Science.gov

Sample records for academic labor markets

  1. Cohort Size and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, David C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that policymakers should be skeptical of forecasts that predict faculty shortages and surpluses according to population trends and analyzes an economic model of the academic labor market. Concludes that forecasts from such models do not support policies designed to offset the impact of cohort size on the academic labor market. (Author/CH)

  2. Marginal Worth: Teaching and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    The contemporary academic labor market is examined using concepts from labor market economics and sociology to elucidate why teaching, universally acknowledged to be at the center of American academic life, is not at the center of the academic labor market and is only modestly rewarded. First, tenets of the neoclassical labor market model are…

  3. Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    This paper focuses on three academic labor market issues that researchers at Cornell University are addressing currently: (1) the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions; (2) the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries…

  4. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  5. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, Lowell L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  6. Whither the Faculty? The Changing Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jack H.

    1995-01-01

    Factors affecting the college faculty labor market now and in the future are examined, including the difficulties of forecasting teacher demand through enrollments and faculty turnover, economic and political conditions, the end of mandatory retirement, immigration issues, need for staffing flexibility, and emerging technology. Early attention to…

  7. Temporal Adjustment in Academic Labor Markets: Time to Ph.D. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, Charlotte V.

    A research project is described that concerns "temporal adjustment" as one form of a non-wage adjustment in the academic labor market. Receipt of the doctorate, the number and length of post-doctoral fellowships, and the achievement of tenure are temporal factors in academic careers. The change in timing of these factors is a form of adjustment to…

  8. Ph.D.'s and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartter, Allan M.

    How can new candidates for a Ph.D. tell whether a job in teaching or research will be waiting for them when they finally get their doctorates? How can colleges and universities plan now for adequate and efficient academic staffing in the 1980's? This document attempts to improve academic manpower forecasts and forecasting methods that reduce…

  9. Gender Equity in the Academic Labor Market: An Analysis of Academic Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbach, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the effect of human capital, structural characteristics of the discipline, and disciplinary labor market conditions on faculty salaries. Faculty in disciplines characterized by relatively low demand, high teaching loads, and low amounts of research funding earn less than do faculty in…

  10. The Engineering Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Jaewoo; Rosen, Sherwin

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic supply and demand model of occupational choice and applies it to the engineering profession. The model is largely successful in understanding data in the U.S. engineering labor market. The engineering market responds strongly to economic forces. The demand for engineers responds to the price of engineering services…

  11. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  12. The Flow of Instructors Through the Segmented Labor Markets of Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Gerald; Rosenblum, Barbara Rubin

    1996-01-01

    A Canadian study examined the employment patterns of seven cohorts of faculty entering Canadian universities seven years after initial appointment. Results showed that a consistent and meaningful proportion of each cohort entered the tenure stream, accounting for half the faculty who remained in academe. Disadvantages to women and young academics…

  13. The Structure of the Chinese Academic Labor Market, 1997-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Mujuan

    2009-01-01

    Universalism is critical to the development of science because it promotes the objectivity of knowledge. Particularism, on the other hand, evaluates scientists' contributions based on functionally irrelevant characteristics, including personal attributes and academic origins. Previous studies found a persistent significant correlation between…

  14. Labor on Campus: Academic Library Service to Labor Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidle, Deborah Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Examines academic library service to labor groups, particularly in the area of Internet training. Results of an informal survey of 53 academic libraries in schools with labor study programs in the United States and Canada indicate that few provide direct services to labor unions, and provides an example of one that does at Cornell University.…

  15. INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, AND LABOR FORCE ADJUSTMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOERINGER, PETER B.; PIORE, MICHAEL J.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LABOR FORCE SKILLS AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF BLUE COLLAR JOBS ARE RECONCILED BY MEANS OVER WHICH THE EMPLOYER, ALONE OR WITH A LABOR ORGANIZATION, EXERCISES CONTROL. THE ADJUSTMENT MODEL PRESENTED IN THIS STUDY RECOGNIZES AN INPLANT LABOR MARKET CONNECTED TO THE EXTERNAL MARKET AT A LIMITED NUMBER OF POINTS. CERTAIN…

  16. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  17. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  18. The Changing Status of the Ph.D. Degree in Russia: An Academic Attribute in the Nonacademic Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2007-01-01

    In Russia there is a system of two advanced academic degrees: candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences. Historically, in imperial Russia there was a system of academic regulations and degrees based on European, mostly German patterns. Then in the Soviet period from 1918, the degrees of master's and doctor of sciences, which had existed for…

  19. Help or Hindrance? The Effects of College Remediation on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes. Working Paper Version with Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Providing remedial (also known as developmental) education is the primary way colleges cope with students who do not have the academic preparation needed to succeed in college-level courses. Remediation is widespread, with nearly one-third of entering freshman taking remedial courses at a cost of at least $1 billion per year. Despite its…

  20. The Academic Librarian Labor Market and the Role of the Master of Library Science Degree: 1975 through 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Marybeth F.; Grimes, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the evolving role of the Master of Library Science (MLS) degree in academic libraries, pooled cross-sectional data were collected from job advertisements in "College and Research Library News." Beginning with 1975 and continuing at 5-year intervals through 2005, pertinent information from all job advertisements in each monthly issue…

  1. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  2. Unemployment, Vacancies and Local Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.

    This monograph studies unemployment in relation to labor market vacancies throughout the United States, using a new set of data: the Survey of Firms from the Employment Opportunity Pilot Project, a labor market experiment conducted by the Department of Labor at 28 sites in 1979 and 1980. The monograph is organized in five chapters. The first…

  3. The PHD labor market: A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.G.

    1994-08-01

    There are currently two major issues regarding Ph.D. scientists that are cause for concern. The first issue, adequacy of Ph.D. supply, follows from a general concern among educators and science policy specialists that the 1990s and beyond will usher in an era of general shortages for Ph D. scientists. These expected shortages are thought to be the result of: (1) Inadequate Ph.D. supply response to demand changes. Ph.D. supply has been hampered by declining federal support and increasing time to complete the doctorate. The long gestation period to produce a Ph.D. implies relatively unresponsive labor supply. (2) Increasing industrial demand in such areas as electronics, environmental control and biotechnology. (3) Increasing academic demand after several years of decline (the ``baby boom echo``). In addition, replacement of aging faculty is expected to accelerate in the next decade. The second major issue regarding Ph.D. scientists concerns a dismal current labor market. Levels of federal R&D funding growth, particularly for young investigators, have been declining. Retrenchment of public and private universities facing budget problems has delayed (or cancelled) faculty hiring. There is currently widespread alarm and concern in the US science establishment about the perceived decline in the availability of research funding and university faculty positions to sustain the existing stock of scientists in productive activities and to continue to ``send the message`` to the best young minds that science has room for them. The first issue implies a future shortage of scientists, the second issue implies a current surplus. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of Ph.D. labor market models and summarize the existing knowledge on the labor market for Ph.D. scientists and engineers.

  4. Internal Labor Markets: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Thomas A.; Milkovich, George T.

    Methods of internal labor market analysis for three organizational areas are presented, along with some evidence about the validity and utility of conceptual descriptions of such markets. The general concept of an internal labor market refers to the process of pricing and allocation of manpower resources with an employing organization and rests…

  5. Professional Education and the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zborovskii, Garol 'd Efimovich; Shuklina, Elena Anatol'evna

    2005-01-01

    In October through December 2001 the authors of this article carried out a sociological survey that studied the interconnection between the market of educational services and the labor market in the Urals Federal District. The structure of basic tendencies of the development of the market of educational services were studied, and the labor market…

  6. How and Why Does Two-Year College Entry Influence Baccalaureate Aspirants' Academic and Labor Market Outcomes? A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Fletcher, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed administrative data from Virginia, this paper examines how and why the community college pathway to a baccalaureate influences students' degree attainment and short-term labor market performance. We find that the community college pathway sharply reduces the likelihood of earning a bachelor's degree but does not have a significant…

  7. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  8. The Rural Community College as an Administrative Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nathan T.; Cejda, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article examines whether rural community colleges comprise an administrative labor market, based on the careers of 69 chief academic officers employed in rural community colleges. Findings indicate the characteristics of both an…

  9. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  10. Labor Market Segmentation and Librarian Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.

    1987-01-01

    Segmented labor market theory is used to explain how the structure of the library labor market may determine salary differences by type of library. Evidence that segmentation exists at intraoccupational levels and the possibility that comparing entire occupations may obscure results are also reported. (Author/CLB)

  11. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  12. Migraine headache and labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2015-06-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates suggest that migraines are associated with reduced labor force participation and lower wages among females. A negative association between migraine headache and the wages of female respondents is also obtained using an instrumental variables (IV) approach, although the IV estimates are imprecise relative to the OLS estimates. PMID:24711105

  13. Psychological testing and the German labor market, 1925 to 1965.

    PubMed

    Meskill, David

    2015-11-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, the massive German Labor Administration used loosely standardized, pragmatic evaluations of personality to steer young people into appropriate jobs. Starting in the late 1950s, the Administration shifted to American scientific methods of trait and factor psychological testing. Behind this change lay not a change in academic psychology but a power shift in the German labor market. Originally, the Labor Administration had to appeal to employers, for whom pragmatic evaluations of personality seemed most convincing. Thanks to the Economic Miracle in the 1950s, the Administration had to gain the trust of young Germans, their parents, and the public, who, it was hoped, would be won over by science. PMID:26098971

  14. Evaluation of Swedish Youth Labor Market Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Nonparametric matching was used to estimate the effects of two Swedish youth employment programs: youth practice (subsidized work experience, n=1,657) and labor market training (n=606). Results indicate either zero or negative effects on earnings, employment probability, or probability of entering an education program in the short term. Youth…

  15. The Labor Market for College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Engin Inel, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    During the spring of 1974 a series of seminars on student aid programs and student access were held in connection with the congressional hearings on Title IV of the Higher Education Act. The final seminar in the series focused on the labor market predictions and conditions facing college graduates. The presentations reported on four major areas;…

  16. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  17. The Youth Labor Market: A Dynamic Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antos, Joseph R.; Mellow, Wesley S.

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of over 10,000 men and women aged eighteen to twenty-seven who were interviewed annually from 1966 through 1971, this study investigates how the youth labor market operates and identifies its manpower problems that should be addressed by policymakers. A five-part recursive model is established for the…

  18. Interpersonal Styles and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghans, Lex; Weel, Bas ter; Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a framework of the role of interpersonal interactions in the labor market. Effective interpersonal interactions involve caring and directness. The ability to perform these tasks varies with personality and the importance of these tasks varies across jobs. An assignment model shows that people are most productive in jobs that…

  19. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeringer, Peter B.; Piore, Michael J.

    Using data gathered in a series of interviews with management and union officials in over 75 companies between 1964 and 1969, this report analyzes the concept of the internal labor market and describes its relevance for federal manpower policy. The management interviews, which were mostly in personnel, industrial engineering, and operations areas…

  20. An Empirical Analysis of the Dual Labor Market Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul James

    This study focuses upon the process of labor market entry of male youth in the context of the dual labor market theory. Essentially, the dual market theory contends that a large body of workers is involuntarily confined to substandard jobs in a "secondary" labor market which is separated from the mainstream, or "primary" sector by impenetrable…

  1. The Academic Labor Movement: Understanding Its Origin and Current Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of today's academic labor movement in higher education, noting problems of pay and working conditions among adjunct faculty and graduate students. Explains the historical context, why the movement is important, where the academic leftists are in this movement, what can be done about the situation, and what follows.…

  2. Social inequalities in probabilistic labor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He

    2015-03-01

    We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.

  3. Efficiency wages in an experimental labor market.

    PubMed

    Rigdon, Mary L

    2002-10-01

    There has been recent experimental support for efficiency wage theories of the labor market. This short paper initiates the larger process of evaluating the boundary conditions of the gift- exchange phenomenon. In particular, we will see whether behavior consistent with the fair wage-effort hypothesis can emerge and be sustained under conditions in which there is (i) a nontrivial marginal cost to providing effort and (ii) increased social distance between subject and experimenter. PMID:16578880

  4. Determinants of Early Labor Market Entry and Attainment: A Study of Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Larry J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The early career attainments of a large, national sample of noncollege educated workers are considered from a dual labor market perspective. The analysis considers both the kinds of workers selected initially into secondary sector employment and the consequences of being so situated for a variety of indicators of market success, including…

  5. Statistical Mechanics of Japanese Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He

    We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.

  6. The Politics of Contingent Academic Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstene, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The alarming stories from adjunct faculty, who now comprise a majority of higher-education teachers nationally, share troubling commonalities. The frustrations are financial, personal, and professional. In decades past, most adjunct faculty worked full-time outside of academe and taught an occasional course based on a particular expertise or…

  7. Minorities in the Labor Market. Volume II: Orientals in the American Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, George L.; And Others

    The major task of this report is to describe and evaluate the participation and status achievements of Orientals in the labor market, with particular attention to factors affecting such participation and whether differences in participation as compared to that of whites reflect discrimination. Inequalities and discrimination are examined in terms…

  8. Spanish Americans and Indians in the Labor Market. Volume 1: Minorities in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, George L.; And Others

    Participation and status achievements of Spanish origin persons and American Indians in the labor market were evaluated relative to the participation of whites. An ultimate aim was to identify factors contributing to intergroup differences and to determine whether participation differences reflect discrimination. Factors examined were age, sex,…

  9. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  10. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  11. Hispanics in the Labor Market: 1980-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    This paper gives a brief statistical survey of the demographics of Hispanic labor force participation in the years 1980-1985. The progress of Hispanics in the labor market is hindered by their low levels of education, and they have lower economic returns on their education than whites do. Hispanic males were found to have the highest labor force…

  12. External Labor Markets and the Distribution of Black Scientists and Engineers in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…

  13. The Economics of Persistence: Graduation Rates of Athletes as Labor Market Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBrock, Lawrence; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of data from NCAA Division I schools for male football and male and female basketball players shows that traditional labor market opportunities unrelated to sports are significant explanatory variables for athletes' academic persistence. Professional sports opportunities also have a significant impact on the graduation rate of athletes.…

  14. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  15. Changing Labor Markets: A Systems Approach to Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastrik, Peter; Seltzer, Marlene B.; Taylor, Judith Combes

    A systems approach to changing labor market performance requires a substantial and enduring commitment to the task of change. A systems reform framework has been developed that is based on a dual-customer approach, with a focus on improving labor market outcomes for both low-income people and their employers. The objective is to change the labor…

  16. Teaching Labor Market Survey Methodology in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Labor Market Survey (LMS) and labor market analysis knowledge and methodologies are minimum competencies expected of rehabilitation counselors through credentialing and accreditation boards. However, LMS knowledge and methodology is an example of a contemporary oral tradition that is universally recognized in rehabilitation and disability services…

  17. Requirements Higher Education Graduates Meet on the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Edith M. P.; Brachem, Julia-Carolin

    2015-01-01

    In Europe and all over the world, higher education systems face the challenge of preparing an increasing number of students for the labor market and teaching them discipline-related knowledge and competences as well as generic competences. But what requirements do higher education graduates actually meet on the labor market? To identify higher…

  18. International Differences in the Labor Market Performance of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    A study examined international differences in how immigrants perform in the labor market of their chosen country of residence. The empirical analysis used five census data sets from the three host countries to document the labor market performance of foreign-born persons in Australia, Canada, and the United States. Among the major empirical…

  19. Education, Labor Markets and the Retreat from Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…

  20. Segmented Labor Markets in Institutions of Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Gerald; Rosenblum, Barbara Rubin

    1990-01-01

    Applies segmented labor market theory to university faculties. Portrays college instructors who teach outside tenure or tenure-stream appointments as being in the external labor market. Examines the demographic characteristics, teaching load, level of remuneration, and commitment to research of these instructors. Relates within-profession…

  1. Discrimination Based on Education in the Labor Market for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Edmund H.

    1974-01-01

    This research indicates that education-based employment discrimination exists in the labor market for engineers. This labor market imperfection is at least partially responsible for the large disparities observable between earnings of engineers and their educational counterparts in other occupations at the lower levels of education. (Author)

  2. Lady Academe and Labor-Market Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in the global economy is not represented particularly well by old-school "pipeline" theories of women entering particular industries, whether it is manufacturing, medicine, or college teaching. The pipeline analogy suggests that if women enter a field in equal or greater numbers to men, they will somehow automatically be "piped"…

  3. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    PubMed

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources. PMID:27442956

  4. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

  5. Nonmetro and Metro Teens in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    Drawing on theories of family organization and labor market structures, it is argued that teenagers are a useful population for research on the effects of race, household characteristics, and local labor markets on labor force participation. Predictive models of labor force participation were applied to a sample of all White and Black 16- to…

  6. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  7. National Labor Market Projections for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Dixie

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the job outlook for occupations where the most important path to entry is through programs typically found at the community college: an associate degree or postsecondary training but less than a degree. The discussion draws on labor market projections from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the federal agency charged…

  8. Connecting CTE to Labor Market Information. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    The use of up-to-date labor market information (LMI) provided by a variety of state, federal, and local agencies and organizations can help program planners and policy makers design effective career and technical education (CTE) programs to prepare students for occupations and careers in demand. LMI includes information about labor market…

  9. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  10. Labor Market Problems of Older Workers. A Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Employment Policy, Washington, DC.

    The National Council on Employment Policy found that there are small but substantial groups of older persons who are experiencing labor market problems--the working poor, the displaced unemployed, persons with health limitations, and groups of women who have been out of the labor force for large blocks of time. The problems of this generation, now…

  11. Females in Vocational Education: Reflections of the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard; Pritchard, Alice M.

    1991-01-01

    The fact that gender desegregation of vocational programs has not yet been achieved might be related to labor force occupational segregation by gender. Social theorists view schooling inequities as mirrors of social structure, whereby schools track students to maintain social stratification. Mirroring the labor market, education has segregated…

  12. Labor Market Outcomes and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and…

  13. Priorities for urban labor market research in Anglophone Africa.

    PubMed

    House, W J

    1992-10-01

    The earlier interest regarding how urban labor markets function centered on the dualist approach. An International Labor Office report on Kenya detected the urban informal sector reinforcing the labor market segmentation idea that those unable to obtain employment in the formal sector could obtain a subsistence-level livelihood in the urban informal sector. Recent work in urban Juba, Southern Sudan, has demonstrated that low-income households in the lowest quintile of urban income per adult showed an overrepresentation of female-headed households; larger household sizes; more children; greater dependency; and an overrepresentation of the indigenous, nonmigrant ethnic group plus an underrepresentation of the migrant Northern Sudanese who dominate the trade sector. Real wages in the formal sectors of English-speaking African countries have declined in the past decade. Unemployment of the educated is growing, evidenced by a longitudinal study of university graduates in Kenya over the period from 1970 to 1983. In 1991 the majority of 1990 graduates had still not found public sector employment. The rapid growth of labor supply has been paralleled by a rapidly growing informal sector which created 6 million new jobs in Africa between 1980 and 1985, while the formal sector added only 1/2 million jobs in the urban economy. An efficient labor market is characterized by relatively high turnover at less than 1 year of seniority and very low turnover among workers with 3-15 years of seniority. The modeling of the urban labor market has not progressed much in the last decade, and the dualistic approach has been repudiated. Such modeling requires in-depth data on the way workers and households allocate their time across the labor market segments. The understanding of the fusion of labor markets is best attained by well-designed household level surveys, which would study the relationship between labor market insertion and poverty status. PMID:12318000

  14. Education, Labor Markets, and the Retreat from Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and Current Population Surveys, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents faced the same (stronger) labor market conditions as their more-educated counterparts, then differences in marriage by education would narrow considerably. Better labor markets are positively related to marriage for fathers at all educational levels. In contrast, better labor markets are positively related to marriage for less-educated mothers but not their more-educated counterparts. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories about women’s earning power and marriage, the current economic recession, and future studies of differences in family structure across education groups. PMID:23152645

  15. Helping Ex-Offenders Enter the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Frederick

    1983-01-01

    How beneficial are programs designed to improve employability and reduce recidivism? This article reviews research on various labor market strategies and casts doubt on their effectiveness. (Author/SSH)

  16. The Hidden Labour Market of the Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne

    Finding employment as an academic is becoming increasingly challenging for several reasons, including the tightening employment market and increases in the qualifications demanded of jobseekers and the pool of academically trained job seekers. A two-round Delphi study was therefore conducted to identify recruitment channels in the hidden labor…

  17. Labor markets and health: an integrated life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Amick, Benjamin C; McLeod, Christopher B; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-07-01

    Current work and health research is fragmented, focusing on jobs, exposures, specific worker groups, work organization, or employment contracts. An emphasis on the labor market in framing the work and health relationship conceptualizes work not only as an exposure that increases or lessens health risk but also as a life course experience that is dependent on place and time. The intention is to illustrate how the labor markets and health framework coupled with a life course perspective extends other epidemiological approaches to work and health to identify new research questions. Taking the changing nature of work and labor markets into account, this paper updates the labor markets and health framework. It then reviews, defines, and integrates key life course concepts. A model is developed that guides the understanding of how labor markets and health trajectories emerge from the consideration of the working life course in a social context. The application leads to new research questions investigating characteristics of labor markets and health trajectories that may lead to positive health outcomes over the life course. PMID:27158797

  18. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  19. Marketing Academic Libraries: A Necessary Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodsworth, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    To coordinate an academic-library marketing effort effectively, a comprehensive plan is essential. A traditional marketing plan consists of four activities: determining what to promote, defining target audiences, choosing type of outreach, and evaluating program. Suggestions for promotional activities, forms of publicity, and examples from the…

  20. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday

    2012-09-01

    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets. PMID:23017926

  1. Use of Labor Market Forecasts by High School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Marion Gross

    1978-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study of school counselors' knowledge and activities in vocational guidance and labor market information. Subjects were counselors in 42 public and private schools in the Dallas area. Results indicate that job market forecasts could be used more. (Author)

  2. How Can the Imbalance Be Eliminated between the Labor Market and the Education Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent past, there has been more and more talk about the fact that the system of professional education has to meet the constantly changing need for specialists in the labor market. In the author's opinion, this is where the problem lies: the labor market requires that education satisfy its social and economic needs with respect to a…

  3. Career Technical Education and Labor Market Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Current data indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) graduates with high school diplomas or postsecondary skills are preparing for careers in fields that are growing or in high-demand. Matching employability skills with workforce demand has been an issue among industries across the nation. CTE provides relevant academic and technical…

  4. Order from Chaos? The Effects of Early Labor Market Experience on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. Econometrics and Economic Theory Paper No. 9506.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardecki, Rosella; Neumark, David

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NYSY) for 1979-92, an empirical analysis documented and characterized early labor market experiences of men and women in the U.S. economy. It explored the evolution of these labor market experiences over the first 5 years in the labor market and studied the relationships between them and adult labor…

  5. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  6. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions. PMID:12316383

  7. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Freeman, R B; Katz, L F

    1997-01-01

    "This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85). PMID:12321914

  8. Labor Market Trends for Health Physicists through 2005

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews past, current, and projected future labor market trends for health physicists through 2005. Information is provided on degrees granted, available supply of new graduates, employment, job openings for new graduates, and salaries. Job openings for new graduates are compared to the available supply of new graduates to assess relative job opportunities in the health physics labor market. The report is divided into three sections: trends during 1983-1993, trends during the mid-1990s, and projected trends for 1997 through 2005.

