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Sample records for academic labour market

  1. The Hidden Labour Market of the Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne

    Finding employment as an academic is becoming increasingly challenging for several reasons, including the tightening employment market and increases in the qualifications demanded of jobseekers and the pool of academically trained job seekers. A two-round Delphi study was therefore conducted to identify recruitment channels in the hidden labor…

  2. Study of the Labour Market for Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Judith; And Others

    This report presents scenario projections of the demand for academics in Australia to the year 2002, together with supply side projections on the numbers of new higher degree holders offering themselves for academic employment in that country. Chapter 1 offers an introduction and review of background issues. The second chapter outlines the…

  3. Towards a European Academic Labour Market?: Some Lessons Drawn from Empirical Studies on Academic Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe…

  4. Careers in Academe: The Academic Labour Market as an Eco-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…

  5. How Does Academic Ability Affect Educational and Labour Market Pathways in Canada. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this paper provides an up-to-date description of educational and labour market pathways (or transitions) among Canadian youth. It also estimates the effect of academic abilities, measured by PISA math and reading scores, on such transitions. Descriptive statistics show that educational success…

  6. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  7. Labour Market Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsen, Reidar

    Skilled labor has always been difficult to recruit, and in a tight labor market unskilled, low-paying jobs with low status are also difficult to fill. Recruitment from outside seems necessary to satisfy demands, but migration creates at least as many problems as it solves. The consumption of theoretical training through the university level (a…

  8. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12159587

  9. Intimacy and Emotional Labour in Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…

  10. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  11. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  12. Will Increasing Academic Recognition of Workplace Learning in the UK Reinforce Existing Gender Divisions in the Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there has been a considerable increase in the academic recognition of workplace learning, and a number of new awards drawing on workplace learning have been introduced. These include apprenticeships and Advanced Apprenticeships, both of which contain National Vocational Qualifications, and the Foundation Degree. In addition,…

  13. Migration in a segmented labour market.

    PubMed

    Gordon, I

    1995-01-01

    "Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." PMID:12157825

  14. The Labour Market Relevance of PhDs: An Issue for Academic Research and Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulos, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    In the difficult current socio-economic context, overqualified graduates are increasingly facing challenges in terms of entering the job market and finding jobs which fit their levels of qualifications and satisfaction. Grounded in an auto-ethnography approach, this paper reflects on the challenges that the author (a young female European PhD…

  15. The Relationship between Higher Education and Labour Market in Greece: The Weakest Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livanos, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    The high level of graduate unemployment, even though it is acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, it has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes micro-data from the Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and…

  16. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  17. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…

  18. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with the skin colour and position in the family. The…

  19. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  20. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed Central

    McPake, Barbara; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints – whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance – that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country’s epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the “needed” number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  1. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  2. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

  3. Health impairments and labour market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2010-10-01

    Our analysis is based on the 2008 Athens Area Study and exploits detailed information regarding health impairments and labour market outcomes for Greek males. Distinguishing between healthy and heath-impaired employees who have or do not have work limitations, the unobserved productivity effect of health is separated from discrimination. We then estimate a regression model that includes terms to correct for employment selection and endogenous stratification of self-reported health condition. A penalty for productivity limitation exists. Evidence of wage discrimination is also found. Both findings are statistically significant and highlight the necessity for instituting active policies against unequal treatment. PMID:19771458

  4. Computing Careers and Irish Higher Education: A Labour Market Anomaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Simon; O'Donnell, David; McCusker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of developments in the Irish economy and labour market on computing course development in the higher education (HE) sector. Extant computing courses change, or new courses are introduced, in attempts to match labour market demands. The conclusion reached here, however, is that Irish HE is producing insufficient…

  5. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  6. Evaluating Labour's market reforms, 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show. PMID:22315473

  7. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern apprenticeship" schemes adopted…

  8. Academic Work: The Changing Labour Process in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what academics do as a work process and how that is changing dramatically with the fiscal crises being experienced by most governments around the world. It explores how academic work is organized, how it is enacted, in whose interests, and with what ultimate effects. Papers include: "Markets in Higher Education:…

  9. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  10. Skill Needs: Linking Labour Market Analysis and Vocational Training. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This publication contains workshop papers which discuss the link between the labor market and vocational training. Part I provides an overview of the workshop--its objectives, issues, and conclusions. Part II consists of seven country papers. "Labour Market Information (LMI) and Vocational Training Decision-Making in Hungary" (Lazar) outlines…

