a persistent significant correlation between…

  9. Labor on Campus: Academic Library Service to Labor Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidle, Deborah Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Examines academic library service to labor groups, particularly in the area of Internet training. Results of an informal survey of 53 academic libraries in schools with labor study programs in the United States and Canada indicate that few provide direct services to labor unions, and provides an example of one that does at Cornell University.…

  10. Labor Market Experiences and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia

    This paper reports on a study which measured labor market experience and its possible effects on workers' psychological expectancies. Past efforts that employed black and white men and women had made to improve their market situations are described, as well as attributions they gave for their experiences. Work or educational changes attempted by…

  11. Labor Market Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a class experiment where students search a hypothetical job market for jobs paying wages in a known range but with an unknown wage distribution. The experiment is divided into three "trials", each one introducing different variables (unemployment insurance, search costs, and recession). Includes experiment instructions and a…

  12. The Chilean Teacher Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Maria del Rosario

    2013-01-01

    In Chile, as many other countries, understanding how high-qualified teachers are distributed across schools and which are the relationships that may lead to teachers' potential sorting are key aspect of the teacher labor market and it is central to addressing student achievement gaps. The first paper uses rich new data on all elementary public…

  13. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  14. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  15. The Changing Status of the Ph.D. Degree in Russia: An Academic Attribute in the Nonacademic Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2007-01-01

    In Russia there is a system of two advanced academic degrees: candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences. Historically, in imperial Russia there was a system of academic regulations and degrees based on European, mostly German patterns. Then in the Soviet period from 1918, the degrees of master's and doctor of sciences, which had existed for…

  16. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  17. The Academic Librarian Labor Market and the Role of the Master of Library Science Degree: 1975 through 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Marybeth F.; Grimes, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the evolving role of the Master of Library Science (MLS) degree in academic libraries, pooled cross-sectional data were collected from job advertisements in "College and Research Library News." Beginning with 1975 and continuing at 5-year intervals through 2005, pertinent information from all job advertisements in each monthly issue…

  18. Labor Market Information for Business and Marketing Occupations. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Economics.

    This paper reviews and analyzes labor market trends to provide information for business and marketing program planners. Emphasizing the demand side of the market, the paper considers only those aspects of labor markets that have an impact on the supply of students to business and marketing programs and the demand for graduates of those programs.…

  19. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  20. Education: The Key to Labor Market Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Janet L.

    Although education is the key to labor market success, it never has been a sufficient condition for that goal. In addition to the changing educational attainment of U.S. workers, the shifts in the demographic composition of the labor force and in the very conditions and expectations of the workplace have made the task of efficient use of labor a…

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  2. The Rural Community College as an Administrative Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nathan T.; Cejda, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article examines whether rural community colleges comprise an administrative labor market, based on the careers of 69 chief academic officers employed in rural community colleges. Findings indicate the characteristics of both an…

  3. Labor Market Segmentation and Librarian Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.

    1987-01-01

    Segmented labor market theory is used to explain how the structure of the library labor market may determine salary differences by type of library. Evidence that segmentation exists at intraoccupational levels and the possibility that comparing entire occupations may obscure results are also reported. (Author/CLB)

  4. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    PubMed

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  5. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  6. Migraine headache and labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2015-06-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates suggest that migraines are associated with reduced labor force participation and lower wages among females. A negative association between migraine headache and the wages of female respondents is also obtained using an instrumental variables (IV) approach, although the IV estimates are imprecise relative to the OLS estimates.

  7. Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and a Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    The first two-thirds of the document is a bibliography on women in the labor market which is divided into 27 categories and sub-categories, the major headings of which are: historical perspective, the supply of female labor in the labor market, earnings of women workers, occupations of women workers (covers occupational distribution, academic and…

  8. The White Paper and Restructuring the Academic Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kerry

    1989-01-01

    Mechanisms that allow the strengthening of market and patriarchal forces in higher education, especially as they relate to the academic labor market, are illustrated. The Dawkins paper, "Higher Education, a Policy Statement" (the White Paper), represents an attempt to implement major restructuring in Australia. (MLW)

  9. The Academic Job Market Is Bad for All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Ted I. K.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly 1 million full-and part-time faculty members teach at some 3,400 colleges and universities in the United States. At some point, all of these faculty members have participated in the academic labor market as a buyer or a seller. Social scientists often characterize the higher education market as inefficient and idiosyncratic. Yet…

  10. Labor Market Areas for the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Charles M., II; Killian, Molly Sizer

    This research report identifies labor market areas (LMAs) that can be used for statistical and planning purposes in research on rural America. It details the process by which the 382 LMAs were delineated, using commuting-to-work data from the 1980 Census. A rationale for identifying LMAs appears first. The next part describes the research…

  11. The Youth Labor Market: A Dynamic Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antos, Joseph R.; Mellow, Wesley S.

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of over 10,000 men and women aged eighteen to twenty-seven who were interviewed annually from 1966 through 1971, this study investigates how the youth labor market operates and identifies its manpower problems that should be addressed by policymakers. A five-part recursive model is established for the…

  12. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  13. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeringer, Peter B.; Piore, Michael J.

    Using data gathered in a series of interviews with management and union officials in over 75 companies between 1964 and 1969, this report analyzes the concept of the internal labor market and describes its relevance for federal manpower policy. The management interviews, which were mostly in personnel, industrial engineering, and operations areas…

  14. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  15. The Labor Market Effects of Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, George E.

    1980-01-01

    The probable effects on the U.S. labor market of a continued high rate of illegal immigration are examined. The impact each additional immigrant has on the employment of the domestic population, on GNP, and on the distribution of income is estimated. (CT)

  16. Labor Market Information for Career Cluster Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared

    2008-01-01

    In the midst of several upheavals in the American labor market, career clusters entered the scene in the late 1990s. Career clusters, sometimes called career pathways or ladders, have exploded in popularity and are now being implemented by most states. Job types can be grouped according to similar work interests and knowledge/skill requirements.…

  17. The Labor Market And Schizoprenics' Posthospital Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Lee; Lorei, Theodore W.

    1973-01-01

    Survey results indicated that posthospital employment was meagre and that it was unrelated to urbanization industrialization and local unemployment rates. Variance in vocational adjustment was more importantly accounted for by characteristics of the subject than by labor market characteristics, and was seen as having encouraging implications for…

  18. Psychological testing and the German labor market, 1925 to 1965.

    PubMed

    Meskill, David

    2015-11-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, the massive German Labor Administration used loosely standardized, pragmatic evaluations of personality to steer young people into appropriate jobs. Starting in the late 1950s, the Administration shifted to American scientific methods of trait and factor psychological testing. Behind this change lay not a change in academic psychology but a power shift in the German labor market. Originally, the Labor Administration had to appeal to employers, for whom pragmatic evaluations of personality seemed most convincing. Thanks to the Economic Miracle in the 1950s, the Administration had to gain the trust of young Germans, their parents, and the public, who, it was hoped, would be won over by science.

  19. [Labor market and health. SESPAS Report 2010].

    PubMed

    García, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing.

  20. White Ethnics, Racial Prejudice, and Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Scott

    The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…

  1. The U.S. Labor Market. Getting Inside the Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the U.S. labor market. The economy has performed solidly over the last several years; the labor market has experienced robust job growth. A strong labor market benefits different segments of the population. Unemployment rates for those with less than a high school diploma fell by the largest amount between…

  2. Dynamics of Vocational Education Effects on Labor Market Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.; And Others

    An analysis assessed the effects of a high school vocational curriculum over time as labor market experience accumulates. Since two additional years of labor market experience had become available for respondents to the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience-Youth Cohort (NLS-Youth) and longer trends of effects could be observed,…

  3. Social inequalities in probabilistic labor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He

    2015-03-01

    We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.

  4. Determinants of Early Labor Market Entry and Attainment: A Study of Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Larry J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The early career attainments of a large, national sample of noncollege educated workers are considered from a dual labor market perspective. The analysis considers both the kinds of workers selected initially into secondary sector employment and the consequences of being so situated for a variety of indicators of market success, including…

  5. Labor Market Impediments to Stability in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    out. Sad accounts of child labor abound.[35] Accounts of income earned by children vary. Representative figures are:[36] • Car mechanic—working...market in expensive consumer items, some of which had been unavailable for years. Rising salaries and incomes have enabled many Iraqis to repurchase... household items sold during the sanctions-era of the 1990s.[1] No doubt much of this new found consumer good boom can be attributed to the

  6. Labor market trends for nuclear engineers through 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.; Baker, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout most of the 1980s, both private organizations and government agencies were concerned about the availability of an adequate supply of qualified nuclear engineers. This concern was primarily the result of a number of nuclear engineering academic programs being eliminated coupled with a continuous decline in graduate and undergraduate enrollments and degrees. By the early 1990s, the number of degrees and available supply had declined to new lows, but cutbacks in funding for the nuclear weapons program and nuclear energy R&D, and in hiring by the electric utility industry, offset in large measure the declining supply. Recently, concerns about environment and waste management and about nuclear safety have again generated questions about the adequacy of supply of qualified personnel for nuclear energy activities. This report briefly examines the nuclear engineering labor market. Trends in employment, new graduates, job openings, and salaries are reviewed as a basis for understanding the current labor market. This review is then used as a basis for assessing future employment needs and new graduate supply to provide an outlook for future labor market conditions through 2000.

  7. Statistical Mechanics of Japanese Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He

    We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.

  8. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  9. Minorities in the Labor Market. Volume II: Orientals in the American Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, George L.; And Others

    The major task of this report is to describe and evaluate the participation and status achievements of Orientals in the labor market, with particular attention to factors affecting such participation and whether differences in participation as compared to that of whites reflect discrimination. Inequalities and discrimination are examined in terms…

  10. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    PubMed

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  11. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  12. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  13. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  14. The Politics of Contingent Academic Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstene, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The alarming stories from adjunct faculty, who now comprise a majority of higher-education teachers nationally, share troubling commonalities. The frustrations are financial, personal, and professional. In decades past, most adjunct faculty worked full-time outside of academe and taught an occasional course based on a particular expertise or…

  15. External Labor Markets and the Distribution of Black Scientists and Engineers in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…

  16. Education, Labor Markets and the Retreat from Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…

  17. Requirements Higher Education Graduates Meet on the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Edith M. P.; Brachem, Julia-Carolin

    2015-01-01

    In Europe and all over the world, higher education systems face the challenge of preparing an increasing number of students for the labor market and teaching them discipline-related knowledge and competences as well as generic competences. But what requirements do higher education graduates actually meet on the labor market? To identify higher…

  18. Changing Labor Markets: A Systems Approach to Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastrik, Peter; Seltzer, Marlene B.; Taylor, Judith Combes

    A systems approach to changing labor market performance requires a substantial and enduring commitment to the task of change. A systems reform framework has been developed that is based on a dual-customer approach, with a focus on improving labor market outcomes for both low-income people and their employers. The objective is to change the labor…

  19. Teaching Labor Market Survey Methodology in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Labor Market Survey (LMS) and labor market analysis knowledge and methodologies are minimum competencies expected of rehabilitation counselors through credentialing and accreditation boards. However, LMS knowledge and methodology is an example of a contemporary oral tradition that is universally recognized in rehabilitation and disability services…

  20. A Labor Market Success Model of Young Male Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenstat, Paul

    The study develops a labor market success model of young male inner-city Hispanics and examines several variables influencing labor market success. A sample of inner-city Puerto Ricans who attended the eighth grade in two schools in Wilmington, Delaware, in the 1966-1971 period was chosen and interviewed. Small control groups of blacks and whites…

  1. Labor Market Outcomes of Hispanics by Generation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard

    This digest presents an analysis of the workforce participation of Latinos, emphasizing findings by generation. It describes the demographics of native-born and immigrant Latinos and compares labor market outcomes for adult, young adult, and teen workers. The digest also explores the relationship between schooling and labor market participation,…

  2. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  3. Lady Academe and Labor-Market Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in the global economy is not represented particularly well by old-school "pipeline" theories of women entering particular industries, whether it is manufacturing, medicine, or college teaching. The pipeline analogy suggests that if women enter a field in equal or greater numbers to men, they will somehow automatically be "piped"…

  4. Helping Ex-Offenders Enter the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Frederick

    1983-01-01

    How beneficial are programs designed to improve employability and reduce recidivism? This article reviews research on various labor market strategies and casts doubt on their effectiveness. (Author/SSH)

  5. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  6. Labor Market Outcomes and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and…

  7. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  8. National Labor Market Projections for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Dixie

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the job outlook for occupations where the most important path to entry is through programs typically found at the community college: an associate degree or postsecondary training but less than a degree. The discussion draws on labor market projections from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the federal agency charged…

  9. Attract Academically Strong Students: Market the Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Charles E.; Walters, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a marketing strategy to assist admissions personnel in recruiting academically strong students to colleges and universities. Discusses the importance of institutional prestige and faculty achievement as well as the need to involve faculty in student recruitment. (JAC)

  10. Peasants in reserve: temporary West Indian labor in the U.S. farm labor market.

    PubMed

    Griffith, D

    1986-01-01

    In the past 10 years, the British West Indies Temporary Alien Labor Program has received widespread judicial and legislative support and criticism. While sugar and apple producers who import West Indians argue that domestic labor is insufficient to harvest their crops, labor organizations and their supporters maintain that domestic labor is adequate. The resulting labor disputes focus primarily on the issue of whether or not West Indians are displacing US workers or undermining wage rates and working conditions. This article examines the relationships among legal issues surrounding the program, the US farm labor market, and the Jamaican peasantry. It argues that continued imports of foreign labor during times of high domestic unemployment, as well as the varied factors which underlie the continued willingness and ability of Jamaican peasant households to supply workers to US producers, can be most clearly understood from an international and historical perspective, rather than focussing on the needs and problems of any 1 nation.

  11. Nonmetro and Metro Teens in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    Drawing on theories of family organization and labor market structures, it is argued that teenagers are a useful population for research on the effects of race, household characteristics, and local labor markets on labor force participation. Predictive models of labor force participation were applied to a sample of all White and Black 16- to…

  12. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  13. Marketing Academic Libraries: A Necessary Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodsworth, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    To coordinate an academic-library marketing effort effectively, a comprehensive plan is essential. A traditional marketing plan consists of four activities: determining what to promote, defining target audiences, choosing type of outreach, and evaluating program. Suggestions for promotional activities, forms of publicity, and examples from the…

  14. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday

    2012-09-01

    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets.

  15. How Can the Imbalance Be Eliminated between the Labor Market and the Education Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent past, there has been more and more talk about the fact that the system of professional education has to meet the constantly changing need for specialists in the labor market. In the author's opinion, this is where the problem lies: the labor market requires that education satisfy its social and economic needs with respect to a…

  16. Career Technical Education and Labor Market Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Current data indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) graduates with high school diplomas or postsecondary skills are preparing for careers in fields that are growing or in high-demand. Matching employability skills with workforce demand has been an issue among industries across the nation. CTE provides relevant academic and technical…

  17. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  18. [Economic consequences of migration for the domestic labor market].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, K F

    1993-09-01

    "The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the labor market consequences of immigration. The European countries had substantial experiences with labor migration in recent years. The various theoretical channels how natives might be affected by foreign labor are discussed, especially the issue whether natives and foreigners are complements or substitutes. Most empirical studies for the U.S. confirm that the employment and wage processes of natives are hardly affected. However, recent investigations for Germany qualify these findings." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  19. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Freeman, R B; Katz, L F

    1997-01-01

    "This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85).

  20. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  1. The Labor Market and Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez Medina, Alberto

    1979-01-01

    Problems in employment and education in Mexico will remain in spite of the rapid economic growth expected from the expanding petroleum industry. The structural problems of the job market and education are analyzed with particular reference to higher education. Commentary by Michael Olivas accompanies this article. (JMF)

  2. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  3. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-12-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

  4. Teenagers in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Among youth aged 16-18 living at home in 1980, employment was proportionately higher among whites than blacks and among metropolitan compared to nonmetropolitan youth. Employment of white youth was linked more closely than that of black youth to family resources (income and occupational status) and local labor market characteristics. Discusses…

  5. Parental Problem-Drinking and Adult Children's Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.

    2008-01-01

    Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…

  6. Labor Market Experience for Engineers During Periods of Changing Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Trevor

    This report was prepared to present reviews, synthesis, and evaluation of research studies and demonstration projects concerned with the labor market experience of unemployed engineers, particularly in aerospace-defense. It also includes a review and evaluation of national manpower efforts to aid the reemployment of unemployed engineers,…

  7. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  8. The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of six hospitals and five auto parts suppliers showed that in high-skilled occupations, employers paid more to temporary agency help than regular staff. In low-skilled occupations, temporary agencies facilitated use of riskier workers. Temporaries may relieve pressure to raise wages in tight labor markets, perhaps contributing to…

  9. Are Job Banks Improving The Labor Market Information System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Joseph C.; Huber, George P.

    1974-01-01

    Local job banks, computer aided man-job matching systems, are the spearhead of the multiphased Federal program to improve the functioning of the labor market information system. As evaluated here, the program may eventually achieve this objective but the evidence concerning the first phase is not encouraging. (DS)

  10. Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of how immigration influences the joint determination of the wage structure and internal migration behavior for native-born workers in local labor markets. Using data from the 1960-2000 decennial censuses, the study shows that immigration is associated with lower in-migration rates, higher…

  11. The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III

    2004-01-01

    Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…

  12. The Impact of New College Graduates on Intrastate Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial issue in the debate on state support for higher education is the extent that a state's production of college graduates affects the state's education attainment. The view that many new graduates take their state-supported degrees to labor markets in other states undermines states' incentives to promote wider access to college. This study…

  13. Labor Market Conditions and the Reemployment of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Marie; Peterson, George E.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the impact of local labor market conditions on the financial losses of dislocated manufacturing workers. It found that strong overall growth in the local economy reduced economic losses of white collar workers but not of blue collar workers. (JOW)

  14. Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Paul; Kochan, Thomas A.; Locke, Richard; Piore, Michael J.

    The evolution of jobs and the job market in the United States was examined in a 3-year project during which a task force consisting of 25 representatives of the education, labor, business, and policy sectors organized 17 workshops and commissioned working papers from experts. The project began by examining how recent changes in the world of work…

  15. Community Literacy, Labor Market Intermediaries, and Community Communication Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Arguing that we fail both parents and students if we continue to think of community literacy as a dichotomy between school and work, this article illustrates Labor Market Intermediaries (LMIs) as sites of community literacy. The investigation of LMIs in a particular community (Greater Lafayette, Indiana) allows for a more thorough understanding of…

  16. Job Displacement and Labor Market Mobility. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Swaim, Paul

    A study examined the labor market mobility of displaced workers, using a new data file that matches the January 1984, 1986, and 1988 Displaced Worker Surveys (DWS) to the March Current Population Surveys in the same years. This large database provides information on displaced workers and their families and permits comparison of the geographic…

  17. Responsiveness of Training Institutions to Changing Labor Market Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert E., Ed.; And Others

    These 19 papers from the second annual Policy Forum on Employability Development explore the responsiveness of various educational and training institutions to changing labor market demands. The first three papers provide an overview of the forum. They summarize the proceedings and policy considerations and address how vocational education and…

  18. Education and the Labor Market in Venezuela, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Steier, Francis

    1988-01-01

    Examines various education-related aspects of Venezuela's labor market for 1975-1984, using a sample of 40,000 workers. Education returns have declined only two percent during a rapid educational expansion period. The increased supply of educated persons influenced the narrowing of earnings differentials and led to more equitable income…

  19. Using Illustrations from American Novels to Teach about Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachris, Michelle Albert; Bohanon, Cecil E.