  9. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  10. Teenagers in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Among youth aged 16-18 living at home in 1980, employment was proportionately higher among whites than blacks and among metropolitan compared to nonmetropolitan youth. Employment of white youth was linked more closely than that of black youth to family resources (income and occupational status) and local labor market characteristics. Discusses…

  11. Labor Market Problems of Older Workers. Report of the Secretary of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rones, Philip L.; Herz, Diane E.

    This document analyzes the labor market problems of displaced older workers. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 describes the magnitude of the problems of unemployment, discouragement, and displacement of older workers. The outcomes of unemployment are discussed, with attention to the duration of unemployment, the effects of displacement, and…

  12. First-Generation Students: A Longitudinal Analysis of Educational and Early Labor Market Outcomes. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie

    This paper provides initial results of a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of first-generation students, their college choices, their academic and social integration into the institution, their postsecondary persistence and attainment outcomes, and their labor market outcomes. The study analyzed data from the 1989-90…

  13. [The Hessian care monitor. Transparency on regional labor markets].

    PubMed

    Lauxen, O; Bieräugel, R

    2013-08-01

    The Hessian Care Monitor is a Web-based monitoring system of the regional care labor market. It contains information on the current labor market and on future developments. Official statistics are analyzed, primary data are collected, and forecasts are calculated. Since 2008, the demand for nurses in Hesse has been higher than the supply. In 2010, there was a lack of more than 4,400 nurses. Moreover, in 2025, around 5,500 additional nurses will be needed to meet the increasing demand arising from demographic changes. However, there are three different regional patterns: regions with high current shortages but little additional demand in the future; regions with low current shortages but large future needs; and regions with high current shortages and large future demand. Appropriate strategies for handling labor shortages have to be selected according to the different regional patterns. PMID:23884520

  14. Education and the Labor Market in Venezuela, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Steier, Francis

    1988-01-01

    Examines various education-related aspects of Venezuela's labor market for 1975-1984, using a sample of 40,000 workers. Education returns have declined only two percent during a rapid educational expansion period. The increased supply of educated persons influenced the narrowing of earnings differentials and led to more equitable income…

  15. The Labor Market Consequences of Dropping Out of High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Randall Howard

    A study, growing out of human capital theory, examined the economic consequences of dropping out of high school. Effect of schooling over time on labor market success (hourly pay rate, occupational prestige, and employment incidence and duration) was measured. Data on young men and women was obtained from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor…

  16. Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Paul; Kochan, Thomas A.; Locke, Richard; Piore, Michael J.

    The evolution of jobs and the job market in the United States was examined in a 3-year project during which a task force consisting of 25 representatives of the education, labor, business, and policy sectors organized 17 workshops and commissioned working papers from experts. The project began by examining how recent changes in the world of work…

  17. Are Job Banks Improving The Labor Market Information System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Joseph C.; Huber, George P.

    1974-01-01

    Local job banks, computer aided man-job matching systems, are the spearhead of the multiphased Federal program to improve the functioning of the labor market information system. As evaluated here, the program may eventually achieve this objective but the evidence concerning the first phase is not encouraging. (DS)

  18. Responsiveness of Training Institutions to Changing Labor Market Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert E., Ed.; And Others

    These 19 papers from the second annual Policy Forum on Employability Development explore the responsiveness of various educational and training institutions to changing labor market demands. The first three papers provide an overview of the forum. They summarize the proceedings and policy considerations and address how vocational education and…

  19. Job Displacement and Labor Market Mobility. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Swaim, Paul

    A study examined the labor market mobility of displaced workers, using a new data file that matches the January 1984, 1986, and 1988 Displaced Worker Surveys (DWS) to the March Current Population Surveys in the same years. This large database provides information on displaced workers and their families and permits comparison of the geographic…

  20. Divergent Paths: Economic Mobility in the New American Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette; Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark S.; Scott, Marc A.

    The changes in career development and upward mobility in response to recent changes in the U.S. labor market were examined in a study that included an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Analysis of the data, which covered the period 1966-1994, established that the…

  1. Internal and External Labor Markets: An Analysis of Manpower Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Bradley R.

    The report covers two major topic areas, each of which is treated in a separate paper: (1) the extent of variation in individual workers' relative earnings, and (2) the impact of private pension plans on firm attachment. The first study looks at changes in relative earnings and evaluates them in the framework of alternative labor market models. It…

  2. Using Illustrations from American Novels to Teach about Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachris, Michelle Albert; Bohanon, Cecil E.

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates how literature can bring models to life in undergraduate courses on labor market economics. The authors argue that economics instructors and students can benefit from even small doses of literature. The authors examine excerpts from five American novels: "Sister Carrie" by Theodore Drieser (1900/2005); "The Grapes of…

  3. Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of how immigration influences the joint determination of the wage structure and internal migration behavior for native-born workers in local labor markets. Using data from the 1960-2000 decennial censuses, the study shows that immigration is associated with lower in-migration rates, higher…

  4. The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III

    2004-01-01

    Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…

  5. The Position of the Deaf in the Swedish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta Coniavitis; Danermark, Berth

    2010-01-01

    The position of deaf people in the Swedish labor market is described and analyzed. A population of 2,144 people born from 1941 to 1980 who attended special education programs for the deaf was compared to 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total Swedish population born during the same period. Data on these individuals consisted of…

  6. Professional Education and the Labor Market: Problems of Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochetov, A. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing desire to obtain a higher education in Russia is causing a growing disparity between educational qualifications and the needs of the labor market. Blue-collar jobs of varying levels are difficult to fill, and the demand for the qualification of those with degrees is not sufficient to avoid high levels of unemployment. Ways need to…

  7. Targeted Jobs Tax Credits and Labor Market Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannery, Frederick J.

    A study used a unique data set to evaluate the effect of Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) on the labor market outcomes of program participants--more than 29,000 individuals for whom Pennsylvania businesses sought tax credits during 1988-94 (final sample was 17,388). Firm-level data were combined with wage data obtained from administrative quarterly…

  8. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  9. Mobility and Wage Equilibration in the Educator Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, William H.; Stone, Joe A.

    Using wage regression equations, this paper examines the wage determination process for educators at the elementary and secondary levels in Oregon. The propositions tested include whether educators are responsive to wage differentials between their teaching jobs and alternative occupations, as well as within the educator labor market, and whether…

  10. Parental Problem-Drinking and Adult Children's Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.

    2008-01-01

    Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…

  11. The Impact of New College Graduates on Intrastate Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial issue in the debate on state support for higher education is the extent that a state's production of college graduates affects the state's education attainment. The view that many new graduates take their state-supported degrees to labor markets in other states undermines states' incentives to promote wider access to college. This study…

  12. Job Queues, Certification Status, and the Education Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the interaction between training programs and certification status in one education labor market to examine the micro-level interactions that shape the recruitment process. Using job queue theory, it is found that the information available to novice teachers operates to stratify and shape their worksite choices in addition…

  13. Black Youth and the Labor Market: The Unemployment Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gail E.; Scott, Will B.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews economic and sociological theories that identify structural and personal factors associatied with unemployment. Suggests a policy approach for dealing with the problem, hypothesizing that effective social network systems and sponsorship groups are needed to help presently unemployed youth gain entry and acceptance into the labor market.…

  14. Job Search, Search Intensity, and Labor Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemen, Hans G.

    2005-01-01

    Job searches by both the unemployed and employed jobseekers are studied through an empirical structural job search model using a choice variable of search intensity. The resulting influence of search intensity on the labor market transitions is analyzed to give the estimation results of the search and the impact of the benefit level on the search…

  15. The Marketing Market: Matching Academic Hiring Institutions and Job Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basil, Michael D.; Basil, Debra Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hiring faculty is a challenge in the field of marketing. One important factor is a shortage of candidates. The problem is exacerbated, however, by an imperfect match between jobs and candidates. This study examines the homogeneity of academic jobs and candidates. Surveys were conducted with both parties. The results show that institutions and…

  16. Employer health insurance and local labor market conditions.

    PubMed

    Marquis, M S; Long, S H

    2001-01-01

    Theory suggests that an employer's decisions about the amount of health insurance included in the compensation package may be influenced by the practices of other employers in the market. We test the role of local market conditions on decisions of small employers to offer insurance and their dollar contribution to premiums using data from two large national surveys of employers. These employers are more likely to offer insurance and to make greater contributions in communities with tighter labor markets, less concentrated labor purchasers, greater union penetration, and a greater share of workers in big business and a small share in regulated industries. However, our data do not support the notion that marginal tax rates affect employers' offer decision or contributions. PMID:14625929

  17. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  18. Internal-External Locus of Control and Labor Market Performance: Empirical Evidence Using Longitudinal Survey Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.

    1980-01-01

    Internal-external control affects hourly wages independent of other factors such as educational attainment, labor market experience, race, and collective bargaining affiliation. Internal-external locus of control is affected by labor market success, race, and city size. (Author)

  19. The Economics of Community College Labor Markets: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Hirschel

    2009-01-01

    The community college has many roles and constituents: academic, professional, and vocational. Its curriculum may be distinguished from that of other institutions of higher education by its many courses designed to enhance students' immediate career opportunities, especially with nearby employers. This article focuses on the job markets for…

  20. Childhood health and labor market inequality over the life course.

    PubMed

    Haas, Steven A; Glymour, M Maria; Berkman, Lisa F

    2011-09-01

    The authors use data from the Health and Retirement Study's Earnings Benefit File, which links Health and Retirement Study to Social Security Administration records, to estimate the impact of childhood health on earnings curves between the ages of 25 and 50 years. They also investigate the extent to which diminished educational attainment, earlier onset of chronic health conditions, and labor force participation mediate this relationship. Those who experience poor childhood health have substantially diminished labor market earnings over the work career. For men, earnings differentials grow larger over the early to middle career and then slow down and begin to converge as they near 50 years of age. For women, earnings differentials emerge later in the career and show no evidence of convergence. Part of the child health earnings differential is accounted for by selection into diminished educational attainment, the earlier onset of chronic disease in adulthood, and, particularly for men, labor force participation. PMID:21896684

  1. Labor Market Performance of Non-College-Bound Youths. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Miller, Ross A.

    A study investigated the labor market transition of youths over the first 8-14 postschooling years using the 1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Its primary objective was to develop an understanding of youth labor markets by examining the effects of training and early labor market experiences on economic well-being over a long span of…

  2. Rising Wage Inequality: The 1980s Experience in Urban Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyclak, Thomas

    The rising wage inequality in U.S. urban labor markets during the 1980s was examined in a study of 20 metropolitan area labor markets. The study's perspective differs from the prevailing perspective on the problem in three ways: (1) it focuses on changes in the wage structure in a sample of local labor markets; (2) it examines changes in the…

  3. Labor market segmentation, human capital and the economics of crime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGahey, R.M.

    1982-08-24

    This dissertation analyzes the relationships between human capital, labor market structure and crime. Using a unique micro-level data base with individually matched crime and employment data for over 900 felony arrestees, it tests the relative explanatory power of neoclassical economic choice theory and labor market segmentation theory on the determinants of labor market outcomes, criminal behavior, and their interactions.

  4. Edubusiness Comes to the Academy. The Virtual University and the Threat to Academic Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriger, Thomas J.; Scheuerman, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the implications of the virtual university for academic labor studies programs by analyzing theoretical foundations of the National Learning Infrastructure Initiative and two rapidly expanding proprietary institutions, the University of Phoenix and Jones International University. (Author)

  5. Education, mental health, and education-labor market misfit.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit. PMID:25413804

  6. Observatory facility staff requirements and local labor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabanus, David

    2012-09-01

    Current large observatories, both in operation and projects in development or construction, face the challenge to find skilled personnel for integration and operation. Typical locations of these observatories are found to be remote, mainly due to electromagnetic pollution prevention, which in many if not all cases reduces the attractiveness of the work posts. Additional budgetary limitations restrict the recruitment radius for certain positions to the local labor market. This paper outlines these staffing constraints in more detail and elaborates on the need for training programs on various levels, which can be costly. This, in turn, drives the need for creative retention efforts. Therefore, financial modeling, contingency, risk and quality management, and the reliability, availability, and maintainability of an observatory are directly coupled to the local embedding in the labor market of the host country.

  7. The Effects of Academic Market Value on the Outliers of a Multi-Variant Regression Analysis of Faculty Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William A.; Sperber, William E.

    Three models to describe university salary structure were assessed. Attention was focused on full-time, permanent faculty in ranks of instructor through full professor. Model I postulated that the internal labor market is uninfluenced by the external academic market. The results of model I were compared to the results of a model that adjusted for…

  8. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  9. Marketing Academics' Perceptions of the Peer Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…

  10. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers. PMID:10110172

  11. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  12. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  13. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  14. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  15. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  16. Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and self-sufficiency that are important markers of the transition to adulthood. Young men with no more than a high school degree have difficulty earning enough to support a family. Even though young women have achieved gains in earnings, employment, and schooling relative to men in recent decades, those without a college degree also struggle to achieve economic stability and self-sufficiency. The authors begin by describing trends in labor market outcomes for young adults-median annual earnings, the extent of low-wage work, employment rates, job instability, and the returns to education. Then they examine how these outcomes may contribute to delays in other markers of the transition to adulthood-completing an education, establishing independent living arrangements, and marrying and having children. They conclude that adverse changes in labor market outcomes are related to those delays but have not been shown to be the primary cause. Danziger and Ratner next consider several public policy reforms that might improve the economic outlook for young adults. They recommend policies that would increase the returns to work, especially for less-educated workers. They propose raising the federal minimum wage and adjusting it annually to maintain its value relative to the median wage. Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless low-wage workers, the authors say, could also raise the take-home pay of many young adult workers, with minimal adverse employment effects. New policies should also provide work opportunities for young adults who cannot find steady employment either because of poor economic conditions or because of physical

  17. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  18. Towards a European Academic Labour Market?: Some Lessons Drawn from Empirical Studies on Academic Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe…

  19. A Road-Map for Creating Efficient Corporate Internal Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotorov, Rado; Hsu, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Free internal labor markets allowing internal mobility aid in retaining employees. To design effective internal markets requires understanding potential conflicts of interest, designing processes to resolve them, communicating with employees, and alleviating their concerns. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  20. The Labor Market and the System of Education: Difficulties in the Interpretation of Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamoya, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The training of professional cadres for the economy as it transitions to innovative development must take account of the current state of the labor market as well as tendencies in workers' labor mobility. These tendencies reflect the degree of concentration and reproduction of labor potential in various forms of economic activity, and define…

  1. An Econometric Model of External Labor Supply to the Establishment Within a Confined Geographic Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Robert James

    The study conducted in the Buffalo, New York standard metropolitan statistical area, was undertaken to formulate and test a simple model of labor supply for a local labor market. The principal variables to be examined to determine the external supply function of labor to the establishment are variants of the rate of change of the entry wage and…

  2. The Impact of Preretirement Labor Market Experiences on Postretirement Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    A study was conducted to determine labor market factors influencing one's psychological well being and economic security after retirement. Research was found that supported the hypotheses that a worker's employment, earnings, and industry in the labor force greatly affect a retiree's financial position; the reason for labor force withdrawal…

  3. The Bright Side of Corporate Diversification: Evidence from Internal Labor Markets

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    We document differences in human-capital deployment between diversified and focused firms. We find that diversified firms have higher labor productivity and that they redeploy labor to industries with better prospects in response to changing opportunities. The opportunities and incentives provided in internal labor markets in turn affect the development of workers' human capital. We find that workers more frequently transition to other industries in which their diversified firms operate and with smaller wage losses compared with workers in the open market, even when they leave their original firms. Overall, internal labor markets provide a bright side to corporate diversification. PMID:26924889

  4. A Scheme To Improve the Utilization on Vocational Qualifications in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-Im; Kim, Deog-Ki

    Korea's labor market was analyzed to inform efforts to develop a scheme to improve the utilization of vocational qualifications. The study examined the different meanings of qualifications in South Korea's labor market and how utilization of qualifications is influenced by factors such as types of human resource management, vocational training…

  5. Graduates' Personality Characteristics and Labor Market Entry an Empirical Study among Dutch Economics Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeijn, J.; Boone, C.; van der Velden, R.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain labor market outcomes, and how much weight does this…

  6. Improved Career Decision Making through the Use of Labor Market Information. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paige Birdsall

    These training materials consist of a pretest, eight instructional units, and a posttest designed for a workshop to train counselors in using labor market information to help students improve their career decisions. Covered in the instructional units are the following topics: career decision making and the role of labor market information,…

  7. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  8. Trade Liberalization and Women's Integration into National Labor Markets: A Cross-Country Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lisa B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization and the risks associated with participation in the global trading system on women's integration into national labor markets. Using data from 1970 to 1995, I identify two global determinants of the female share of national labor markets: trade openness and transnational corporate penetration.…

  9. Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul J.; And Others

    A study was done to examine the influence of several work attitudes on a number of facets of subsequent labor market experience, as well as the influence of labor market experience on the work attitudes. Based on interview data on about 20,000 respondents from the National Longitudinal Surveys representative national samples of men 14 to 24 and 45…

  10. Labor Market Structures and Job Mobility. Discussion Paper No. 505-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Aage B.; Tuma, Nancy Brandon

    In this paper it is argued that there are fundamental differences among labor markets in the mechanisms that create the observed associations between socioeconomic attainment and the characteristics of individuals, and that these differences result from the nature of the employment relationship in different labor markets. In open-employment…

  11. Three Essays on Educator Labor Markets: Evidence from Missouri Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Shishan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay investigates the feasibility of moving high-performing teachers to low-performing schools using administrative micro data from Missouri. I define teacher labor markets concentrically and construct models to allow teachers' local labor markets, within teaching, to influence their mobility…

  12. Localism and Teacher Labor Markets: How Geography and Decision Making May Contribute to Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Cannata, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of evidence indicates that there is a large inequality in the distribution of teachers across schools. Relatedly, recent research has revealed a number of important dimensions of teacher labor markets in the United States. We review the literature in two of these areas: the geography of teacher labor markets and the decision-making…

  13. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  14. Educational Systems and the Trade-Off between Labor Market Allocation and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…

  15. Building Local Labor Market Dynamics into Workforce 2000. Research Report No. 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, D. M.; And Others

    The Hudson Institute study, "Workforce 2000," created an awareness that labor markets are going to be dramatically different in the year 2000. The themes from Workforce 2000, events from the early 1990s, and the dynamics of local labor markets can be combined. At the analytical level, these three components form tracks that can be used to analyze…

  16. Proposed Model for Innovation of Community Colleges to Meet Labor Market Needs in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The study introduced a very important issue for the development of labor market in any developing country. The rapid changes in technology and communication imposed challenges on education institutions for the development of labor market to meet local communities. These institutions have more responsibilities to provide professional and skilled…

  17. Labor Markets in the Rural South: A Study Based on Four Rural Southern Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.; And Others

    Focusing on the factors inhibiting the labor market's adjustment to economic change, the study examined the economic and social problems facing southern rural areas and populations, including Chicanos and migrants. Factors were in the areas of the labor market behavior, income and earnings, poverty, welfare system and welfare reform, manpower…

  18. An Adaptation of Dual Labor Market Theory to the Evaluation of an Youth Employment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiessl, Ronald W.