  11. Educational Technology and the Enclosure of Academic Labour inside Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Across higher education in the United Kingdom, the procurement and deployment of educational technology increasingly impacts the practices of academic labour, in terms of administration, teaching and research. Moreover the relationships between academic labour and educational technology are increasingly framed inside the practices of neoliberal,…

  12. Locality, Mobility and Labour Market Citizenship: Reflections of Finnish Vocational Students in Social Services and Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    In the current economic order, the basic duty of citizens is to find placements in the internationalising labour market. Internationalism has been a common educational objective throughout Europe. Previously associated as a feature of middle-class subjectivities and academic education, it is implemented in the agenda of vocational education as…

  13. Strong Vocational Education--A Safe Way to the Labour Market? A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: In its communications, the European Commission stresses the importance of vocational education and endorses apprenticeship training. Educational systems that have dual tracks of academic alongside vocational learning routes have been shown to generate better labour market outcomes for school leavers and smooth the school-to-work…

  14. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  15. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). As students…

  16. Vocational Trajectories within the Australian Labour Market. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is researching…

  17. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  18. The Portuguese Youth Labour Market: A Critical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse critically the youth labour market (YLM) and the YLM policies in Portugal. The analysis covers essentially the period after 1986, when Portugal entered the European Union. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of three main sections. In the first the main players dealt with (government,…

  19. Recruitment and Retention Issues in Rural Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…

  20. The Relevance of Doctoral Training in Different Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…

  1. Model of Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and…

  2. Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…

  3. Educational Planning and the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between education and the labor market, with a focus on the technical side and on the economic connection, is investigated. A potential role of educational planning for smoothing out market imperfections and thus preventing the emergence of social problems relating to the education-work relationship is discussed. (MLW)

  4. Gender and migration on the labour market: Additive or interacting disadvantages in Germany?

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Höhne, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Despite substantial differences in labour market attainment according to gender and migration status, gender and ethnic differences in labour market behaviour are most often studied separately. In contrast, this study describes and analyses interactions between gender, ethnic background and immigrant generation with regard to labour market participation, part-time work, and occupational status. The double comparison aims to reveal whether gender gaps in these labour market outcomes among the majority population generalise to ethnic minorities. Moreover, we ask whether variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour follows the patterns in migrants' origin countries, and whether gender gaps show signs of intergenerational assimilation. Our heterogeneous choice and OLS regressions of 2009 German Microcensus data reveal considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment. PMID:23859734

  5. High Technology and International Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the impact of "high-tech" industries on labor markets, the division of labor and the organization of work, and the policy options open to societies for dealing with the effects. (CT)

  6. The Impact of Training-Intensive Labour Market Policies on Labour and Educational Prospects of NEETS: Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…

  7. Arab women and the labour market.

    PubMed

    Bint Talal, B

    1996-01-01

    This article provides a summary and excerpts from a speech given by Her Royal Highness Basma bint Talal, sister of His Majesty King Hussein of Jordan, before the International Institute for Labor Studies of the International Labour Organization on March 26, 1996. Princess Talal spoke about the conditions among Arab women, their contributions to work and political life, and suggestions for the increased participation of women. Reference is made to the UN Development Report for 1995 that indicates a very low (under 20%) level of participation among Arab women in the labor force and a modest literacy rate of 40%. The developing country averages are higher than the averages for Arab women. Arab family networks and practices have benefitted women. Even the poorest Arab countries have less hunger and starvation than other developing countries. Rape is almost "nonexistent" and drugs and prostitution are limited. There are few births outside of marriage and few single parent families. Community violence is generally low, except within less-advantaged groups. Labor statistics do not count women engaged in farming and other domestic production activities. Low labor force participation rates among Arab women are attributed to high illiteracy, high fertility, and social customs. Almost 50% of Arab women are under 15 years old, and there is difficulty in creating opportunities for new female labor entrants due to the high unemployment rates for men (12.6%) and women (29.4%). The future looks more hopeful as literacy rates among women rise and school enrollment rates for women rise. Arab women are legally entitled to equal opportunities for work with men of the same qualifications. Women need to be encouraged to take up productive work and income generation and to assume political leadership roles. The Jordanian National Forum for Women and the Jordanian National Committee for Women are active at the grassroots and national levels. PMID:12347373

  8. Teaching Literacy in Labour Market Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Committee for Vocational Education and Training, Chadstone (Australia).