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates how literature can bring models to life in undergraduate courses on labor market economics. The authors argue that economics instructors and students can benefit from even small doses of literature. The authors examine excerpts from five American novels: "Sister Carrie" by Theodore Drieser (1900/2005); "The Grapes of…

  20. Professional Education and the Labor Market: Problems of Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochetov, A. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing desire to obtain a higher education in Russia is causing a growing disparity between educational qualifications and the needs of the labor market. Blue-collar jobs of varying levels are difficult to fill, and the demand for the qualification of those with degrees is not sufficient to avoid high levels of unemployment. Ways need to…

  1. Job Queues, Certification Status, and the Education Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the interaction between training programs and certification status in one education labor market to examine the micro-level interactions that shape the recruitment process. Using job queue theory, it is found that the information available to novice teachers operates to stratify and shape their worksite choices in addition…

  2. Education and Signaling: Evidence from a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John S.; Wei, Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    This paper directly tests for differences in returns to education between the employed and self-employed in Hong Kong. Using a step-function, we find significantly smaller returns for the self-employed, suggesting that in the highly competitive labor market of Hong Kong education plays a signaling role. This pattern persists for both genders, when…

  3. First-Generation Students: A Longitudinal Analysis of Educational and Early Labor Market Outcomes. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie

    This paper provides initial results of a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of first-generation students, their college choices, their academic and social integration into the institution, their postsecondary persistence and attainment outcomes, and their labor market outcomes. The study analyzed data from the 1989-90…

  4. The Marketing Market: Matching Academic Hiring Institutions and Job Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basil, Michael D.; Basil, Debra Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hiring faculty is a challenge in the field of marketing. One important factor is a shortage of candidates. The problem is exacerbated, however, by an imperfect match between jobs and candidates. This study examines the homogeneity of academic jobs and candidates. Surveys were conducted with both parties. The results show that institutions and…

  5. The Marketing Concept in an Academic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rešetová, Kvetoslava

    2013-01-01

    Universities, as subjects of the academic environment, are institutions with the priority of education and research. The task of the marketing concept in the academic field is to communicate with all important target groups to support a stronger position and their perception of the school. The aim of the intervention is to increase the prestige, improve awareness, support positive attitudes, and present successful results in all areas of activity. This means creation and protection of a positive image, which enables higher interest of all target groups and secures better awareness about it.

  6. The Economics of Community College Labor Markets: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Hirschel

    2009-01-01

    The community college has many roles and constituents: academic, professional, and vocational. Its curriculum may be distinguished from that of other institutions of higher education by its many courses designed to enhance students' immediate career opportunities, especially with nearby employers. This article focuses on the job markets for…

  7. Rising Wage Inequality: The 1980s Experience in Urban Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyclak, Thomas

    The rising wage inequality in U.S. urban labor markets during the 1980s was examined in a study of 20 metropolitan area labor markets. The study's perspective differs from the prevailing perspective on the problem in three ways: (1) it focuses on changes in the wage structure in a sample of local labor markets; (2) it examines changes in the…

  8. Labor market segmentation, human capital and the economics of crime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGahey, R.M.

    1982-08-24

    This dissertation analyzes the relationships between human capital, labor market structure and crime. Using a unique micro-level data base with individually matched crime and employment data for over 900 felony arrestees, it tests the relative explanatory power of neoclassical economic choice theory and labor market segmentation theory on the determinants of labor market outcomes, criminal behavior, and their interactions.

  9. Labor market trends among registered nurses: 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alan

    2012-11-01

    This study uses recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and Registered Nurses (RNs) licensing exam to examine the recession's effect on the RN labor market. It then reports results of a survey of 518 hospital nursing officers conducted in 2008 and 2010 matched with institutional data from the American Hospital Association (AHA). These unique data show how the recession led hospitals to slow hiring despite accelerating attrition of retirement-age nurses; shift away from H1-B, agency, and, overtime work; and reduce training, and other benefits for new hires. More broadly, results show how nurse-staffing practices adapt to market conditions. Results also suggest reduced hospital support for nursing education may strain the supply of managerial and specialty nurses as baby-boom nurses retire.

  10. Observatory facility staff requirements and local labor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabanus, David

    2012-09-01

    Current large observatories, both in operation and projects in development or construction, face the challenge to find skilled personnel for integration and operation. Typical locations of these observatories are found to be remote, mainly due to electromagnetic pollution prevention, which in many if not all cases reduces the attractiveness of the work posts. Additional budgetary limitations restrict the recruitment radius for certain positions to the local labor market. This paper outlines these staffing constraints in more detail and elaborates on the need for training programs on various levels, which can be costly. This, in turn, drives the need for creative retention efforts. Therefore, financial modeling, contingency, risk and quality management, and the reliability, availability, and maintainability of an observatory are directly coupled to the local embedding in the labor market of the host country.

  11. Education, mental health, and education-labor market misfit.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit.

  12. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness.

  13. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  14. The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-02-01

    Although several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness. This article uses a longitudinal national sample, including sibling pairs, to show the important labor market outcome consequences of ADHD. The employment reduction is between 10 and 14 percentage points, the earnings reduction is approximately 33%, and the increase in social assistance is 15 points, figures that are larger than many estimates of the Black people/White people earnings gap and the gender earnings gap. A small share of the link is explained by educational attainments and co-morbid health conditions and behaviors. The results also show important differences in labor market consequences by family background and age of onset. These findings, along with similar research showing that ADHD is linked with poor education outcomes and adult crime, suggest the importance of treating childhood ADHD to foster human capital.

  15. Complementarities or contradictions? Scoping the health dimensions of "flexicurity" labor market policies.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Zabia; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Mahmood, Qamar; Ng, Edwin; Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Flexicurity, or the integration of labor market flexibility with social security and active labor market policies, has figured prominently in economic and social policy discussions in Europe since the mid-1990s. Such policies are designed to transcend traditional labor-capital conflicts and to form a mutually supportive nexus of flexibility and security within a climate of intensified competition and rapid technological change. International bodies have marketed flexicurity as an innovative win-win strategy for employers and workers alike, commonly citing Denmark and The Netherlands as exemplars of best practice. In this article, we apply a social determinants of health framework to conduct a scoping review of the academic and gray literature to: (a) better understand the empirical associations between flexicurity practices and population health in Denmark and (b) assess the relevance and feasibility of implementing such policies to improve health and reduce health inequalities in Ontario, Canada. Based on 39 studies meeting our full inclusion criteria, preliminary findings suggest that flexicurity is limited as a potential health promotion strategy in Ontario, offers more risks to workers' health than benefits, and requires the strengthening of other social protections before it could be realistically implemented within a Canadian context.

  16. Marketing Academics' Perceptions of the Peer Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…

  17. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers.

  18. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  19. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  20. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  1. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  2. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  3. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  4. Labor-Market Conditions for Engineers: Is There a Shortage? Proceedings of a Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    These proceedings include four papers that examine four different models of the engineering labor market, namely, those of: (1) the American Electronics Association ("Technical Employment Projections, 1983-1987" by Pat Hill Hubbard); (2) the Bureau of Labor Statistics ("Future Labor-Market Conditions for Engineers" by Ronald E.…

  5. What happens to defined contribution accounts when labor markets and financial markets move together?

    PubMed

    Weller, Christian E; Wenger, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among earnings, savings, and retirement is well known; however, the linkage between labor market outcomes and financial market performance is generally unacknowledged. We examine the implications of the link between labor markets and financial markets for workers who save money in individual retirement accounts. Specifically, differences in labor market outcomes across groups may imply differences in the timing of investments, which may reduce savings over time for these groups compared to their counterparts. Using monthly data from the Current Population Survey (1979-2002), we generate hypothetical investment portfolios using stock and bond indices. We exploit differences across demographic groups in unemployment and wage growth and use these differences to examine each group's investment outcomes. We then disaggregate the total effects into short-term and long-term components. We find some evidence of short-term market timing effects on investment, but we find much larger long-term effects for some groups. Our findings suggest that, for many people, the retirement savings losses associated with the timing of markets are similar to the costs of annuitizing savings upon retirement. The differences are especially pronounced by education and gender.

  6. Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession*

    PubMed Central

    Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329

  7. Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and self-sufficiency that are important markers of the transition to adulthood. Young men with no more than a high school degree have difficulty earning enough to support a family. Even though young women have achieved gains in earnings, employment, and schooling relative to men in recent decades, those without a college degree also struggle to achieve economic stability and self-sufficiency. The authors begin by describing trends in labor market outcomes for young adults-median annual earnings, the extent of low-wage work, employment rates, job instability, and the returns to education. Then they examine how these outcomes may contribute to delays in other markers of the transition to adulthood-completing an education, establishing independent living arrangements, and marrying and having children. They conclude that adverse changes in labor market outcomes are related to those delays but have not been shown to be the primary cause. Danziger and Ratner next consider several public policy reforms that might improve the economic outlook for young adults. They recommend policies that would increase the returns to work, especially for less-educated workers. They propose raising the federal minimum wage and adjusting it annually to maintain its value relative to the median wage. Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless low-wage workers, the authors say, could also raise the take-home pay of many young adult workers, with minimal adverse employment effects. New policies should also provide work opportunities for young adults who cannot find steady employment either because of poor economic conditions or because of physical

  8. Labor market penalties for foreign degrees among college educated immigrants.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, Caren A; Warren, John Robert

    2013-05-01

    Are college degrees earned abroad worth less in the American economy than degrees earned in the United States? Do the labor market penalties associated with holding a foreign degree vary as a function of the country or region in which it was earned? Do these processes differ for men and women? We use data on 18,361 college-educated immigrants from the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG) to address these questions. Female immigrants with foreign degrees are less likely to be employed than immigrant women who earned their degrees in the US. When employed, both female and male immigrants with foreign degrees are less likely to work in a job related to their highest college degree. Among employed female immigrants, the wage returns to foreign degrees are about 17% less than for US degrees; among male immigrants, this figure is about 11%. For both female and male immigrants, the labor market penalties associated with holding a foreign degree vary as a function of the region from which the foreign degree was obtained.

  9. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Long-Term Labor Market Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Maczulskij, Terhi

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines whether alcohol consumption is related to long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women matched to register-based individual information on employment and earnings. The twin data allow us to account for the shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured by weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The average of an individual's employment months and earnings were measured in adulthood over the period 1990-2009. The models that account for the shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that former drinkers and heavy drinkers both have almost 20% lower earnings compared with moderate drinkers. On average, former drinkers work annually approx. 1 month less over the 20-year observation period. These associations are robust to the use of covariates, such as education, pre-existing health endowment and smoking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    A labor supply forecast is developed for the U.S. labor market in the 1980s, focusing on the effects of the low fertility rates of recent years. That forecast is then compared with the Bureau of Labor Statistics projection of employment demand in the next decade. Effects of illegal immigrants are also discussed. (CT)

  12. The Labor Market and the System of Education: Difficulties in the Interpretation of Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamoya, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The training of professional cadres for the economy as it transitions to innovative development must take account of the current state of the labor market as well as tendencies in workers' labor mobility. These tendencies reflect the degree of concentration and reproduction of labor potential in various forms of economic activity, and define…

  13. Towards a European Academic Labour Market?: Some Lessons Drawn from Empirical Studies on Academic Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe…

  14. The Bright Side of Corporate Diversification: Evidence from Internal Labor Markets

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    We document differences in human-capital deployment between diversified and focused firms. We find that diversified firms have higher labor productivity and that they redeploy labor to industries with better prospects in response to changing opportunities. The opportunities and incentives provided in internal labor markets in turn affect the development of workers' human capital. We find that workers more frequently transition to other industries in which their diversified firms operate and with smaller wage losses compared with workers in the open market, even when they leave their original firms. Overall, internal labor markets provide a bright side to corporate diversification. PMID:26924889

  15. Labor Markets in the Rural South: A Study Based on Four Rural Southern Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.; And Others

    Focusing on the factors inhibiting the labor market's adjustment to economic change, the study examined the economic and social problems facing southern rural areas and populations, including Chicanos and migrants. Factors were in the areas of the labor market behavior, income and earnings, poverty, welfare system and welfare reform, manpower…

  16. Local Labor Market Characteristics and the Occupational Concentration of Different Sociodemographic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes concentration of employment opportunities for different socioeconomic groups in different local labor-market areas (LMAs). Uses regression analysis of 1980 census data. Finds rural LMAs offer fewer opportunities. Gender differences in occupational concentrations relate to industrial composition of labor market. Racial difference is…

  17. Connecting the Dots: The Labor Market Information View of Workforce Development. Essays for the Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Richard, Ed.

    This monograph is comprised of 12 essays related to the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), each of which serves as a generic primer on a topic relevant to work force development staff and researchers nationwide. The essays are "Learning the Language of LMI (Labor Market Information): Basic Labor Market Information Terms and…

  18. Tracking Success: High School Curricula and Labor Market Outcomes by Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Stephanie; Stearns, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Education researchers have established that educational tracking reinforces inequalities, but they have not fully examined the affect of these tracks on labor market outcomes for men and women of different races/ethnicities. At the same time, labor market researchers have studied the association between education and income by race and gender, but…

  19. Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from Michigan. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley; Dynarski, Susan; Jacob, Brian; Kreisman, Daniel; Sosa, Alfredo; Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relative labor market gains experienced by first-time college students who enrolled in five community colleges in Michigan in 2003 and 2004. We track credentials, credits, earnings, and employment for these students through 2011. We compare labor market outcomes of those who earned a credential (associate degree or certificate) to…

  20. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  1. Proposed Model for Innovation of Community Colleges to Meet Labor Market Needs in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The study introduced a very important issue for the development of labor market in any developing country. The rapid changes in technology and communication imposed challenges on education institutions for the development of labor market to meet local communities. These institutions have more responsibilities to provide professional and skilled…

  2. Localism and Teacher Labor Markets: How Geography and Decision Making May Contribute to Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Cannata, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of evidence indicates that there is a large inequality in the distribution of teachers across schools. Relatedly, recent research has revealed a number of important dimensions of teacher labor markets in the United States. We review the literature in two of these areas: the geography of teacher labor markets and the decision-making…

  3. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  4. Educational Systems and the Trade-Off between Labor Market Allocation and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…

  5. Another Look at the Enclave Economy Thesis: Chinese Immigrants in the Ethnic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Don

    1991-01-01

    Experiences of 165 Chinese immigrants to San Francisco (California) who arrived between 1965 and 1975 suggest that workers employed in the ethnic labor market (enclave economy) have lower wages, higher turnover, and less promotional opportunities than workers in other labor markets. Positive aspects of the enclave economy are discussed. (SLD)

  6. Hardship: The Welfare Consequences of Labor Market Problems. A Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, MI.

    Social statistics may exaggerate the degree of hardship caused by labor market problems. Yet, in many ways social statistics underestimate the degree of hardship caused by extended unemployment, underemployment, and low wages. Therefore, new measures are needed to reassess long-term and cyclical labor market developments, the changing status of…

  7. Three Essays on Educator Labor Markets: Evidence from Missouri Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Shishan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay investigates the feasibility of moving high-performing teachers to low-performing schools using administrative micro data from Missouri. I define teacher labor markets concentrically and construct models to allow teachers' local labor markets, within teaching, to influence their mobility…

  8. From Higher Education to Work Patterns of Labor Market Entry in Germany and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies describing the transition from higher education to work have often simplified the complex transition processes involved. In this paper we extend previous research by taking into account several steps that comprise labor market entry, e.g., recurrent education leading to more than one instance of labor market entry. By comparing…

  9. A Scheme To Improve the Utilization on Vocational Qualifications in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-Im; Kim, Deog-Ki

    Korea's labor market was analyzed to inform efforts to develop a scheme to improve the utilization of vocational qualifications. The study examined the different meanings of qualifications in South Korea's labor market and how utilization of qualifications is influenced by factors such as types of human resource management, vocational training…

  10. Labor Market Experience of Teenagers with and without High School Diplomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; And Others

    The rationale for high school dropout reduction programs rests mainly on evidence that graduates are more successful than dropouts in the labor market. It is not evident, however, whether this difference is attributable to the diploma itself or to underlying characteristics that affect both graduation and labor market success. This paper estimates…

  11. Trade Liberalization and Women's Integration into National Labor Markets: A Cross-Country Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lisa B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization and the risks associated with participation in the global trading system on women's integration into national labor markets. Using data from 1970 to 1995, I identify two global determinants of the female share of national labor markets: trade openness and transnational corporate penetration.…

  12. The Impact of College Quality on Early Labor Market Outcomes in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Li

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of college quality on early labor market outcomes in China, including the fresh college graduates' initial employment status and starting wages for students who graduated in 2011. The main data source is the College Student Labor Market (CSLM) survey conducted by Tsinghua University. Distinguished from…

  13. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  14. Vacancy chains and equilibration in senior-level labor markets

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Y.; Roth, A.E.; Rothblum, U.

    1994-12-31

    In senior-level labor markets unfilled positions (caused by retirement of worker or by creation of new jobs) are often filled with candidates who are themselves incumbents in other similar position; thus creating a chain of vacancies that propagates from firm to firm. In this paper we apply the stable marriage model of Gale and Shapley (in which the two sided are {open_quotes}firms{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}workers{close_quotes}) to study this re-equilibration process. We show that a simple {open_quotes}deferred acceptance{close_quotes} algorithm in which firms with vacant position propose to workers who could hold at most one position at a time, would always produce a stable matching (assuming that the market was initially stable). This algorithm generates a matching that is independent of the order of proposals and optimal for the firms in a well defined subset of the stable matchings. We also show that this re-equilibration process is monotone and preserves individual firm-optimality. Once we assume that the {open_quotes}deferred acceptance{close_quotes} algorithm is the equilibration process, the workers and firms have to decide how to act when the algorithm works (an agent must not act truly according to its/her true preferences). This decision problem define a game where the strategy space is any profile of preferences. We show that in this game it is optimal for each firm to act truly and to reveal its true preferences, independently of how the other agents play. This result is shown to be untrue for the workers. In particular, workers have often incentives to deviate from their true preferences. We also show that an equilibrium always exist in this game and we characterize some matchings that can result from strategies that form an equilibrium. Finally, we show that each matching that results from equilibrium is stable for the true preferences.

  15. The labor market effects of California's minimum nurse staffing law.

    PubMed

    Munnich, Elizabeth L

    2014-08-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement statewide minimum nurse-to-patient ratios in general hospitals. In spite of years of work to establish statewide staffing regulations, there is little evidence that the law was effective in attracting more nurses to the hospital workforce or improving patient outcomes. This paper examines the effects of this legislation on employment and wages of registered nurses. By using annual financial data from California hospitals, I show that nurse-to-patient ratios in medical/surgical units increased substantially following the staffing mandate. However, survey data from two nationally representative datasets indicate that the law had no effect on the aggregate number of registered nurses or the hours they worked in California hospitals, and at most a modest effect on wages. My findings suggest that offsetting changes in labor demand due to hospital closures, combined with reclassification of workers within hospitals, and mitigated the employment effects of California's staffing regulation. This paper cautions that California's experience with minimum nurse staffing legislation may not be generalizable to states considering similar policies in very different hospital markets.

  16. A View from UMBC: Using Real-Time Labor-Market Data to Evaluate Professional Program Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Christopher; Goldberger, Susan; Restuccia, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Continuing and professional education units are faced with the constant need to keep pace with dynamic labor markets when assessing program offerings and content. Real-time labor-market data derived from detailed analysis of online job postings offers a new tool for more easily aligning programs to local labor-market demand. The authors describe a…

  17. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    The labor market spillover effects of welfare reform were estimated by using models that pool time-series and cross-section data from the Current Population Survey on the state-year cell means of wages, employment, and other labor market outcomes for various demographic groups. The labor market outcomes in question are dependent variables that are…

  18. Heterogeneity and the Effect of Mental Health Parity Mandates on the Labor Market*

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance benefit mandates are believed to have adverse effects on the labor market, but efforts to document such effects for mental health parity mandates have had limited success. I show that one reason for this failure is that the association between parity mandates and labor market outcomes vary with mental distress. Accounting for this heterogeneity, I find adverse labor market effects for non-distressed individuals, but favorable effects for moderately distressed individuals and individuals with a moderately distressed family member. On net, I conclude that the mandates are welfare increasing for moderately distressed workers and their families, but may be welfare decreasing for non-distressed individuals. PMID:26210944

  19. The Spatial Geography of Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…

  20. Labor Market Projections Model: a user's guide to the population, labor force, and unemployment projections model at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, E.