    This paper reports the problems arising out of, and the solution developed, in adapting dual labor market theory to the evaluation of a CETA youth employment demonstration project. The theory posits that some jobs operate within a primary labor market, and are characterized by good wages and benefits, job security and potential for within firm…

  19. Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from Michigan. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley; Dynarski, Susan; Jacob, Brian; Kreisman, Daniel; Sosa, Alfredo; Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relative labor market gains experienced by first-time college students who enrolled in five community colleges in Michigan in 2003 and 2004. We track credentials, credits, earnings, and employment for these students through 2011. We compare labor market outcomes of those who earned a credential (associate degree or certificate) to…

  20. Labor Market Experience of Teenagers with and without High School Diplomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; And Others

    The rationale for high school dropout reduction programs rests mainly on evidence that graduates are more successful than dropouts in the labor market. It is not evident, however, whether this difference is attributable to the diploma itself or to underlying characteristics that affect both graduation and labor market success. This paper estimates…

  1. Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrant Women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    Examines differences in a wide array of labor market outcomes between U.S.-born and immigrant women, and among immigrants born in different regions of the world. Wage gaps among different groups are discussed. Disparities in completed years of schooling explain a substantial part of the differences in labor market outcomes. (SLD)

  2. Tracking Success: High School Curricula and Labor Market Outcomes by Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Stephanie; Stearns, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Education researchers have established that educational tracking reinforces inequalities, but they have not fully examined the affect of these tracks on labor market outcomes for men and women of different races/ethnicities. At the same time, labor market researchers have studied the association between education and income by race and gender, but…

  3. From Higher Education to Work Patterns of Labor Market Entry in Germany and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies describing the transition from higher education to work have often simplified the complex transition processes involved. In this paper we extend previous research by taking into account several steps that comprise labor market entry, e.g., recurrent education leading to more than one instance of labor market entry. By comparing…

  4. Hardship: The Welfare Consequences of Labor Market Problems. A Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, MI.

    Social statistics may exaggerate the degree of hardship caused by labor market problems. Yet, in many ways social statistics underestimate the degree of hardship caused by extended unemployment, underemployment, and low wages. Therefore, new measures are needed to reassess long-term and cyclical labor market developments, the changing status of…

  5. Labor Markets' Institutional Properties and Distributive Justice in Modern Society: A Comparative Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafirovski, Milan

    2005-01-01

    The paper's main argument is that the rates of distributive injustice in industrial societies are significantly influenced by labor markets' institutional properties. Markets characterized by institutional properties that heavily favor capital at the expense of labor are expected to produce more distributive injustice--as well as more income…

  6. Matching Supply with Demand: Higher Education and the Labor Market. A Comparison of Kenya and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, R. Rees; And Others

    Conditions in Kenya and Poland concerning the labor market and educational preparation for jobs are discussed, along with public policy. In the decade of the 1980s, both nations reached saturation in the labor market and underwent changes in the demand for university-trained workers. Kenya needed highly trained personnel to replace expatriates…

  7. Labor market trends for nuclear engineers through 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    Between 1983 and 1989, employment of nuclear engineers in the nuclear energy field increased almost 40 percent while the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees awarded decreased by almost one-fourth. There were, on average, more job openings for new graduates than there were new graduates available to fill the jobs during the 1980s. This trend reversed in the l990s as nuclear engineering employment in the nuclear energy field decreased from 11,500 in 1991 to 9,400 in 1995. During roughly the same period, the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees increased by 11 percent. As a result, from 1990 through 1995, the number of new graduate nuclear engineers available in the labor supply far exceeded the number of job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. This oversupply of new graduates was particularly acute for 1993 through 1995. During 1996--1997, a relative improvement is expected in job opportunities in the nuclear energy field for new graduates; however, a large oversupply is still expected (almost twice as many graduates available for employment as there are job openings). For 1998 through 2000, some improvement is expected in the relative number of job opportunities for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. Nuclear engineering jobs in the nuclear energy field are expected to decrease only slightly (by less than 150) during this period. Also a 10--15% decrease in the annual number of degrees and available supply of new graduates is expected. Overall, an oversupply is expected (140 graduates available per 100 job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field), but this is still a substantial improvement over the current period. For 2001 through 2005, if enrollments and degrees continue to decline, the labor market for new graduates is expected to be approximately balanced. This assumes, however, that the number of degrees and the available supply of new graduates will decrease by 25% from 1995 levels.

  8. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care. PMID:20440969

  9. Vacancy chains and equilibration in senior-level labor markets

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Y.; Roth, A.E.; Rothblum, U.

    1994-12-31

    In senior-level labor markets unfilled positions (caused by retirement of worker or by creation of new jobs) are often filled with candidates who are themselves incumbents in other similar position; thus creating a chain of vacancies that propagates from firm to firm. In this paper we apply the stable marriage model of Gale and Shapley (in which the two sided are {open_quotes}firms{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}workers{close_quotes}) to study this re-equilibration process. We show that a simple {open_quotes}deferred acceptance{close_quotes} algorithm in which firms with vacant position propose to workers who could hold at most one position at a time, would always produce a stable matching (assuming that the market was initially stable). This algorithm generates a matching that is independent of the order of proposals and optimal for the firms in a well defined subset of the stable matchings. We also show that this re-equilibration process is monotone and preserves individual firm-optimality. Once we assume that the {open_quotes}deferred acceptance{close_quotes} algorithm is the equilibration process, the workers and firms have to decide how to act when the algorithm works (an agent must not act truly according to its/her true preferences). This decision problem define a game where the strategy space is any profile of preferences. We show that in this game it is optimal for each firm to act truly and to reveal its true preferences, independently of how the other agents play. This result is shown to be untrue for the workers. In particular, workers have often incentives to deviate from their true preferences. We also show that an equilibrium always exist in this game and we characterize some matchings that can result from strategies that form an equilibrium. Finally, we show that each matching that results from equilibrium is stable for the true preferences.

  10. The labor market effects of California's minimum nurse staffing law.

    PubMed

    Munnich, Elizabeth L

    2014-08-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement statewide minimum nurse-to-patient ratios in general hospitals. In spite of years of work to establish statewide staffing regulations, there is little evidence that the law was effective in attracting more nurses to the hospital workforce or improving patient outcomes. This paper examines the effects of this legislation on employment and wages of registered nurses. By using annual financial data from California hospitals, I show that nurse-to-patient ratios in medical/surgical units increased substantially following the staffing mandate. However, survey data from two nationally representative datasets indicate that the law had no effect on the aggregate number of registered nurses or the hours they worked in California hospitals, and at most a modest effect on wages. My findings suggest that offsetting changes in labor demand due to hospital closures, combined with reclassification of workers within hospitals, and mitigated the employment effects of California's staffing regulation. This paper cautions that California's experience with minimum nurse staffing legislation may not be generalizable to states considering similar policies in very different hospital markets. PMID:23893946

  11. Study of the Labour Market for Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Judith; And Others

    This report presents scenario projections of the demand for academics in Australia to the year 2002, together with supply side projections on the numbers of new higher degree holders offering themselves for academic employment in that country. Chapter 1 offers an introduction and review of background issues. The second chapter outlines the…

  12. A View from UMBC: Using Real-Time Labor-Market Data to Evaluate Professional Program Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Christopher; Goldberger, Susan; Restuccia, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Continuing and professional education units are faced with the constant need to keep pace with dynamic labor markets when assessing program offerings and content. Real-time labor-market data derived from detailed analysis of online job postings offers a new tool for more easily aligning programs to local labor-market demand. The authors describe a…

  13. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    The labor market spillover effects of welfare reform were estimated by using models that pool time-series and cross-section data from the Current Population Survey on the state-year cell means of wages, employment, and other labor market outcomes for various demographic groups. The labor market outcomes in question are dependent variables that are…

  14. Changing Occupations in Florida: An Agenda for Identifying and Responding to New, Emerging, and Changing Occupations in Florida's Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Council on Vocational Education, Tallahassee.

    To ensure that Florida's vocational education programs are relevant to the changing needs of the state's labor market: (1) activities on new and emerging occupations should be coordinated through the Labor Market Information Coordinating Committee (LMICC); (2) the Bureau of Labor Market Information (BLMI) should identify significant occupations…

  15. Heterogeneity and the Effect of Mental Health Parity Mandates on the Labor Market*

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance benefit mandates are believed to have adverse effects on the labor market, but efforts to document such effects for mental health parity mandates have had limited success. I show that one reason for this failure is that the association between parity mandates and labor market outcomes vary with mental distress. Accounting for this heterogeneity, I find adverse labor market effects for non-distressed individuals, but favorable effects for moderately distressed individuals and individuals with a moderately distressed family member. On net, I conclude that the mandates are welfare increasing for moderately distressed workers and their families, but may be welfare decreasing for non-distressed individuals. PMID:26210944

  16. Labor Market Projections Model: a user's guide to the population, labor force, and unemployment projections model at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, E.

    1980-08-01

    In an effort to assist SESA analysts and CETA prime sponsor planners in the development of labor-market information suitable to their annual plans, the Labor Market Projections Model (LMPM) was initiated. The purpose of LMPM is to provide timely information on the demographic characteristics of local populations, labor supply, and unemployment. In particular, the model produces short-term projections of the distributions of population, labor force, and unemployment by age, sex, and race. LMPM was designed to carry out these projections at various geographic levels - counties, prime-sponsor areas, SMSAs, and states. While LMPM can project population distributions for areas without user input, the labor force and unemployment projections rely upon inputs from analysts or planners familiar with the economy of the area of interest. Thus, LMPM utilizes input from the SESA analysts. This User's Guide to LMPM was specifically written as an aid to SESA analysts and other users in improving their understanding of LMPM. The basic method of LMPM is a demographic cohort aging model that relies upon 1970 Census data. LMPM integrates data from several sources in order to produce current projections from the 1970 baseline for all the local areas of the nation. This User's Guide documents the procedures, data, and output of LMPM. 11 references.

  17. The Spatial Geography of Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…

  18. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  19. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  20. Labor Market Information and Career Decision Making. ERIC Digest No. 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan; Kerka, Sandra

    Labor market information (LMI) describes the interaction between occupations and employers. Three major components make up LMI: economic or labor force information, occupational information, and demographic information. Various agencies, including federal departments and state employment security agencies, compile LMI. A guide to the information…

  1. The Labor Market Experience of Workers with Disabilities: The ADA and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the recent labor market experience of American workers with disabilities and an assessment of the impact the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has had on that experience. Since one intention of the ADA is to break down barriers to employment for the disabled, the analyses focus on labor demand…

  2. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  3. Identifying Higher-Education Level Skill Needs in Labor Markets: The Main Tools Usable for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    There are natural mismatches in the labor market between the demand for higher-educated laborers and the supply of graduates provided by the higher education system in terms of quantity and qualifications. While there are open positions, some graduates still cannot find work. There are various findings indicating that the mismatch between…

  4. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  5. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  6. Labor Market Participation, Returns to Education, and Male-Female Wage Differences in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.

    Based on a human capital model, this paper uses household survey data from Peru to estimate differences between males and females in labor-market participation, productivity (measured in wages), and economic returns to education. The focus is on human capital, especially education, as a determinant of labor participation and productivity. The…

  7. The Emerging External Labor Market and the Impact on Enterprise's Human Resource Development in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, John; Zhu, Ying

    2002-01-01

    Labor strategies of eight enterprises in Shanghai and Beijing were profiled. Changes in national policy had created a highly competitive market. High skill requirements of jobs and shortages of skilled labor meant companies emphasized internal employee development over recruitment. However, they lacked strategies for retaining trained employees.…

  8. Teaching Keynes's Principle of Effective Demand Using the Aggregate Labor Market Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, Paul; Lavoie, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a method to teach John Keynes's principle of effective demand using a standard aggregate labor market diagram familiar to students taking advanced undergraduate macroeconomics courses. States the analysis incorporates Michal Kalecki's version to show Keynesian unemployment as a point on the aggregate labor demand curve inside the…

  9. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  10. Labor Market Changes and Adjustments: How Do the U.S. and Japan Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; Shiells, Clinton R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyze labor market flexibility and adjustment capabilities of Japan and the United States. They examine the job shift to services and trends in wages, productivity, and exchange rates to judge the international competitive position of each country. (CH)

  11. [From cultural to labor migration: toward integration of third-world migrants in the Umbrian labor market].

    PubMed

    Bussini, O

    1993-06-01

    The author describes "recent changes taking place in immigrant communities in [Umbria,] Italy.... After highlighting the main characteristics of the foreign presence in Umbria, the article looks at its modes of economic integration in the regional labor market. Results seem to indicate that there is a gradual strengthening of the occupational position of immigrants, not matched by their level of social integration." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12286611

  12. Strategies for Data-Informed Labor Market Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiland, Linda; Brown, William

    2008-01-01

    Central Arizona College (CAC) has leveraged EMSI to design the most effective regional strategies for academic/economic prediction analysis. Accessing current and reliable data on occupations, skills requirements, and demographics, CAC can extract, analyze, and present this data to academic programs, advisory boards, economic development councils,…

  13. Do Country-Specific Skills Lead to Improved Labor Market Positions? An Analysis of Unemployment and Labor Market Returns to Education among Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvander, Ann-Zofie E.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of 1,800 Swedish citizens and 1,600 immigrants to Sweden suggested that Swedish language skills and education do not reduce immigrants' risk of unemployment. Country-specific skills reduced risk of overqualification, but did not account for the labor market disadvantage of immigrants, which may be due to discrimination. (Contains 56…

  14. Competitive marketing strategies. A challenge for academic practices.

    PubMed

    Sinioris, M E

    1985-01-01

    A special challenge has been presented to academic medical practices by the new healthcare environment. While increased competition for patients and resources affects all medical groups, it is the academic practices who are responsible for training the physicians of tomorrow. Not only must they sharpen their students' awareness of the new environment and teach them to incorporate effective management strategies into their practices, but they must set an example in effective management as well. The basic concepts of competitive marketing strategy, along with helpful exhibits, are presented here, and strategies for effectively maximizing position are discussed from the viewpoints of product mix, process market, and financing. PMID:10269475

  15. Segmented Labor Markets: A Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Its Implication for Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    The study reviews orthodox theories of labor markets, presents new formulations of segmentation theory, and provides empirical tests of segmentation in the United States and several developing nations. Orthodox labor market theory views labor as being paid for its contribution to production and that investment in education and vocational training…

  16. Employment relations and global health: a typological study of world labor markets.

    PubMed

    Chung, Haejoo; Muntaner, Carles; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the global labor market and employment relations, which are central building blocks of the welfare state; the aim is to propose a global typology of labor markets to explain global inequalities in population health. Countries are categorized into core (21), semi-peripheral (42), and peripheral (71) countries, based on gross national product per capita (Atlas method). Labor market-related variables and factors are then used to generate clusters of countries with principal components and cluster analysis methods. The authors then examine the relationship between the resulting clusters and health outcomes. The clusters of countries are largely geographically defined, each cluster with similar historical background and developmental strategy. However, there are interesting exceptions, which warrant further elaboration. The relationship between health outcomes and clusters largely follows the authors' expectations (except for communicable diseases): more egalitarian labor institutions have better health outcomes. The world system, then, can be divided according to different types of labor markets that are predictive of population health outcomes at each level of economic development. As is the case for health and social policies, variability in labor market characteristics is likely to reflect, in part, the relative strength of a country's political actors. PMID:20440968

  17. Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

    This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…

  18. State Labor Market Research Study: An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Labor Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others

    The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…

  19. Situating the Rural Teacher Labor Market in the Broader Context: A Descriptive Analysis of the Market Dynamics in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Luke C.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding accountability systems that impose policies across all schools have amplified assertions that rural teacher labor markets differ from non-rural labor markets in meaningful ways that complicate rural schools' efforts to comply with the policy directives. The analysis presented here examines this claim by exploring teacher labor market…

  20. Do Child Care Regulations Affect the Child Care and Labor Markets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of child care regulations on outcomes in the child care market and the labor market for mothers of young children is examined. The analysis uses a time series of cross sections and examines the robustness of previous cross-section findings to controls for state-level heterogeneity. Child care regulations as a group have statistically…

  1. Innovations in Labor Market Information and Their Application: Applications for Workforce Programs. A Greenways Action Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milfort, Myriam; Kelley, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    With funding from the Joyce and Lumina foundations, Jobs for the Future (JFF) launched Credentials that Work to help postsecondary institutions, regions, and states align their occupational training programs to changing market demands. This initiative incorporates innovations in real-time labor market information in guiding institutions to better…

  2. Job-Transitions in the Administrative Labor Market in Higher Education: Some Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolansky, Bettie M.

    The question of whether the market for administrators is segmented by institutional types (i.e., region, affiliation, size, mission, and resource level) was investigated. One facet of the research was the applicability of segmentation theory to the occupational labor market for college managers. Principal data were provided by career histories of…

  3. An Efficiency Assessment among Empirically Defined Labor Markets for Determining Pay for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental to updating a fixed-rate salary schedule for teachers is the reliance on a relevant labor market containing comparisons to other school districts--that is, object school districts, which can be chosen from a policy or empirical/efficiency perspective. As such, four relevant markets having roots in neoclassical economic…

  4. Thick-Market Effects and Churning in the Labor Market: Evidence from U.S. Cities*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Using U.S. Census microdata, we show that, on average, workers change occupation and industry less in more densely populated areas. The result is robust to standard demographic controls, as well as to including aggregate measures of human capital and sectoral mix. Analysis of the displaced worker surveys shows that this effect is present in cases of involuntary separation as well. On the other hand, we actually find the opposite result (higher rates of occupational and industrial switching) for the subsample of younger workers. These results provide evidence in favor of increasing-returns-to-scale matching in labor markets. Results from a back-of-the-envelope calibration suggest that this mechanism has an important role in raising both wages and returns to experience in denser areas. PMID:24039316

  5. Monopsony power and relative wages in the labor market for nurses.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B T; Schumacher, E J

    1995-10-01

    This paper examines the thesis that monopsony power is an important determinant of wages in nursing labor markets. Using data from the 1985-93 Current Population Surveys, measures of relative nurse/non-nurse wage rates for 252 labor markets are constructed. Contrary to predictions from the monopsony model, no positive relationship exists between relative nursing wages and hospital density or market size. Nor is support found for the presence of monopsony power based on evidence on union wage premiums, slopes of experience profiles, or the mix of RN to total hospital employment. PMID:10153250

  6. Avoiding and Stemming Abuses in Academic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1981-01-01

    Recommendations made as a result of a Wingspread Colloquium on college marketing and student recruitment are reported. Abuses and specific remedies in recruiting, providing information, pricing and financing, student selection, and performance obligations and guarantees are outlined. Focus is on ethical and public interest issues. (MSE)

  7. Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Marketing Education. Bulletin No. 9005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of marketing education. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. The first part of the guide is an introduction that…

  8. Exploring an Academic Common Market in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Alan; Somers, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Movement toward a North American free trade agreement has provided impetus for a similar academic common market. However, differences in educational structure and quality make integration difficult. Priorities must be articulated, financing cooperation arranged, credit transfers facilitated, and achievement measures coordinated. Some isolated…

  9. Global Work Force 2000: The New World Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Although much of the world's human resources are being produced in developing countries, most of the well-paid jobs are in industrialized nations. Implications include massive relocations of people; reevaluation of industrialized nations' immigration policies; "surplus" human capital; improved productivity; and standardization of labor practices.…

  10. The Changing Complexion of the South's Rural Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosper, Denise M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter "Southern Perspectives" contains five articles on labor supply and demand issues in the rural South: "An Overview of Employment Changes in the Nonmetropolitan South" (David L. Barkley) examines nonmetro earnings trends in 16 southern states and employment trends in selected industries in the nonmetro South,…

  11. The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

  12. Ethnic Minorities in American Labor Markets. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    The document presents an analysis of the economic status of certain minority groups in the United States. The groups include Blacks, American Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos. Specifically, the document examines differences in female labor supply, female occupational status, and male earnings among the…

  13. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. PMID:26734757

  14. Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether international…

  15. Careers in Academe: The Academic Labour Market as an Eco-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…

  16. Business structure, ethnic shifts in labor markets, and violence: the link between company size, local labor markets, and non-Latino homicide.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Combining several schools of thought, including the civic engagement thesis, we extend current research by linking three things at the county level; firm size, the ethnic composition of labor markets, and violent crime. Our results suggest that larger businesses (based on the average number of persons employed) are more likely to have an external orientation and long recruitment reach, and this is linked to ethnic shifts in labor markets toward Latino workers. Such shifts are in turn associated with high rates of homicide among non-Latinos. Through indirect effects modeling, we find that increases in Black homicide are linked to rises in concentrated poverty, while increases in White homicide are linked to changes in unemployment. We discuss the implications of our findings. PMID:25432610

  17. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area. PMID:23455551

  18. [Expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing: dilemmas and contradictions facing the labor market].