    Written in competency-based format, this professional development package is targeted at Australian teachers of adult English language, literacy, and numeracy working in labor market programs. The approximately 26-hour-long course aims to increase knowledge of and skills in liaising and negotiating with the Commonwealth Employment Service, labor…

  9. Labour Market Flexibility: Trends in Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Since the mid-1980s, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has carried out a number of studies on the issues of labor market flexibility under the supervision of the Manpower and Social Affairs Committee and its Working Party on Industrial Relations. While much of the previous work focused on the external forms of labor…

  10. Towards a Sociology of Teacher Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    There is very little discussion of the structure of the teaching profession and the implications of that structure for the teacher's professional identity. A model of the teacher labor market is of importance to a theoretical understanding and to an appreciation of structural changes that face teachers in the future. (CJ)

  11. Europe: A Labour Market without Frontiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The six articles in this journal issue were all designed to provide an objective presentation of the framework within which the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) is charting a course toward establishing a common training policy and creating a single market in 1993. The first article, "Information on…

  12. Workplace health promotion and labour market performance of employees.

    PubMed

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes. PMID:26300489

  13. The Antinomic Condition of the University: "Universal Labour" beyond "Academic Capitalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlidis, Periklis

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the characteristics acquired by the university under the regime of academic capitalism. It also attempts to put forward their antinomic relationship to the essential properties of academic activity, perceived in the light of the concept of "universal labour" introduced by Karl Marx. (Contains 1 note.)

  14. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  15. Cohort Size and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, David C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that policymakers should be skeptical of forecasts that predict faculty shortages and surpluses according to population trends and analyzes an economic model of the academic labor market. Concludes that forecasts from such models do not support policies designed to offset the impact of cohort size on the academic labor market. (Author/CH)

  16. Being Young and Visible: Labour Market Access among Immigrant and Visible Minority Youth. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Jean Lock

    2003-01-01

    Youth represent one of the most culturally diverse groups in Canada. It has been shown that labour market participation among immigrant youth, especially those who are members of a visible minority, has been lower than the Canadian-born. Using the 1996 Census, this paper provides an overview of labour market attachment of immigrant and visible…

  17. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  18. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  19. Family-Friendly Labour Market Policies and Careers in Sweden--and the Lack of Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornqvist, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what "family-friendly" is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender "equity", the article argues that the Swedish labour market has no doubt…

  20. Social Predictors of Unsuccessful Entrance into the Labour Market--A Socialization Process Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Ellen; Sovio, Ulla; Remes, Jouko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2005-01-01

    Social determinants over the life course, including childhood family characteristics, were studied in predicting unsuccessful entrance into the labour market at the age of 31 years. Among men, unsuccessful entrance into the labour market was predicted prospectively by the mother's receptive attitude towards receiving social aid and contentment…

  1. Graduate Employability and Student Attitudes and Orientations to the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the way students, making the transition from higher education into the labour market, construct, understand and begin to manage their employability. It draws upon a qualitative study of 53 final-year undergraduates in a pre-1992 university in the UK. It firstly explores students' perceptions of the current labour market for…

  2. Measuring Pre- and Post-Labour Market Occupational Segregation Using Careers Service Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Martyn; Bradley, Steve; Stott, Dave

    2004-01-01

    In this article we calculate the magnitude of occupational segregation pre- and post-labour market entry for young people using the Karmel and Maclachlan IP index. Our data refer to 22,280 males and 17,678 females who entered the labour market during the period 1988-91. Our results show that the magnitude of segregation is substantial, and is…

  3. Labour Market Developments and Their Significance for VET in Germany: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…

  4. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  5. Navigating Difficult Waters: Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions. Research Paper No 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…

  6. Learning to Adapt: Does Returning to Education Improve Labour Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The transition into a post-industrial economy changed the nature of the Australian labour market extinguishing jobs in traditional industries and creating jobs in new industries. Workers displaced from the manufacturing sector and women seeking to re-enter the labour market after taking time out for family reasons need to retrain in order to…

  7. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  8. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  9. Labour Market Effects of Employment Protection. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwei, Ulrich

    The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…

  10. The Integration of Immigrants Into the Labour Markets of the EU. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Heinz

    Integration of foreign workers into European Union (EU) labor markets was evaluated. Three indicators of labor market integration were analyzed: unemployment rate, employment rate, and self- employment rate. Results were drawn from the Labor Force Survey data compiled by Eurostat. Findings indicated that, in all EU countries, the unemployment rate…

  11. Labour Market and Non-Labour Market Work: The Social Construction of Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lynne

    This paper examines the relationship between Australian women's participation in paid work in the public market and the child-rearing component of their unpaid, non-market work, and the role of public policy in regulating the relationship. The study presents a historical overview of the period between 1939 and 1950. Critical concepts and the ideas…

  12. Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

  13. The State of the Labour Market in South Africa after the First Decade of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Rulof; Woolard, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    While the political transition to democratic rule in South Africa was smooth and rapid, the economic transition has been slow and difficult. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the labour market. Job creation has not matched growing labour supply and the unemployment rate continues to rise. This article attempts to document and identify the key…