    1980-08-01

    In an effort to assist SESA analysts and CETA prime sponsor planners in the development of labor-market information suitable to their annual plans, the Labor Market Projections Model (LMPM) was initiated. The purpose of LMPM is to provide timely information on the demographic characteristics of local populations, labor supply, and unemployment. In particular, the model produces short-term projections of the distributions of population, labor force, and unemployment by age, sex, and race. LMPM was designed to carry out these projections at various geographic levels - counties, prime-sponsor areas, SMSAs, and states. While LMPM can project population distributions for areas without user input, the labor force and unemployment projections rely upon inputs from analysts or planners familiar with the economy of the area of interest. Thus, LMPM utilizes input from the SESA analysts. This User's Guide to LMPM was specifically written as an aid to SESA analysts and other users in improving their understanding of LMPM. The basic method of LMPM is a demographic cohort aging model that relies upon 1970 Census data. LMPM integrates data from several sources in order to produce current projections from the 1970 baseline for all the local areas of the nation. This User's Guide documents the procedures, data, and output of LMPM. 11 references.

  1. The Volatile Teenage Labor Market: Labor Force Entry, Exit, and Unemployment Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph E.; Vanski, Jean E.

    1979-01-01

    Alerts researchers to the potential value and limitations of the gross flow data published in the Department of Labor's Current Population Survey (CPS). Reports on research which used CPS data to analyze patterns of teenage unemployment and labor force participation. (PR)

  2. [Immigrants and the labor market: a new age of immigration?].

    PubMed

    Dechaux, J

    1991-04-01

    Trends in migration to France since the 1974 legislation restricting immigration are described. The author notes that the growing integration of pre-1974 immigrants into the labor force and society is accompanied by a growth in illegal immigration. He concludes that the present situation concerning immigrant labor remains fluid, and that the characteristics of immigrants are extremely diverse. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. Are College Graduates More Responsive to Distant Labor Market Opportunities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Are highly educated workers better at locating in areas with high labor demand? To answer this question, I use three decades of U.S. Census data to estimate a McFadden-style model of residential location choice. I test for education differentials in the likelihood that young workers reside in states experiencing positive labor demand shocks at the…

  4. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  5. Labor Market Changes and Adjustments: How Do the U.S. and Japan Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; Shiells, Clinton R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyze labor market flexibility and adjustment capabilities of Japan and the United States. They examine the job shift to services and trends in wages, productivity, and exchange rates to judge the international competitive position of each country. (CH)

  6. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  7. The Youth Labor Market. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalacheck, Edward

    Literature on the job-hunting and the work records of young persons in school and during their initial period of adjustment to full-time membership in the labor force is reviewed and evaluated. While this suggests an analysis of the labor market experiences of 14 to 24 year olds, most of the literature to be surveyed deals with a more narrowly…

  8. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  9. Teaching Keynes's Principle of Effective Demand Using the Aggregate Labor Market Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, Paul; Lavoie, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a method to teach John Keynes's principle of effective demand using a standard aggregate labor market diagram familiar to students taking advanced undergraduate macroeconomics courses. States the analysis incorporates Michal Kalecki's version to show Keynesian unemployment as a point on the aggregate labor demand curve inside the…

  10. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  11. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  12. Identifying Higher-Education Level Skill Needs in Labor Markets: The Main Tools Usable for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    There are natural mismatches in the labor market between the demand for higher-educated laborers and the supply of graduates provided by the higher education system in terms of quantity and qualifications. While there are open positions, some graduates still cannot find work. There are various findings indicating that the mismatch between…

  13. Competitive marketing strategies. A challenge for academic practices.

    PubMed

    Sinioris, M E

    1985-01-01

    A special challenge has been presented to academic medical practices by the new healthcare environment. While increased competition for patients and resources affects all medical groups, it is the academic practices who are responsible for training the physicians of tomorrow. Not only must they sharpen their students' awareness of the new environment and teach them to incorporate effective management strategies into their practices, but they must set an example in effective management as well. The basic concepts of competitive marketing strategy, along with helpful exhibits, are presented here, and strategies for effectively maximizing position are discussed from the viewpoints of product mix, process market, and financing.

  14. Strategies for Data-Informed Labor Market Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiland, Linda; Brown, William

    2008-01-01

    Central Arizona College (CAC) has leveraged EMSI to design the most effective regional strategies for academic/economic prediction analysis. Accessing current and reliable data on occupations, skills requirements, and demographics, CAC can extract, analyze, and present this data to academic programs, advisory boards, economic development councils,…

  15. Segmented Labor Markets: A Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Its Implication for Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    The study reviews orthodox theories of labor markets, presents new formulations of segmentation theory, and provides empirical tests of segmentation in the United States and several developing nations. Orthodox labor market theory views labor as being paid for its contribution to production and that investment in education and vocational training…

  16. Situating the Rural Teacher Labor Market in the Broader Context: A Descriptive Analysis of the Market Dynamics in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Luke C.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding accountability systems that impose policies across all schools have amplified assertions that rural teacher labor markets differ from non-rural labor markets in meaningful ways that complicate rural schools' efforts to comply with the policy directives. The analysis presented here examines this claim by exploring teacher labor market…

  17. Thick-Market Effects and Churning in the Labor Market: Evidence from U.S. Cities*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Using U.S. Census microdata, we show that, on average, workers change occupation and industry less in more densely populated areas. The result is robust to standard demographic controls, as well as to including aggregate measures of human capital and sectoral mix. Analysis of the displaced worker surveys shows that this effect is present in cases of involuntary separation as well. On the other hand, we actually find the opposite result (higher rates of occupational and industrial switching) for the subsample of younger workers. These results provide evidence in favor of increasing-returns-to-scale matching in labor markets. Results from a back-of-the-envelope calibration suggest that this mechanism has an important role in raising both wages and returns to experience in denser areas. PMID:24039316

  18. Job-Transitions in the Administrative Labor Market in Higher Education: Some Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolansky, Bettie M.

    The question of whether the market for administrators is segmented by institutional types (i.e., region, affiliation, size, mission, and resource level) was investigated. One facet of the research was the applicability of segmentation theory to the occupational labor market for college managers. Principal data were provided by career histories of…

  19. Innovations in Labor Market Information and Their Application: Applications for Workforce Programs. A Greenways Action Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milfort, Myriam; Kelley, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    With funding from the Joyce and Lumina foundations, Jobs for the Future (JFF) launched Credentials that Work to help postsecondary institutions, regions, and states align their occupational training programs to changing market demands. This initiative incorporates innovations in real-time labor market information in guiding institutions to better…

  20. Pushed, pulled, or blocked? The elderly and the labor market in post-Soviet Russia.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Theodore P; Radl, Jonas

    2014-05-01

    Russia provides an interesting context for studying the labor market experiences of the elderly because of its experience with market transition, its looming growth in the elderly dependency ratio, and its unusual pension policies that do not penalize pensioners for working. We use data from twenty surveys of the Russian population conducted from February 1991 to November 2007 to analyze the labor market participation and earnings of elderly Russians following market transition. Economic desperation, exacerbated by low pension levels, pushed some elderly to seek employment for income on the labor market. Elderly Russians with more education had more opportunities to work, and education differentials increased as market reforms progressed. The correlates of earnings operate similarly for retirement- and pre-retirement age Russians, with several exceptions: unobserved factors favoring employment are negatively associated with earnings for the elderly, occupation mediates most of the effects of education, and patterns of change over time differ somewhat. Elderly Russians are not disproportionately blocked from employment following market reforms. Following the initial transition shock, their labor market activity increased. Overall, both push and pull factors shape the employment and earnings of the elderly, affecting different segments of them.

  1. An Efficiency Assessment among Empirically Defined Labor Markets for Determining Pay for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental to updating a fixed-rate salary schedule for teachers is the reliance on a relevant labor market containing comparisons to other school districts--that is, object school districts, which can be chosen from a policy or empirical/efficiency perspective. As such, four relevant markets having roots in neoclassical economic…

  2. Forecasting the Ph.D. Labor Market: Pitfalls for Policy. Technical Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Richard B.; Breneman, David W.

    This paper provides a critical review of the purposes, current techniques and potential methods for analyzing doctorate and other high-level labor markets. Chapter 1 describes and interprets the doctorate manpower market of the 1960's and early 1970's, as well as the forecasted manpower crisis of the 1970's and early 1980's. Chapter 2 gives a…

  3. Do Child Care Regulations Affect the Child Care and Labor Markets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of child care regulations on outcomes in the child care market and the labor market for mothers of young children is examined. The analysis uses a time series of cross sections and examines the robustness of previous cross-section findings to controls for state-level heterogeneity. Child care regulations as a group have statistically…

  4. Avoiding and Stemming Abuses in Academic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1981-01-01

    Recommendations made as a result of a Wingspread Colloquium on college marketing and student recruitment are reported. Abuses and specific remedies in recruiting, providing information, pricing and financing, student selection, and performance obligations and guarantees are outlined. Focus is on ethical and public interest issues. (MSE)

  5. Customers & Markets: The Cuss Words of Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Craig

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the current market-orientation of higher education institutions outlines five ways they can appropriately respond to students and employers: creating a culture focusing on student learning, not teaching; accepting responsibility to teach more than course content; involving students in establishing objectives for learning; making…

  6. Monopsony power and relative wages in the labor market for nurses.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B T; Schumacher, E J

    1995-10-01

    This paper examines the thesis that monopsony power is an important determinant of wages in nursing labor markets. Using data from the 1985-93 Current Population Surveys, measures of relative nurse/non-nurse wage rates for 252 labor markets are constructed. Contrary to predictions from the monopsony model, no positive relationship exists between relative nursing wages and hospital density or market size. Nor is support found for the presence of monopsony power based on evidence on union wage premiums, slopes of experience profiles, or the mix of RN to total hospital employment.

  7. Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Marketing Education. Bulletin No. 9005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of marketing education. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. The first part of the guide is an introduction that…

  8. State Labor Market Research Study: An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Labor Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others

    The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…

  9. The Youth Labor Market in the Context of Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Many young people in Russia find it difficult to move into employment, and given the importance of a more efficient labor force for Russia's economic future, more needs to be done by the Russian government to improve the situation. Under current conditions, the state's activity in regard to solving issues of protecting the interests of young…

  10. Ethnic Minorities in American Labor Markets. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    The document presents an analysis of the economic status of certain minority groups in the United States. The groups include Blacks, American Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos. Specifically, the document examines differences in female labor supply, female occupational status, and male earnings among the…

  11. The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

  12. Psychiatric disorders and labor market outcomes: evidence from the National Latino and Asian American Study.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Alegría, Margarita; Lu, Mingshan; Takeuchi, David

    2007-10-01

    This paper investigates to what extent psychiatric disorders and mental distress affect labor market outcomes in two rapidly growing populations that have not been studied to date-ethnic minorities of Latino and Asian descent, most of whom are immigrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we examine the labor market effects of meeting diagnostic criteria for any psychiatric disorder in the past 12 months as well as the effects of psychiatric distress in the past year. The labor market outcomes analyzed are current employment status, the number of weeks worked in the past year among those who are employed, and having at least one work absence in the past month among those who are employed. Among Latinos, psychiatric disorders and mental distress are associated with detrimental effects on employment and absenteeism, similar to effects found in previous analyses of mostly white, American born populations. Among Asians, we find more mixed evidence that psychiatric disorders and mental distress detract from labor market outcomes. Our findings suggest that reducing disparities and expanding access to effective treatment may have significant labor market benefits-not just for majority populations, as has been demonstrated, but also for Asians and Latinos.

  13. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act.

  14. Spousal Labor Market Effects from Government Health Insurance: Evidence from a Veterans Affairs Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Melissa A.; Lahey, Joanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly-provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands’ labor supply decreases, wives’ labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. JEL codes: H4, I1, J2 PMID:26734757

  15. Business structure, ethnic shifts in labor markets, and violence: the link between company size, local labor markets, and non-Latino homicide.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Combining several schools of thought, including the civic engagement thesis, we extend current research by linking three things at the county level; firm size, the ethnic composition of labor markets, and violent crime. Our results suggest that larger businesses (based on the average number of persons employed) are more likely to have an external orientation and long recruitment reach, and this is linked to ethnic shifts in labor markets toward Latino workers. Such shifts are in turn associated with high rates of homicide among non-Latinos. Through indirect effects modeling, we find that increases in Black homicide are linked to rises in concentrated poverty, while increases in White homicide are linked to changes in unemployment. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  16. Labor Market Status of Older Males in the United States, 1880–1940

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the labor market status of older males in the early twentieth century, focusing on how the extent of pressure toward retirement differed across occupations and how it changed over time. A comparison of the probability of retirement across occupations shows that men who had better occupations in terms of economic status and work conditions were less likely to retire than were those with poorer jobs. The difficulty faced by older workers in the labor market, as measured by the relative incidence of long-term unemployment, was relatively severe among craftsmen, operatives, and salesmen. In contrast, aged farmers, professionals, managers, and proprietors appear to have fared well in the labor market. The pattern of shifts in the occupational structure that occurred between 1880 and 1940 suggests that industrialization had brought a growth of the sectors in which the pressure toward departure from employment at old ages was relatively strong. PMID:20234793

  17. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area.

  18. Careers in Academe: The Academic Labour Market as an Eco-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…

  19. Asian-born scientists and engineers: their immigration flow and labor market adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, M

    1993-07-01

    "This paper examines the flow of Asian-born scientists and engineers and their labor market adjustment. First, main elements to affect their immigration flow are described: supply, demand, and institution....The scarcity of domestic workers is the most important factor affecting demand of immigration. Institution, such as immigration policies, is another element to influence the immigration flow....Second, by using the 1980 U.S. Census data set, their labor market adjustment is explored in terms of hourly wages. Compared to the native-born white, there is no evidence that Asian-born scientists and engineers receive lower wages or lower return on human capital."

  20. [Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market].

    PubMed

    Anguiano Tellez, M E

    1998-01-01

    "This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)

  1. Height and cognition at work: Labor market productivity in a low income setting.

    PubMed

    LaFave, Daniel; Thomas, Duncan

    2016-11-05

    Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative importance of these potential mechanisms underlying the link between adult stature and labor market productivity in a specific low income setting, rural Central Java, Indonesia. Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data, we establish that height predicts hourly earnings after controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive performance and physical health status, measures of family background, sectoral and occupational choice, as well as local area market characteristics. The height premium is large and significant in both the wage and self-employed sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker quality to employers. Since adult stature is largely determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that exposures during this critical period have an enduring impact on labor market productivity.

  2. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Education and Marriage on Labor Market Exit Decisions of Women. Working Paper 2010-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Walker, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    During the late 1990s, the convergence of women's labor force participation rates to men's rates came to a halt. This paper explores the degree to which the role of education and marriage in women's labor supply decisions also changed over this time period. Specifically, this paper investigates women's decisions to exit the labor market upon the…

  4. [Report SVIMEZ: population, education and the labor market and migration].

    PubMed

    Cura Della Redazione, A

    2012-01-01

    SVIMEZ REPORT: Population, school, job market, migrations. The Svimez, a private non profit institution, is an association for the development of business and industries in the south of Italy, whose aim is the study of the economy of the South of Italy to propose development programs. The report on the Economy in the South of Italy is the main annual yearly report since 1974. The main indicators and the development of southern economy in several key sectors are presented and discussed, each year focusing on different specific problems. AIR has already proposed contributions on the gap between north and south to reflect on inequalities. The relationship between economy, wellbeing and health has been demonstrated. The section on school, job market and migrations is presented.

  5. Does cancer reduce labor market entry? Evidence for prime-age females.

    PubMed

    Moran, John R; Short, Pamela Farley

    2014-06-01

    Existing studies of the labor market status of cancer survivors have focused on the extent to which cancer disrupts the employment of individuals who were working when diagnosed with cancer. We examine how surviving cancer affects labor market entry and usual hours of work among females aged 28 to 54 years who were not working when first diagnosed. We find that prime-age females have employment rates 2 to 6 years after diagnosis that are 12 percentage points lower than otherwise similar women who were initially out of the labor force, full-time employment rates that are 10 percentage points lower, and usual hours of work that are 5 hours per week lower. These estimates are somewhat larger than estimates for prime-age women employed at the time of diagnosis and highlight the importance of considering nonworking females when assessing the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer.

  6. Monitoring the compliance of the academic enterprise with the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    PubMed

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    Background: On December 1 2016, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) will be updated by the U.S. Department of Labor. The key changes are an increase in the salary threshold for exemption from overtime for working more than 40 hours per week, and indexing the salary level so that it is updated automatically every 3 years. This update is predicted to have a profound effect on the academic enterprise as a large proportion of the postdoctoral researcher population is currently paid at a salary below the new threshold for exemption. Here we review the key changes to the FLSA, how they came about, and how the postdoctoral population is affected by the ruling. Methods: We describe recent data collection efforts (checking university websites and contacting HR departments) to uncover what institutions in the 2014 NSF Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering are doing to comply with the FLSA ruling for postdocs. Results: Our data show that 41% of the estimated postdoctoral workforce in STEM and 57% of institutions checked have not decided or have no public decision yet available one month prior to implementation, and only 35.5% of institutions are planning to raise salaries to the new minimum. Conclusions: Our data show the uncertainty of postdoc salaries in the U.S. one month prior to implementation of the FLSA ruling. This implementation also gives rise to various issues that have arisen in an already strained research enterprise, including short-, medium- and long-term effects on academe.