    PubMed

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Grillo, Maria José Cabral; Gandra, Elen Cristiane; da Silveira, Marília Rezende

    2013-10-01

    We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes. PMID:24346464

  19. Labor Market Status of Older Males in the United States, 1880–1940

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the labor market status of older males in the early twentieth century, focusing on how the extent of pressure toward retirement differed across occupations and how it changed over time. A comparison of the probability of retirement across occupations shows that men who had better occupations in terms of economic status and work conditions were less likely to retire than were those with poorer jobs. The difficulty faced by older workers in the labor market, as measured by the relative incidence of long-term unemployment, was relatively severe among craftsmen, operatives, and salesmen. In contrast, aged farmers, professionals, managers, and proprietors appear to have fared well in the labor market. The pattern of shifts in the occupational structure that occurred between 1880 and 1940 suggests that industrialization had brought a growth of the sectors in which the pressure toward departure from employment at old ages was relatively strong. PMID:20234793

  20. Reconstructing or Deconstructing Labor Archives? Shaping Labor Collection Development in an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigel, James P., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Labor archival programs confront numerous challenges to remain viable in a changing academic environment and institutional culture. The marketing of higher education, the anti-union stance of some university administrations, and the transition of labor studies programs create a less-than-benign environment for labor collection development…

  1. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers. PMID

  2. Assessing the Impact of Education and Marriage on Labor Market Exit Decisions of Women. Working Paper 2010-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Walker, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    During the late 1990s, the convergence of women's labor force participation rates to men's rates came to a halt. This paper explores the degree to which the role of education and marriage in women's labor supply decisions also changed over this time period. Specifically, this paper investigates women's decisions to exit the labor market upon the…

  3. Does Cancer Reduce Labor Market Entry? Evidence for Prime-Age Females

    PubMed Central

    Moran, John R.; Short, Pamela Farley

    2014-01-01

    Existing studies of the labor market status of cancer survivors have focused on the extent to which cancer disrupts the employment of individuals who were working when diagnosed with cancer. We examine how surviving cancer affects labor market entry and usual hours of work among females age 28-54 who were not working when first diagnosed. We find that prime-age females have employment rates two to six years after diagnosis that are 12 percentage points lower than otherwise similar women who were initially out of the labor force, full-time employment rates that are 10 percentage points lower, and usual hours of work that are 5 hours per week lower. These estimates are somewhat larger than estimates for prime-age women employed at the time of diagnosis and highlight the importance of considering non-working females when assessing the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer. PMID:24243912

  4. Institutional Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes for Community College Students in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Dunn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The labor market success of community college students depends on both the attributes of individual students and the characteristics of the community colleges they attend. In this article, we examine the impact of community college characteristics on the earnings of first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina…

  5. Public Policy and Teacher Labor Markets. What We Know and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Reininger, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about the labor market for teachers and provides policy recommendations to enhance the supply of high-quality teachers. Many schools throughout the country, particularly those with low-income and low-achieving students, have difficulty attracting and retaining high-quality teachers. These schools…

  6. The Effect of School Inputs on Labor Market Returns that Account for Selective Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I estimate the effect of state school inputs on labor market returns to schooling. The method follows Card and Krueger (1992) and Heckman et al. (1996), but I extend their analysis in two ways. First, I correct state-level returns to schooling for selective migration, adapting a method from Dahl (2002). Second, I use more recent…

  7. Race and Unemployment: Labor Market Experiences of Black and White Men, 1968-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of multinomial logistic regression models on a sample of unemployed workers suggested that persistently higher black unemployment is due to differential access to employment opportunities by region, occupational placement, labor market segmentation, and discrimination. The racial gap in unemployment is greatest for college-educated…

  8. French Secondary School Students' Perceptions of the Education-Labor Market Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique

    2004-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to a paper-and-pencil…

  9. Assessing the Impact of Gender and Race on Earnings in the Library Science Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…

  10. Assembling a Career: Labor Market Outcomes for Manufacturing Program Students in Two-Year Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Chan, Hsun-yu; Wang, Xueli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on labor market outcomes for individuals who enroll in technical colleges is limited, with even less attention to the effects of short-term certificates than associate degrees. Also, despite the importance of manufacturing programs, there is a lack of research on employment outcomes for individuals who enroll in these programs…

  11. Prospects for the Faculty Labor Market in the 1990s: A Clemson University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley

    Through a faculty retirement survey and a review of the literature, Clemson University, South Carolina, studied the future labor market for college faculty. The survey was administered to 1,250 faculty at the university in Fall, 1991. Fifty-six responded with data indicating that the College of Sciences, and the College of Agricultural Sciences…

  12. Competencies for Young European Higher Education Graduates: Labor Market Mismatches and Their Payoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Van der Velden, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Labor market rewards based on competencies are analyzed using a sample of young European higher education (HE) graduates. Estimates of monetary rewards are obtained from conventional earnings regressions, while estimates total rewards are based on job satisfaction and derived through ordered probit regressions. Results for income show that jobs…

  13. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  14. Labor Markets for New Science and Engineering Graduates in Private Industry. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Data are presented on labor market conditions for science and engineering graduates based on responses of 255 firms to mail and telephone surveys conducted in late fall of 1981. Highlights presented in table, chart, and text indicate: (1) definite and likely shortages were concentrated in the computer and engineering fields; (2) chemical,…

  15. Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

    1999-01-01

    Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.…

  16. The Impact of Baby Boomer Retirements on Teacher Labor Markets. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 254

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Meckel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the future of teacher labor markets. The authors find that teacher hiring needs will rise over the coming decade largely because of retirements. However, this increase will not be significantly different from that of past decades. (Contains 7 notes and 3 figures.)

  17. Labor Market Surveys: Importance to and Preparedness of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs') importance of and preparedness in the labor market survey (LMS) competency through data collected by the "Knowledge Validation Inventory-Revised" ("KVI-R") instrument used by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor…

  18. Work Environments and Labor Markets: Explaining Principal Turnover Gap between Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Ni, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge about principals' leadership roles in charter schools' success has become more important as the number of charter schools increases and as we have learned more about the influence of principal leadership on school effectiveness. To contribute to the limited empirical literature on the principal labor market, this study explores…

  19. Pension-Induced Rigidities in the Labor Market for School Leaders. Working Paper 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Grissom, Jason A.; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Educators in public schools in the United States are typically enrolled in defined-benefit pension plans, which penalize across-plan mobility. We use administrative data from Missouri to examine how the mobility penalties affect the labor market for school leaders, and show that pension borders greatly reduce leadership flows across schools. Our…

  20. Services and the New Economy: Toward a New Labor Market Segmentation. Occasional Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyelle, Thierry

    This paper identifies some recent dimensions of labor market restructuring, based on an analysis of change in the United States economy. Information was drawn from a number of service industries, including retailing, telecommunications, insurance, banking, advertising, accounting, and other business services. Following an introduction that defines…

  1. Aspirations and Capabilities of Rural Youth in Relation to Present and Projected Labor Market Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Max F.; And Others

    A study was conducted to: determine the aspirations and capabilities of rural youth in selected low-income counties in Arkansas; relate aspirations, capabilities, and the discrepancy between the two to the experience background of the youths studied; and relate the youths' occupational plans to present and projected labor market requirements. The…

  2. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  3. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict,...

  4. Towards Better Methods of Labor Market Analysis for Educational and Training Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Thomas W., Ed.

    This booklet for educational and training planners is designed to increase understanding of labor market processes and thus to improve vocational education planning. As model illustrations, two local Massachusetts projects are described. The Worcester model, presented in chapter 1, is used by Boston University's Regional Manpower Institute to…

  5. Dynamic Gender Differences in a Post-Socialist Labor Market: Russia, 1991-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…

  6. Intervening against "Racial" Disadvantage: Educational Policy and Labor-Market Outcomes in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Argues that education can not guarantee social or occupational mobility, or even work, for minority groups in the United Kingdom. Presents evidence that labor market disadvantage for minority groups arises from direct racist discrimination, ethnocentric notions of "acceptability," and word-of-mouth recruitment of employees. Contains 54 references.…

  7. STEM in the Ohio Labor Market: A Mismatch or a Missed Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Stacia Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the supply of educated workers and the talent demands of employers is complex. Declining educational attainment levels in the US have been identified as a possible cause for the reported mismatch between the availability of talent that businesses want to hire and the talent available in the labor market, especially in the…

  8. Beyond the Labor Market Paradigm: A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies limits of the dominant labor market perspective (LMP) in research on teacher recruitment and retention and describes how research that incorporates a social network perspective (SNP) can contribute to the knowledge base and development of teacher education, staffing, and professional development approaches. A discussion of…

  9. The Effect of Labor Market Conditions and Financial Aid on Doctoral Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-three percent of doctoral students never complete their degree. This dropout is the highest among graduate and professional degree programs. Previous cross sectional studies of doctoral students' retention show the importance of financial aid in predicting degree completion. The studies however, do not estimate the labor market's effect on…

  10. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  11. Psychiatric Disorders and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the National Latino and Asian American Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Pinka; Alegria, Margarita; Lu, Mingshan; Takeuchi, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent psychiatric disorders and mental distress affect labor market outcomes in two rapidly growing populations that have not been studied to date – ethnic minorities of Latino and Asian descent, most of whom are immigrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we examine the labor market effects of having any psychiatric disorder in the past 12 months as well as the effects of experiencing psychiatric distress in the past 12 months. The labor market outcomes analyzed are current employment status, the number of weeks worked in the past year among those who are employed, and having at least one work absence in the past month among those who are employed. Our results show that among Latinos, psychiatric disorders and mental distress are associated with large, detrimental effects on employment and absenteeism, similar to effects found in analyses of mostly white, American born populations. Among Asians, we find more mixed evidence that psychiatric disorders and mental distress detract from labor market outcomes. PMID:17294497

  12. Unleashing the Power of the 21st Century Community College: Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    To help all community colleges unleash their potential for workforce and economic development, the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education sponsored the Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative. This project sought to develop and disseminate information and tools enabling colleges to keep pace…

  13. Labor Market Responsiveness: Assessing Seven Dimensions of the West Virginia Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipway, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the presidents of the ten public community and technical colleges in the state of West Virginia perceive their institutions implementing the seven dimensions of college life in support of labor market responsiveness identified by the U.S. Department of Education. The U.S. Department…

  14. Influences on Labor Market Outcomes of African American College Graduates: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an expanded econometric model, this study sought to estimate more precisely the net effect of independent variables (i.e., attending an HBCU) on three measures of labor market outcomes for African American college graduates. Findings reveal a statistically significant, albeit moderate, relationship between measures of background, human and…

  15. The Working Life: The Labor Market for Workers in Low-Skilled Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the economic prospects for workers possessing relatively few skills have worsened as the demand for skills in the labor market has increased. Even in jobs that might be categorized as low-skilled, workers require a diverse set of skills to succeed. Many of these skills can only be obtained through schooling or job…

  16. Labor Market Conditions and the High School Dropout Rate: Evidence from New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Mocan, H. Naci

    1997-01-01

    A slack labor market could affect the high school dropout rate by discouraging students from dropping out or by encouraging them to seek work to cover family job losses. A longitudinal study of 680 New York State school districts favors the former conclusion. A district's yearly 3.7% dropout rate might increase 2% with a 1% increase in the county…

  17. Racial Labor Market Gaps: The Role of Abilities and Schooling Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urzua, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between abilities, schooling choices, and black-white differentials in labor market outcomes. The analysis is based on a model of endogenous schooling choices. Agents' schooling decisions are based on expected future earnings, family background, and unobserved abilities. Earnings are also determined by…

  18. Determinants of Early Labor Market Success among Young Men: Race, Ability, Quantity and Quality of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.

    This study examined the effects of several hypothesized determinants of early labor market success among out-of-school young men. Variables measured included: (1) success (in terms of hourly earnings), (2) social status of occupation, and (3) unemployment. Pre-hypothesized success factors upon which variables were based were: (1) socioeconomic…

  19. Early Labor Market Experiences of Proprietary School Students. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyke, Robert; And Others

    A project studied the early labor market experiences of the high school graduates of the class of 1980 who attended proprietary schools. The analysis was based on the "High School and Beyond" survey that followed that class through January 1986. About 9 percent of the 1980 seniors attended proprietary schools, and more than half of them completed…

  20. Labor Market Assessments: An Essential Data Element for Program Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Janice N.

    The Eastern Iowa Community College District (EICCD) has conducted labor market assessments in 17 occupations related to its programs. These assessments are an integral component of the EICCD program evaluation process. These assessments provide valuable information in the specific occupational areas regarding (1) characteristics of the local…

  1. Is There a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joensen, Juanna Schroter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causal effect of advanced high school math on labor market outcomes. The pilot scheme reduced the costs of choosing advanced math because it allowed for a more flexible combination of math with other courses. We find clear evidence of a causal relationship between math and…

  2. The Educational Needs of and the Future Labor Market Demand for Human Resource Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prock, Dan; Henson, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Reports and discusses results of a national survey of professionals from all fields of human resource management (HRM) and college recruiters on the content of HRM education, competency requirements of certain specialists, and the labor market for personnel administration and industrial relations (PAIR/HRM) professionals in the next three years.…

  3. Five Faculty Labor Market Dilemmas Facing Community Colleges in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Yildiz, Selin; Batie, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges employ more than one-third of the nation's higher education faculty. Nevertheless, the labor market through which faculty are recruited, selected, hired, evaluated and retained or replaced is one of the least understood aspects of these institutions. Functional management and effective policy both require a clear understanding…

  4. Benchmarking the Importance and Use of Labor Market Surveys by Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…

  5. Math Skills and Labor-Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Resume-Based Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Tyhurst, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We examine the link between math skills and labor-market outcomes using a resume-based field experiment. Specifically, we send fictitious resumes in response to online job postings, randomly assigning some resumes to indicate stronger math skills, and measure employer responses. The resumes that are randomly assigned to indicate stronger math…

  6. Labor Market Dispositions of Technical College Personnel in Minnesota and Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theodore; Konare, Amadou

    1993-01-01

    Minnesota and Wisconsin technical college personnel (25 presidents, 63 counselors, 23 placement officers, and 34 alternates) considered training-related labor market information most important in program maintenance decisions; advisory committee input for program modification decisions; employer input for adding programs; and cost for dropping…

  7. Labor Market Outcomes of Non-College-Bound High School Graduates. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelbaum, Peter; Kaufman, Phillip

    The labor market outcomes of non-college-bound high school graduates were examined by analyzing the 1980 High School and Beyond Fourth Follow-up Survey, which contains information on more than 14,000 former high school students who were interviewed in 1980 as sophomores and again in 1982, 1984, 1986, and 1992. The study concentrated on respondents…

  8. Policy Responses to the Recent Poor Performance of the U.S. Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…

  9. Education and Labor Market Risk: Understanding the Role of Data Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether conclusions about the relationship between education and labor market risk depend on the use of commonly applied procedures to clean data of extreme values. The analysis uses fifteen years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to demonstrate that conclusions about the relationship between education and labor…

  10. Low Income Labor Markets and Urban Manpower Programs: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeringer, Peter B.; And Others

    In the 18-month study of the concentrated employment program in Boston, preliminary analysis indicated that program analysis was not possible without first examining the operation of the low-wage labor market. Accordingly, an exploration was made of the dynamic relationship between manpower programs and the economic and social environment in which…

  11. Career Effects of Occupation-Related Vocational Education: Evidence from the Military's Internal Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Elda; Mehay, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the labor market success of secondary vocational education has produced mixed results, with several studies finding wage gains only for individuals who work in training-related occupations. We contribute to this debate by focusing on a single occupation and organization and by comparing the careers of employees with and without…

  12. The Labor Markets of Knowledge Workers: Investment Bankers' Careers in the Wake of Corporate Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Carol; Althauser, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Review of organizational history, interviews with 36 human resources staff, and 110 employee survey responses in an investment bank examined the extent to which external hiring and collapsed career ladders affected careers. The mixture of entry- and midlevel hiring, career progression, and two different midlevel labor markets contradicted…

  13. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  14. Family Formation, Labor Market Experience, and the Wages of Married Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John F.; Berger, Franklin

    The impact of the timing, spacing, and number of children on a married woman's wage growth over her life cycle was examined. The data used for the analysis were information pertaining to the labor market experience of women and the birth dates of their children, taken from the 1976 survey of the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics (IDP). There…

  15. Career Thresholds: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Volume Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul; Kohen, Andrew I.

    This study deals with the impact of collective bargaining coverage on the 1969-70 labor market experience of young men in blue collar jobs. Specifically examined is the impact of collective bargaining on five dimensions of the labor market experience: (1) hourly rate of pay, (2) hours worked per week, (3) susceptibility to unemployment, (4)…

  16. Past Is Prologue: Educational Deficiencies and the Youth Labor Market Problem. Monograph Series Vol. 1, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Carol Jusenius

    Youth labor market successes and problems have roots in young people's childhood experiences. The many components of basic skills and employability skills are acquired through the educational process. Each skill has its counterpart in the expected outcomes of young people's education. Data in labor market research can be interpreted as empirical…

  17. The Class of 2011: Young Workers Face a Dire Labor Market without a Safety Net. EPI Briefing Paper #306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shierholz, Heidi; Edwards, Kathryn Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Great Recession left a crater in the labor market that has been devastating for unemployed Americans of all ages. After more than two years of unemployment at well over 8%, there is a hole of more than 11 million jobs, with average spells of unemployment lasting nearly nine months. The weak labor market has been particularly tough on young…

  18. High School Vocational Education Experiences: In School and in the Labor Market. Research and Development Series No. 244.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desy, Jeanne; And Others

    A study examined the school and labor market experiences of students who either are in or have participated in vocational education programs. To formulate their conclusions, the researchers involved in the study analyzed a subset of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience--Youth Cohort. These data indicate that…

  19. Life Strategies and the Labor Market: Colombians in New York in the 1970s. Occasional Paper No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giraldo, Fernando Urrea

    This study analyzes the results of a survey conducted on the participation of Colombian migrant households in the New York City labor market and the occupational mobility of these men and women in that labor market. It focuses on the socioeconomic dimensions of their migration on three levels: (1) macroeconomic--concerning the New York City labor…

  20. The Dynamics of the Teacher Labor Market in the Southeast. Selected Monographs in Educational Policy Research, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Ronald; And Others

    This monograph on teacher labor market research is divided into six major sections. The first, a survey of related literature, describes the general context of teacher labor market research derived from the educational reform movement and then focuses on the particular issues of supply adequacy, teacher quality, career choice, attrition, and…

  1. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  2. Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

    The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

  3. Supplemental Labor Market Information as a Means to Increase the Effectiveness of Job-Search Activity. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David W.

    The purpose of this study was to discover whether job seekers can be expected to act on the basis of new knowledge about the local labor market, and if they do act, whether their probability of success in finding a job is increased. This supplementary labor market information experiment was conducted in a single employment service office and…

  4. Why Women Are Progressive in Education? Gender Disparities in Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Family Arrangement in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and…

  5. Weathering the Great Recession with Human Capital? Evidence on Labor Market Returns to Education from Arkansas. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…

  6. Improving Low Income Job Seekers' Employment Prospects: The Role of Labor Market Intermediaries. A Background Paper [and Three Case Studies].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard

    Recent labor market and economic trends have spotlighted the need for work force development systems and policies to simultaneously serve employers seeking qualified workers and individuals who want to find work and advance toward self-sufficiency. This need has in turn led to the development of labor market intermediaries that can perform a wide…

  7. Who's Not Working and Why. Employment, Cognitive Skills, Wages, and the Changing U.S. Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Frederic L.; Schaffer, David L.