  14. Hard Lessons for Lifelong Learners? Age and Experience in the Graduate Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Kate; Wilton, Nick; Elias, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of the higher education system and widening access to undergraduate study has led to growing diversity within the graduate labour supply, including increasing numbers who studied for their degrees as mature students. Analysis of graduates entering the labour market prior to the major expansion in the early 1990s indicated that those…

  15. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  16. Migration in OECD countries: Labour Market Impact and Integration Issues. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…

  17. Marketing Academic Libraries: A Necessary Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodsworth, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    To coordinate an academic-library marketing effort effectively, a comprehensive plan is essential. A traditional marketing plan consists of four activities: determining what to promote, defining target audiences, choosing type of outreach, and evaluating program. Suggestions for promotional activities, forms of publicity, and examples from the…

  18. Workplace change and the internal labour market: evidence from the NSW hospital industry.

    PubMed

    de Ruyter, Alex

    2002-01-01

    After a decade of labour market reform and workplace change, increasing attention has focussed on public sector industries. In this paper, domestic and maintenance occupations in the hospital industry are examined, as previous work has focussed on nursing, with other occupations being largely ignored. Grimshaw and Rubery's (1998) model of internal labour markets is adopted as the preferred theoretical approach. This model, in acknowledging external factors, the role of workers, and custom and norms within the firm, provides a basis from which to examine labour use practices within the hospital industry. PMID:12404972

  19. Marginal Worth: Teaching and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    The contemporary academic labor market is examined using concepts from labor market economics and sociology to elucidate why teaching, universally acknowledged to be at the center of American academic life, is not at the center of the academic labor market and is only modestly rewarded. First, tenets of the neoclassical labor market model are…

  20. Temporary agency work, migration and the crisis in Greece: labour market segmentation intensified

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment. PMID:27499601

  1. Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    This paper focuses on three academic labor market issues that researchers at Cornell University are addressing currently: (1) the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions; (2) the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries…

  2. Dentist education and labour market in Mexico: elements for policy definition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. Methods A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. Results The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population’s health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. Conclusions The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective. PMID:22974344

  3. The Marketing Market: Matching Academic Hiring Institutions and Job Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basil, Michael D.; Basil, Debra Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hiring faculty is a challenge in the field of marketing. One important factor is a shortage of candidates. The problem is exacerbated, however, by an imperfect match between jobs and candidates. This study examines the homogeneity of academic jobs and candidates. Surveys were conducted with both parties. The results show that institutions and…

  4. [Young rehabilitants in vocational training at the transition to the labour market].

    PubMed

    Reims, N; Gruber, S

    2014-12-01

    This study tackles the question, whether and to what extent labour market integration is achieved by young rehabilitants participating in an apprenticeship provided by the Federal Employment Agency. In order to identify salient determinants for the entry into as well as the sustainability of fi rst employment, event history analyses are applied. After a relatively short period, first integrated rehabilitants mostly fi nd unsubsidized employment. The entry into employment is determined by factors similar to those influencing the labour market transition of young adults without disabilities: higher educational achievements, a successfully completed apprenticeship at best within an establishment, high regional mobility and good structural conditions favour labour market integration. Furthermore, physically disabled graduates and those with shorter unemployment and sickness periods stay longer in fi rst employment than graduates showing other disabilities and those with longer periods in unemployment and sickness. PMID:25188207

  5. Training and Labour Market Integration of Education Science Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivas, Amparo Jimenez

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research behind this article is to identify the relationships that must exist between university training and the social and occupational environment. One of the many functions that derive from the university-society relationship is to train students to carry out certain professions. as a result, the analysis of the labour market…

  6. Foreign Language Skills for Employability in the EU Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita

    2011-01-01

    To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…

  7. Being Young and Visible: Labour Market Access among Immigrant and Visible Minority Youth. Final Report. Working Paper Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Jean Lock

    2003-01-01

    Youth represent one of the most culturally diverse groups in Canada. It has been shown that labour market participation among immigrant youth, especially those who are members of a visible minority, has been lower than the Canadian-born. Using the 1996 Census, this paper provides an overview of labour market attachment of immigrant and visible…

  8. Renewing VET Provision: Understanding Feedback Mechanisms between Initial VET and the Labour Market. Research Paper No 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    A strong VET system is increasingly seen as essential to overcoming the current economic crisis in Europe. VET is seen as a powerful tool to assist in balancing labour market inefficiencies, increasing youth employment possibilities, and reducing skills mismatch. Its inherent flexibility and closeness to the labour market place VET in a good…