  7. Labor Markets for New Science and Engineering Graduates in Private Industry. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Data are presented on labor market conditions for science and engineering graduates based on responses of 255 firms to mail and telephone surveys conducted in late fall of 1981. Highlights presented in table, chart, and text indicate: (1) definite and likely shortages were concentrated in the computer and engineering fields; (2) chemical,…

  8. Career Thresholds: Longitudinal Studies of the Educational and Labor Market Experiences of Young Men. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    This volume focuses on young men whose ages span the years of transition from adolescence to adulthood, and analyzes a number of facets of their educational and labor market experiences over the period from 1966 to 1971. It is based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, collected by annual personal interviews with the same national…

  9. Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

    1999-01-01

    Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.…

  10. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  11. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  12. Influences on Labor Market Outcomes of African American College Graduates: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an expanded econometric model, this study sought to estimate more precisely the net effect of independent variables (i.e., attending an HBCU) on three measures of labor market outcomes for African American college graduates. Findings reveal a statistically significant, albeit moderate, relationship between measures of background, human and…

  13. Race and Unemployment: Labor Market Experiences of Black and White Men, 1968-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of multinomial logistic regression models on a sample of unemployed workers suggested that persistently higher black unemployment is due to differential access to employment opportunities by region, occupational placement, labor market segmentation, and discrimination. The racial gap in unemployment is greatest for college-educated…

  14. Labor Market Surveys: Importance to and Preparedness of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs') importance of and preparedness in the labor market survey (LMS) competency through data collected by the "Knowledge Validation Inventory-Revised" ("KVI-R") instrument used by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's (CRCC)…

  15. Heterogenous Effects of Sports Participation on Education and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorry, Devon

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…

  16. The Role of Temporary Help Employment in Tight Labor Markets. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    The impact of hiring temporary workers during the tight labor markets of the 1990s was examined through case studies of six hospitals and five automobile plants. The hospitals varied in size from 450 to 6,000 employees. The auto suppliers included unionized and nonunionized small and large companies. The case studies included extensive interviews…

  17. Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood. Discussion Paper No. 1319-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes labor market behaviors of young adults, their changing patterns among two cohorts that are twenty years apart, and their associations with transitions to adulthood as measured by living with parents, being married, or cohabiting. We analyze these issues using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of he National Longitudinal…

  18. Second Survey of High School Students' Needs for Labor Market Information in Career Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laner, Stephen

    A survey of high school students' attitudes toward their prospective involvement in the world of work and the influences which promote or hinder their employment choices was conducted to contribute data toward the design of a model labor market information system. Two-thirds of the students sampled said that they had reached decisions about their…

  19. Youth and the Labor Market. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E., Ed.

    This collection consists of analyses based on data from the 1979, 1980, and 1981 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience. In a paper entitled "A Description of Employed and Unemployed Youth in 1981," Michael E. Borus describes employed, unemployed, and discouraged workers between the ages of 16 and 21. Next, Tom K.…

  20. Institutional Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes for Community College Students in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Dunn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The labor market success of community college students depends on both the attributes of individual students and the characteristics of the community colleges they attend. In this article, we examine the impact of community college characteristics on the earnings of first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina…

  1. Prospects for the Faculty Labor Market in the 1990s: A Clemson University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley

    Through a faculty retirement survey and a review of the literature, Clemson University, South Carolina, studied the future labor market for college faculty. The survey was administered to 1,250 faculty at the university in Fall, 1991. Fifty-six responded with data indicating that the College of Sciences, and the College of Agricultural Sciences…

  2. The Labor Markets of Knowledge Workers: Investment Bankers' Careers in the Wake of Corporate Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Carol; Althauser, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Review of organizational history, interviews with 36 human resources staff, and 110 employee survey responses in an investment bank examined the extent to which external hiring and collapsed career ladders affected careers. The mixture of entry- and midlevel hiring, career progression, and two different midlevel labor markets contradicted…

  3. The Implications of Labor Market Orientation Programs for Black Teenage Job Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Charles; Pentecoste, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The Labor Market Orientation (LMO) program responded to the problem of unemployment among Black teenagers. LMO provided classroom training which mitigated unrealistic expectations and served as an introduction to the requisites of the work world. The program was successful in providing a rational sequence of training and job exposure. (JCD)

  4. The Effect of School Inputs on Labor Market Returns that Account for Selective Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I estimate the effect of state school inputs on labor market returns to schooling. The method follows Card and Krueger (1992) and Heckman et al. (1996), but I extend their analysis in two ways. First, I correct state-level returns to schooling for selective migration, adapting a method from Dahl (2002). Second, I use more recent…

  5. Benchmarking the Importance and Use of Labor Market Surveys by Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…

  6. The Effect of Labor Market Conditions and Financial Aid on Doctoral Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-three percent of doctoral students never complete their degree. This dropout is the highest among graduate and professional degree programs. Previous cross sectional studies of doctoral students' retention show the importance of financial aid in predicting degree completion. The studies however, do not estimate the labor market's effect on…

  7. Intervening against "Racial" Disadvantage: Educational Policy and Labor-Market Outcomes in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Argues that education can not guarantee social or occupational mobility, or even work, for minority groups in the United Kingdom. Presents evidence that labor market disadvantage for minority groups arises from direct racist discrimination, ethnocentric notions of "acceptability," and word-of-mouth recruitment of employees. Contains 54…

  8. Assessing the Impact of Gender and Race on Earnings in the Library Science Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…

  9. Responding to a Changing Labor Market: The Challenges for Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastrik, Peter

    Changes in the labor market and rising expectations of employers, government, and job seekers are putting enormous pressure on non-profit, community based organizations (CBOs) in the field of work force development. Providing intensive services for hard-to-serve populations costs more than serving clients who are more "job ready," yet increased…

  10. Assembling a Career: Labor Market Outcomes for Manufacturing Program Students in Two-Year Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Chan, Hsun-yu; Wang, Xueli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on labor market outcomes for individuals who enroll in technical colleges is limited, with even less attention to the effects of short-term certificates than associate degrees. Also, despite the importance of manufacturing programs, there is a lack of research on employment outcomes for individuals who enroll in these programs…

  11. Career Effects of Occupation-Related Vocational Education: Evidence from the Military's Internal Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Elda; Mehay, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the labor market success of secondary vocational education has produced mixed results, with several studies finding wage gains only for individuals who work in training-related occupations. We contribute to this debate by focusing on a single occupation and organization and by comparing the careers of employees with and without…

  12. Work Environments and Labor Markets: Explaining Principal Turnover Gap between Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Ni, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge about principals' leadership roles in charter schools' success has become more important as the number of charter schools increases and as we have learned more about the influence of principal leadership on school effectiveness. To contribute to the limited empirical literature on the principal labor market, this study explores…

  13. Education and Labor Market Risk: Understanding the Role of Data Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether conclusions about the relationship between education and labor market risk depend on the use of commonly applied procedures to clean data of extreme values. The analysis uses fifteen years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to demonstrate that conclusions about the relationship between education and labor…

  14. Labor Market Responsiveness: Assessing Seven Dimensions of the West Virginia Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipway, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the presidents of the ten public community and technical colleges in the state of West Virginia perceive their institutions implementing the seven dimensions of college life in support of labor market responsiveness identified by the U.S. Department of Education. The U.S. Department…

  15. Five Faculty Labor Market Dilemmas Facing Community Colleges in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Yildiz, Selin; Batie, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges employ more than one-third of the nation's higher education faculty. Nevertheless, the labor market through which faculty are recruited, selected, hired, evaluated and retained or replaced is one of the least understood aspects of these institutions. Functional management and effective policy both require a clear understanding…

  16. STEM in the Ohio Labor Market: A Mismatch or a Missed Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Stacia Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the supply of educated workers and the talent demands of employers is complex. Declining educational attainment levels in the US have been identified as a possible cause for the reported mismatch between the availability of talent that businesses want to hire and the talent available in the labor market, especially in the…

  17. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  18. Education, Labor Market Experiences, and Current Expectancies of Black and White Men and Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Morrison, Betty Mae

    The research reported here examines the role of psychological expectancies as labor market supply characteristics of black and white men and women. Secondary analyses are carried out on data provided by the Survey Research Center 1972 national probability sample of adults 18 years and older drawn for the presidential election study. The report…

  19. Unleashing the Power of the 21st Century Community College: Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    To help all community colleges unleash their potential for workforce and economic development, the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education sponsored the Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative. This project sought to develop and disseminate information and tools enabling colleges to keep pace…

  20. Ethnic Gaps in Educational Attainment and Labor-Market Outcomes: Evidence from France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Gabin; Masclet, David; Moizeau, Fabien; Peterle, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the "Trajectoires et Origines" survey to analyze ethnic gaps in education and labor-market outcomes between second-generation immigrants and their French-native counterparts. Our three main findings underscore the importance of family background in explaining lifelong ethnic inequalities. First, second-generation…

  1. Policy Responses to the Recent Poor Performance of the U.S. Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…

  2. Family Formation, Labor Market Experience, and the Wages of Married Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John F.; Berger, Franklin

    The impact of the timing, spacing, and number of children on a married woman's wage growth over her life cycle was examined. The data used for the analysis were information pertaining to the labor market experience of women and the birth dates of their children, taken from the 1976 survey of the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics (IDP). There…

  3. Staying-On at School at 16: The Impact of Labor Market Conditions in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrongolo, Barbara; San Segundo, Maria J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the impact of family characteristics and local labor-market conditions on the demand for postcompulsory education in Spain. Finds that record levels of youth unemployment did not enhance substantially the demand for postcompulsory education. Parents' education seems to be the main determinant of school enrollment. (Contains 32…

  4. Dynamic Gender Differences in a Post-Socialist Labor Market: Russia, 1991-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…

  5. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  6. Labor Market Assessment of Business Computer Programming Personnel for the Eastern Iowa Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport. Office of Academic Affairs and Planning.

    In October 1991, a labor market assessment was conducted to provide information and direction for the curriculum development and evaluation efforts of the Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD's) Business Computer Programming (BCP) Program. The study focused on employment opportunities for and educational needs of personnel performing…

  7. Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  8. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, S A

    1990-01-01

    To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.

  9. Reconstructing or Deconstructing Labor Archives? Shaping Labor Collection Development in an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigel, James P., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Labor archival programs confront numerous challenges to remain viable in a changing academic environment and institutional culture. The marketing of higher education, the anti-union stance of some university administrations, and the transition of labor studies programs create a less-than-benign environment for labor collection development…

  10. The Class of 2011: Young Workers Face a Dire Labor Market without a Safety Net. EPI Briefing Paper #306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shierholz, Heidi; Edwards, Kathryn Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Great Recession left a crater in the labor market that has been devastating for unemployed Americans of all ages. After more than two years of unemployment at well over 8%, there is a hole of more than 11 million jobs, with average spells of unemployment lasting nearly nine months. The weak labor market has been particularly tough on young…

  11. Weathering the Great Recession with Human Capital? Evidence on Labor Market Returns to Education from Arkansas. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…

  12. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  13. Career Thresholds: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Volume Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul; Kohen, Andrew I.

    This study deals with the impact of collective bargaining coverage on the 1969-70 labor market experience of young men in blue collar jobs. Specifically examined is the impact of collective bargaining on five dimensions of the labor market experience: (1) hourly rate of pay, (2) hours worked per week, (3) susceptibility to unemployment, (4)…

  14. Individual Schooling Decisions and Labor Market Allocation: Vertical and Horizontal Sorting. IFG Program Report No. 84-B8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop

    If labor market phenomena are interpreted from an allocational point of view, where individuals differing in levels of various capabilities have to be matched with jobs differing in job requirements, education can be seen as an intermediary institution affecting the capability endowment of individuals upon entering the labor market. Vertical…

  15. Why Women Are Progressive in Education? Gender Disparities in Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Family Arrangement in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and…

  16. Who's Not Working and Why. Employment, Cognitive Skills, Wages, and the Changing U.S. Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Frederic L.; Schaffer, David L.

    This book explains major trends in the U.S. labor market over the last quarter-century. Chapter 1 presents hypotheses regarding the changing labor market. Chapter 2 looks at cognitive skills and formal education as determinants of employment. Chapter 3 develops the argument that the downward occupational mobility arising from changes in the supply…

  17. The 21st-Century Community College: A Strategic Guide to Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness. Volumes 1, 2, and 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    The Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative was created by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), to develop and disseminate information to enable community colleges to keep pace with the needs of a diverse student body and a dynamic labor market. The main goals of the initiative…

  18. Human health care and selection effects. Understanding labor supply in the market for nursing.

    PubMed

    Barigozzi, Francesca; Turati, Gilberto

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study (adverse) selection in a labor supply model where potential applicants are characterized by different vocational levels and skills. We look at how the composition of the pool of active workers changes as the wage rate increases. Contrary to what would expect, average productivity does not necessarily increase monotonically in the wage rate. We identify conditions in which a wage increase reduces the average productivity and/or average vocation of active workers. Our results help understand the potential impact of wage increases as a policy designed to resolving shortages in the labor market for nurses.

  19. Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.

    PubMed

    Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension

  20. [The influence of the economic recession on health care labor market in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor

    2010-01-01

    Trends in the labor market, as a result of global economic recession, are characterized by reduction of manpower activity, decreased number of employed and increased number of unemployed persons. As the result of economic recession more then million workplaces are expected to be lost in the European Union. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic recession on labor market in general and healthcare labor market in Croatia. In Q1/2009, the number of employed persons in the European Union declined by -1.2% compared to the same quarter of 2008, while in Croatia the number of employed persons declined by -0.4%. The comparison of quarterly employment rate in Croatia and the European Union in the period from Q2/2008 to Q1/2009 was not significantly different (p = 0.169, df = 6, t = 1.564, Student t test). Average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 in the European Union was 8.1% +/- 0.3 and it was increased by 9.4% compared to Q4/2008, while in Croatia the average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 was 8.4% +/- 0.1 and it was increased by 3.3% compared to Q4/2008. Monthly changes of unemployment rates compared between the European Union and Croatia in the six month period (Q4/2008 and Q1/2009) was significantly different (p = 0.001, df = 10, t = 4.425, Student t test). In Croatian health care system in Q1/2009 the number of employed person increased by 0.7% compared to Q1/2008, while the number of unemployed persons in the same period was reduced by -1.0%. Trends in the labor market in Croatia follow the global trends in the labor market in times of economic recession, although the increase in unemployment in Croatia was slower than in the countries of the European Union. As a result of Croatian healthcare system organization, system of financing, supply and demand on healthcare labor market, healthcare workforce in Croatia was less affected by recession than workforce in Croatia in general.

  1. Monitoring the compliance of the academic enterprise with the Fair Labor Standards Act

    PubMed Central

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: On December 1 2016, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) will be updated by the U.S. Department of Labor. The key changes are an increase in the salary threshold for exemption from overtime for working more than 40 hours per week, and indexing the salary level so that it is updated automatically every 3 years. This update is predicted to have a profound effect on the academic enterprise as a large proportion of the postdoctoral researcher population is currently paid at a salary below the new threshold for exemption. Here we review the key changes to the FLSA, how they came about, and how the postdoctoral population is affected by the ruling. Methods: We describe recent data collection efforts (checking university websites and contacting HR departments) to uncover what institutions in the 2014 NSF Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering are doing to comply with the FLSA ruling for postdocs. Results: Our data show that 41% of the estimated postdoctoral workforce in STEM and 57% of institutions checked have not decided or have no public decision yet available one month prior to implementation, and only 35.5% of institutions are planning to raise salaries to the new minimum. Conclusions: Our data show the uncertainty of postdoc salaries in the U.S. one month prior to implementation of the FLSA ruling. This implementation also gives rise to various issues that have arisen in an already strained research enterprise, including short-, medium- and long-term effects on academe. PMID:27990268

  2. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Brian C

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.

  3. The US healthcare workforce and the labor market effect on healthcare spending and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing

    2014-06-01

    The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also

  4. An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemkow, S.

    This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

  5. Vocal Fry May Undermine the Success of Young Women in the Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rindy C.; Klofstad, Casey A.; Mayew, William J.; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities. PMID:24870387

  6. The impact of maternity length-of-stay mandates on the labor market and insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Sabik, Lindsay M; Laugesen, Miriam J

    2012-01-01

    To understand the effects of insurance regulation on the labor market and insurance coverage, this study uses a difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to compare five states that passed minimum maternity length-of-stay laws with states that waited until after a federal law was passed. On average, we do not find statistically significant effects on labor market outcomes such as hours of work and wages. However, we find that employees of small firms in states with maternity length-of-stay mandates experienced a 6.2-percentage-point decline in the likelihood of having employer-sponsored insurance. Implementation of federal health reform that requires minimum benefit standards should consider the implications for firms of differing sizes.

  7. PV Installation Labor Market Analysis and PV JEDI Tool Developments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.

    2012-06-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  8. Employment effects of active labor market programs for sick-listed workers.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Kristin Storck; Houlberg, Helle Sofie Bøje

    2017-01-30

    We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008-2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect, with low re-employment chances during program participation.

  9. Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets.

    PubMed

    McCall, L

    2000-11-01

    Most research on earnings inequality has focused on the growing gap between workers of different races and at different education, age, and income levels, but a large portion of the increasing inequality has actually occurred within these groups. This article focuses on the extent and sources of "within-group" wage inequality in more than 500 labor markets in the United States in 1990. In addition to documenting that within-group wage inequality across regions varies more widely today than over the past several decades, the analysis reveals that two frequently cited explanations of rising wage inequality over time have little impact on within-group wage inequality when measured at the local labor market level: (1) industrial shifts and (2) increased technology and trade. By contrast, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., unemployment, contingent work, and immigration) are associated strongly with high local levels of within-group wage inequality, especially among women.

  10. Productivity or discrimination? An economic analysis of excess-weight penalty in the Swedish labor market.

    PubMed

    Dackehag, Margareta; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nordin, Martin

    2015-07-01

    This article investigates the excess-weight penalty in income for men and women in the Swedish labor market, using longitudinal data. It compares two identification strategies, OLS and individual fixed effects, and distinguishes between two main sources of excess-weight penalties, lower productivity because of bad health and discrimination. For men, the analysis finds a significant obesity penalty related to discrimination when applying individual fixed effects. We do not find any significant excess-weight penalty for women.

  11. STEM Employment in the New Economy: A Labor Market Segmentation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples,…

  12. Job Search on the Internet, E-Recruitment, and Labor Market Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    around the world. Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore Pardee RAND Graduate School View document details For More Information Browse Books & Publications...is part of the Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS) dissertation series. PRGS dissertations are produced by graduate fellows of the Pardee RAND...fellow’s faculty committee. PARDEE RAND GRADUATE SCHOOL Job Search on the Internet, E-Recruitment, and Labor Market Outcomes Farrukh Suvankulov This

  13. Publication metrics and success on the academic job market.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, David; Manor, Ohad; Carey, Lucas B

    2014-06-02

    The number of applicants vastly outnumbers the available academic faculty positions. What makes a successful academic job market candidate is the subject of much current discussion [1-4]. Yet, so far there has been no quantitative analysis of who becomes a principal investigator (PI). We here use a machine-learning approach to predict who becomes a PI, based on data from over 25,000 scientists in PubMed. We show that success in academia is predictable. It depends on the number of publications, the impact factor (IF) of the journals in which those papers are published, and the number of papers that receive more citations than average for the journal in which they were published (citations/IF). However, both the scientist's gender and the rank of their university are also of importance, suggesting that non-publication features play a statistically significant role in the academic hiring process. Our model (www.pipredictor.com) allows anyone to calculate their likelihood of becoming a PI.

  14. The influence of legal status on the labor market impact of immigration.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T

    1985-01-01

    This article explores US labor market changes that would take place as a result of an amnesty that would regularize the status of undocumented workers without changing the total size of the alien workforce. The theoretical analysis suggests that the influence of legal status on market wage rates and on minimum wage enforcement is weak and that to the extent that there is an effect, it depends on particular institutional arrangements. Although data are not adequate for a definite measurement of these effects, those data that are available support this conclusion. It appears that the presence of undocumented as opposed to resident aliens can weaken union organizing efforts.

  15. Does human capital raise earnings for immigrants in the low-skill labor market?

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George

    2008-08-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the "mixed"picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown.

  16. Employment Preferences and Outcomes of Recent Science and Engineering Doctorate Holders in the Labor Market. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannankutty, Nirmala; Kang, Kelly

    This issue brief discusses the statistical results of the 1997 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) and identifies doctorate holders' employment preferences at the beginning of their doctoral education and labor market experiences. (YDS)

  17. Long-Term Effects of a Recession at Labor Market Entry in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi

    2010-01-01

    We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…

  18. A specific labor market comparison of male and female willingness to travel: The case of the Army National Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, A. ); Bell, S.E. ); Vogt, D.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of gender differences in commuting behavior within the Army National Guard. This labor market provides a more level playing field than most for a direct comparison between male and female willingness to travel. In contrast to other studies, we find that women as a group are willing to travel greater distances, in this particular labor market. 9 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  19. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.

  20. The Effect of Culture on the Academic Honesty of Marketing and Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payan, Janice; Reardon, James; McCorkle, Denny E.

    2010-01-01

    Two trends in marketing higher education include (a) growing opportunities for intercultural encounters in the classroom and (b) a growing concern about student academic honesty. Research regarding the relationship between specific cultural measures and academic honesty is sparse in the context of marketing and business programs in higher…

  1. Marketing Today's Academic Library: A Bold New Approach to Communicating with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In "Marketing Today's Academic Library", the author uses his vast experience to speak directly to the academic library practitioner about matching services with user needs. This book proposes new visions and ideas, challenging the traditional way of thinking and providing a framework to target users more precisely. Most library marketing intended…

  2. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…

  3. The Electronic Welcome Mat: The Academic Library Web Site as a Marketing and Public Relations Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Jeanie M.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the potential and reality of using the academic library Web site to market library resources and services, for fundraising, and to market special events. It explores such issues as the placement of a link to academic libraries from institutional home pages and the use of a library Web site to include links to news, exhibits,…

  4. A Survey of Intravenous Remifentanil Use for Labor Analgesia at Academic Medical Centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Aaronson, Jaime; Abramovitz, Sharon; Smiley, Richard; Tangel, Virginia; Landau, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Remifentanil is most commonly offered when neuraxial labor analgesia is contraindicated. There is no consensus regarding the optimal administration, dosing strategy, or requirements for maternal monitoring, which may pose a patient safety issue. This exploratory survey evaluated the current practices regarding remifentanil use for labor analgesia at academic centers in the United States. Of 126 obstetric anesthesia directors surveyed, 84 (67%) responded. In 2014 to 2015, an estimated 36% (95% confidence interval: 25.7-46.3) of centers used remifentanil, most of which did so less than 5 times. Some serious maternal and neonatal respiratory complications occurred, emphasizing that clinical protocols and adequate monitoring are key to ensure maternal and neonatal safety.