    This book explains major trends in the U.S. labor market over the last quarter-century. Chapter 1 presents hypotheses regarding the changing labor market. Chapter 2 looks at cognitive skills and formal education as determinants of employment. Chapter 3 develops the argument that the downward occupational mobility arising from changes in the supply…

  8. [Women in labor and migration. The female labor market between 1950 and 1990 and migration of women to Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Szasz, I

    1994-06-01

    Changes in the volume of female migration to Santiago and in the employment patterns of migrant women are analyzed in relationship to changes in the female labor market from 1950 onward, with special emphasis on the years 1970-90. Data sources include published works, the censuses of 1952 to 1982, a 1962 survey on in-migration to Santiago, employment surveys conducted by the University of Chile and the National Institute of Statistics, special tabulations for subsamples of the 1970 and 1982 censuses, and household employment survey information from the fourth quarter of 1993. In 1973 Chile embarked on a process of structural adjustments that affected social expenditures and employment, profoundly modifying urban labor markets. The Chilean economy is currently in a phase of consolidating its productive transformation, with positive results for economic growth and recuperation of employment, but with no reduction of poverty. The explanation of the growth in poverty should be sought in modifications in the conditions of employment of the Chilean population during the productive transformation. Modernization processes such as increased education and access to fertility control contributed to an increase in the number of highly educated women in nonmanual occupations in Santiago, but have not significantly influenced the volume or direction of female migration or modified the disadvantageous occupational profile of migrant women. Gender considerations including cultural norms governing female sexual behavior and nuptiality appear to exercise a decisive influence on the occupational status of migrant women in Santiago. Low status, single women migrating to Santiago have been concentrated in domestic service in part because of their need to find work providing safe living quarters. After 1975, migrant women encountered an increasing proportion of urban women working and looking for work and a structural transformation of domestic service marked by massive absorption of

  9. Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.

    PubMed

    Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension

  10. An economic-demographic model of the United States labor market.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J M

    1982-01-01

    An econometric model that has been developed to investigate the effects of demographic change on the US economy is described. The specific demographic features examined are the sizes of age sex groups in the US working age population. The size of these groups from now through the end of the 20th century will be determined primarily by past and current levels of fertility so they can be forecast with some degree of confidence. The model expands both the domain and accuracy of longterm economic forecasting by making use of the considerable quantity of demographic information that can be forecast, at least through this century, with a fairly great degree of confidence. In addition to economic forecasting, this study of the impact of demographic changes on the US labor market contributes to the investigation of the interrelationships among economic and demographic changes. The task of the model is as follows: given an exogenous projection of fertility and mortality rates and net immigration and given exogenous forecasts of variables such as rates of technical change, government demand for goods and services, and tax rates, the model forecasts variables characterizing the labor market and the macroeconomy. The model uses the fundamental principles of supply and demand, the economic theory of production, and the theory of household allocation of time and income to draw the implications of changes in demographic variables for the labor market and the economy. The crux of the model is a set of relationships depicting the behavior of the US labor market. In the labor market submodel, the input of labor of each of 16 age sex groups and its piece in each period is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. The 16 demographic groups are males and females, respectively, of ages 14-15, 16-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65 and over. Equations depicting the supply of and demand for labor of various demographic groups are estimated and provide the behavioral

  11. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage*

    PubMed Central

    Cadena, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288

  12. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Brian C

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288

  13. The US healthcare workforce and the labor market effect on healthcare spending and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing

    2014-06-01

    The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also

  14. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A; Mayew, William J; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities. PMID:24870387

  15. US Farm households: joint decision making and impact of health insurance on labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Latika; Findeis, Jill; Chintawar, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    The paper attempts to answer a very simple question: how does a farm household respond as a unit in the labor market when benefits or health insurance is tied to employer provided jobs. One of the major changes affecting US agriculture has been a decline in the number of farms and an increase in the multiple job-holding, especially among farm women to fulfill various objectives ranging from helping out with farm expenses or securing benefits like health insurance. In addition to this, the new health care law or "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA") to be operational by 2014 requires that all individuals be covered by a health plan. Hence, it's important to understand the relationship between health insurance and labor markets to appropriately identify the impact of health policy reform for farm families. PMID:23718543

  16. Vocal Fry May Undermine the Success of Young Women in the Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rindy C.; Klofstad, Casey A.; Mayew, William J.; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities. PMID:24870387

  17. The impact of maternity length-of-stay mandates on the labor market and insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Sabik, Lindsay M; Laugesen, Miriam J

    2012-01-01

    To understand the effects of insurance regulation on the labor market and insurance coverage, this study uses a difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to compare five states that passed minimum maternity length-of-stay laws with states that waited until after a federal law was passed. On average, we do not find statistically significant effects on labor market outcomes such as hours of work and wages. However, we find that employees of small firms in states with maternity length-of-stay mandates experienced a 6.2-percentage-point decline in the likelihood of having employer-sponsored insurance. Implementation of federal health reform that requires minimum benefit standards should consider the implications for firms of differing sizes. PMID:22650016

  18. An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemkow, S.

    This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

  19. US Farm households: joint decision making and impact of health insurance on labor market outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper attempts to answer a very simple question: how does a farm household respond as a unit in the labor market when benefits or health insurance is tied to employer provided jobs. One of the major changes affecting US agriculture has been a decline in the number of farms and an increase in the multiple job-holding, especially among farm women to fulfill various objectives ranging from helping out with farm expenses or securing benefits like health insurance. In addition to this, the new health care law or “The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA”) to be operational by 2014 requires that all individuals be covered by a health plan. Hence, it’s important to understand the relationship between health insurance and labor markets to appropriately identify the impact of health policy reform for farm families. PMID:23718543

  20. Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets.

    PubMed

    McCall, L

    2000-11-01

    Most research on earnings inequality has focused on the growing gap between workers of different races and at different education, age, and income levels, but a large portion of the increasing inequality has actually occurred within these groups. This article focuses on the extent and sources of "within-group" wage inequality in more than 500 labor markets in the United States in 1990. In addition to documenting that within-group wage inequality across regions varies more widely today than over the past several decades, the analysis reveals that two frequently cited explanations of rising wage inequality over time have little impact on within-group wage inequality when measured at the local labor market level: (1) industrial shifts and (2) increased technology and trade. By contrast, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., unemployment, contingent work, and immigration) are associated strongly with high local levels of within-group wage inequality, especially among women. PMID:11086568

  1. PV Installation Labor Market Analysis and PV JEDI Tool Developments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.

    2012-06-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  2. Publication metrics and success on the academic job market.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, David; Manor, Ohad; Carey, Lucas B

    2014-06-01

    The number of applicants vastly outnumbers the available academic faculty positions. What makes a successful academic job market candidate is the subject of much current discussion [1-4]. Yet, so far there has been no quantitative analysis of who becomes a principal investigator (PI). We here use a machine-learning approach to predict who becomes a PI, based on data from over 25,000 scientists in PubMed. We show that success in academia is predictable. It depends on the number of publications, the impact factor (IF) of the journals in which those papers are published, and the number of papers that receive more citations than average for the journal in which they were published (citations/IF). However, both the scientist's gender and the rank of their university are also of importance, suggesting that non-publication features play a statistically significant role in the academic hiring process. Our model (www.pipredictor.com) allows anyone to calculate their likelihood of becoming a PI. PMID:24892909

  3. STEM Employment in the New Economy: A Labor Market Segmentation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples,…

  4. Productivity or discrimination? An economic analysis of excess-weight penalty in the Swedish labor market.

    PubMed

    Dackehag, Margareta; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nordin, Martin

    2015-07-01

    This article investigates the excess-weight penalty in income for men and women in the Swedish labor market, using longitudinal data. It compares two identification strategies, OLS and individual fixed effects, and distinguishes between two main sources of excess-weight penalties, lower productivity because of bad health and discrimination. For men, the analysis finds a significant obesity penalty related to discrimination when applying individual fixed effects. We do not find any significant excess-weight penalty for women. PMID:24903023

  5. Long-Term Effects of a Recession at Labor Market Entry in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi

    2010-01-01

    We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…

  6. A specific labor market comparison of male and female willingness to travel: The case of the Army National Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, A. ); Bell, S.E. ); Vogt, D.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of gender differences in commuting behavior within the Army National Guard. This labor market provides a more level playing field than most for a direct comparison between male and female willingness to travel. In contrast to other studies, we find that women as a group are willing to travel greater distances, in this particular labor market. 9 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  7. [The interaction of municipal labor markets in the state of Tabasco: an approximation via the use of gravitational models].

    PubMed

    Juarez, E

    1993-01-01

    Employment is an important factor in state planning and a variable in both economic activity and population. Multiregional methodologies which incorporate territorial variables in functional type analyses may be used to study the interactions between municipal labor markets, helping identify those that should receive priority assistance in developing their sources of employment. This work uses a gravitational model to analyze interactions between the local labor markets of 17 seats of municipios in the state of Tabasco as demonstrated with data from the census of 1990. The working hypothesis was that alternatives for labor market growth are distributed hierarchically in descending order of supply as a function of the size of the economically active population in each locality, the relative participation of the unemployed in each locality, and the distance between the localities. The modeling of interaction between local labor markets is achieved in three stages. First, a gravitational model is adjusted with restrictions in the origins. The next step requires use of the parameters resulting from the first step to predict the number of trips to each destination, as a function of levels of unemployment in each locality producing trips. The third stage consists of predictive application of a gravitational model restricted in both origin and destination to define the magnitude of flows between each point of origin and each point of destination. The general character of the gravitational model is described for each step. The model suggests that the main interactions between local labor markets at the level of seats of municipios are located in the center of the state. Three municipal seats in particular had great potential for labor market growth. A separate system of labor market interaction was observed in the southern part of the state. The coastal zone did not appear to offer an alternative for labor market growth. PMID:12287864

  8. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes. PMID:12321472

  9. Marketing Today's Academic Library: A Bold New Approach to Communicating with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In "Marketing Today's Academic Library", the author uses his vast experience to speak directly to the academic library practitioner about matching services with user needs. This book proposes new visions and ideas, challenging the traditional way of thinking and providing a framework to target users more precisely. Most library marketing intended…

  10. The Effect of Culture on the Academic Honesty of Marketing and Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payan, Janice; Reardon, James; McCorkle, Denny E.

    2010-01-01

    Two trends in marketing higher education include (a) growing opportunities for intercultural encounters in the classroom and (b) a growing concern about student academic honesty. Research regarding the relationship between specific cultural measures and academic honesty is sparse in the context of marketing and business programs in higher…

  11. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…

  12. PLACE OF ORIGIN AND LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES AMONG MIGRANT WORKERS IN URBAN CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunni; Xie, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The localistic enclave is a special kind of enclave in urban China, which is characterized by high concentration of rural migrants from the same place of origin. Prior research has documented that rural migrants work in these localistic enclaves, but the significance of participation in them for labor market outcomes among migrant workers has yet to be determined. In this article, we argue that localistic economic enclaves may improve the labor force outcomes of rural-to-urban migrants. We report results from a study of the social determinants and consequences of working in localistic enclaves, based on data from a 2010 survey of migrant workers in the Pearl River and the Yangzi River Deltas. The results provide limited support for our hypothesis: Localistic enclaves enable migrant workers to earn higher earnings overall, but the earnings returns to human capital in an enclave are limited. PMID:24223441

  13. Preschool and maternal labor market outcomes: evidence from a regression discontinuity Design.

    PubMed

    Berlinski, Samuel; Galiani, Sebastian; McEwan, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, employment rates for mothers with young children are relatively low. This study analyzes how maternal labor market outcomes in Argentina are affected by the preschool attendance of their children. Using pooled household surveys, we show that 4-year-olds with birthdays on June 30 have sharply higher probabilities of preschool attendance than children born on July 1, given enrollment-age rules. Regression-discontinuity estimates using this variation suggest that preschool attendance of the youngest child in the household increases the probability of full-time employment and weekly hours of maternal employment. We find no effect of preschool attendance on maternal labor outcomes for children who are not the youngest in the household. PMID:21174882

  14. STEM employment in the new economy: A labor market segmentation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples, which included workers with a subbaccalaureate diploma or above. The cluster analyses show a pattern consistent with Labor Market Segmentation theory: Higher wages are associated with other primary employment characteristics, including health insurance and pension benefits, as well as full-time employment. In turn, lower wages showed a tendency to cluster with secondary employment characteristics, such as part-time employment, multiple employment, and restricted access to health insurance and pension benefits. The findings also suggest that women have a higher likelihood of being employed in STEM jobs with secondary characteristics. The findings reveal a far more variegated employment landscape than is usually presented in national reports of the STEM workforce. There is evidence that, while STEM employment may be more resilient than non-STEM employment to labor restructuring trends in the new economy, the former is far from immune to secondary labor characteristics. There is a need for ongoing dialogue between STEM education (at all levels), employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to truly understand not only the barriers to equity in employment relations, but also the mechanisms that create and maintain segmentation and how they may impact women, underrepresented minorities, and the foreign-born.

  15. Where Are the Babies? Labor Market Conditions and Fertility in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Adsera, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Cross-country differences in both the age at first birth and fertility are substantial in Europe. This paper uses distinct fluctuations in unemployment rates across European countries during the 1980s and the 1990s combined with broad differences in their labor market arrangements to analyze the associations between fertility timing and the changing economic environment with close to 50,000 women from thirteen European countries. First, it employs time varying measures of aggregate market conditions in each woman s country as covariates and second, it adds micro-measures of each woman s labor market history to the models. High and persistent unemployment in a country is associated with delays in childbearing (and second births). The association is robust to diverse measures of unemployment and to controls for family-friendly policies. Besides moderate unemployment, a large public employment sector (which provides security and benefits) is coupled with faster transitions to all births. Women with temporary contracts, mostly in Southern Europe, are the least likely to give birth to a second child. PMID:23580794

  16. Review Symposium. "Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market," by Paul Osterman, Thomas A. Kochan, Richard Locke, and Michael J. Piore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Harry C., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    A panel comments on the book, Working in America, and implications for the U.S. labor market, including declining traditional internal labor markets, the need for private versus public policy interventions, international labor policy, and value-based policy. Commentators include David Neumark, Peter Cappelli, Sanford M. Jacoby, Rebecca M. Blank,…

  17. The relationship between local area labor market conditions and the use of Veterans Affairs health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. Methods We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans’ county of residence. Results The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran’s county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value = 0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value = 0.023) from the VA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment. PMID:23496888

  18. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-05-01

    In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-related benefits were disproportionately given to individuals recently diagnosed with a disease compared to those without disease. The study was register-based and comprised all Danish residents aged 20-60. During the study period, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders increased among both employed and non-employed people. The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4.83 (4.53-5.14) for the period 2007-2010. The estimates were similar for women. PMID:27017087

  19. Effect of Immigrant Nurses on Labor Market Outcomes of US Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Robert; Kaushal, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of immigration of foreign-trained, registered nurses (RNs) on the employment and wages of US-trained RNs. We use the “area” approach and study effects of immigration in labor markets defined by the state. We find substantial evidence that immigration by foreign-trained nurses increases the supply of nurses and that this increase in supply is associated with a decrease in annual earnings. Estimates suggest that a 10 percent increase in supply due to immigration is associated with a one to four percent decrease in annual earnings. PMID:22199410

  20. Hispanic youth in the labor market. Special report 1979-80

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using data from the 1979 and 1980 interviews of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS), this study examines the labor market experiences of Hispanic youth. Subjects selected for analysis include employment and unemployment, job search methods, types of occupation, job satisfaction, government sponsored employment and training, attitudes toward work and military service, reported illegal activities, and employment opportunities. Comparisons are made with blacks and whites who were also included in this sample of young men and women aged 14 to 21 in 1979.

  1. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size. PMID:27037897

  2. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over time. The…

  3. The Ethnic Niche as an Economic Pathway for the Dark Skinned: Labor Market Incorporation of Latina/o Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Latina/os are turning to employment in ethnic niches as an alternative to general labor markets. This study places special focus on how skin color segmentation or colorism influences job-market allocation. The hypothesis is that dark-skinned Latina/os are more likely to be employed in ethnically homogeneous jobsites or…

  4. Fairness Is an Emergent Self-Organized Property of the Free Market for Labor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2010-06-01

    The excessive compensation packages of CEOs of U.S. corporations in recent years have brought to the foreground the issue of fairness in economics. The conventional wisdom is that the free market for labor, which determines the pay packages, cares only about efficiency and not fairness. We present an alternative theory that shows that an ideal free market environment also promotes fairness, as an emergent property resulting from the self-organizing market dynamics. Even though an individual employee may care only about his or her salary and no one else's, the collective actions of all the employees, combined with the profit maximizing actions of all the companies, in a free market environment under budgetary constraints, lead towards a more fair allocation of wages, guided by Adam Smith's invisible hand of self-organization. By exploring deep connections with statistical thermodynamics, we show that entropy is the appropriate measure of fairness in a free market environment which is maximized at equilibrium to yield the lognormal distribution of salaries as the fairest inequality of pay in an organization under ideal conditions.

  5. The Icelandic economic collapse, smoking, and the role of labor-market changes.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is related to health deterioration through increased risk of various diseases. Changes in this health behavior could contribute to the documented health improvements during economic downturns. Furthermore, the reasons for changes in behavior are not well understood. We explore smoking behavior in Iceland before and after the sudden and unexpected economic crisis in 2008. Furthermore, to explore the mechanisms through which smoking could be affected we focus on the role of labor-market changes. Both real income and working hours fell significantly and economic theory suggests that such changes can affect health behaviors which in turn affect health. We use individual longitudinal data from 2007 to 2009, incidentally before and after the crisis hit. The data originates from a postal survey, collected by The Public Health Institute in Iceland. Two outcomes are explored: smoking participation and smoking intensity, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and linear probability models. The detected reduction in both outcomes is not explained by the changes in labor-market variables. Other factors in the demand function for tobacco play a more important role. The most notable are real prices which increased in particular for imported goods because of the devaluation of the Icelandic currency as a result of the economic collapse. PMID:24706052

  6. Physician shortages in rural Vietnam: using a labor market approach to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas. PMID:21839563

  7. The promise of Mechanical Turk: how online labor markets can help theorists run behavioral experiments.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G

    2012-04-21

    Combining evolutionary models with behavioral experiments can generate powerful insights into the evolution of human behavior. The emergence of online labor markets such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) allows theorists to conduct behavioral experiments very quickly and cheaply. The process occurs entirely over the computer, and the experience is quite similar to performing a set of computer simulations. Thus AMT opens the world of experimentation to evolutionary theorists. In this paper, I review previous work combining theory and experiments, and I introduce online labor markets as a tool for behavioral experimentation. I review numerous replication studies indicating that AMT data is reliable. I also present two new experiments on the reliability of self-reported demographics. In the first, I use IP address logging to verify AMT subjects' self-reported country of residence, and find that 97% of responses are accurate. In the second, I compare the consistency of a range of demographic variables reported by the same subjects across two different studies, and find between 81% and 98% agreement, depending on the variable. Finally, I discuss limitations of AMT and point out potential pitfalls. I hope this paper will encourage evolutionary modelers to enter the world of experimentation, and help to strengthen the bond between theoretical and empirical analyses of the evolution of human behavior. PMID:21402081

  8. Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

  9. Gender differences in socioeconomic returns to family migration in Malaysia: the role of family decision making versus labor market stratification.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author examines gender differences in the effect of family migration on socioeconomic attainment in Malaysia. The analysis discerns the relative importance of gender roles in household migration decisions, compared to gender stratification in the labor market. The Malaysian economy has undergone rapid industrialization and great structural changes which have opened up new economic opportunities, particularly for women. Despite the somewhat advantaged position of women compared to men in the Malaysian labor market, the author finds that men experience much greater socioeconomic gains than women from family migration. Hence indicating that family migration decisions in Malaysia, rather than optimizing family gains, compensate for the gender effect in the labor market. However, the gains of Malaysian men are more assured when they move alone. Data for the study come from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey. PMID:12296212

  10. Demographic Profiling--A Determination of Academic Performance in a Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneke, J.; Beeming, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the direct effect of demographic variables on academic outcomes. The study concludes that ethnic group plays a pivotal role in determining the academic performance of students registered for the Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management at the University of Cape Town. White students (presumed to emanate from a privileged…

  11. The Effect of Action Orientation on the Academic Performance of Undergraduate Marketing Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Spector, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the effect of academic performance on employment opportunities and admission to graduate schools, researchers have long recognized the need for identifying factors that are linked to the academic performance of undergraduate marketing students. This research proposes a model that investigates the relationships among motivation, effort,…

  12. Labor Market Outcomes for Legal Mexican Immigrants Under the New Regime of Immigration Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Kerstin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper documents the effects of increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies on Mexican migrant workers in the United States. Methods Drawing on data from the Mexican Migration Project we create a data file that links age, education, English language ability, and cumulative U.S. experience in three legal categories (documented, undocumented, guest worker) to the occupational status and wage attained by migrant household heads on their most recent U.S. trip. Results We find that the wage and occupational returns to various forms of human capital generally declined after harsher policies were imposed and enforcement dramatically increased after 1996, especially for U.S. experience and English language ability. Conclusion These results indicate that the labor market status of legal immigrants has deteriorated significantly in recent years as larger shares of the migrant workforce came to lack labor rights, either because they were undocumented or because they held temporary visas that did not allow mobility or bargaining over wages and working conditions. PMID:21857750

  13. The gender gap reloaded: are school characteristics linked to labor market performance?

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Constant, Amelie

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the wage gender gap of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000 in the US. Using quantile regression we estimate the gender gap across the entire wage distribution. We also study the importance of high school characteristics in predicting future labor market performance. We conduct analyses for three major racial/ethnic groups in the US: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, employing data from two rich longitudinal studies: NLS and NELS. Our results indicate that while some school characteristics are positive and significant predictors of future wages for Whites, they are less so for the two minority groups. We find significant wage gender disparities favoring men across all three surveys in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000. The wage gender gap is more pronounced in higher paid jobs (90th quantile) for all groups, indicating the presence of a persistent and alarming "glass ceiling." PMID:19069051

  14. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    PubMed

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." PMID:12285449

  15. The inclusion of disabled persons in the labor market in Belo horizonte, Brazil: scenario and perspective.

    PubMed

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Prais, Fabiana Gomes; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Even after the publication of Law 8213 in 1991, which established quotas for employing disabled persons, their inclusion in the workplace still presents a challenge for Brazilian society. In order to understand the main barriers that hamper this process a qualitative research study was conducted in the municipality of Belo Horizon-te. This study included interviews with important actors involved in the process of inclusion; and focus groups including disabled persons and members of their families. The main barriers encountered were: preconceived ideas and discrimination; family relationships; the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) program; the low level of qualifi-cation among disabled person; lack of access; and the unpreparedness of companies. It was concluded that drafting laws is not sufficient to guarantee inclusion in the labor market and that governments should implement public policies to assist in this process. PMID:26221820

  16. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  17. Homeland Security Education: Managerial versus Nonmanagerial Market Perspectives of an Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Daniel; Henley, Russ; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Jones, Don; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; Sumrall, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the findings of a market study that preceded the offering of an academic program in homeland security. The university disseminated a mail survey to gain data for analysis of variance testing of several hypotheses regarding market perceptions of the intended homeland security program offering. Stratification involved segregating…

  18. Assessment of the labor market experiences of CETA-trained solar workers

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, B.A.; Mason, B.; Mikasa, G.Y.