  9. Creating Linkages between the Labour Market and Agricultural Higher Education in Iran: Strategies and Mechanisms for Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movahedi, Reza; Saadi, Heshmatollah; Farani, Ahmad Yaghoubi

    2011-01-01

    Employment of agriculture graduates in Iran is a major problem that needs to be addressed. There are three main issues: lack of robust strategies for linking agricultural higher education and the labour market, the lack of relevance of agricultural curricula to the real needs of the labour market, and diminishing levels of government services for…

  10. The Role of Education in Selection and Allocation in the Labour Market: An Empirical Study in the Medical Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeijn, Judith; van der Velden, Rolf; Heijke, Hans; van der Vleuten, Cees; Boshuizen, Henny

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we explore the role of education in explaining the labour market outcomes for a sample of graduates in medicine. More specifically, the following research question is answered: To what extent are labour market outcomes of physicians explained by the skills acquired in education, as indicated in the theory of human capital, or by…

  11. Getting through Closed Doors? Labour Market Entry among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth with Low Levels of Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storen, Liv Anne; Opheim, Vibeke; Helland, Havard

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the labour market situation among youth with low or medium levels of formal education. The analyses focus on studying the effects of level of competence, grades and immigrant background. Which factors contribute to labour market success among this group of youth? And which factors may increase the risk of not getting into the…

  12. Changing Labour Markets and Early Career Outcomes: Labour Market Entry in Europe over the Past Decade. Working Papers = Arbeitspapiere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangl, Markus

    An empirical analysis used data for 12 European countries from the 1988-1997 European Community Labour Force Survey to assess the effects of cyclical changes in aggregate economic conditions, changing youth cohort sizes, increasing educational expansion, and structural changes in labor demand on new labor force participants. Emphasis was on the…

  13. Hierarchical cluster analysis of labour market regulations and population health: a taxonomy of low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An important contribution of the social determinants of health perspective has been to inquire about non-medical determinants of population health. Among these, labour market regulations are of vital significance. In this study, we investigate the labour market regulations among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and propose a labour market taxonomy to further understand population health in a global context. Methods Using Gross National Product per capita, we classify 113 countries into either low-income (n = 71) or middle-income (n = 42) strata. Principal component analysis of three standardized indicators of labour market inequality and poverty is used to construct 2 factor scores. Factor score reliability is evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. Using these scores, we conduct a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a labour market taxonomy, conduct zero-order correlations, and create box plots to test their associations with adult mortality, healthy life expectancy, infant mortality, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and years of life lost to communicable and non-communicable diseases. Labour market and health data are retrieved from the International Labour Organization's Key Indicators of Labour Markets and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. Results Six labour market clusters emerged: Residual (n = 16), Emerging (n = 16), Informal (n = 10), Post-Communist (n = 18), Less Successful Informal (n = 22), and Insecure (n = 31). Primary findings indicate: (i) labour market poverty and population health is correlated in both LMICs; (ii) association between labour market inequality and health indicators is significant only in low-income countries; (iii) Emerging (e.g., East Asian and Eastern European countries) and Insecure (e.g., sub-Saharan African nations) clusters are the most advantaged and disadvantaged, respectively, with the remaining clusters experiencing levels of population health consistent

  14. Effects of breast and colorectal cancer on labour market outcomes-average effects and educational gradients.

    PubMed

    Heinesen, Eskil; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    We estimate causal effects of breast and colorectal cancer on labour market outcomes 1-3 years after the diagnosis. Based on Danish administrative data we estimate average treatment effects on the treated by propensity score weighting methods using persons with no cancer diagnosis as control group. We conduct robustness checks using matching, difference-in-differences methods and an alternative control group of later cancer patients. The different methods give approximately the same results. Cancer increases the risks of leaving the labour force and receiving disability pension, and the effects are larger for the less educated. Effects on income are small and mostly insignificant. We investigate some of the mechanisms which may be important in explaining the educational gradient in effects of cancer on labour market attachment. PMID:24096321

  15. Labour Market Trends and Active Labour Market Policy in the Eastern German Transformation Process 1990-1997. IAB Labour Market Research Topics no. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Hans-Uwe; Blaschke, Dieter; Blien, Uwe; Brinkmann, Christian; Fuchs, Johann; Gutsche, Matthias; Moeller, Ulrich; Kuhl, Jurgen; Spitznagel, Eugen; Steckel, Werner; Wiedemann, Eberhard; Wolfinger, Claudia