  5. PLACE OF ORIGIN AND LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES AMONG MIGRANT WORKERS IN URBAN CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunni; Xie, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The localistic enclave is a special kind of enclave in urban China, which is characterized by high concentration of rural migrants from the same place of origin. Prior research has documented that rural migrants work in these localistic enclaves, but the significance of participation in them for labor market outcomes among migrant workers has yet to be determined. In this article, we argue that localistic economic enclaves may improve the labor force outcomes of rural-to-urban migrants. We report results from a study of the social determinants and consequences of working in localistic enclaves, based on data from a 2010 survey of migrant workers in the Pearl River and the Yangzi River Deltas. The results provide limited support for our hypothesis: Localistic enclaves enable migrant workers to earn higher earnings overall, but the earnings returns to human capital in an enclave are limited. PMID:24223441

  6. Preschool and maternal labor market outcomes: evidence from a regression discontinuity Design.

    PubMed

    Berlinski, Samuel; Galiani, Sebastian; McEwan, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, employment rates for mothers with young children are relatively low. This study analyzes how maternal labor market outcomes in Argentina are affected by the preschool attendance of their children. Using pooled household surveys, we show that 4-year-olds with birthdays on June 30 have sharply higher probabilities of preschool attendance than children born on July 1, given enrollment-age rules. Regression-discontinuity estimates using this variation suggest that preschool attendance of the youngest child in the household increases the probability of full-time employment and weekly hours of maternal employment. We find no effect of preschool attendance on maternal labor outcomes for children who are not the youngest in the household.

  7. STEM employment in the new economy: A labor market segmentation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples, which included workers with a subbaccalaureate diploma or above. The cluster analyses show a pattern consistent with Labor Market Segmentation theory: Higher wages are associated with other primary employment characteristics, including health insurance and pension benefits, as well as full-time employment. In turn, lower wages showed a tendency to cluster with secondary employment characteristics, such as part-time employment, multiple employment, and restricted access to health insurance and pension benefits. The findings also suggest that women have a higher likelihood of being employed in STEM jobs with secondary characteristics. The findings reveal a far more variegated employment landscape than is usually presented in national reports of the STEM workforce. There is evidence that, while STEM employment may be more resilient than non-STEM employment to labor restructuring trends in the new economy, the former is far from immune to secondary labor characteristics. There is a need for ongoing dialogue between STEM education (at all levels), employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to truly understand not only the barriers to equity in employment relations, but also the mechanisms that create and maintain segmentation and how they may impact women, underrepresented minorities, and the foreign-born.

  8. Disruptive innovation, labor markets, and Big Valley STEM School: network analysis in STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben

    2016-11-01

    A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of technology in education, STEM has become a hegemonic discourse informing policy formation and educational practice. In Gramscian terms, the struggle over STEM as a discursive practice, between proponents of instrumental learning of marketable economic skills and those of education towards humanistic goals, reveals insights about the ideological characteristics of the push for STEM learning. This article explores the power dynamics behind the push for STEM learning as an ideological discourse propagated by global networks of elite policy actors and enacted by non-elite policy actors at the school level. The findings point toward a disjuncture between the discourse of elite policy actors in the US, the realities of STEM labor markets, and the actualization of this policy discourse into classroom practice. The implications of this study indicate that analyses of vertical power relations in network governance in STEM education should attend to the semiotics, materiality, and mutability of networked spaces.

  9. Review Symposium. "Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market," by Paul Osterman, Thomas A. Kochan, Richard Locke, and Michael J. Piore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Harry C., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    A panel comments on the book, Working in America, and implications for the U.S. labor market, including declining traditional internal labor markets, the need for private versus public policy interventions, international labor policy, and value-based policy. Commentators include David Neumark, Peter Cappelli, Sanford M. Jacoby, Rebecca M. Blank,…

  10. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-05-01

    In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-related benefits were disproportionately given to individuals recently diagnosed with a disease compared to those without disease. The study was register-based and comprised all Danish residents aged 20-60. During the study period, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders increased among both employed and non-employed people. The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4.83 (4.53-5.14) for the period 2007-2010. The estimates were similar for women.

  11. [Labor market structure and access to private health insurance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Flavia; Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Maia, Ana Carolina

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to describe health insurance coverage among different types of workers in Brazil. Health insurance coverage and labor market insertion are used to define homogeneous groups of workers. The Grade of Membership method is used to build a typology of workers. The database was the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) for 1998 and 2003, including a health survey. Five worker profiles were defined. The key variables were: health insurance coverage, schooling, and work status. The main findings show a positive association between health insurance coverage, income from work, and trade union membership.

  12. Hispanic youth in the labor market. Special report 1979-80

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using data from the 1979 and 1980 interviews of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS), this study examines the labor market experiences of Hispanic youth. Subjects selected for analysis include employment and unemployment, job search methods, types of occupation, job satisfaction, government sponsored employment and training, attitudes toward work and military service, reported illegal activities, and employment opportunities. Comparisons are made with blacks and whites who were also included in this sample of young men and women aged 14 to 21 in 1979.

  13. Effect of Immigrant Nurses on Labor Market Outcomes of US Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Robert; Kaushal, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of immigration of foreign-trained, registered nurses (RNs) on the employment and wages of US-trained RNs. We use the “area” approach and study effects of immigration in labor markets defined by the state. We find substantial evidence that immigration by foreign-trained nurses increases the supply of nurses and that this increase in supply is associated with a decrease in annual earnings. Estimates suggest that a 10 percent increase in supply due to immigration is associated with a one to four percent decrease in annual earnings. PMID:22199410

  14. The Ethnic Niche as an Economic Pathway for the Dark Skinned: Labor Market Incorporation of Latina/o Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Latina/os are turning to employment in ethnic niches as an alternative to general labor markets. This study places special focus on how skin color segmentation or colorism influences job-market allocation. The hypothesis is that dark-skinned Latina/os are more likely to be employed in ethnically homogeneous jobsites or…

  15. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…

  16. Physician shortages in rural Vietnam: using a labor market approach to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas.

  17. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2015-09-07

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  18. The Icelandic economic collapse, smoking, and the role of labor-market changes.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is related to health deterioration through increased risk of various diseases. Changes in this health behavior could contribute to the documented health improvements during economic downturns. Furthermore, the reasons for changes in behavior are not well understood. We explore smoking behavior in Iceland before and after the sudden and unexpected economic crisis in 2008. Furthermore, to explore the mechanisms through which smoking could be affected we focus on the role of labor-market changes. Both real income and working hours fell significantly and economic theory suggests that such changes can affect health behaviors which in turn affect health. We use individual longitudinal data from 2007 to 2009, incidentally before and after the crisis hit. The data originates from a postal survey, collected by The Public Health Institute in Iceland. Two outcomes are explored: smoking participation and smoking intensity, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and linear probability models. The detected reduction in both outcomes is not explained by the changes in labor-market variables. Other factors in the demand function for tobacco play a more important role. The most notable are real prices which increased in particular for imported goods because of the devaluation of the Icelandic currency as a result of the economic collapse.

  19. Labor market conditions and violent crime across the metro-nonmetro divide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Slack, Tim

    2008-09-01

    This analysis extends prior research on labor market conditions and violent crime. Specifically, we elaborate on research demonstrating a link between poor labor market conditions and violence by directly measuring the associations between secondary sector work, low hour work, low pay work, and levels of violence across the metro-nonmetro divide. The results demonstrate that low paying work tends to be more similar to other forms of social disadvantage such as poverty and unemployment. In contrast, secondary sector work and low hour work are empirically distinct constructs. Consistent with prior research, multivariate analyses indicate that the pernicious effect of secondary sector work is relatively constant across metro and nonmetro areas. However, contrary to the logic articulated in previous studies, we find that an index of low hour and seasonal employment is actually associated with lower violent crime rates across the metro-nonmetro divide. This finding is consonant with the assertion that the availability of low hour and seasonal employment--work that is often viewed as less than optimal--provides downward pressure on crime rates because it structures ecological behavior patterns and enhances attachments to institutions cultivating conventional behavior.

  20. Gender differences in socioeconomic returns to family migration in Malaysia: the role of family decision making versus labor market stratification.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author examines gender differences in the effect of family migration on socioeconomic attainment in Malaysia. The analysis discerns the relative importance of gender roles in household migration decisions, compared to gender stratification in the labor market. The Malaysian economy has undergone rapid industrialization and great structural changes which have opened up new economic opportunities, particularly for women. Despite the somewhat advantaged position of women compared to men in the Malaysian labor market, the author finds that men experience much greater socioeconomic gains than women from family migration. Hence indicating that family migration decisions in Malaysia, rather than optimizing family gains, compensate for the gender effect in the labor market. However, the gains of Malaysian men are more assured when they move alone. Data for the study come from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey.

  1. Migrant Labor in South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Father-Present and Father-Absent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mboya, Mzobanzi M.; Nesengani, Ralintho I.

    1999-01-01

    Study seeks to determine whether there are significant differences in academic achievement between father-present and father-absent (due to migrant labor) adolescents. Academic achievement of 276 high school students in South Africa was measured covering biology, English (second language), and mathematics.. Father-present students were found to…

  2. Demographic Profiling--A Determination of Academic Performance in a Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneke, J.; Beeming, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the direct effect of demographic variables on academic outcomes. The study concludes that ethnic group plays a pivotal role in determining the academic performance of students registered for the Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management at the University of Cape Town. White students (presumed to emanate from a privileged…

  3. The Effect of Action Orientation on the Academic Performance of Undergraduate Marketing Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Spector, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the effect of academic performance on employment opportunities and admission to graduate schools, researchers have long recognized the need for identifying factors that are linked to the academic performance of undergraduate marketing students. This research proposes a model that investigates the relationships among motivation, effort,…

  4. Training in two-tier labor markets: The role of job match quality.

    PubMed

    Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to continue productive job matches, we hypothesize that the negative effect of holding a temporary contract on the probability to be trained diminishes with the quality of the job match. Using a recent longitudinal survey from the Netherlands, we find that temporary workers indeed participate less frequently in firm-sponsored training. However, this effect is fully driven by mismatches: holding a temporary contract does not significantly decrease the probability to receive training for workers in good job matches. Depending on match quality, a temporary job can either be a stepping stone or a dead-end.

  5. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    PubMed

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued."

  6. The inclusion of disabled persons in the labor market in Belo horizonte, Brazil: scenario and perspective.

    PubMed

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Prais, Fabiana Gomes; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Even after the publication of Law 8213 in 1991, which established quotas for employing disabled persons, their inclusion in the workplace still presents a challenge for Brazilian society. In order to understand the main barriers that hamper this process a qualitative research study was conducted in the municipality of Belo Horizon-te. This study included interviews with important actors involved in the process of inclusion; and focus groups including disabled persons and members of their families. The main barriers encountered were: preconceived ideas and discrimination; family relationships; the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) program; the low level of qualifi-cation among disabled person; lack of access; and the unpreparedness of companies. It was concluded that drafting laws is not sufficient to guarantee inclusion in the labor market and that governments should implement public policies to assist in this process.

  7. The gender gap reloaded: are school characteristics linked to labor market performance?

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Constant, Amelie

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the wage gender gap of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000 in the US. Using quantile regression we estimate the gender gap across the entire wage distribution. We also study the importance of high school characteristics in predicting future labor market performance. We conduct analyses for three major racial/ethnic groups in the US: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, employing data from two rich longitudinal studies: NLS and NELS. Our results indicate that while some school characteristics are positive and significant predictors of future wages for Whites, they are less so for the two minority groups. We find significant wage gender disparities favoring men across all three surveys in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000. The wage gender gap is more pronounced in higher paid jobs (90th quantile) for all groups, indicating the presence of a persistent and alarming "glass ceiling."

  8. Labor Market Projections Model: updating census with current population survey data at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, L.

    1980-08-01

    The Labor Market Projection Model (LMPM) was started in the summer of 1975 to provide local CETA planners with current local estimates of persons in need of manpower services. The geographic levels of LMPM include states, SMSAs', prime sponsors and other special jurisdictions. During the course of project development, two independent efforts have been undertaken at LBL. The first effort produces short-term projections of population, labor force, and unemployment by sex, race, and age for each area. The population projection is based on a refined cohort-component method and integrates data on mortality, fertility, and net migration. Submodels are developed to handle the military and college-student populations. The second effort updates selected socio-economic characteristics available at the local level in certain tabulations of the 1970 Fourth Count Census by using data from the March Current Population Survey (CPS) for 1970 and the current year. The actual updating is done using proportions based upon current year and 1970 CPS values for the selected socio-economic characteristics. The updating methodology is detailed in Section 2. Future directions of the updating procedure is presented in Section 3.

  9. Labor Market Outcomes for Legal Mexican Immigrants Under the New Regime of Immigration Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Kerstin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper documents the effects of increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies on Mexican migrant workers in the United States. Methods Drawing on data from the Mexican Migration Project we create a data file that links age, education, English language ability, and cumulative U.S. experience in three legal categories (documented, undocumented, guest worker) to the occupational status and wage attained by migrant household heads on their most recent U.S. trip. Results We find that the wage and occupational returns to various forms of human capital generally declined after harsher policies were imposed and enforcement dramatically increased after 1996, especially for U.S. experience and English language ability. Conclusion These results indicate that the labor market status of legal immigrants has deteriorated significantly in recent years as larger shares of the migrant workforce came to lack labor rights, either because they were undocumented or because they held temporary visas that did not allow mobility or bargaining over wages and working conditions. PMID:21857750

  10. Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

  11. Homeland Security Education: Managerial versus Nonmanagerial Market Perspectives of an Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Daniel; Henley, Russ; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Jones, Don; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; Sumrall, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the findings of a market study that preceded the offering of an academic program in homeland security. The university disseminated a mail survey to gain data for analysis of variance testing of several hypotheses regarding market perceptions of the intended homeland security program offering. Stratification involved segregating…

  12. Assessment of the labor market experiences of CETA-trained solar workers

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, B.A.; Mason, B.; Mikasa, G.Y.

    1980-12-01

    This study assessed solar training offered by CETA-funded programs and labor market experiences of program graduates. The initial research was restricted to programs within California, because the state is involved in a variety of solar-related activities, including development of jobs and training programs in solar energy. Interviews were conducted with 12 CETA solar training programs and graduates in 1979, in cooperation with California's SolarCal Office. Information on graduates includes demographics, educational and work experience, satisfaction with solar training, types of jobs found, wage levels, and job tenure. Program information includes length, types of training, and the number and kinds of solar systems installed. Results show that major programs problems were: limited funding; shortages of trained instructors; insufficient staff; need for local employment information; need for better defined role for unions; and pressures for high placement rates. The curricula involved general skills, skills specific to solar technologies, and basic job behavior and skills. The training involved both classroom and hands-on experience and was mainly tailored to participants and the local job market. Successful placement of program participants was relatively high; over half the initial job placements involved solar energy. Solar jobs appeared to pay more than nonsolar jobs. Participants generally felt that their training had prepared them adequately for their current work.

  13. Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans. Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market--1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E.; And Others

    This monograph presents preliminary cross-tabulation analyses of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience of 12,693 youth of ages 14-21 who will be interviewed annually for at least five years. (Hispanic; non-Hispanic black; and non-Hispanic, non-black, poor youth were oversampled.) Each of the twenty-four topics…

  14. Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möller, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…

  15. Entry into the Labor Market: The Preparation and Job Placement of Negro and White Vocational High School Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillsman, Sally Turnbull

    This study is concerned with the role of educational institutions as mechanisms of labor market selection, in particular the role of high schools for terminal graduates. The aspects of this process under primary concern are racial differences in economic achievement generated and sustained by educational institutions in their capacity as…

  16. Racial Differences in the Impact of Participating in Advanced Placement Programs on Educational and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information generated in recent years regarding the benefits for students who participate in Advanced Placement (AP) programs on educational outcomes, limited research exists contrasting and comparing the differential effects of AP program participation on educational and labor market outcomes by race. However, research…

  17. The Characteristics and Role of Illegal Aliens in the U.S. Labor Market: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.; Houstoun, Marion F.

    Data on the characteristics and labor market experiences of illegal aliens in the U.S. work force were collected by voluntary interviews with 793 apprehended illegal immigrants who had worked at least two weeks in the U.S. From the resulting diverse collection of case histories, it was concluded that (1) illegal workers in the U.S. are likely to…

  18. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. CALDER Working Paper No. 117

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop Velez, Erin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to UI earnings data and also to secondary education records. Our main findings can be…

  19. What about the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College. CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidenberg, Matthew; Scott, Marc; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Of the copious research on the labor market returns to college, very little has adequately modeled the pathways of non-completers or compared their outcomes with those of award holders. In this paper, we present a novel method for linking non-completers with completers according to their program of study. This method allows us to calculate the…

  20. What about the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidenberg, Matthew; Scott, Marc; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Of the copious research on the labor market returns to college, very little has adequately modeled the pathways of non-completers or compared their outcomes with those of award holders. In this paper, we present a novel method for linking non-completers with completers according to their program of study. This method allows us to calculate the…

  1. The Labor Market Experience of Female Migrants: The Case of Temporary Mexican Migration to the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Susan; Kossoudji, Sherrie A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews data on the labor market experience of Mexican female temporary migrants in the United States. Analyzes data from a Mexican national survey and compares the role of schooling, work experience, region of origin,and legal status in male and female migrants' working experiences. (KH)

  2. Job Satisfaction among Mexican Alumni: A Case of Incongruence between Hunch-based Policies and Labor Market Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; de Vries, Wietse; Anderson, Shaquana

    2007-01-01

    During decades, the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP) like many other Mexican universities has tried to contribute to the national development by offering different educational programs presumed to be better attuned to the needs of the labor market. In this paper we explore the association of three different waves of major offering…

  3. Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    The booklet presents (1) a bibliography of approximately 660 references to literature about sex discrimination in the labor market and (2) an expository review of recent research about male/female differences in earnings and occupational assignments. The bibliography is divided into 12 content categories. These include earnings of women workers,…

  4. Increase in the Length of Incarceration and the Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Men Released from Illinois State Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Haeil

    2011-01-01

    The sharp rise in U.S. incarceration rates has heightened long-standing concerns among scholars and policymakers that lengthy incarceration permanently harms the future labor market outcomes of prisoners. If true, then lengthy prison sentences will not only punish criminals for crimes committed, but will also make it far more difficult for…

  5. The Rhode Island Labor Market in Recovery: Where Is the Skills Gap? Current Policy Perspectives. No. 15-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which Rhode Island's workforce lacks skills that are in demand among the state's current and potential employers and, if so, whether such a skills gap or labor market "mismatch" significantly restrains employment growth in the state. Using an index developed by Sahin et al. (2014), we find that…

  6. Beginning Subbaccalaureate Students' Labor Market Experiences: Six Years Later in 2009. Web Tables. NCES 2012-273

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2012-01-01

    This set of Web Tables presents descriptive statistics on the spring 2009 labor market experiences of subbaccalaureate students who first entered postsecondary education in 2003-04. The Web Tables use data from the nationally representative 2004/09 Beginning Post-secondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), which followed a cohort of…

  7. An Overview of the Labor Market Problems of Indians and Native Americans. Research Report No. 89-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…

  8. What about Certificates? Evidence on the Labor Market Returns to Nondegree Community College Awards in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Trimble, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    The annual number of certificates awarded by community colleges has increased dramatically, but relatively little research has been conducted on the economic benefits of certificates in the labor market. Based on detailed student-level information from matched college transcript and employment data in two states, this article estimates the…

  9. Goldratt's Thinking Process Applied to the Problems Associated with Trained Employee Retention in a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lloyd J., III; Poyner, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the problem of trained employee retention in a highly competitive labor market for a manufacturing facility in the oilfields of West Texas. Design/methodology/approach: This article examines how one manufacturing facility should be able to retain their trained employees by using the logic of Eliyahu M.…

  10. From Parent to Child: Early Labor Market Experiences of Second-Generation Immigrants in the Netherlands. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ours, Jan C.; Veenman, Justus

    This study investigated the early labor market experiences of second generation immigrants in the Netherlands, focusing on Turks, Moroccans, Surinamese, and Antilleans. Researchers examined those leaving school and their job experiences. Data came from a 1998 nationwide survey involving the four minority groups and a Dutch reference group in 13…

  11. Evidence from Florida on the Labor Market Attachment of Male Dropouts Who Attempt the GED. NCSALL Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This Research Brief highlights key findings from a study that examined the labor market attachment of male dropouts who obtained the GED credential in Florida between 1994 and 1998. I compared these credentialed dropouts to the men who attempted, but failed, the GED exam during the same period. Credentialed dropouts had a higher probability of…

  12. The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-03. The medium-term returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees are compared with returns for students who accumulated college credits but did not graduate. The authors also…

  13. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. Discussion Paper No. 1425-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Velez, Erin Dunlop

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to Unemployment Insurance (UI) earnings data and also to secondary education records.…

  14. The Comparative Labor Market Role of Newspaper Help Wanted Ads and Public Employment Service Job Listings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Miriam; Sugarman, Marged

    A 1-year study of 12 U.S. labor market areas compared job listings in the help wanted ads of local newspapers to job orders in the local public employment services to help determine what the role of the public employment service should be. The study gathered two types of data. One type was used to compare the "stock," or inventory, of…

  15. The fallacies in arguing that current high unemployment in Spain (27%) is a consequence of supposed labor market rigidities.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    This article refutes the argument that high unemployment in Spain is due to labor market rigidities, questioning the premises on which this theory is based. It then goes on to explain how those advancing this argument are the very same forces responsible for the macroeconomic decisions that are currently causing unemployment.