    1980-12-01

    This study assessed solar training offered by CETA-funded programs and labor market experiences of program graduates. The initial research was restricted to programs within California, because the state is involved in a variety of solar-related activities, including development of jobs and training programs in solar energy. Interviews were conducted with 12 CETA solar training programs and graduates in 1979, in cooperation with California's SolarCal Office. Information on graduates includes demographics, educational and work experience, satisfaction with solar training, types of jobs found, wage levels, and job tenure. Program information includes length, types of training, and the number and kinds of solar systems installed. Results show that major programs problems were: limited funding; shortages of trained instructors; insufficient staff; need for local employment information; need for better defined role for unions; and pressures for high placement rates. The curricula involved general skills, skills specific to solar technologies, and basic job behavior and skills. The training involved both classroom and hands-on experience and was mainly tailored to participants and the local job market. Successful placement of program participants was relatively high; over half the initial job placements involved solar energy. Solar jobs appeared to pay more than nonsolar jobs. Participants generally felt that their training had prepared them adequately for their current work.

  19. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile's universal voucher system.

    PubMed

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9-12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  20. Education, Training and Labor Markets: Summary and Policy Implications of Recent Research by Jacob Mincer. Conference Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.

    Economists are aware of the importance of human capital in the process of development, whereas policy makers are only now exploring its implications, pressed by demands for more jobs and higher incomes. Recent research in the dynamics of labor markets illustrates how the results can help shape education and training policy in the United States.…

  1. The Rhode Island Labor Market in Recovery: Where Is the Skills Gap? Current Policy Perspectives. No. 15-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which Rhode Island's workforce lacks skills that are in demand among the state's current and potential employers and, if so, whether such a skills gap or labor market "mismatch" significantly restrains employment growth in the state. Using an index developed by Sahin et al. (2014), we find that…

  2. The Japanese Labor Market in a Comparative Perspective with the United States. A Transaction-Cost Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Masanori

    A comparison is made of some of the notable features of the Japanese and U.S. labor markets. In Japan, as compared to the United States, for example, levels of employment tenure are higher, employer-employee attachment stronger, earnings-tenure profiles more steeply sloped, layoffs and dismissals much less frequent, and joint consultation and…

  3. Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans. Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market--1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E.; And Others

    This monograph presents preliminary cross-tabulation analyses of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience of 12,693 youth of ages 14-21 who will be interviewed annually for at least five years. (Hispanic; non-Hispanic black; and non-Hispanic, non-black, poor youth were oversampled.) Each of the twenty-four topics…

  4. What about Certificates? Evidence on the Labor Market Returns to Nondegree Community College Awards in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Trimble, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    The annual number of certificates awarded by community colleges has increased dramatically, but relatively little research has been conducted on the economic benefits of certificates in the labor market. Based on detailed student-level information from matched college transcript and employment data in two states, this article estimates the…

  5. Utilization of Manpower and Labor Market Data in College and University Planning: An Exploratory Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazziel, William

    A small-sample exploratory investigation is reported that attempted to develop some initial insights regarding the uses of manpower and labor market data in new planning, the needs for new types and forms of data, the nature of program changes generated, and the needs for further research and development. Planning models and program change data…

  6. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

  7. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. Discussion Paper No. 1425-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Velez, Erin Dunlop

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to Unemployment Insurance (UI) earnings data and also to secondary education records.…

  8. The Labor Market Returns to For-Profit Higher Education: Evidence for Transfer Students. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuen Ting; Belfield, Clive

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the labor market gains for students who enrolled at for-profit colleges after beginning their post-secondary education in community college. We use student-level administrative record data from college transcripts, Unemployment Insurance earnings data, and progression data from the National Student Clearinghouse across full…

  9. The Characteristics and Role of Illegal Aliens in the U.S. Labor Market: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.; Houstoun, Marion F.

    Data on the characteristics and labor market experiences of illegal aliens in the U.S. work force were collected by voluntary interviews with 793 apprehended illegal immigrants who had worked at least two weeks in the U.S. From the resulting diverse collection of case histories, it was concluded that (1) illegal workers in the U.S. are likely to…

  10. Increase in the Length of Incarceration and the Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Men Released from Illinois State Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Haeil

    2011-01-01

    The sharp rise in U.S. incarceration rates has heightened long-standing concerns among scholars and policymakers that lengthy incarceration permanently harms the future labor market outcomes of prisoners. If true, then lengthy prison sentences will not only punish criminals for crimes committed, but will also make it far more difficult for…

  11. Institutional Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes for Community College Students in North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Dunn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which community college students experience labor market success depends on both the attributes of the individual students and the characteristics of the community colleges they attend. In this paper, we examine the impact of community college characteristics on the earnings of first-time college students who enrolled in the North…

  12. "If Knowledge Is Power, You're About to Become Very Powerful": Literacy and Labor Market Intermediaries in Postindustrial America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the connections between literacy, economy, and place through an examination of labor market intermediaries (LMIs). In particular, the article addresses the shifting role of LMIs over the past thirty years in Lake County, Indiana, and how they have developed as literacy sponsors. The article looks beyond the boundaries of…

  13. A Short Guide to "Tipping Point" Analyses of Community College Student Labor Market Outcomes. CCRC Research Tools No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis

    2008-01-01

    This guide is designed for community colleges and community college state agencies that are interested in analyzing the labor market outcomes of their programs and identifying opportunities for improving employment outcomes of their students. Community college agencies in several states have expressed interest in conducting tipping point studies…

  14. What about the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College. CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidenberg, Matthew; Scott, Marc; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Of the copious research on the labor market returns to college, very little has adequately modeled the pathways of non-completers or compared their outcomes with those of award holders. In this paper, we present a novel method for linking non-completers with completers according to their program of study. This method allows us to calculate the…

  15. What about the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidenberg, Matthew; Scott, Marc; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Of the copious research on the labor market returns to college, very little has adequately modeled the pathways of non-completers or compared their outcomes with those of award holders. In this paper, we present a novel method for linking non-completers with completers according to their program of study. This method allows us to calculate the…

  16. Beginning Subbaccalaureate Students' Labor Market Experiences: Six Years Later in 2009. Web Tables. NCES 2012-273

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2012-01-01

    This set of Web Tables presents descriptive statistics on the spring 2009 labor market experiences of subbaccalaureate students who first entered postsecondary education in 2003-04. The Web Tables use data from the nationally representative 2004/09 Beginning Post-secondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), which followed a cohort of…

  17. Seven Years Later: The Experiences of the 1970 Cohort of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    As a followup to an earlier study, this report examines the numbers, motivations, characteristics, and labor market behavior of legal immigrants to the United States. The data used is from published and unpublished government statistics, a survey of 5,000 1970 immigrants, and interviews with 254 of the 1970 cohort. The first three chapters provide…

  18. Racial Differences in the Impact of Participating in Advanced Placement Programs on Educational and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information generated in recent years regarding the benefits for students who participate in Advanced Placement (AP) programs on educational outcomes, limited research exists contrasting and comparing the differential effects of AP program participation on educational and labor market outcomes by race. However, research…

  19. Labor Market Structure, Intragenerational Mobility, and Discrimination: Black Male Advancement out of Low-Paying Occupations, 1962-1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Marshall I.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of intragenerational mobility of black and white men shows the following: (1) black upward mobility is less frequent and more restricted; (2) blacks within the public sector have substantial rates of upward mobility to nonmanagerial positions; and (3) discrimination against blacks in the labor market has not disappeared. (Author/PS)

  20. The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-03. The medium-term returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees are compared with returns for students who accumulated college credits but did not graduate. The authors also…

  1. An Overview of the Labor Market Problems of Indians and Native Americans. Research Report No. 89-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…

  2. Pathways to the Future, Vol. II. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1980. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E., Ed.

    This report is based on data from the 1979 and 1980 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience (NLS). These data were collected for a nationally representative sample of 12,686 youth in 1979 and 12,141 in 1980. Chapter One uses the longitudinal capability of the NLS to examine those youth who were unemployed at the…

  3. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. CALDER Working Paper No. 117

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop Velez, Erin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to UI earnings data and also to secondary education records. Our main findings can be…

  4. The Regional Higher Educational Institution and the Labor Market:Problems of Adaptation: The Example of Chita Oblast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonshakova, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the situation in the Russian labor market and the extent to which college graduates met the requirements of employers, a survey of 382 experts was carried out in November and December 2000. Of that number, 196 were administrators of enterprises of the traditional or state type (Group A), 136 were administrators of enterprises of the…

  5. Labor Market Flexibility and Inequality: The Changing Skill-Based Temporary Employment and Unemployment Risks in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebel, Michael; Giesecke, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this article we use comparative micro data for 15 European countries covering the period 1992-2007 to study the impact of labor market reforms on the skill-related individual risk of holding a temporary contract and the risk of being unemployed. Our results indicate no general increase in either of these skill gaps. Using two-step multilevel…

  6. Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möller, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…

  7. A Comparative Study of the Employee Skills/Training Acceptable to Employers Under Varying Degrees of Labor Market Stringencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, W. Halder; And Others

    The purposes of this stud y were to test the dependability of stated employee selection criteria, to ascertain the degree of congruence between stated and actual selection criteria, and to determine the degree of change in criteria due to "looseness" or "tightness" of the local labor market. Seven test labor market areas representing a variety of…

  8. Marketing the University: The Subjective Perceptions of Israeli Academics of Their Role in Attracting New Students to Their Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Israeli academics' perceptions of the introduction of educational markets and, particularly, their attitudes towards academics' roles and responsibilities in the new marketing-led university, as well as to obtain a greater understanding of their actual patterns of involvement in the marketing of…

  9. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime. PMID:23825897

  10. Labor market effects of intrauterine exposure to nutritional deficiency: Evidence from administrative data on Muslim immigrants in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise; Tekin, Erdal; Greve, Jane

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines whether nutritional disruptions experienced during the stage of fetal development impair an individual's labor market productivity later in life. We consider intrauterine exposure to the month of Ramadan as a natural experiment that might cause shocks to the inflow of nutrients essential for fetal development. Specifically, we use administrative data from Denmark to investigate the impact of exposure to Ramadan in utero on labor market outcomes of adult Muslim males, including employment status, annual salary, hourly wage rate, and hours of work. Our findings indicate that potential exposure to nutritional disruptions during a critical stage of fetal development is likely to have scarring effects on the fetus expressed as poor labor market outcomes later in life. Specifically, exposure to Ramadan around the 7th month of gestation results in a lower likelihood of employment and, to a lesser extent, a lower salary, and reduced labor supply. For example, the 7th month intrauterine exposure to Ramadan is associated with a 2.6 percentage points reduction in the likelihood of employment among Muslim males. We do not find an impact on the wage rate. Finally, we also document suggestive evidence that these results may partially be driven by increased disability and to a lesser extent by poor educational attainment among those who were exposed to Ramadan during this particular period in utero. PMID:26954580

  11. The Influence of Early-Life Events on Human Capital, Health Status, and Labor Market Outcomes Over the Life Course*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Using national data from the U.S., we find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood. These effects are substantial and robust to the inclusion of sibling fixed effects and an extensive set of controls. The results reveal that low birth weight ages people in their 30s and 40s by 12 years, increases the probability of dropping out of high school by one-third, lowers labor force participation by 5 percentage points, and reduces labor market earnings by roughly 15 percent. While poor birth outcomes reduce human capital accumulation, they explain only 10 percent of the total effect of low birth weight on labor market earnings. Taken together, the evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children. PMID:23412970

  12. Comparative labor market performance of visaed and non-visaed migrants: Pacific islanders in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of Samoans who have migrated to Australia have done so without visas, compared to only 20% of Tongans who have arrived without visas. 22% of the Samoan community in Sydney is unemployed, compared to only 5% of Tongans in the city. Findings are reported from a study conducted to determine whether the effective absence of visa screening for Samoan non-visaed immigrants can explain their poorer labor market performance relative to their Tongan peers. Findings are based upon the analysis of 1994 survey data for 523 Tongan and 329 Samoan migrant household heads in Sydney. Univariate analysis suggests a positive association between unemployment and the unrestricted entry of Samoan non-visaed migrants from New Zealand. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment was also estimated with controls for human capital and demographic variables. While human capital endowments are important, existing visa restrictions have no significant effect upon either group's employability. Policy implications are discussed, highlighting the complementarities between host country immigration policies and foreign aid programs. PMID:12294153

  13. Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce; Bonikowski, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Decades of racial progress have led some researchers and policymakers to doubt that discrimination remains an important cause of economic inequality. To study contemporary discrimination, we conducted a field experiment in the low-wage labor market of New York City, recruiting white, black, and Latino job applicants who were matched on demographic characteristics and interpersonal skills. These applicants were given equivalent résumés and sent to apply in tandem for hundreds of entry-level jobs. Our results show that black applicants were half as likely as equally qualified whites to receive a callback or job offer. In fact, black and Latino applicants with clean backgrounds fared no better than white applicants just released from prison. Additional qualitative evidence from our applicants’ experiences further illustrates the multiple points at which employment trajectories can be deflected by various forms of racial bias. These results point to the subtle yet systematic forms of discrimination that continue to shape employment opportunities for low-wage workers. PMID:20689685

  14. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23417992

  15. Talent Wars: The International Market for Academic Staff. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to raise awareness and understanding among policy-makers and UK higher institutions of the international dimensions of academic staff recruitment and the factors that may influence it. This briefing summarises recent research and considers its implications for institutions and for national policies. Annex A contains:…

  16. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  17. The labor market experience of female migrants: the case of temporary Mexican migration to the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kossoudji, S A; Ranney, S I

    1984-01-01

    This article, using a Mexican national survey, provides a profile of temporary Mexican female migrants in the US labor market. The usual association between occupational groups and wage rates does not hold up, with women in unskilled jobs averaging nearly the same wages as while collar women. The dramatic exception is private household workers, who earn less than 1/4 of the wage rates of other women. Although the distribution of wage rates across occupational groups for migrant women is not easily explained by schooling or potential work experience, wage rates seem to be positively correlated with marriage and childrearing. This is partly explained by the fact that married women are more likely to have the option of not working outside the home, and also that the labor market contacts provided by husbands may be helpful in securing more remunerative jobs. Migration networks make the region of origin in Mexico strongly correlate with wage rate variations across occupational groups for women. Although women are found to have more schooling, higher legal status, more US work experience and are more likely to come from regions with well developed migration networks than men, women average upto $7 less per day--a phenomenon largely explained by the labor market segmentation. A lack of legal status constrains women's job opportunities more than men's: over 90% of the women without entry permits are in the low paying private household sector, compared with less than 1/4 of those with some legal status. This connection between lack of proper legal status and low status jobs does not seem to prevent women from migrating illegally--more than 1/2 the women migrant studied had no legal status at all. This study concludes that women do not necessarily follow men in migration, and their labor market functions are quite distinct from those of men. PMID:12340232

  18. Evaluation of the prevalence of stress and its phases in acute myocardial infarction in patients active in the labor market

    PubMed Central

    Lucinda, Luciane Boreki; Prosdócimo, Ana Claudia Merchan Giaxa; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; do Amaral, Vivian Ferreira; Faria, José Rocha; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized and active labor market patients with unstable myocardial infarction and observe its correlation with the life of this population with stress. Methods The methodology used was a quantitative, descriptive and transversal research approach conducted with a total of 43 patients, who were still active in the labor market, presenting or not morbidities. Data collection occurred on the fourth day of their hospitalization and patients responded to Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for adults. Results Thirty-one patients (72.1%) presented stress and twelve (27.8%) did not. In patients with stress, the identified phases were: alert - one patient (3.2%); resistance -twenty-two patients (71.0%); quasi-exhaustion - six patients (19.4%) and exhaustion - two patients (6.5%). All women researched presented stress. Conclusion The results suggest a high level of stress, especially in the resistance phase, in the male infarcted population, hospitalized and active in the labor market. PMID:25859863

  19. Academic Preparation for International Pre-MBA's in Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Kay

    Adjustments to the case study approach are recommended to address three major areas of difficulty for foreign students in master's-level marketing education programs: (1) language-related problems; (2) unfamiliar class format and methodology; and (3) lack of cultural background knowledge. For language-related problems, case studies are a good…

  20. Marketing Technology. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for marketing technology. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 580 specialty and foundation key indicators for evaluating mastery of…

  1. The Market for Academic Knowledge: Its Historical Emergence and Inherent Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weik, Elke

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion about the marketisation of universities by providing a historical perspective. Going back to the time when the market for academic knowledge emerged, I argue that it was created through incorporating a number of inherent tensions that have been, and still are, shaping its development. I show how these…

  2. Help or Hindrance? The Effects of College Remediation on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the effect of remediation using a large longitudinal dataset of Texas students. The authors study the effect of being in any remediation, regardless of subject, and also investigate the effect of remediation in different subjects. In particular, they examine whether remediation in math improves student outcomes.…

  3. The Effects of Gender on Salary-at-Hire in the Academic Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toumanoff, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data compiled from faculty files at a private, doctoral-granting research university to investigate whether or not there are gender-related differences in salary offers at the time of initial appointment. The investigation uses single- and multiple-equation regression models that control for gender, date of hire, experience and…

  4. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792

  5. Essays on the statistical mechanics of the labor market and implications for the distribution of earned income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Markus P. A.

    This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely

  6. Unlocking the Treasure Chest of Labor Market Information: Crucial Information for Job Seekers, Educators, and Employers in a Tough Economy. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Aaron; Kauder, Ronnie; Krepcio, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Quality labor market data and analysis is critical to developing effective market-driven workforce and economic strategies in states, regions, and localities. Such information can be complex, intimidating, and overwhelming to many users, however. This issue brief offers a framework for understanding workforce information, including a summary of…

  7. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Matthew Sigelman on Reading the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market…

  8. Work and Change. Labor Market Adjustment Policies in a Competitive World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY. Research and Policy Committee.