    After German unification in 1990, more than 3 million jobs disappeared in eastern Germany and the obsolescence of eastern German capital stock became apparent. Further escalation of mass unemployment was successfully held in check; however, it soon became clear that labor market policies appropriate for western Germany were not, in and of…

  16. Learning to Be Swedish: Governing Migrants in Labour-Market Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterberg, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on adult learning in labour-market projects targeting unemployed migrants in Sweden. Drawing on a Foucauldian analysis of governmentality, the results of the study problematize the ways that such projects produce individualizing discourses--targeting individuals, constructing them as responsible for their position as…

  17. Vocational Education and Training in India: Challenges, Status and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Tushar

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of vocational education and training (VET) system in India, and discusses various challenges and difficulties in the Indian VET system. The paper also examines labour market outcomes of vocational graduates and compares these with those of general secondary graduates using a large-scale nationally representative…

  18. Gender, the Labour Market, the Workplace and Policy in Children's Services: Parent, Staff and Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael; Quinn, Andrea; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the attitudes of parents, staff and teacher education students towards the employment of men in the children's services "industry". The attitudinal survey questions were grouped around four distinct issues: gender roles, labour market behaviour, workplace behaviour and policy. Surprisingly, all three stakeholder groups surveyed…

  19. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2008/09 Annual Service Plan Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Service Plan Report reflects the Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's success in achieving the overall priorities of the Government of British Columbia, in the current economic conditions and other relevant external factors related to the strategic direction and operations of this Ministry. This paper also highlights…

  20. Technical and Vocational Education and Training and the Labour Market in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Eli

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this report is to contribute to a better understanding of the current status of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) for human resources development (HRD) and the labour market in Israel. It describes the role and involvement of the various sectors in HRD and identifies the barriers, challenges, priorities, initiatives…

  1. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407

  2. Voices from the United Arab Emirates: Engineering Graduates' Labour Market Requisite Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EL-Sakran, Tharwat M.; Awad, Asmaa

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on engineering graduates' labour market requisite communication competences and skills in the work environment in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its main purpose was to investigate whether internationally required engineering graduates' communication competences were the same in third world countries or different. It used a…

  3. A Career and Learning Transitional Model for Those Experiencing Labour Market Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…

  4. Higher Education, the Graduate and the Labour Market: From Robbins to Dearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to offer a perspective on issues pertaining to higher education, the graduate and the labour market. It is one of several similar perspectives on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal "Education + Training." Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted has been to provide a…

  5. The Early School Leavers: Initial Survey. Report and Summary Report. Youth Transition into the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, William H.; Sharpe, Dennis B.

    The study of Youth Transition into the Labour Market (YTLM) began several years ago in the spring of 1987. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of approximately 9000 Level III high school students in Newfoundland and Labrador at the end of the 1988-89 school year, and a second, which…

  6. Recognising and Certifying Lifelong Skills: Impact on Labour Market Integration of the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Pedro Afonso

    2009-01-01

    The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…

  7. Employability Enhancement of Business Graduates in China: Reacting upon Challenges of Globalization and Labour Market Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhiwen, Guo; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment of business educational reform requirements in China, in the light of current employability needs. Design/methodology/approach: After introducing the problem the paper discusses labour market demands for business graduates. The paper continues with a thorough conceptualisation of the…

  8. Labour Market Mismatch among UK Graduates: An Analysis Using REFLEX Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…

  9. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  10. The Role of Flexible Work in the Transition from Higher Education into the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Try, Sverre

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the Norwegian Graduate Survey from 1985 to 1999, the study investigates Norwegian graduate students' entry into the labour market. The study finds that more than half of the employed graduates enter the work force via a flexible job, that is either a temporary or a part-time job, and the proportion has increased during the period.…

  11. Vocational Imagination and Labour Market Literacy: Young New Zealanders Making Education-Employment Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Jane; Nairn, Karen; Sligo, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the concepts of vocational imagination and labour market literacy, arguing that these are important elements in the crafting of effective education-employment linkages. Evidence of truncated understandings of both is found in the talk of 93 young New Zealanders in transition from secondary school to their post-school lives. We…

  12. The Valuation of Plurilingual Competences in an Open European Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We present a model allowing the measurement of the returns to plurilingual competences in a small open economy, considered as a reduced model of an open European labour market where different nationalities work together and therefore need to communicate either in one or in multiple languages. Our results suggest that high plurilingual competences…

  13. The Value of Basic Skills in the British Labour Market. CEE DP 77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar; Vignoles, Anna; De Coulon, Augustin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the labour market value of basic skills in the UK, focusing on the wage and employment returns to having better literacy and numeracy skills. We draw on literacy and numeracy assessments undertaken by all cohort members of the UK 1970 British Cohort Study. The data used are very rich and allow us to account for potential…