  16. Utilization of Manpower and Labor Market Data in College and University Planning: An Exploratory Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazziel, William

    A small-sample exploratory investigation is reported that attempted to develop some initial insights regarding the uses of manpower and labor market data in new planning, the needs for new types and forms of data, the nature of program changes generated, and the needs for further research and development. Planning models and program change data…

  17. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

  18. Labor Market Flexibility and Inequality: The Changing Skill-Based Temporary Employment and Unemployment Risks in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebel, Michael; Giesecke, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this article we use comparative micro data for 15 European countries covering the period 1992-2007 to study the impact of labor market reforms on the skill-related individual risk of holding a temporary contract and the risk of being unemployed. Our results indicate no general increase in either of these skill gaps. Using two-step multilevel…

  19. Creating Effective Education and Workforce Policies for Metropolitan Labor Markets in the United States. Discussion Paper No. 1394-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    How well do our education policies prepare America's youth for the labor market? What challenges limit our success, and what opportunities do we have for improvements? Can public policy play a greater role in encouraging more success? In this chapter, I provide a summary of what we know on these issues, incorporating but also complementing…

  20. The Labor Market Returns to For-Profit Higher Education: Evidence for Transfer Students. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuen Ting; Belfield, Clive

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the labor market gains for students who enrolled at for-profit colleges after beginning their post-secondary education in community college. We use student-level administrative record data from college transcripts, Unemployment Insurance earnings data, and progression data from the National Student Clearinghouse across full…

  1. Marketing the University: The Subjective Perceptions of Israeli Academics of Their Role in Attracting New Students to Their Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Israeli academics' perceptions of the introduction of educational markets and, particularly, their attitudes towards academics' roles and responsibilities in the new marketing-led university, as well as to obtain a greater understanding of their actual patterns of involvement in the marketing of…

  2. The civilian labor market experiences of Vietnam-era veterans: the influence of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Savoca, Elizabeth; Rosenheck, Robert

    2000-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research on the civilian labor market experiences of veterans has focused on the extent to which the skills and experience acquired in the military are rewarded in the civilian employment sector. While studies have been mindful of the need to analyze this question in a multivariate framework, controlling for other factors that might independently affect labor market outcomes, they have met this goal with limited success. As a result, an important element of the employment and wage determination process - psychiatric health - has been absent from this literature. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Using a nationally representative survey of Vietnam-era veterans, this study analyzes the contribution of psychiatric health toward explaining differences in the post-service civilian wages, hours worked, and employment probabilities among male veterans. METHODS: The analysis is based on data from the National Survey of the Vietnam Generation, a survey, completed in the late 1980s, of persons who were on active duty during the years of the Vietnam War, 1964-1975. Three outcome variables are studied - the hourly wage rate, usual hours worked per week, and a 0-1 indicator for whether the respondent is currently working. Lifetime diagnoses of four categories of mental disorders - major depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse/dependence, and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - were constructed from the US NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule, administered by the survey. The employment probability equation was estimated using probit; the hourly earnings and hours worked equations via ordinary least squares conditioned on being employed. RESULTS: The study finds that PTSD significantly lowered the likelihood of working and, for those veterans who were working, their hourly wages. On average, a veteran with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD was 8.5 percentage points less likely to be currently working than was a veteran who did not meet diagnostic criteria

  3. Marketing physician services in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Eudes, J A; Divis, K L; Vaughan, D G; Fottler, M D

    1987-01-01

    As a result of recent environmental changes in the health care industry, marketing has become a vital necessity for the survival of most hospitals. Kotler's conceptual framework is used to study and evaluate an innovative program for marketing physician services in a large urban medical center. This program was quite successful in increasing admissions and referrals and won a national award in 1984.

  4. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce; Bonikowski, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Decades of racial progress have led some researchers and policymakers to doubt that discrimination remains an important cause of economic inequality. To study contemporary discrimination, we conducted a field experiment in the low-wage labor market of New York City, recruiting white, black, and Latino job applicants who were matched on demographic characteristics and interpersonal skills. These applicants were given equivalent résumés and sent to apply in tandem for hundreds of entry-level jobs. Our results show that black applicants were half as likely as equally qualified whites to receive a callback or job offer. In fact, black and Latino applicants with clean backgrounds fared no better than white applicants just released from prison. Additional qualitative evidence from our applicants’ experiences further illustrates the multiple points at which employment trajectories can be deflected by various forms of racial bias. These results point to the subtle yet systematic forms of discrimination that continue to shape employment opportunities for low-wage workers. PMID:20689685

  6. Talent Wars: The International Market for Academic Staff. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to raise awareness and understanding among policy-makers and UK higher institutions of the international dimensions of academic staff recruitment and the factors that may influence it. This briefing summarises recent research and considers its implications for institutions and for national policies. Annex A contains:…

  7. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Apel, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime.

  8. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime. PMID:23825897

  9. How Marketing Academics View A-Level Journals: Psychological Insights into Differences between Published and Striving Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, Riley G.; Kellaris, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Many colleges of business demand A-level journal publications from marketing faculty as a condition for professional advancement. Yet only around 10 percent of marketing academics ever publish in the "Big 4," A-level journals ("Journal of Marketing," "Journal of Marketing Research," "Journal of Consumer…

  10. The labor market experience of female migrants: the case of temporary Mexican migration to the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kossoudji, S A; Ranney, S I

    1984-01-01

    This article, using a Mexican national survey, provides a profile of temporary Mexican female migrants in the US labor market. The usual association between occupational groups and wage rates does not hold up, with women in unskilled jobs averaging nearly the same wages as while collar women. The dramatic exception is private household workers, who earn less than 1/4 of the wage rates of other women. Although the distribution of wage rates across occupational groups for migrant women is not easily explained by schooling or potential work experience, wage rates seem to be positively correlated with marriage and childrearing. This is partly explained by the fact that married women are more likely to have the option of not working outside the home, and also that the labor market contacts provided by husbands may be helpful in securing more remunerative jobs. Migration networks make the region of origin in Mexico strongly correlate with wage rate variations across occupational groups for women. Although women are found to have more schooling, higher legal status, more US work experience and are more likely to come from regions with well developed migration networks than men, women average upto $7 less per day--a phenomenon largely explained by the labor market segmentation. A lack of legal status constrains women's job opportunities more than men's: over 90% of the women without entry permits are in the low paying private household sector, compared with less than 1/4 of those with some legal status. This connection between lack of proper legal status and low status jobs does not seem to prevent women from migrating illegally--more than 1/2 the women migrant studied had no legal status at all. This study concludes that women do not necessarily follow men in migration, and their labor market functions are quite distinct from those of men.

  11. Evaluation of the prevalence of stress and its phases in acute myocardial infarction in patients active in the labor market

    PubMed Central

    Lucinda, Luciane Boreki; Prosdócimo, Ana Claudia Merchan Giaxa; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; do Amaral, Vivian Ferreira; Faria, José Rocha; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized and active labor market patients with unstable myocardial infarction and observe its correlation with the life of this population with stress. Methods The methodology used was a quantitative, descriptive and transversal research approach conducted with a total of 43 patients, who were still active in the labor market, presenting or not morbidities. Data collection occurred on the fourth day of their hospitalization and patients responded to Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for adults. Results Thirty-one patients (72.1%) presented stress and twelve (27.8%) did not. In patients with stress, the identified phases were: alert - one patient (3.2%); resistance -twenty-two patients (71.0%); quasi-exhaustion - six patients (19.4%) and exhaustion - two patients (6.5%). All women researched presented stress. Conclusion The results suggest a high level of stress, especially in the resistance phase, in the male infarcted population, hospitalized and active in the labor market. PMID:25859863

  12. Academic Preparation for International Pre-MBA's in Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Kay

    Adjustments to the case study approach are recommended to address three major areas of difficulty for foreign students in master's-level marketing education programs: (1) language-related problems; (2) unfamiliar class format and methodology; and (3) lack of cultural background knowledge. For language-related problems, case studies are a good…

  13. Determining the Value of Undergraduate Business Programs from Market vs Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Steven; Chi, Robert; Fisher, Dorothy; Kiang, Melody

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to generate an understanding of the value-added to students enrolled in selected undergraduate business programs from an academic and market perspectives. Although there are numerous studies that rank undergraduate colleges and universities, the selection of the "best value" undergraduate business…

  14. The Market for Academic Knowledge: Its Historical Emergence and Inherent Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weik, Elke

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion about the marketisation of universities by providing a historical perspective. Going back to the time when the market for academic knowledge emerged, I argue that it was created through incorporating a number of inherent tensions that have been, and still are, shaping its development. I show how these…

  15. Academic Dishonesty: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of U.S. and Chinese Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawwas, Mohammed Y. A.; Al-Khatib, Jamal A.; Vitell, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Chinese as well as American business colleges are attempting to improve morality of their students due to recent scandals in both countries. This study investigates several beliefs and values, opportunism, and certain demographic variables that might contribute to the academic dishonesty of American and Chinese marketing students. The findings…

  16. Marketing Technology. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for marketing technology. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 580 specialty and foundation key indicators for evaluating mastery of…

  17. Manpower Policies and the Disadvantaged; A Summary Report on Labor Market Information Systems and the Disadvantaged, with Emphasis on Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Charles A.

    The report highlights policy implications of research conducted on formal and informal labor market information systems and the disadvantaged. Policy implications are developed at the end of each of eight sections reviewing studies in the areas of: insurance, an inner-city training program, newspaper ads, the Job Bank system, immigrant labor,…

  18. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Post, Marcel W. M.; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. Methods We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE) were examined with regression techniques. Results 53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33–2.25) and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40–2.27). The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7%) worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%). Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54. Conclusions LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both. PMID:27875566

  19. The Labor Market for PhDs in Science and Engineering: Career Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solmon, Lewis C.; Hurwicz, Margo-Lea

    The outcomes of the employment situation for science and engineering PhDs were assessed through a survey of college and university departments and faculty members who had accepted new academic jobs or who had left academic jobs for other positions within the last three years. Faculty members who had accepted their first job after receiving the…

  20. Essays on the statistical mechanics of the labor market and implications for the distribution of earned income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Markus P. A.

    This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely

  1. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria.

  2. Unlocking the Treasure Chest of Labor Market Information: Crucial Information for Job Seekers, Educators, and Employers in a Tough Economy. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Aaron; Kauder, Ronnie; Krepcio, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Quality labor market data and analysis is critical to developing effective market-driven workforce and economic strategies in states, regions, and localities. Such information can be complex, intimidating, and overwhelming to many users, however. This issue brief offers a framework for understanding workforce information, including a summary of…

  3. Migrant labor in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the academic achievement of father-present and father-absent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mboya, M M; Nesengani, R I

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether there are significant differences in academic achievement between father-present and father-absent (due to migrant labor) adolescents. Data were collected from 276 high school students in South Africa. Academic achievement was measured by the Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC) Scholastic Achievement Test, covering biology, English (second language), and mathematics. Father-present students were found to score significantly higher than father-absent students. The findings suggest that a father's absence due to work conditions has deleterious effects on the scholastic performance of young people.

  4. How Are Low-Skilled Women Doing in the Labor Market? Policy Brief #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Poverty Center, University of Michigan, 2006

    2006-01-01

    When chronicling how less-skilled workers have fared in the U.S. since the late 1970's, existing literature often cites their falling wages and declining participation in the labor force. Most research describing these trends, however, focuses primarily on men, failing to account for the fact that less-skilled women's real wages have not fallen,…

  5. Why Are Recent College Graduates Underemployed? University Enrollments and Labor-Market Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of recent college graduates are ending up in relatively low-skilled jobs that, historically, have gone to those with lower levels of educational attainment. This study examines this phenomenon in some detail, concluding: (1) About 48 percent of employed U.S. college graduates are in jobs that the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)…

  6. The Labor Market Orientation of Single Mothers on Welfare in The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2001-01-01

    Presents a study of 1,049 Dutch single mothers on welfare. Using LISREL, a conceptual model is examined for effects of past and current circumstances of mothers on labor orientation and steps toward employment. A mother's motivation to work is related to care ethos as opposed to work ethos and to problems she anticipates in combining care and…

  7. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Matthew Sigelman on Reading the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market…

  8. “Aging Out” of Dependent Coverage and the Effects on US Labor Market and Health Insurance Choices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I examined how labor market and health insurance outcomes were affected by the loss of dependent coverage eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. I used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and regression discontinuity models to measure the percentage-point change in labor market and health insurance outcomes at age 26 years. My sample was restricted to unmarried individuals aged 24 to 28 years and to a period of time before the ACA’s individual mandate (2011–2013). I ran models separately for men and women to determine if there were differences based on gender. Results. Aging out of this provision increased employment among men, employer-sponsored health insurance offers for women, and reports that health insurance coverage was worse than it was 1 year previously (overall and for young women). Uninsured rates did not increase at age 26 years, but there was an increase in the purchase of non–group health coverage, indicating interest in remaining insured after age 26 years. Conclusions. Many young adults will turn to state and federal health insurance marketplaces for information about health coverage. Because young adults (aged 18–29 years) regularly use social media sites, these sites could be used to advertise insurance to individuals reaching their 26th birthdays. PMID:26447916

  9. Labor market experience, work organization, gender inequalities and health status: results from a prospective analysis of US employed women.

    PubMed

    O'Campo, Patricia; Eaton, William W; Muntaner, Carles

    2004-02-01

    Women's labor force participation has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Although previous research has documented that a wide array of labor market characteristics affect health, more work is needed to understand how women are impacted by gender-specific employment patterns and exposures. We examine a cohort of 659 employed women from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study in the USA. Baseline and follow-up data collected 13 years apart are used to identify associations between demographic, labor market, work organization, and occupational gender inequality with four health outcomes: generalized distress, depressive syndrome, anxiety and fair or poor health. We also use gender-specific data on the workplace to create indicators of occupational gender inequality. We found wide gender inequalities in terms of pay and power in this sample of employed women. Financial strain was associated with all of our mental health outcomes with those reporting financial strain having increased odds of distress, depressive syndrome and anxiety for the 13 years prior to the interview. Workplace factors that were found to be associated with the four outcomes included experiencing a promotion or demotion in the 13 years prior to the interview; working at a large firm; and being a professional. Occupations where women compared to men had lower levels of job strain-domestic workers in private households, machine operator and transportation-showed increased risk for anxiety or fair/poor health. Our findings suggest that measuring the complexities of employment including promotion or demotion history, firm characteristics and even occupational gender inequality can yield important information about associations with health among women.

  10. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  11. Identification and Development of Academic and Higher-Order Workplace Competencies in the Missouri Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Section I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; Wilkinson, Richard F.

    This document provides an overview of a project to identify the basic academic skills, advanced academic skills, and the higher-order workplace competencies for marketing education. It describes the following project activities: review of current literature and research in the field; review by business and industry representatives of the skills…

  12. CARL Corporation to Market Knight Ridder DIALOG Databases to the Academic and Public Library Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1996-01-01

    With the advent of CD-ROMs, libraries began to limit online searching via DIALOG. To increase DIALOG's market share, Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries (CARL) Corporation is developing graphical user interfaces using World Wide Web and Windows technology and has reached agreements with Knight Ridder Information and with most of their database…

  13. An Academic-Marketing Collaborative to Promote Depression Care: A Tale of Two Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Bell, Robert A.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Duberstein, Paul; Riby, Caroline H.; Caccamo, Anthony F.; Slee, Christina K.; Cipri, Camille S.; Paterniti, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Commercial advertising and patient education have separate theoretical underpinnings, approaches, and practitioners. This paper aims to describe a collaboration between academic researchers and a marketing firm working to produce demographically targeted public service anouncements (PSAs) designed to enhance depression care-seeking in primary care. Methods An interdisciplinary group of academic researcherss contracted with a marketing firm in Rochester, NY to produce PSAs that would help patients with depressive symptoms engage more effectively with their primary care physicians (PCPs). The researchers brought perspectives derived from clinical experience and the social sciences and conducted empirical research using focus groups, conjoint analysis, and a population-based survey. Results were shared with the marketing firm, which produced four PSA variants targeted to gender and socioeconomic position. Results There was no simple, one-to-one relationship between research results and the form, content, or style of the PSAs. Instead, empirical findings served as a springboard for discussion and kept the creative process tethered to the experiences, attitudes, and opinions of actual patients. Reflecting research findings highlighting patients’ struggles to recognize, label, and disclose depressive symptoms, the marketing firm generated communication objectives that emphasized: a) educating the patient to consider and investigate the possibility of depression; b) creating the belief that the PCP is interested in discussing depression and capable of offering helpful treatment; and c) modelling different ways of communicating with physicians about depression. Before production, PSA prototypes were vetted with additional focus groups. The winning prototype, “Faces,” involved a multi-ethnic montage of formerly depressed persons talking about how depression affected them and how they improved with treatment, punctuated by a physician who provided clinical

  14. The Globalizing Labor Market in Education: Teachers as Cultural Ambassadors or Agents of Institutional Isomorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.; Stevick, Doyle

    2014-01-01

    Institutional isomorphists and other proponents of world culture theory argue that schools around the world are converging in many ways, whereas anthropologists and others question this conclusion, often arguing that local cultural differences belie superficial similarities. These viewpoints are not merely academic explanations of the spread and…

  15. Does Developmental Education Improve Labor Market Outcomes? Evidence from Two States. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle; Xu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, about two thirds of community college students are referred to developmental education. Thus far, research on the effectiveness of developmental education has focused on students' academic outcomes; in this paper, we examine the economic consequences of developmental education for students. Using longitudinal student-unit record data…

  16. Through the Looking Glass: The Labor Market for Registered Nurses in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol S.

    1997-01-01

    Demand for registered nurses is changing in a managed care environment and wages are likely to decrease. These trends will affect nursing school enrollments, and schools will need to monitor market conditions and adjust policies accordingly. (SK)

  17. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework.

  18. Is there a role for academic medical centers in emerging markets?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Charles M; Thompson, Steven J; Wu, Sandford; Chellappa, Mohan; Hasham, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Governments in emerging markets face mounting challenges in managing health spending, building capability and capacity, modernizing ageing infrastructure, and investing in skills and resources. One path to overcoming these challenges is to establish new public-private models of health care development and delivery based on United States academic medical centers, whose missions are to advance medical education and clinical delivery. Johns Hopkins Medicine is a participant in the collaboration developing between the Perdana University Hospital and the Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Malaysia. These two organizations comprise an academic health science center based on the United States model. The Perdana project provides constructive insights into the opportunities and challenges that governments, universities, and the private sector face when introducing new models of patient care that are integrated with medical education, clinical training, and biomedical research.

  19. [Process of training and insertion in the labor market: a vision of nursing graduates].