    The net effect on employment of structural changes now occurring in the United States will be determined by the actions that government, management, and labor take to create and support the conditions for new opportunity and to encourage people to move from old to new work. Many of the measures that need to be taken to ensure profitability involve…

  9. How Are Low-Skilled Women Doing in the Labor Market? Policy Brief #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Poverty Center, University of Michigan, 2006

    2006-01-01

    When chronicling how less-skilled workers have fared in the U.S. since the late 1970's, existing literature often cites their falling wages and declining participation in the labor force. Most research describing these trends, however, focuses primarily on men, failing to account for the fact that less-skilled women's real wages have not fallen,…

  10. Welfare and Jobs: Rebuilding the Labor Market from the Bottom Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the new welfare law's elements that affect low-wage labor: work requirements, time limits, relaxed protections, and expanded state authority. Outlines high-road versus low-road policies in terms of economic development, human resource development, and administration. (SK)

  11. Why Are Recent College Graduates Underemployed? University Enrollments and Labor-Market Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of recent college graduates are ending up in relatively low-skilled jobs that, historically, have gone to those with lower levels of educational attainment. This study examines this phenomenon in some detail, concluding: (1) About 48 percent of employed U.S. college graduates are in jobs that the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)…

  12. Dual Careers: A Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Experience of Women. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sookon; And Others

    As the second report on a cohort of 5,083 women between 32 and 46 years of age who were first interviewed in mid-1967, contacted by mail in 1969, and reinterviewed for the first time in 1969, three topics are considered in this longitudinal study: (1) changes in labor force participation, (2) interfirm mobility, and (3) changes in job satisfaction…

  13. [Is vocational integration in the competitive labor market a realistic goal for the chronically mentally ill?].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H

    1999-09-01

    A wide range of sheltered jobs has been created in the second or special labour market with the aim of enabling the chronically mentally ill to participate in working life. However, having a job in the special labour market often precludes the chance of obtain-ing employment in the competitive labour market. To date, vocational integration programs enable only a small number of persons with psychiatric disabilities to attain reintegration into competitive employment. The predictors of successful vocational integration are subsequently discussed. A substantial increase in both sheltered and competitive jobs on the common labour market could be achieved for mentally ill and disabled people by adapting the "supported employment" model, as widely practised in the USA, to European labour market standards and appropriately funding its implementation. The utilisation of this model could serve to reduce the necessity of further expansion in the special labour market. PMID:10535087

  14. Yale's Labor Strife Leads Some of Its Ph.D.'s To Abandon Academe for Union Organizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherman, Courtney

    1997-01-01

    Over five years, nearly a dozen graduate students and twice as many undergraduates have pursued jobs in labor after leaving Yale University (Connecticut). Most participated in activities of the Graduate Employees and Students Organization on campus during a period of unrest among teaching assistants. More aggressive labor leadership has been…

  15. “Aging Out” of Dependent Coverage and the Effects on US Labor Market and Health Insurance Choices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I examined how labor market and health insurance outcomes were affected by the loss of dependent coverage eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. I used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and regression discontinuity models to measure the percentage-point change in labor market and health insurance outcomes at age 26 years. My sample was restricted to unmarried individuals aged 24 to 28 years and to a period of time before the ACA’s individual mandate (2011–2013). I ran models separately for men and women to determine if there were differences based on gender. Results. Aging out of this provision increased employment among men, employer-sponsored health insurance offers for women, and reports that health insurance coverage was worse than it was 1 year previously (overall and for young women). Uninsured rates did not increase at age 26 years, but there was an increase in the purchase of non–group health coverage, indicating interest in remaining insured after age 26 years. Conclusions. Many young adults will turn to state and federal health insurance marketplaces for information about health coverage. Because young adults (aged 18–29 years) regularly use social media sites, these sites could be used to advertise insurance to individuals reaching their 26th birthdays. PMID:26447916

  16. Identification and Development of Academic and Higher-Order Workplace Competencies in the Missouri Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Section I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; Wilkinson, Richard F.

    This document provides an overview of a project to identify the basic academic skills, advanced academic skills, and the higher-order workplace competencies for marketing education. It describes the following project activities: review of current literature and research in the field; review by business and industry representatives of the skills…

  17. College Graduates and Jobs. Adjusting to a New Labor Market Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Commission on Higher Education , Berkeley, CA.

    For more than three centuries, college graduates have enjoyed a preferred place in the U. S. job market. The report evaluates predictions about the future job market and indicates necessary adjustments for campuses, public policy, employers, and young people themselves. The appendices contain statistical tables related to the text, and previous…

  18. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  19. Cross-National Differences in the Skills-Earnings Relationship: The Role of Labor Market Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonaro, William

    2006-01-01

    This study examines cross-national differences in returns to literacy skills and explores possible explanations for such differences. Data from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) are analyzed using multilevel models. Returns to literacy skills are higher in liberal market economies (LMEs) than in social market economies (SMEs).…

  20. An Academic-Marketing Collaborative to Promote Depression Care: A Tale of Two Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Bell, Robert A.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Duberstein, Paul; Riby, Caroline H.; Caccamo, Anthony F.; Slee, Christina K.; Cipri, Camille S.; Paterniti, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Commercial advertising and patient education have separate theoretical underpinnings, approaches, and practitioners. This paper aims to describe a collaboration between academic researchers and a marketing firm working to produce demographically targeted public service anouncements (PSAs) designed to enhance depression care-seeking in primary care. Methods An interdisciplinary group of academic researcherss contracted with a marketing firm in Rochester, NY to produce PSAs that would help patients with depressive symptoms engage more effectively with their primary care physicians (PCPs). The researchers brought perspectives derived from clinical experience and the social sciences and conducted empirical research using focus groups, conjoint analysis, and a population-based survey. Results were shared with the marketing firm, which produced four PSA variants targeted to gender and socioeconomic position. Results There was no simple, one-to-one relationship between research results and the form, content, or style of the PSAs. Instead, empirical findings served as a springboard for discussion and kept the creative process tethered to the experiences, attitudes, and opinions of actual patients. Reflecting research findings highlighting patients’ struggles to recognize, label, and disclose depressive symptoms, the marketing firm generated communication objectives that emphasized: a) educating the patient to consider and investigate the possibility of depression; b) creating the belief that the PCP is interested in discussing depression and capable of offering helpful treatment; and c) modelling different ways of communicating with physicians about depression. Before production, PSA prototypes were vetted with additional focus groups. The winning prototype, “Faces,” involved a multi-ethnic montage of formerly depressed persons talking about how depression affected them and how they improved with treatment, punctuated by a physician who provided clinical

  1. Does Developmental Education Improve Labor Market Outcomes? Evidence from Two States. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle; Xu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, about two thirds of community college students are referred to developmental education. Thus far, research on the effectiveness of developmental education has focused on students' academic outcomes; in this paper, we examine the economic consequences of developmental education for students. Using longitudinal student-unit record data…

  2. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes? NBER Working Paper No. 14945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: Though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  3. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  4. The Globalizing Labor Market in Education: Teachers as Cultural Ambassadors or Agents of Institutional Isomorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.; Stevick, Doyle

    2014-01-01

    Institutional isomorphists and other proponents of world culture theory argue that schools around the world are converging in many ways, whereas anthropologists and others question this conclusion, often arguing that local cultural differences belie superficial similarities. These viewpoints are not merely academic explanations of the spread and…

  5. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. PMID:26842398

  6. Is there a role for academic medical centers in emerging markets?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Charles M; Thompson, Steven J; Wu, Sandford; Chellappa, Mohan; Hasham, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Governments in emerging markets face mounting challenges in managing health spending, building capability and capacity, modernizing ageing infrastructure, and investing in skills and resources. One path to overcoming these challenges is to establish new public-private models of health care development and delivery based on United States academic medical centers, whose missions are to advance medical education and clinical delivery. Johns Hopkins Medicine is a participant in the collaboration developing between the Perdana University Hospital and the Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Malaysia. These two organizations comprise an academic health science center based on the United States model. The Perdana project provides constructive insights into the opportunities and challenges that governments, universities, and the private sector face when introducing new models of patient care that are integrated with medical education, clinical training, and biomedical research. PMID:23484425

  7. Kin investment in wage-labor economies : Effects on child and marriage market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K

    2005-03-01

    Various human groups, from food foragers to inner-city urban Americans, have used widespread sharing of resources through kin networks as a means of buffering themselves against fluctuations in resource availability in their environments. This paper addresses the effects of progressive incorporation into a wage-labor economy on the benefits of traditional kin networks for two social classes in urban South India. Predictions regarding the effects of kin network wealth, education, and size on child and spouse characteristics and methods of financing marriages are tested using various regression techniques. Despite the rapid growth of participation in a wage-labor economy, it is found that kin network characteristics still have an important impact on investment behavior among families in Bangalore in both social classes. Network wealth is found to have a positive effect on child and spouse characteristics, and large networks are found to act as significant drains on family resources. However, the results for education are broadly consistent with an interpretation of increasing family autonomy as parents' education has a far stronger influence on child and spouse characteristics across categories than network education does. Finally, professional-class parents are found to prefer financing marriages using formal mechanisms such as savings and bank loans while working-class parents preferentially finance marriages using credit from relatives and friends. PMID:26189517

  8. Is any job better than no job? Labor market experiences and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Sergio; Smith, Peter; Bekele, Tsegaye; O'Brien, Kelly; Husbands, Winston; Li, Alan; Jose-Boerbridge, Murray; Mittmann, Nicole; Rachlis, Anita; Conyers, Liza; Boomer, K B; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and labor market experiences (including unemployment) on mental health among adults living with HIV. We used data provided by 538 participants at clinical and community sites across Ontario, Canada. Generalized estimating equation models showed that employment was associated with lower depressive symptoms. For employed participants, adverse psychosocial work conditions, specifically job insecurity, psychological demands, and decision authority were associated with depressive symptoms. For the entire sample, the number of adverse psychosocial work conditions was associated with higher depressive symptoms while participants working in poor quality jobs reported similar levels of depressive symptoms than those who were unemployed or not in the labor force. This study showed that poor quality employment (as assessed by having a high number of adverse psychosocial work exposures) was associated with a similar level of depressive symptoms as unemployment, suggesting that "bad jobs" may not offer the same mental health benefits as "good jobs." Policies to improve employment outcomes should take the quality of employment into account to maximize mental health benefits as better employment may lead to better mental health. PMID:25738528

  9. [Process of training and insertion in the labor market: a vision of nursing graduates].

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Study to analyze nursing graduates' perception about the contribution of the training process in its insertion in the labour market. Descriptive exploratory study, a qualitative approach. The data was collected in 2011 through semistructured interviews. Attended by 15 professionals, graduated from the Nursing Course at a South Brazilian university in 2009-2010, inserted in the labour market. Data was analysed according to Minayo's proposals. From this analysis emerged the category Training route, including the subcategory: following the travel itineray. The results demonstrate the need for curricular integration, better use of clinical practices experiences, research valorization, and the importance of training based on dialogue between students and professors. PMID:24930277

  10. The Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers’ Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  11. Time well spent: the duration of foster care and early adult labor market, educational, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation. PMID:24215947

  12. Social mobility among migrants between Mexico and the U.S. and within the U.S. labor market.

    PubMed

    Mullan, B P

    1988-03-01

    This paper uses data collected in 4 Mexican communities (2 rural and 2 urban) in 1982 and 1983, using a sample of 200 households, plus an additional 25 households. This analysis supports these hypotheses: 1) a U-shaped pattern of occupational mobility exists among migrants to the US; 2) the reversal of the initial downward mobility is positively correlated with the accumulation of experience within the US; and 3) the relative steepness of both legs of the pattern vary across socioeconomic with rural origin, illegal, and poorly educated migrants experiencing the slowest reversal of fortune. The occupational mobility of Mexican migrants to the US has 2 distinct phases: 1) labor market entry and 2) that which occurs within the US labor market. Both phases are characterized by occupational immobility and by migrants' area of origin. Other important findings are 1) the slowness with which upward mobility occurs among migrants on their 1st trip, 2) the dominance of agriculture as an occupational group, and 3) an improvement in mobility prospects with increased US experience for repeat migrants. Immobility for 1st time entrants pervades all occupational categories and is exceptionally high for rural origin migrants in agriculture. Rural origin unskilled workers encounter greater mobility constraints, indicating a rural agricultural worker may accomplish an upward movement to the unskilled category, but the chances of further movement are remote. Upon entering the US, the probability of being employed in agriculture is over 25% for all groups except the unskilled. Adjusting successfully to US society is best accomplished by migrants whose Mexican occupation is professional, technical, skilled, or service or who have carefully timed their migration and have accumulated significant experience in the host society. It is only with exposure to the US society, either through a prolonged stay or many trips, that a migrant can overcome the debilitating effects of a disadvantaged

  13. A Guide for Using Labor Market Data to Improve Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Never before has the link between a college education and postgraduate job prospects been more important. College graduates are employed more often and, on average, earn significantly more than those without college degrees. During recent years, as students have moved into a challenging job market, a college education has remained the most…

  14. Corruption, Collusion, and Nepotism in Higher Education and the Labor Market in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It argues…

  15. Revitalizing Higher Education through Innovative Labor Market Based Curriculum for Sustainable National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of higher education in preparing youths for the labour market is becoming more challenging in the modern society. This is visible in the high number of tertiary institutions' graduates that are unemployable for lack of necessary skills, which would make them contribute profitably to any employer of labour. This paper examines the history…

  16. Designing the Framework Conditions for Assuring Academic Standards: Lessons Learned about Professional, Market, and Government Regulation of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D.; Beerkens, Maarja

    2013-01-01

    The new demands of mass systems of higher education and the emerging environment of global academic competition are altering the traditional institutions for assuring academic standards in universities. As a consequence many nations are experimenting with new instruments for academic quality assurance. Contemporary government control of academic…

  17. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile’s universal voucher system

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9–12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  18. Changes in the Economy, the Labor Market, and Expectations for the Future: What Might Europe and the United States Look Like in Twenty-Five Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the labor markets and economies of modern societies have been confronted by a marked intensification of cross-border exchange between modern states that has attained a new and previously unattained quality over the past thirty years. In the economic and sociological literature, this development is usually labeled…

  19. Changes in the economy, the labor market, and expectations for the future: what might Europe and the United States look like in twenty-five years?

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    In times of globalization, modern societies' labor markets have been marked by an increasing segmentation and growing social inequality. Youths in particular have experienced a worsening of their employment chances in the past three decades. However, what will the future bring? PMID:23097360

  20. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  1. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  2. The Demographics of Alcohol Use among Young Americans: Results from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives results of research on alcohol use by young Americans from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  3. What about Certificates? Evidence on the Labor Market Returns to Non-Degree Community College Awards in Two States. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    The annual number of certificates (non-degree awards that typically require less time to complete than degrees) awarded by community colleges has increased dramatically since 2000, but relatively little research has been conducted on the economic benefits of certificates in the labor market. Based on detailed student-level information from matched…

  4. Modeling Supply and Demand for Arts and Sciences Faculty: What Ten Years of Data Tell Us about the Labor Market Projections of Bowen and Sosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Douglas T.

    2001-01-01

    The labor market projections of Bowen and Sosa's "Prospects for Faculty" (1989) are assessed by testing their assumptions about faculty supply and demand against data from the last decade. Improvements to the model are recommended, including the use of an inventory-attrition model to account for backlogs of supply. (Author)

  5. Creating Effective Education and Workforce Policies for Metropolitan Labor Markets in the U.S. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #11-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    How well do our education policies prepare America's youth for the labor market? What challenges limit our success, and what opportunities do we have for improvements? Can public policy play a greater role in encouraging more success? I consider these questions as they apply to the unique characteristics of metropolitan areas in the U.S. Most…

  6. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  7. Science Education Impacts on Labor Market and University Expectations of Students by Citizenship Status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Comparative Analysis Using TIMSS 2007 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.; Alshumrani, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    This study comparatively examines the impact of students' citizenship status on science education relative to labor market and university expectations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) provides science education teaching, learning and achievement data from the…

  8. The Effect of Local Labor Market Conditions in the 1990s on the Likelihood of Community College Students' Persistence and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzl, Gregory S.; Alfonso, Mariana; Melguizo, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of local labor market conditions on the year-to-year persistence and attainment decisions of a sample of traditional-aged students who attended community colleges during the 1990s. The findings suggest that the enrollment and attainment decisions of these first-time community college students were not made purely…

  9. Be as Careful of the Company You Keep as of the Books You Read: Peer Effects in Education and on the Labor Market. NBER Working Paper No. 14948

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGiorgi, Giacomo; Pellizzari, Michele; Redaelli, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether peers' behavior influences the choice of college major, thus contributing to the mismatch of skills in the labor market. Using a newly constructed dataset, we are able to identify the endogenous effect of peers on such decisions through a novel identification strategy that solves the common econometric problems…

  10. On the Compatibility of Islam and Gender Equality: Effects of Modernization, State Islamization, and Democracy on Women's Labor Market Participation in 45 Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spierings, Niels; Smits, Jeroen; Verloo, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Although the Muslim world is sometimes depicted as a homogeneous civilization lacking democracy and gender equality, Muslim countries show tremendous economic, political and cultural variation. In this paper, this variation is used to gain insight into the determinants of women's labor market participation (LMP) in the Muslim world. We use data on…

  11. Just the Facts, Ma'am: Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes in the U.S. IRP Discussion Paper No. 1411-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop, Erin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date snapshot of the most important postsecondary education and labor market outcomes in the United States using two nationally representative sources of data: the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS). We find that postsecondary…

  12. Examining Educators' and Employers' Perceptions on Career and Technical Education Graduates' Employability Skills for the Labor Market in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Alawneh, Muhammad Khaled

    2009-01-01

    Preparing skilled and knowledgeable workforce that fits the labor market requires continued collaboration between education and work. Studying educators' and employers' perspectives on technical and non-technical skills may result in improving the quality of the graduates to compete on the level of the local as well as the global labor…

  13. Employer Perceptions of Associate Degrees in Local Labor Markets: A Case Study of the Employment of Information Technology Technicians in Detroit and Seattle. CCRC Working Paper No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Jacobs, James

    2012-01-01

    While promoting postsecondary credential completion is a national priority intended to help graduates secure good jobs, the value of credentials in the labor market from the perspective of employers is not well understood. Specifically, more attention is needed to understand how credentials align with employer needs. Through in-depth interviews…

  14. Years for Decision: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968 to 1973. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Frank L.; And Others

    Utilizing the National Longitudinal Surveys of 5,159 young women aged fourteen to twenty-four from 1968 to 1973, the study reports on the educational, labor market, and family experiences of young women. The content is in seven chapters. Chapter 1 describes the data base and presents an overview of changes in the women's life patterns over the…

  15. The Labor Market Returns to Math in Community College: Evidence Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the returns to math courses relative to those in courses in other subjects for students who started their postsecondary education at community college. The limited available evidence presumes that college-level math is valuable in the labor market relative to other coursework. Using data on college transcript and earnings from…

  16. Labor Market and Teaching Staff Considerations for Making Early Childhood Education Work for Migrant Head Start Teachers: The Case of Michigan Migrant Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Rene P.; Smith, Julia; Zhang, Gaoming

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the case of the Michigan Migrant Head Start program to describe and analyze the labor market conditions and teaching staff characteristics to identify the challenges faced by Migrant Head Start grantees in attracting, hiring, retaining, and training degreed teachers. The emphasis is on describing and analyzing the child care…

  17. Analyzing an Active Labor Market Program in Germany: A Regional Approach--An Attempt to Use Propensity Score Matching for the Estimation of Causal Effects on the Level of Counties and Independent Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Work, Skills and Training was assigned to evaluate a labor market program aimed at the integration of long-term unemployed individuals aged 50 or older. The integration should have been achieved not only by training and coaching of individuals, but also by building regional networks between labor market stakeholders within a…

  18. A Study to Test the Feasibility of Determining Whether Classified Want Ads in Daily Newspapers Are an Accurate Reflection of Local Labor Markets and of Significant Use to Employers and Job Seekers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympus Research Corp., Salt Lake City, UT.