  14. Sheepskin Effects in the Spanish Labour Market: A Public-Private Sector Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Empar; Blanco, Juan M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contrast the nature of the effect of education, Human Capital or Screening, in the Spanish labour market. We use the Hungerford and Solon methodology to distinguish between the returns to schooling from mere years of schooling as a reflection of their productive?enhancing contribution (human capital) and the returns to…

  15. Labour Market Effects of the Polytechnic Education Reform: The Finnish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri; Hamalainen, Ulla; Uusitalo, Roope

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the labour market effects of the introduction of the polytechnic education system in Finland. The polytechnic reform gradually transformed former vocational colleges into polytechnics. Since the timing of the reform differed across schools, we can compare the performance of polytechnic graduates to the performance of…

  16. Reducing the Risk: Unemployed Migrant Youth and Labour Market Programs. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).

    This booklet is an overview and summary of the publication "Reducing the Risk: Unemployed Migrant Youth and Labour Market Programs" which reviews programs and services for migrant and refugee youth in Australia. The unemployment rate for this group is higher than for their Australian-born peers, and their participation in governmental labor market…

  17. Labour Market Developments and Their Significance for VET in England: Current Concerns and Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laczik, Andrea; Mayhew, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationship between the labour market and vocational education and training in England. For decades British governments have emphasised the need for more people to stay longer in the formal education system and at the same time have attempted to improve work-based training. They have also emphasised the centrality of…

  18. Subnational Variations in Educational Attainment and Labour Market Outcomes. Education Indicators in Focus. No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…

  19. Foreign Diploma versus Immigrant Background: Determinants of Labour Market Success or Failure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storen, Liv Anne; Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the labour market situation of graduates with different types of international background. The authors look at four groups of graduates: immigrants and ethnic Norwegians graduated in Norway and immigrants and ethnic Norwegians graduated abroad. By employing multinomial logistic regression analyses the authors find that ethnic…

  20. Matching of Developed Generic Competences of Graduates in Higher Education with Labour Market Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Pileicikiene, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Higher education provides graduates with both monetary and non-monetary benefits. Globalization and technological developments foster utilitarian approach, therefore the transmission of competences that are relevant in labour market is an important target for higher education institutions. The paper presents findings of research on the match of…

  1. Labour Market Transfers and the Implications for Literacy and Essential Skills: Briefing Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    This revised report was prepared for the Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN) and the thirteen-member provincial and territorial literacy coalitions. The purpose of the report is: (1) To provide background information on the labour market transfers from the Federal Government to the provincial and territorial governments; (2) To outline…

  2. Where Tradies Work: A Regional Analysis of the Labour Market for Tradespeople

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phil; Corliss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As Australia's economy recovers from the economic downturn, attention is turning once again to skills shortages. To gain insights into the labour market for tradespeople, this report investigates changes in supply, demand and how adjustment occurred through the varied economic conditions of the past 20 years. It concludes that there was no overall…

  3. The Attainability of University Degrees and Their Labour Market Benefits for Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    I used data from the 1995 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth to investigate the factors associated with the attainment of Australian university degrees and estimate their domestic labour market benefits. I considered vertical and horizontal stratification in education and examined monetary and non-monetary benefits. The…

  4. Overeducation and Earnings in the Australian Graduate Labour Market: An Application of the Vahey Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ian W.; Miller, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effects on earnings of overeducation, required education, and undereducation (ORU) in the Australian graduate labour market, using data from the 1999-2009 Graduate Destination Surveys. The Vahey [2000. "The Great Canadian Training Robbery: Evidence on the Returns to Educational Mismatch." "Economics of…

  5. Learning as Sociocultural Practice: Chinese Immigrant Professionals Negotiating Differences and Identities in the Canadian Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia; Guo, Shibao

    2013-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed both an expansion and a transformation of immigration flows, which pose significant challenges with respect to how people work with differences across culture and space. Against this background, this paper explores how some Chinese immigrant engineers respond to differences in the Canadian labour market. It not…

  6. Employability Skills Initiatives in Higher Education: What Effects Do They Have on Graduate Labour Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Geoff; Williams, Gareth; Cranmer, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The present paper makes use of detailed information gathered at university department level, combined with graduate survey data, to assess the impact of different kinds of employability skills initiative on graduate labour market performance. We find that structured work experience and employer involvement in degree course design and delivery have…

  7. Higher Education, Changing Labour Market and Social Mobility in the Era of Massification in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…

  8. Aiming for Better Employment: A Holistic Analysis from Admission to Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…