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Study to analyze nursing graduates' perception about the contribution of the training process in its insertion in the labour market. Descriptive exploratory study, a qualitative approach. The data was collected in 2011 through semistructured interviews. Attended by 15 professionals, graduated from the Nursing Course at a South Brazilian university in 2009-2010, inserted in the labour market. Data was analysed according to Minayo's proposals. From this analysis emerged the category Training route, including the subcategory: following the travel itineray. The results demonstrate the need for curricular integration, better use of clinical practices experiences, research valorization, and the importance of training based on dialogue between students and professors.

  20. Long-run effects of gestation during the Dutch Hunger Winter famine on labor market and hospitalization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Robert S; van den Berg, Gerard J; Lindeboom, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Hunger Winter (1944/45) is the most-studied famine in the literature on long-run effects of malnutrition in utero. Its temporal and spatial demarcations are clear, it was severe, it was not anticipated, and nutritional conditions in society were favorable and stable before and after the famine. This is the first study to analyze effects of in utero exposure on labor market outcomes and hospitalization late in life, and the first to use register data covering the full Dutch population to examine long-run effects of this famine. We provide results of famine exposure by sub-interval of gestation. We find a significantly negative effect of exposure during the first trimester of gestation on employment outcomes 53 or more years after birth. Hospitalization rates in the years before retirement are higher after middle or late gestational exposure.

  1. Time well spent: the duration of foster care and early adult labor market, educational, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation.

  2. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.

  3. The Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers’ Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  4. Displacement in new economy labor markets: Post-displacement wage loss in high tech versus low tech cities.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Rubin, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    While scholars and politicians tout education as the salve to employment disruptions, we argue that the geography of the new economy, and the social closure mechanisms that geography creates, may be just as important as individuals' characteristics for predicting post-displacement wage loss (or gain). We use data from the 2012 Displaced Workers ement of the Current Population Survey and from the 2010 United States Census to test hypotheses linking local labor markets in different industrial contexts to post-displacement wage loss. Our results point to age as a closure mechanism, and to the partially protective effect of education in high-tech versus low-tech economic sectors. This study is the first to use national level data to examine how employment in high-tech cities influences post-displacement wages. These findings are relevant both for theorizing about the new economy and for public policy.

  5. Corruption, Collusion, and Nepotism in Higher Education and the Labor Market in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It argues…

  6. A Guide for Using Labor Market Data to Improve Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Never before has the link between a college education and postgraduate job prospects been more important. College graduates are employed more often and, on average, earn significantly more than those without college degrees. During recent years, as students have moved into a challenging job market, a college education has remained the most…

  7. Revitalizing Higher Education through Innovative Labor Market Based Curriculum for Sustainable National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of higher education in preparing youths for the labour market is becoming more challenging in the modern society. This is visible in the high number of tertiary institutions' graduates that are unemployable for lack of necessary skills, which would make them contribute profitably to any employer of labour. This paper examines the history…

  8. [Professional development and entering the labor market: the perceptions of nursing graduates].

    PubMed

    Colenci, Raquel; Berti, Heloísa Wey

    2012-02-01

    The professional history of nursing graduates allows for understanding and reflecting on higher education and the characteristics inherent in the job market. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the perceptions that nursing graduates of a private university have regarding their development process, focusing on the conditions of entering the job market and the demands they deal with in their professional life. The Collective Subject Discourse was the method of choice used in this study. Participants included 104 graduates who were divided into three groups according to their position after graduation. Discourse analysis allowed for deep reflection regarding their preparation, indicating the need to review the pedagogical project, particularly in terms of developing competencies in the four dimensions of care: management, healthcare, education, and research.

  9. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile’s universal voucher system

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9–12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  10. Is There Really a Labor Market Advantage to Being Bilingual in the U.S.? Policy Information Report and Research Report. ETS RR-15-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gándara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although it is commonly thought that people who are bilingual have an advantage in the labor market, studies on this topic have not borne out this perception.The literature, in fact, has found an earnings penalty is associated with bilingualism--people who are bilingual often make less than people who are monolingual in similar jobs. This report…

  11. Changes in the Economy, the Labor Market, and Expectations for the Future: What Might Europe and the United States Look Like in Twenty-Five Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the labor markets and economies of modern societies have been confronted by a marked intensification of cross-border exchange between modern states that has attained a new and previously unattained quality over the past thirty years. In the economic and sociological literature, this development is usually labeled…

  12. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  13. An Econometric Analysis of the Unemployment Insurance System in a Local Urban Labor Market. Final Report for September 1, 1973--September 30, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Stephen Tilney

    The study derives a model of the unemployment insurance (UI) system and its relationship to the labor market, estimates it with data from the Detroit Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, and evaluates its potential use to forecast UI benefit amounts, UI insured unemployment, and UI exhaustions. It further uses the model to analyze policy issues…

  14. Pathways to the Future, Vol. IV. A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1982. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paula; And Others

    The six papers which comprise this report analyze the labor market experience of youth as reflected in the 1982 results of a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 32.9 million young people who were ages 14-21 as of January 1, 1979. Chapter 1, "The Nature and Consequences of High School Employment," by Ronald D'Amico…

  15. Towards Improving Employment in the New Haven Labor Market Area: The F.A.C.T. (Fostering Active Communication Today) Network. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Linda

    The FACT (Fostering Active Communication Today) project in New Haven, Connecticut was conducted by the Urban League from November 1981 to July 1982 to create a formal and direct communication mechanism among the many existing organizations concerned with aiding clients to find employment and sharing research and ideas about labor market needs. The…

  16. Just the Facts, Ma'am: Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes in the U.S. IRP Discussion Paper No. 1411-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop, Erin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date snapshot of the most important postsecondary education and labor market outcomes in the United States using two nationally representative sources of data: the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS). We find that postsecondary…

  17. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  18. Changes in the economy, the labor market, and expectations for the future: what might Europe and the United States look like in twenty-five years?

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    In times of globalization, modern societies' labor markets have been marked by an increasing segmentation and growing social inequality. Youths in particular have experienced a worsening of their employment chances in the past three decades. However, what will the future bring?

  19. Employer Perceptions of Associate Degrees in Local Labor Markets: A Case Study of the Employment of Information Technology Technicians in Detroit and Seattle. CCRC Working Paper No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Jacobs, James

    2012-01-01

    While promoting postsecondary credential completion is a national priority intended to help graduates secure good jobs, the value of credentials in the labor market from the perspective of employers is not well understood. Specifically, more attention is needed to understand how credentials align with employer needs. Through in-depth interviews…

  20. Science Education Impacts on Labor Market and University Expectations of Students by Citizenship Status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Comparative Analysis Using TIMSS 2007 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.; Alshumrani, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    This study comparatively examines the impact of students' citizenship status on science education relative to labor market and university expectations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) provides science education teaching, learning and achievement data from the…

  1. Mathematical and Computer Skills and Workplace Literacy in Labor Markets: An Analysis of Their Actual and Potential Effect on the Economic Status of Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joel Popkin and Co., Washington, DC.

    Data from the Current Population Surveys of October 1984, October 1989, and January 1991 were used to examine the role of computer and mathematical skills in the U.S. labor market from 1984-91. Particular attention was given to their actual and potential effect on the economic status of women. Data confirmed the overall increase in the education…

  2. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  3. Creating Effective Education and Workforce Policies for Metropolitan Labor Markets in the U.S. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #11-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    How well do our education policies prepare America's youth for the labor market? What challenges limit our success, and what opportunities do we have for improvements? Can public policy play a greater role in encouraging more success? I consider these questions as they apply to the unique characteristics of metropolitan areas in the U.S. Most…

  4. Be as Careful of the Company You Keep as of the Books You Read: Peer Effects in Education and on the Labor Market. NBER Working Paper No. 14948

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGiorgi, Giacomo; Pellizzari, Michele; Redaelli, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether peers' behavior influences the choice of college major, thus contributing to the mismatch of skills in the labor market. Using a newly constructed dataset, we are able to identify the endogenous effect of peers on such decisions through a novel identification strategy that solves the common econometric problems…

  5. The Labor Market Returns to Math in Community College: Evidence Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the returns to math courses relative to those in courses in other subjects for students who started their postsecondary education at community college. The limited available evidence presumes that college-level math is valuable in the labor market relative to other coursework. Using data on college transcript and earnings from…

  6. Designing the Framework Conditions for Assuring Academic Standards: Lessons Learned about Professional, Market, and Government Regulation of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D.; Beerkens, Maarja

    2013-01-01

    The new demands of mass systems of higher education and the emerging environment of global academic competition are altering the traditional institutions for assuring academic standards in universities. As a consequence many nations are experimenting with new instruments for academic quality assurance. Contemporary government control of academic…

  7. Analyzing an Active Labor Market Program in Germany: A Regional Approach--An Attempt to Use Propensity Score Matching for the Estimation of Causal Effects on the Level of Counties and Independent Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Work, Skills and Training was assigned to evaluate a labor market program aimed at the integration of long-term unemployed individuals aged 50 or older. The integration should have been achieved not only by training and coaching of individuals, but also by building regional networks between labor market stakeholders within a…

  8. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Labor Market Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of economic Super Sectors in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each Super Sector to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the scenario earthquake on economic sectors and provides a baseline for the indirect and interactive analysis of an input-output model of the regional economy. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by the North American Industry Classification System. According to the analysis results, nearly 225,000 business

  9. The impact of rehabilitation and counseling services on the labor market activity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Robert R; Bailey, Michelle Stegman

    2014-01-01

    We use data from a social experiment to estimate the impact of a rehabilitation and counseling program on the labor market activity of newly entitled Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries. Our results indicate that the program led to a 4.6 percentage point increase in the receipt of employment services within the first year following random assignment and a 5.1 percentage point increase in participation in the Social Security Administration's Ticket to Work program within the first three years following random assignment. The program led to a 5.3 percentage point increase, or almost 50 percent increase, in employment, and an $831 increase in annual earnings in the second calendar year after the calendar year of random assignment. The employment and earnings impacts are smaller and not statistically significant in the third calendar year following random assignment, and we describe SSDI rules that are consistent with this finding. Our findings indicate that disability reform proposals focusing on restoring the work capacity of people with disabilities can increase the disability employment rate.

  10. How Does Academic Ability Affect Educational and Labour Market Pathways in Canada. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this paper provides an up-to-date description of educational and labour market pathways (or transitions) among Canadian youth. It also estimates the effect of academic abilities, measured by PISA math and reading scores, on such transitions. Descriptive statistics show that educational success…

  11. Higher Education Marketing Strategies Based on Factors Impacting the Enrollees' Choice of a University and an Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalimullin, Aydar M.; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of studying the stated problem is due to the fact that for increasing the efficiency of higher education marketing it is necessary to take into account several factors, namely, factors that impact the choice of a university and an academic program by enrollees, as well as socio-psychological characteristics of the latter, while…

  12. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  13. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  14. Publishing Strategies of Young, Highly Mobile Academics: The Question of Language in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines links between publishing strategies and the academic mobility of multilingual entry-level scholars in the European context against the backdrop of European Union (EU) policies and research on academic labor market characteristics, skilled migration and scholarly publishing. An analysis of language of publication, patterns of…

  15. Labour Market Theories and Distance Education: A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    1996-01-01

    Responds to comments on a previous series of three articles on labor market theories and distance education. Highlights include conceptual frameworks of Fordism, neo-Fordism, and post-Fordism; industrialization and its impact on education; work and academic work; mass production; and specialist markets and small-scale distance education systems.…

  16. Learning to Do Well or Learning to Do Good? Estimating the Effects of Schooling on Civic Engagement, Social Cohesion, and Labor Market Outcomes in the Presence of Endowments

    PubMed Central

    Schnittker, Jason; Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Although some point to the large effects of schooling on civic engagement (usually measured in terms of volunteering and participation in civic organizations) and social cohesion (usually measured in terms of social networks and relationship quality), the effects of schooling on social outcomes have not been estimated with the same rigor as the effects of schooling on labor-market outcomes, such as earnings. In particular, previous research has failed to consider (i) the many potential and often unobserved confounding factors (“endowments”) influencing both schooling and social outcomes, including family upbringing, innate characteristics, and personality, and (ii) the ways in which schooling pushes individuals in multiple directions simultaneously, including toward greater social engagement, but also toward more independent and market-driven pursuits. Using samples of unrelated persons, ordinary siblings, and identical twins, this study explores the effects of schooling on measures of civic engagement and social relationships, as well as labor-force earnings and labor-force participation. The siblings models reveal a more complex picture than typically suggested by standard individual estimates. On one hand, the results reveal a robust positive effect of schooling on earnings: well-schooled persons work more and earn more, albeit not as much as associations without control for endowments suggest. On the other hand, the results reveal more tenuous and occasionally negative effects of schooling on social outcomes. The effects of schooling on volunteering and membership in civic organizations, for example, disappear almost entirely with control for endowments. Also, within-identical-twins models reverse the positive effects of schooling on reports of support from friends, family, and coworkers. These results may reflect the tension schooling creates between market and non-market commitments, as well as between independence and interpersonal reliability. Schooling

  17. Learning to do well or learning to do good? Estimating the effects of schooling on civic engagement, social cohesion, and labor market outcomes in the presence of endowments.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Behrman, Jere R

    2012-03-01

    Although some point to the large effects of schooling on civic engagement (usually measured in terms of volunteering and participation in civic organizations) and social cohesion (usually measured in terms of social networks and relationship quality), the effects of schooling on social outcomes have not been estimated with the same rigor as the effects of schooling on labor-market outcomes, such as earnings. In particular, previous research has failed to consider (i) the many potential and often unobserved confounding factors ("endowments") influencing both schooling and social outcomes, including family upbringing, innate characteristics, and personality, and (ii) the ways in which schooling pushes individuals in multiple directions simultaneously, including toward greater social engagement, but also toward more independent and market-driven pursuits. Using samples of unrelated persons, ordinary siblings, and identical twins, this study explores the effects of schooling on measures of civic engagement and social relationships, as well as labor-force earnings and labor-force participation. The siblings models reveal a more complex picture than typically suggested by standard individual estimates. On one hand, the results reveal a robust positive effect of schooling on earnings: well-schooled persons work more and earn more, albeit not as much as associations without control for endowments suggest. On the other hand, the results reveal more tenuous and occasionally negative effects of schooling on social outcomes. The effects of schooling on volunteering and membership in civic organizations, for example, disappear almost entirely with control for endowments. Also, within-identical-twins models reverse the positive effects of schooling on reports of support from friends, family, and coworkers. These results may reflect the tension schooling creates between market and non-market commitments, as well as between independence and interpersonal reliability. Schooling may

  18. Impact of health care system delay in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction on return to labor market and work retirement.

    PubMed

    Laut, Kristina Grønborg; Hjort, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted Hansen, Hans-Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Frants; Jørgensen, Erik; Holmvang, Lene; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht; Lippert, Freddy; Lang-Jensen, Torsten; Jans, Henning; Hansen, Poul Anders; Trautner, Sven; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Lash, Timothy L; Clemmensen, Peter; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2014-12-15

    System delay (delay from emergency medical service call to reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention [PPCI]) is acknowledged as a performance measure in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as shorter system delay is associated with lower mortality. It is unknown whether system delay also impacts ability to stay in the labor market. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether system delay is associated with duration of absence from work or time to retirement from work among patients with STEMI treated with PPCI. We conducted a population-based cohort study including patients ≤67 years of age who were admitted with STEMI from January 1, 1999, to December 1, 2011 and treated with PPCI. Data were derived from Danish population-based registries. Only patients who were full- or part-time employed before their STEMI admission were included. Association between system delay and time to return to the labor market was analyzed using a competing-risk regression analysis. Association between system delay and time to retirement from work was analyzed using a Cox regression model. A total of 4,061 patients were included. Ninety-three percent returned to the labor market during 4 years of follow-up, and 41% retired during 8 years of follow-up. After adjustment, system delay >120 minutes was associated with reduced resumption of work (subhazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.92) and earlier retirement from work (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.36). In conclusion, system delay was associated with reduced work resumption and earlier retirement. This highlights the value of system delay as a performance measure in treating patients with STEMI.

  19. Mismatch in the Labor Market: The Supply of and Demand for "Middle-Skill" Workers in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modestino, Alicia Sasser

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, policymakers and business leaders across New England have been concerned that the region's slower population growth and loss of residents to other parts of the country will lead to a shortage of skilled labor--particularly when the baby boom generation retires. Prior to the Great Recession, the concern was that an inadequate…

  20. Diversity and Research Practices among Academics in South African Universities: Race for the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaver, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    Higher education systems, globally, are being called upon to effect changes in terms of widening student access and diversifying a previously homogenous academic staff profile. In South Africa, one of the main forces driving the diversification of academic staff is state policy in the form of employment equity legislation, with racial redress…

  1. Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Leslie, Larry L.

    Globalization of the political economy, and the attendant reductions in government funding, liaisons with business and industry, and marketing of educational and business services, has been changing the nature of academic labor. The first three chapters discuss the ways in which global political and economic changes have had an impact on higher…

  2. Competence Indicators in Academic Education and Early Labour Market Success of Graduates in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeijn, Judith H.; van der Velden, Rolf; Heijke, Hans; van der Vleuten, Cees; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of several educational and non-educational indicators of competence on short-term labour market outcomes for university graduates are estimated. The research question is: to what extent do indications of specific and generic competence during the educational program predict labour market outcomes? Labour market outcomes…

  3. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies.

    PubMed

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.

  4. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  5. Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

  6. [The young people of foreign extraction in the Federal Republic of Germany and the labor market in 2000].

    PubMed

    Von Delhaes-guenther, D

    1988-03-01

    This study analyzes immigration trends and prospects with respect with to the Federal Republic's changing demography and economy. Low birth rates and an aging population will result in a decrease in the local population and an increase in the foreign population of the Federal Republic in the next decades. After 1990 the demand for foreign labor will diminish. There will, however, still be a need for highly specialized personnel for the new technological sectors. In this context the professional qualification of young people of foreign extraction acquires an even greater significance, since they also face difficulties at a cultural and linguistic level. The technological challenges demand scholastic and professional training programs which maximize migrant labor force potential and help to eliminate socioeconomic conflicts. By the year 2000 60% of the jobs in the Federal Republic will be in service-related industries and the "third industrial revolution" based on innovations in microelectronics will demand a trained labor force that can easily shift and adapt. Local and national institutions will have to form a trained and competent labor force. However, foreign young people educated in German public schools face difficulties in achieving professional certificates and gaining superior employment. The potential exists for ever greater problems as minimum skill jobs diminish and higher-skilled jobs increase in the changing German economy. Language barriers and lack of sufficient skills prevent the complete integration of foreign young people and can lead to frustration, mental depression, and even criminal behavior. The author proposes closer contacts between parents of foreign youths and local and Federal authorities and better bilingual education.