    The report summarizes findings of a detailed study to test the feasibility of determining whether want ads in daily newspapers are (1) an accurate reflection of local labor markets and (2) of significant use to employers and job seekers. The study found that want ads are a limited source of information about local labor markets. They are of some…

  19. Not just couch potatoes or gym rats: alternative non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity guidelines among sedentary full-time employees

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is, especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving, represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially

  20. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Labor Market Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of economic Super Sectors in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each Super Sector to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the scenario earthquake on economic sectors and provides a baseline for the indirect and interactive analysis of an input-output model of the regional economy. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by the North American Industry Classification System. According to the analysis results, nearly 225,000 business

  1. The impact of rehabilitation and counseling services on the labor market activity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Robert R; Bailey, Michelle Stegman

    2014-01-01

    We use data from a social experiment to estimate the impact of a rehabilitation and counseling program on the labor market activity of newly entitled Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries. Our results indicate that the program led to a 4.6 percentage point increase in the receipt of employment services within the first year following random assignment and a 5.1 percentage point increase in participation in the Social Security Administration's Ticket to Work program within the first three years following random assignment. The program led to a 5.3 percentage point increase, or almost 50 percent increase, in employment, and an $831 increase in annual earnings in the second calendar year after the calendar year of random assignment. The employment and earnings impacts are smaller and not statistically significant in the third calendar year following random assignment, and we describe SSDI rules that are consistent with this finding. Our findings indicate that disability reform proposals focusing on restoring the work capacity of people with disabilities can increase the disability employment rate. PMID:24988653

  2. How Does Academic Ability Affect Educational and Labour Market Pathways in Canada. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this paper provides an up-to-date description of educational and labour market pathways (or transitions) among Canadian youth. It also estimates the effect of academic abilities, measured by PISA math and reading scores, on such transitions. Descriptive statistics show that educational success…

  3. Publishing Strategies of Young, Highly Mobile Academics: The Question of Language in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines links between publishing strategies and the academic mobility of multilingual entry-level scholars in the European context against the backdrop of European Union (EU) policies and research on academic labor market characteristics, skilled migration and scholarly publishing. An analysis of language of publication, patterns of…

  4. Labor migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." PMID:12316776

  5. Aggregate Effects in Local Labor Markets of Supply and Demand Shocks. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 99-57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    A study estimated the aggregate effects of antipoverty policies on wages and unemployment of different groups. The context was one in which emphasis was on labor supply policies, such as welfare reform or job training, and not on policies to increase labor demand for the poor, such as public employment or subsidizing private employers to hire the…

  6. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  7. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  8. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop ... oxytocin? • What are the risks associated with labor induction? • Is labor induction always effective? • Glossary What is ...

  9. Learning to do well or learning to do good? Estimating the effects of schooling on civic engagement, social cohesion, and labor market outcomes in the presence of endowments.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Behrman, Jere R

    2012-03-01

    Although some point to the large effects of schooling on civic engagement (usually measured in terms of volunteering and participation in civic organizations) and social cohesion (usually measured in terms of social networks and relationship quality), the effects of schooling on social outcomes have not been estimated with the same rigor as the effects of schooling on labor-market outcomes, such as earnings. In particular, previous research has failed to consider (i) the many potential and often unobserved confounding factors ("endowments") influencing both schooling and social outcomes, including family upbringing, innate characteristics, and personality, and (ii) the ways in which schooling pushes individuals in multiple directions simultaneously, including toward greater social engagement, but also toward more independent and market-driven pursuits. Using samples of unrelated persons, ordinary siblings, and identical twins, this study explores the effects of schooling on measures of civic engagement and social relationships, as well as labor-force earnings and labor-force participation. The siblings models reveal a more complex picture than typically suggested by standard individual estimates. On one hand, the results reveal a robust positive effect of schooling on earnings: well-schooled persons work more and earn more, albeit not as much as associations without control for endowments suggest. On the other hand, the results reveal more tenuous and occasionally negative effects of schooling on social outcomes. The effects of schooling on volunteering and membership in civic organizations, for example, disappear almost entirely with control for endowments. Also, within-identical-twins models reverse the positive effects of schooling on reports of support from friends, family, and coworkers. These results may reflect the tension schooling creates between market and non-market commitments, as well as between independence and interpersonal reliability. Schooling may

  10. Learning to Do Well or Learning to Do Good? Estimating the Effects of Schooling on Civic Engagement, Social Cohesion, and Labor Market Outcomes in the Presence of Endowments

    PubMed Central

    Schnittker, Jason; Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Although some point to the large effects of schooling on civic engagement (usually measured in terms of volunteering and participation in civic organizations) and social cohesion (usually measured in terms of social networks and relationship quality), the effects of schooling on social outcomes have not been estimated with the same rigor as the effects of schooling on labor-market outcomes, such as earnings. In particular, previous research has failed to consider (i) the many potential and often unobserved confounding factors (“endowments”) influencing both schooling and social outcomes, including family upbringing, innate characteristics, and personality, and (ii) the ways in which schooling pushes individuals in multiple directions simultaneously, including toward greater social engagement, but also toward more independent and market-driven pursuits. Using samples of unrelated persons, ordinary siblings, and identical twins, this study explores the effects of schooling on measures of civic engagement and social relationships, as well as labor-force earnings and labor-force participation. The siblings models reveal a more complex picture than typically suggested by standard individual estimates. On one hand, the results reveal a robust positive effect of schooling on earnings: well-schooled persons work more and earn more, albeit not as much as associations without control for endowments suggest. On the other hand, the results reveal more tenuous and occasionally negative effects of schooling on social outcomes. The effects of schooling on volunteering and membership in civic organizations, for example, disappear almost entirely with control for endowments. Also, within-identical-twins models reverse the positive effects of schooling on reports of support from friends, family, and coworkers. These results may reflect the tension schooling creates between market and non-market commitments, as well as between independence and interpersonal reliability. Schooling

  11. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  12. Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Leslie, Larry L.

    Globalization of the political economy, and the attendant reductions in government funding, liaisons with business and industry, and marketing of educational and business services, has been changing the nature of academic labor. The first three chapters discuss the ways in which global political and economic changes have had an impact on higher…

  13. Impact of health care system delay in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction on return to labor market and work retirement.

    PubMed

    Laut, Kristina Grønborg; Hjort, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted Hansen, Hans-Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Frants; Jørgensen, Erik; Holmvang, Lene; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht; Lippert, Freddy; Lang-Jensen, Torsten; Jans, Henning; Hansen, Poul Anders; Trautner, Sven; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Lash, Timothy L; Clemmensen, Peter; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2014-12-15

    System delay (delay from emergency medical service call to reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention [PPCI]) is acknowledged as a performance measure in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as shorter system delay is associated with lower mortality. It is unknown whether system delay also impacts ability to stay in the labor market. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether system delay is associated with duration of absence from work or time to retirement from work among patients with STEMI treated with PPCI. We conducted a population-based cohort study including patients ≤67 years of age who were admitted with STEMI from January 1, 1999, to December 1, 2011 and treated with PPCI. Data were derived from Danish population-based registries. Only patients who were full- or part-time employed before their STEMI admission were included. Association between system delay and time to return to the labor market was analyzed using a competing-risk regression analysis. Association between system delay and time to retirement from work was analyzed using a Cox regression model. A total of 4,061 patients were included. Ninety-three percent returned to the labor market during 4 years of follow-up, and 41% retired during 8 years of follow-up. After adjustment, system delay >120 minutes was associated with reduced resumption of work (subhazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.92) and earlier retirement from work (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.36). In conclusion, system delay was associated with reduced work resumption and earlier retirement. This highlights the value of system delay as a performance measure in treating patients with STEMI. PMID:25438906

  14. A Case Study of the Teacher Labor Market in the Southeast. Miss Dove Is Alive and Well (And Teaching Math, Sponsoring the Yearbook, and Coaching Softball). Occasional Papers in Educational Policy Analysis. Paper No. 413.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett

    In an effort to explore significant supply and demand variables that affect the teacher labor market in the Southeast, a qualitative research study was undertaken to examine the market patterns of initial career choice, position availability, recruitment and selection, turnover, and mobility of public school teachers. An ethnographic investigation…

  15. Mismatch in the Labor Market: The Supply of and Demand for "Middle-Skill" Workers in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modestino, Alicia Sasser

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, policymakers and business leaders across New England have been concerned that the region's slower population growth and loss of residents to other parts of the country will lead to a shortage of skilled labor--particularly when the baby boom generation retires. Prior to the Great Recession, the concern was that an inadequate…

  16. General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over the Life-Cycle. NBER Working Paper No. 17504

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger; Zhang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test our main hypothesis that any relative labor-market…

  17. Diversity and Research Practices among Academics in South African Universities: Race for the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaver, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    Higher education systems, globally, are being called upon to effect changes in terms of widening student access and diversifying a previously homogenous academic staff profile. In South Africa, one of the main forces driving the diversification of academic staff is state policy in the form of employment equity legislation, with racial redress…

  18. Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

  19. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  20. Digital Marketing: The Time for a New "Academic Major" Has Arrived

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly emerging digital economy is challenging the relevance of existing marketing practices, and a radical redesign of the marketing curriculum consistent with the emerging student and business needs of the 21st century is required. To remain relevant to our students and to the ultimate consumers of our output, businesses, the marketing…

  1. Did the decline continue? Comparing the labor-market quality of United States immigrants from the late 1970s and late 1980s.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A

    1996-02-01

    "The issue addressed in this paper is whether or not the decline in immigrant labor-market quality in the U.S. observed in the late 1960s and 1970s continued in the 1980s." The data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service and are provided for the years 1979-1980 and 1989-1990. "Given the rise in earnings inequality that has occurred in the United States over the 1980s, the returns to immigration for the more highly skilled will have increased relative to the low skilled, ceteris paribus. For this reason, it is possible that the skill decline of immigrants may have halted in the 1980s as immigrants of differing skill levels respond to the altered circumstances they would face in the United States. The empirical results show that the skill decline did indeed halt...." PMID:12291406

  2. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  3. Preterm Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies ... you might be having preterm labor, contact your health care provider. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human ...

  4. Moving toward the Market and Away from Public Service? Effects of Resource Dependency and Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Thronton, Courtney H.

    2005-01-01

    Research-extensive land-grant institutions face the unique challenge of asking faculty to fulfill a historic mission of public service in a time of scarce resources. This article discusses the parallel between the effects of resource dependency and academic capitalism on the research enterprise and on public service endeavors through the…

  5. "Postdocs," Seeing Little Way Into the Academic Job Market, Seek Better Terms in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1998-01-01

    In sciences, postdoctoral fellowships have become the terminal academic credential for a research career. Positions are supposed to be temporary, but amount to a holding pattern for many unable to find permanent jobs in research or needing to assemble the required publishing record. Some institutions are beginning to acknowledge this problem and…

  6. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  7. Other Duties as Assigned: Emerging Trends in the Academic Library Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beile, Penny M.; Adams, Megan M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines 900 job announcements published in four journals in 1996 and uses content analysis to compare requirements and benefits among various positions in academic libraries. Compares results with an earlier study from 1988, including levels of computer skills, foreign language requirements, previous work experience, educational requirements, and…

  8. Academic Capitalism and the New Economy: Markets, State, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Rhoades, Gary

    2009-01-01

    As colleges and universities become more entrepreneurial in a post-industrial economy, they focus on knowledge less as a public good than as a commodity to be capitalized on in profit-oriented activities. In "Academic Capitalism and the New Economy," higher education scholars Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades detail the aggressive engagement of…

  9. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  10. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  11. Yes, but Can They Earn a Living? Methods for Creating an Effective System of Measuring Labor Market Outcomes in Higher Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.5.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; Chapman, Kenneth; Huber, Bettina; Shors, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A new federal initiative calls for a College Scorecard which will include a yet to be determined measure of graduate earnings. In this paper we examine the political context that drives this initiative and examine the nascent efforts of four states to develop statewide systems to measure the labor market outcomes of higher education. We propose…

  12. Economic Returns to Sub-Baccalaureate Technical Education: A Study of Labor Market Outcomes for Manufacturing Engineering Technologist and Technician Education (METTE) Programs in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the labor market outcomes of sub-baccalaureate education for individuals attending Manufacturing Engineering Technologist and Technician Education (METTE) programs in the Wisconsin Technical College System. Increasingly, public policy for postsecondary education and economic development, as well as decisions…

  13. Youth in the Labor Market; a Report on the Characteristics of High School Graduates of the Class of 1962 in Washington State and their Work Experience from June 1962 thru May 1964 and a Case Study of Dropout Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia. Research and Statistics Section.

    To examine the problems of youth in the labor market, questionnaires concerning employment history for the 2-year period following high school were mailed to 4,738 randomly selected former students from purposively selected representative high schools in Washington. A 60 percent return from 1962 graduates indicated: (1) The highest percentage of…

  14. A Research Agenda for the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience: Report on the Social Science Research Council's Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys, October, 1977. Parts I to IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, Washington, DC. Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators.

    This report of the Social Science Research Council's Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS) begins with a description of the rationale and background for the conference. In the first of four parts, the conference objectives are stated: (1) review previous research based on the National Longitudinal Surveys…

  15. Declining Teen Labor Force Participation. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 02-06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Katie

    Although the proportion of teenagers in the labor force generally increases during economic expansions, the labor force participation rate for 16- to 19-year-olds changed very little during the exceptional labor market conditions of the mid-1990s. In July 2000, the labor force participation rate for teens was at its lowest level since 1965.…

  16. Searching for the Next Generation of Teacher Educators: Assessing the Success of Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Williams, James; Green, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    In light of a documented shortage of candidates for teacher education faculty positions, this article explores the academic labor market for teacher education faculty using job announcements from the Chronicle of Higher Education and a survey of search chairs to examine the qualifications sought. The authors conclude that the demand for teacher…

  17. A Comparison of Career Success between Graduates of Vocational and Academic Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Geel, Regula

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses whether tertiary education of different types, i.e., academic or vocational tertiary education, leads to more or less favorable labor market outcomes. We study the problem for Switzerland, where more than two thirds of the workforce gain vocational secondary degrees and a substantial number go on to a vocational tertiary degree…

  18. College Student Engagement and Early Career Earnings: Differences by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Academic Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping; Wolniak, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 2001 cohort of applicants to the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program, the authors examined scaled measures of academic and social engagement in relation to labor market earnings to test whether the economic value of student engagement among high-achieving students of color differs by student characteristics.…

  19. Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Elizabeth Popp

    2012-01-01

    American universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the United States globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. "Creating the Market University" is…

  20. Gains and Losses on Academic Transfer Markets: Dropping Out and Course-Switching in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljander, Juha-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes whether giving up studies in higher education is considered a pivotal point wherein an educational career may change course. Reveals that in Finland the status-oriented inheritors of the societal elite do best on the higher education internal and external transfer market. Raises questions about equality between educational units. (CMK)

  1. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their important roles in organizational performance, internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have become more interesting subjects among researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research is limited in the literature, and the relationship between these two variables in higher educational institutions is not clear.…

  2. Marketing a Wellness Program: A Case Study in Bridging the Gap between Academic and Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dod, Glenna A.; Earwood-Smith, Glenda

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a collaborative effort between a student services division and a classroom instructor aimed at increasing student involvement in marketing a wellness program for college students. Claims program was successful in improving attendance at the wellness program and changing attitudes towards this type of programing. (Author/ABL)

  3. A Synthesis Model of Sustainable Market Orientation: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Influence on Academic Accreditation--A Case Study of Egyptian-Accredited Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Warda, Sherein H.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions are increasingly concerned about accreditation. Although sustainable market orientation (SMO) bears on academic accreditation, to date, no study has developed a valid scale of SMO or assessed its influence on accreditation. The purpose of this paper is to construct and validate an SMO scale that was developed in…

  4. United States academic medical centers: priorities and challenges amid market transformation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Irene M; Anason, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    United States academic medical centers (AMCs) have upheld their long-standing reputation for excellence by teaching and training the next generation of physicians, supporting medical research, providing world-class medical care, and offering breakthrough treatments for highly complex medical cases. In recent years, the pace and direction of change reshaping the American health care industry has created a set of new and profound challenges that AMC leaders must address in order to sustain their institutions. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is an alliance of 116 leading nonprofit academic medical centers and 276 of their affiliated hospitals, all of which are focused on delivering world-class patient care. Formed in 1984, UHC fosters collaboration with and among its members through its renowned programs and services in the areas of comparative data and analytics, performance improvement, supply chain management, strategic research, and public policy. Each year, UHC surveys the executives of its member institutions to understand the issues they view as most critical to sustaining the viability and success of their organizations. The results of UHC's most recent 2011 member survey, coupled with a 2012 Strategic Health Perspectives Harris Interactive presentation, based in parton surveys of major health care industry stakeholders reveal the most important and relevant issues and opportunities that hospital leaders face today, as the United States health care delivery system undergoes a period of unprecedented transformation. PMID:23484431

  5. Realizing universal health coverage for maternal health services in the Republic of Guinea: the use of workforce projections to design health labor market interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Christel; Codjia, Laurence; Cometto, Giorgio; Yansané, Mohamed Lamine; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage requires a health workforce that is available, accessible, and well-performing. This article presents a critical analysis of the health workforce needs for the delivery of maternal and neonatal health services in Guinea, and of feasible and relevant interventions to improve the availability, accessibility, and performance of the health workforce in the country. Methods A needs-based approach was used to project human resources for health (HRH) requirements. This was combined with modeling of future health sector demand and supply. A baseline scenario with disaggregated need and supply data for the targeted health professionals per region and setting (urban or rural) informed the identification of challenges related to the availability and distribution of the workforce between 2014 and 2024. Subsequently, the health labor market framework was used to identify interventions to improve the availability and distribution of the health workforce. These interventions were included in the supply side modeling, in order to create a “policy rich” scenario B which allowed for analysis of their potential impact. Results In the Republic of Guinea, only 44% of the nurses and 18% of the midwives required for maternal and neonatal health services are currently available. If Guinea continues on its current path without scaling up recruitment efforts, the total stock of HRH employed by the public sector will decline by 15% between 2014 and 2024, while HRH needs will grow by 22% due to demographic trends. The high density of HRH in urban areas and the high number of auxiliary nurses who are currently employed pose an opportunity for improving the availability, accessibility, and performance of the health workforce for maternal and neonatal health in Guinea, especially in rural areas. Conclusion Guinea will need to scale up its recruitment efforts in order to improve health workforce availability. Targeted labor market interventions need to be

  6. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  7. Admission-Group Salary Differentials in the United States: The Significance of Labor Market Institutional Selection of High-Skilled Workers*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin

    2015-01-01

    In 1990 a temporary-to-permanent pathway was established for highly skilled workers admitted to the United States under nonimmigrant programs. The paper argues that this policy shift has allowed employers to play a crucial role in the immigration of highly skilled workers, thereby creating labor-market institutional selection that gives a salary advantage to highly skilled temporary-admitted workers retained in the United States. Through analyses of the salary differentials among admission-category groups, the paper finds that the salary advantage is based on recruitment from Western countries, adjustment from temporary to permanent status after a second employer screening, working in the information technology sector and the private sector, holding a supervisory position, or having a skill-matched job, all of which are consequences of institutional selection rather than individual self-selection. Our results also reveal a difference between those admitted from abroad and those recruited from graduating foreign students in USA higher educational institutions, which suggests a distinction between overseas hiring and domestic hiring. Policy implications for the United States and other receiving countries are discussed. PMID:26269690

  8. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julie L; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2016-08-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.-Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. PMID:27075242

  9. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor. PMID:12267273

  10. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  11. The Future of Humanities Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    "Publish or perish" has long been the formula of academic labor at research universities, but for many humanities professors that imperative has decayed into a simple rule of production. The publish-or-perish model assumed a peer-review process that maintained quality, but more and more it is the bare volume of printed words that counts. When…

  12. Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayeghn, Desta

    1982-01-01

    Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

  13. Loveless' Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses recent report by Tom Loveless with the Brookings Institution entitled "How Well Are American Students Learning?" The report examines, among other things, the relationship between school district achievement in sports and academic success. (PKP)

  14. Creating Labor-Law School Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannin, Ellen; Zschiesche, Peter; Kramer, William

    1998-01-01

    Describes efforts of the San Diego-Imperial Counties Central Labor Council (California) to develop programs in cooperation with local academics, including a successful law student internship program and some academic work with local unions. Constituency interests and needs, procedures, and general values involved in such cooperative programs are…

  15. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  16. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  17. Learning Statistics at the Farmers Market? A Comparison of Academic Service Learning and Case Studies in an Introductory Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiedemann, Bridget; Jones, Stacey M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the effectiveness of academic service learning to that of case studies in an undergraduate introductory business statistics course. Students in six sections of the course were assigned either an academic service learning project (ASL) or business case studies (CS). We examine two learning outcomes: students' performance on the final…

  18. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  19. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  20. Marketing Strategies for the Academic Library. Papers from a One Day Conference Organized by the Library Association Colleges of Further and Higher Education Group London and South East Circle (London, England, June 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Stephen A., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The four papers in this collection consider the attitudes, concepts, and techniques involved in marketing for non-profit organizations, and explore how librarians in higher education can use these ideas to optimize the effectiveness of their service provision in a time of economic constraint. In "Marketing the Academic Library," Elizabeth…