  7. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  8. Doctoral Programs and the Labor Market, or How Should We Respond to the "Ph.D. Glut"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumeta, William

    1982-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is used to illustrate current thinking about academic program review and analysis. It indicates that, at the margin, some important benefits of doctoral education have been understated and marginal costs exaggerated. It is suggested that program review choices are best left to the institutions. (MSE)

  9. Do Different Dimensions of Male High School Students' Skills Predict Labor Market Success a Decade Later? Evidence from the NLSY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.; Braatz, M. Jay; Duhaldeborde, Yves

    2001-01-01

    Uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to examine whether measures of male teenagers' skills (academic, reasoning, and self-esteem) predict their wages at ages 27 and 28. All three skill types help predict subsequent wages, but have differing importance in explaining white/minority wage gaps. (Contains 37 references.) (MLH)

  10. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  11. Digital Marketing: The Time for a New "Academic Major" Has Arrived

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly emerging digital economy is challenging the relevance of existing marketing practices, and a radical redesign of the marketing curriculum consistent with the emerging student and business needs of the 21st century is required. To remain relevant to our students and to the ultimate consumers of our output, businesses, the marketing…

  12. Out-of-Field Teaching: A Cross-National Study on Teacher Labor Market and Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yisu

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, the issue of out-of-field teaching (OFT) has concerned policy makers and researchers alike who see raising teachers' subject matter knowledge as the main policy lever to improve teacher quality. The study of OFT has emerged as one of the important subfields of teacher quality and teacher labour market research.…

  13. Academic Capitalism and the New Economy: Markets, State, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Rhoades, Gary

    2009-01-01

    As colleges and universities become more entrepreneurial in a post-industrial economy, they focus on knowledge less as a public good than as a commodity to be capitalized on in profit-oriented activities. In "Academic Capitalism and the New Economy," higher education scholars Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades detail the aggressive…

  14. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  15. "Postdocs," Seeing Little Way Into the Academic Job Market, Seek Better Terms in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1998-01-01

    In sciences, postdoctoral fellowships have become the terminal academic credential for a research career. Positions are supposed to be temporary, but amount to a holding pattern for many unable to find permanent jobs in research or needing to assemble the required publishing record. Some institutions are beginning to acknowledge this problem and…

  16. Economic Returns to Sub-Baccalaureate Technical Education: A Study of Labor Market Outcomes for Manufacturing Engineering Technologist and Technician Education (METTE) Programs in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the labor market outcomes of sub-baccalaureate education for individuals attending Manufacturing Engineering Technologist and Technician Education (METTE) programs in the Wisconsin Technical College System. Increasingly, public policy for postsecondary education and economic development, as well as decisions…

  17. Yes, but Can They Earn a Living? Methods for Creating an Effective System of Measuring Labor Market Outcomes in Higher Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.5.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; Chapman, Kenneth; Huber, Bettina; Shors, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A new federal initiative calls for a College Scorecard which will include a yet to be determined measure of graduate earnings. In this paper we examine the political context that drives this initiative and examine the nascent efforts of four states to develop statewide systems to measure the labor market outcomes of higher education. We propose…

  18. Labor contractors: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Martin, P M

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of labor brokering or contracting that helps to explain why employers turn to foreign workers to fill certain vacant jobs, and how the presence of foreign workers brought to a country by labor contractors can affect the size and duration of migration flows. The major conclusion is that East Asian policies that aim to avoid the settlement of unskilled foreign workers also make labor brokering a prominent feature of labor migration and migrant labor markets in the region."

  19. No time for the gym? Housework and other non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among adults in full-time, sedentary jobs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for

  20. Markets for Reputation: Evidence on Quality and Quantity in Academe. NBER Working Paper No. 15527

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Pfann, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a theory of the market for individual reputation, an indicator of regard by one's peers and others. The central questions are: 1) Does the quantity of exposures raise reputation independent of their quality? and 2) Assuming that overall quality matters for reputation, does the quality of an individual's most important exposure have an…

  1. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their important roles in organizational performance, internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have become more interesting subjects among researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research is limited in the literature, and the relationship between these two variables in higher educational institutions is not clear.…

  2. Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Elizabeth Popp

    2012-01-01

    American universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the United States globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. "Creating the Market University" is…

  3. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... for labor and delivery, the cervix begins to soften (ripen), thin out, and open. These changes usually ... cervix is a process that helps the cervix soften and thin out in preparation for labor. Medications ...

  4. A Synthesis Model of Sustainable Market Orientation: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Influence on Academic Accreditation--A Case Study of Egyptian-Accredited Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Warda, Sherein H.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions are increasingly concerned about accreditation. Although sustainable market orientation (SMO) bears on academic accreditation, to date, no study has developed a valid scale of SMO or assessed its influence on accreditation. The purpose of this paper is to construct and validate an SMO scale that was developed in…

  5. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  6. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  7. United States academic medical centers: priorities and challenges amid market transformation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Irene M; Anason, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    United States academic medical centers (AMCs) have upheld their long-standing reputation for excellence by teaching and training the next generation of physicians, supporting medical research, providing world-class medical care, and offering breakthrough treatments for highly complex medical cases. In recent years, the pace and direction of change reshaping the American health care industry has created a set of new and profound challenges that AMC leaders must address in order to sustain their institutions. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is an alliance of 116 leading nonprofit academic medical centers and 276 of their affiliated hospitals, all of which are focused on delivering world-class patient care. Formed in 1984, UHC fosters collaboration with and among its members through its renowned programs and services in the areas of comparative data and analytics, performance improvement, supply chain management, strategic research, and public policy. Each year, UHC surveys the executives of its member institutions to understand the issues they view as most critical to sustaining the viability and success of their organizations. The results of UHC's most recent 2011 member survey, coupled with a 2012 Strategic Health Perspectives Harris Interactive presentation, based in parton surveys of major health care industry stakeholders reveal the most important and relevant issues and opportunities that hospital leaders face today, as the United States health care delivery system undergoes a period of unprecedented transformation.

  8. The academic elite in marketing: linkages among top-ranked graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Bair, J H; Bair, K E

    2001-02-01

    The 10 top-ranked graduate programs in marketing, based on a national survey of deans and top administrators, were linked to one another by these programs hiring one another's graduates. Approximately one-half of the faculty members in these 10 programs had graduated from one of these same 10 programs. It is suggested that this linkage helps these programs to maintain and enhance their prestige.

  9. Realizing universal health coverage for maternal health services in the Republic of Guinea: the use of workforce projections to design health labor market interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Christel; Codjia, Laurence; Cometto, Giorgio; Yansané, Mohamed Lamine; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage requires a health workforce that is available, accessible, and well-performing. This article presents a critical analysis of the health workforce needs for the delivery of maternal and neonatal health services in Guinea, and of feasible and relevant interventions to improve the availability, accessibility, and performance of the health workforce in the country. Methods A needs-based approach was used to project human resources for health (HRH) requirements. This was combined with modeling of future health sector demand and supply. A baseline scenario with disaggregated need and supply data for the targeted health professionals per region and setting (urban or rural) informed the identification of challenges related to the availability and distribution of the workforce between 2014 and 2024. Subsequently, the health labor market framework was used to identify interventions to improve the availability and distribution of the health workforce. These interventions were included in the supply side modeling, in order to create a “policy rich” scenario B which allowed for analysis of their potential impact. Results In the Republic of Guinea, only 44% of the nurses and 18% of the midwives required for maternal and neonatal health services are currently available. If Guinea continues on its current path without scaling up recruitment efforts, the total stock of HRH employed by the public sector will decline by 15% between 2014 and 2024, while HRH needs will grow by 22% due to demographic trends. The high density of HRH in urban areas and the high number of auxiliary nurses who are currently employed pose an opportunity for improving the availability, accessibility, and performance of the health workforce for maternal and neonatal health in Guinea, especially in rural areas. Conclusion Guinea will need to scale up its recruitment efforts in order to improve health workforce availability. Targeted labor market interventions need to be

  10. From academic laboratory to the market: Disclosed and undisclosed narratives of commercialization.

    PubMed

    Sapir, Adi; Oliver, Amalya L

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines how the Weizmann Institute of Science has been telling the story of the successful commercialization of a scientific invention, through its corporate communication channels, from the early 1970s to today. The paper aims to shed light on the transformation processes by which intellectual-property-based commercialization activities have become widely institutionalized in universities all over the world, and on the complexities, ambiguities and tensions surrounding this transition. We look at the story of the scientific invention of Copolymer-1 at the Weizmann Institute of Science and its licensing to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, which subsequently developed the highly successful drug Copaxone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. We argue that, in its tellings and retellings of the story of Copolymer-1, the Weizmann Institute has created narratives that serve to legitimize the institution of academic patenting in Israel.

  11. College Student Engagement and Early Career Earnings: Differences by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Academic Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping; Wolniak, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 2001 cohort of applicants to the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program, the authors examined scaled measures of academic and social engagement in relation to labor market earnings to test whether the economic value of student engagement among high-achieving students of color differs by student characteristics.…

  12. Searching for the Next Generation of Teacher Educators: Assessing the Success of Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Williams, James; Green, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    In light of a documented shortage of candidates for teacher education faculty positions, this article explores the academic labor market for teacher education faculty using job announcements from the Chronicle of Higher Education and a survey of search chairs to examine the qualifications sought. The authors conclude that the demand for teacher…

  13. The Division of Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Huber, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the following hypotheses concerning division of household labor (DOHL) between husbands and wives: (1) the division of household labor is somewhat affected by the availability of time, especially the wife's time; (2) there are strong effects of relative power, as measured by market-related resources, marital…

  14. Admission-Group Salary Differentials in the United States: The Significance of Labor Market Institutional Selection of High-Skilled Workers*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin

    2015-01-01

    In 1990 a temporary-to-permanent pathway was established for highly skilled workers admitted to the United States under nonimmigrant programs. The paper argues that this policy shift has allowed employers to play a crucial role in the immigration of highly skilled workers, thereby creating labor-market institutional selection that gives a salary advantage to highly skilled temporary-admitted workers retained in the United States. Through analyses of the salary differentials among admission-category groups, the paper finds that the salary advantage is based on recruitment from Western countries, adjustment from temporary to permanent status after a second employer screening, working in the information technology sector and the private sector, holding a supervisory position, or having a skill-matched job, all of which are consequences of institutional selection rather than individual self-selection. Our results also reveal a difference between those admitted from abroad and those recruited from graduating foreign students in USA higher educational institutions, which suggests a distinction between overseas hiring and domestic hiring. Policy implications for the United States and other receiving countries are discussed. PMID:26269690

  15. Hiring Policies, Labor Market Institutions, and Labor Market Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pries, Michael; Rogerson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    We develop a matching model to account for the fact that worker turnover in Europe is much less than in the United States, whereas job turnover is roughly the same. The model assumes that the quality of worker-firm matches is both an inspection good and an experience good. Both parties have limited information at the time of meeting about the…

  16. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  17. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  18. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  19. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  20. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  1. [Immigrants in the labor market].

    PubMed

    Pugliese, E

    1990-04-01

    This is an analysis by occupation of foreigners working in Italy. "A relationship can frequently be observed between country of origin, religion, sex, and employment. Then, those who immigrate into Italy from Islamic countries are largely single males; most of them work as hawkers. At the opposite end, women, still prevalently employed in domestic service, come from Catholic countries, or from Catholic minorities within countries with different predominant religions. Besides these two categories, more traditional and majoritarian, there are the employed in agriculture, services, and, only recently, industry. The article points to the highly intense dynamics of immigration and to the ever-changing relative weight of different nationalities, main settlements, and prevalent activities themselves in the various regions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  2. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  3. The Future of Humanities Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    "Publish or perish" has long been the formula of academic labor at research universities, but for many humanities professors that imperative has decayed into a simple rule of production. The publish-or-perish model assumed a peer-review process that maintained quality, but more and more it is the bare volume of printed words that counts. When…

  4. Learning Statistics at the Farmers Market? A Comparison of Academic Service Learning and Case Studies in an Introductory Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiedemann, Bridget; Jones, Stacey M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the effectiveness of academic service learning to that of case studies in an undergraduate introductory business statistics course. Students in six sections of the course were assigned either an academic service learning project (ASL) or business case studies (CS). We examine two learning outcomes: students' performance on the final…

  5. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  6. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  7. International labor migration and domestic labor supply.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, R

    1992-04-01

    "This paper constructs a dynamic, general equilibrium framework to study the relationship between international labor migration and domestic labor supply. The general equilibrium nature of the model enables us to endogenize the pattern of labor migration. The effect of labor migration on domestic wage rates and labor supply is shown to depend on the pattern of labor migration. If the substitution effect dominates the income effect in labor supply, the domestic supply of labor necessarily decreases in response to an inflow of migrants....Similarly, if the dominant effect is the income effect, the immigration of labor necessarily increases the domestic supply of labor."

  8. The second market failure phenomenon in safety-net health systems: the case of a municipal academic medical center from 1980 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David

    2011-01-01

    The specific aim of this analysis is to demonstrate how the trade-off between efficiency and equity policy approaches affects the ability of at-risk children to access quality health care services at the King/Drew Medical Center of Los Angeles County from 1980 to 2000. The concept of a second market phenomenon is used as a framework to illustrate how efficiency-seeking behaviors of federal, state, and local government actors affected government intervention efforts initiated to remedy health care access hardships created by market failure in low-income communities. A second market failure occurs when government failure results from the reintroduction of market protocols in an environment where the market had originally failed to facilitate the distribution of basic goods and services. The review suggest that financial austerity at the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services in the context of federal, state, and local government policies that emphasized allocative efficiencies, compromised equity values by undermining access to quality pediatric services at the King/Drew Medical Center which was a municipal academic medical center.

  9. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  10. Inducing labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... inducing labor is to "break the bag of waters" or rupture the membranes. Your health care provider will do a pelvic exam and will guide a small plastic probe with a hook on the end through your cervix to create a hole in the membrane. This does not hurt you ...

  11. Some Reasons Why Rural Workers Do Not Find Work in Tight Labor Markets: Results from Focus Groups Meetings in Rural Michigan. Staff Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Colletta H.; Begashaw, Getachew W.

    A study examined barriers to employment for rural Michigan residents, especially during an economic boom. Four focus groups conducted in four nonmetropolitan growth counties in Michigan indicated that educated, skilled workers were seeking to enter the labor force or to work more hours, even though community leaders, newspapers, and job developers…

  12. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero…

  13. The Role of Occupational Attainment, Labor Market Structure, and Earnings Inequality on the Relative Earnings of Mexican Americans: 1986-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagan, Jose A.; Cardenas, Gilberto

    1997-01-01

    Relative earnings of young Mexican American workers declined during 1986-92, influenced by recession-induced changes in the U.S. earnings structure and new immigration laws. Although Mexican American females experienced significantly greater occupational segregation than males, structural changes in labor demand worked to reduce the gender…

  14. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  15. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  16. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  17. A global strategy for labor.

    PubMed

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  18. The Labour Market Relevance of PhDs: An Issue for Academic Research and Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulos, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    In the difficult current socio-economic context, overqualified graduates are increasingly facing challenges in terms of entering the job market and finding jobs which fit their levels of qualifications and satisfaction. Grounded in an auto-ethnography approach, this paper reflects on the challenges that the author (a young female European PhD…

  19. The relationship between early recruitment-related activities and the application decisions of new labor-market entrants: a brand equity approach to recruitment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christopher J; Stevens, Cynthia Kay

    2002-12-01

    Theory and research from the marketing literature on customer-based brand equity were used to predict how positive exposure to 4 early recruitment-related activities-publicity, sponsorships, word-of-mouth endorsements, and advertising-may affect the application decisions of engineering students. Similar to prior marketing findings, the results suggested that early recruitment-related activities were indirectly related to intentions and decisions through 2 dimensions of employer brand image: general attitudes toward the company and perceived job attributes. The relationships between word-of-mouth endorsements and the 2 dimensions of brand image were particularly strong. In addition, it was found that early recruitment-related activities interacted with one another such that employer brand image was stronger when firms used publicity in conjunction with other early recruitment-related activities.

  20. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    PubMed

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies.

  1. Cultural Issues Affecting Labor Force Participation. Background Paper No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriet Pipes

    A major challenge facing U.S. society is how to bring the massive groups of underemployed and unemployed minorities into the mainstream of the labor market. These groups will soon comprise 22 percent of the labor market and will be expected to take over positions requiring increased skill levels, but for generations they have been hindered in…

  2. [Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers].

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.

  3. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  4. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    PubMed

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  5. Nurses who do not nurse: factors that predict non-nursing work in the U.S. registered nursing labor market.

    PubMed

    Black, Lisa; Spetz, Joanne; Harrington, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) who work outside of nursing have seldom been examined. This aim of this study was to compare the 122,178 (4%) of RNs who are employed outside of nursing to those who work in nursing jobs in terms of sociodemographic, market, and political variables to determine if these groups are substantively different from one another. Using a logit regression model, wages were a significant predictor of working outside of nursing for unmarried nurses but not for married nurses. Married and unmarried male nurses were more likely to work outside of nursing. Baccalaureate education, children under age 6, higher family income, and years since graduation increased the odds of working outside of nursing for married nurses. Ultimately, identifying characteristics on which these groups differ may inform future policy directions that could target nurses who may leave nursing at a time when retention efforts might be effective to alter their trajectory away from the profession.

  6. The Organizational Impact of University Labor Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    The current review presents both postulated and empirically tested consequences of university unionization and labor strikes on the North American institution's administration, faculty, and students. The review explores the impact of collective bargaining on employee working conditions including job security, academic freedom, university…

  7. Labor-Management Relations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, A. Lee

    1970-01-01

    Labor-management relations in higher education are undergoing dramatic changes as a result of the rapidly growing unionization of personnel. A comparison of past experiences with unionization both in academe and industry reveals that administrations must determine their human resources policies and objectives before dealing with the unionization…

  8. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Bass, 1970, pp. 38-47. Durkheim , Emile , Les Regles del la Methode Sociologieque, Paris, F. Alcan, 1895. Fuguitt, Glenn and Stanley Lieberson...and conditioned by the cultural (e.g., Durkheim , 1895) or material (e.g., Marx and Engels, 1922) conditions of the collectivities in which people live

  9. Repositioning an Academic Department to Stimulate Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Cassandra C.; Daughton, William J.; Murray, Susan L.; Fisher, Caroline M.; Flachsbart, Barry B.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the market in higher education, and the lack of literature regarding marketing, particularly branding, at the academic department level, presented an opportunity to establish a systematic process for evaluating an academic department's brand meaning. A process for evaluating a brand's meaning for an academic department is…

  10. Labour Market Policy in Germany: Job Placement, Unemployment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policy in Germany. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz

    Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…

  11. Preserving the Historical Record of American Labor: Union-Library Archival Services Partnerships, Recent Trends, and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Thomas James

    2002-01-01

    Reviews efforts by academic research institutions to capture and preserve archival records of American labor institutions, focusing on a recent project to assess the state of labor archives efforts and the challenges facing union officials and labor archivists. Describes the Labor Archives Project (LAP), including the research methodology and…

  12. The Changing Composition of the Military and the Effect on Labor Force Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sider, Hal; Cole, Cheryl

    1984-01-01

    Examines some of the changes in the military that have resulted from the all-volunteer armed forces. Compares labor force data that include the military with traditional statistics that measure the civilian labor market. (SK)

  13. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  14. Review of carbon dioxide research staffing and academic support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. B.; Howard, L.; Stevenson, W.; Trice, J.

    1985-04-01

    More than 60 percent of the staff on Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) projects were university affiliated, and over one third of project scientists and engineers also had university teaching responsibilities. Almost 20 percent of project staff were students. CO2 research is unlikely to affect the general labor market for scientists and engineers because it uses such a small portion of the total pool. On the other hand, anticipated tight labor markets in some disciplines important to CO2 research may make it advantageous for CDRD to expand its support of university faculty, students, and staff to ensure that competent, knowledgeable researchers and managers are available for eventual policy decisions on CO2 issues. Options for academic support that lend themselves readily to the diffuse nature of CO2 research, while providing flexibility in the identification and accomplishment of specific programmatic objectives, include modifying procurement procedures for research contracts to enhance academic involvement, sponsoring summer institutes tailored to specific participants and focused on issues of interest to CDRD, and supporting traveling lecture programs designed to bring information of concern to CDRD to technical and nontechnical audiences.

  15. Gendered Work. Sexuality, Family and the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Lisa

    A study examined the interrelationships between sexuality, family, and the labor market in Great Britain. First, a range of analyses of women's role in the labor market, including analyses from feminist and sociological perspectives, were reviewed to determine how sexual as opposed to gender relations operate in the labor market. Next, the role of…

  16. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day Arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day Arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  17. High Technology and International Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the impact of "high-tech" industries on labor markets, the division of labor and the organization of work, and the policy options open to societies for dealing with the effects. (CT)

  18. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  19. Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat during labor, which can provide needed energy later. Yet some doctors advise laboring women to avoid solid food as a precaution should a cesarean delivery be needed. Ask your doctor about eating during labor. While at home, time your contractions and keep your doctor up ...

  20. The Integration of Immigrants Into the Labour Markets of the EU. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Heinz

    Integration of foreign workers into European Union (EU) labor markets was evaluated. Three indicators of labor market integration were analyzed: unemployment rate, employment rate, and self- employment rate. Results were drawn from the Labor Force Survey data compiled by Eurostat. Findings indicated that, in all EU countries, the unemployment rate…