  9. Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

  10. Linking Qualifications and the Labour Market through Capabilities and Vocational Streams. Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report in the three-year program of research "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market," which investigated the educational and occupational paths people take and how their study relates to their work. This report synthesises the findings of the three different strands: pathways from…

  11. Higher Education in Serbia: From Socialism to the Free Market Economy and Implications for the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnov, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationships between higher education and the labour market in Serbia. In order to understand this relationship better, this paper will first provide a brief history of the country and the history of its higher education structures. The paper will then discuss higher education from post Second World War until the fall of…

  12. Gendered Work. Sexuality, Family and the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Lisa

    A study examined the interrelationships between sexuality, family, and the labor market in Great Britain. First, a range of analyses of women's role in the labor market, including analyses from feminist and sociological perspectives, were reviewed to determine how sexual as opposed to gender relations operate in the labor market. Next, the role of…

  13. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  14. How Global Is the UK Academic Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetherham, Claire; Fenton, Steve; Modood, Tariq

    2010-01-01

    One of the themes of the recent sociology of higher education has been the globalisation of knowledge and the professional transfer of scientists and researchers. In this paper we show how these transfers of people and knowledge are disproportionately characteristic of: (a) some institutions; and (b) some cost centres. We argue that universities…

  15. Marketing Academics' Perceptions of the Peer Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…

  16. [Reform steps toward networking sheltered workshops and the general labour market].

    PubMed

    Wendt, S

    2010-02-01

    Only 0.16% of disabled employees are enabled to change from sheltered workshops to the general labour market. At the same time the number of disabled employees in sheltered workshops is increasing more than anticipated. Investigations into the growing admissions to sheltered workshops resulted in recommendations to improve the practice of change over. More and more admissions of students having finished special schools could be reduced by improved cooperation between special schools and the local employment market. Special schools should offer suitable job trainings and support students to develop an understanding of the requirements of specific jobs and of their opportunities to develop their skills to do these jobs. In 2009, supported employment has been regulated in social security law, lasting up to three years and aimed at qualifying disabled youngsters for employment in the general labour market instead of entering sheltered workshops. The majority of admissions to sheltered workshops in the meantime concern people with psychological handicaps, with more than 30% however leaving the workshops later on. For this population, "virtual sheltered workshops" are offering more suitable means for reintegration in the general labour market, such as temporary employment in the general labour market or in occupations with small earnings. The personal budget for work is meant to be a model project within the German Länder, to transfer personal support from the sheltered workshop into the general labour market. The conference of German Länder Ministers of Social Affairs has been active since 2007 to develop a concept for reform of the social security law concerning integration assistance for disabled people, which in future is to concentrate on individual needs, removal of obstacles in the law to facilitate the transition from sheltered workshops into the general labour market. The "Deutsche Verein für öffentliche und private Fürsorge" (German association for public

  17. Male and Female Graduates in the Canadian Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)

  18. Low Training Levels on European Labour Markets: Convergence and Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Jean-Louis

    1998-01-01

    The proportion of individuals with little training varies greatly among European countries. Throughout Europe, nonparticipation in the labor market and unemployment seem relatively synonymous. Three degrees of labor market openness with regard to individuals with low levels of training are apparent throughout Europe: (1) in Portugal, skill…

  19. Immigrants' Labour Market Experiences in the Early Settlement Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenHeuvel, Adriana; Wooden, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examination of the labor market experiences of three waves of recent immigrants to Australia in their early settlement years confirms that labor market outcomes improve over time as their length of residence increases. Labor force participation was greater for those who entered Australia for business reasons than for those entering for…

  20. The Canadian Labour Market: Readings in Manpower Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, A.M., Ed.; Meltz, N.M., Ed.

    Canadian manpower problems were researched by a group of economists at the University of Toronto in areas of interest to manpower planners and students of the labor market. The dissatisfaction of policy makers with the present operation of the labor market is discussed in three areas: (1) inadequate output due to alleged labor shortages, (2)…

  1. Vocational Education, On-the-Job Training, and Labour Market Integration of Young Workers in Urban West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordman, Christophe J.; Pasquier-Doumer, Laure

    2014-01-01

    Young people in Africa encounter many difficulties in entering the labour market and in searching for decent and productive jobs. Research on the links between formal education and vocational training and their economic returns are especially crucial in understanding the inadequate demand for their labour. This article presents evidence based on…

  2. Career Education and Labour Market Conditions: The Skills Gap Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Welsh, Benjamin H.

    The rhetoric surrounding career education programs was examined by exploring two questions. The first question was which employment sectors anticipate significant job growth and what skill levels and academic competencies were required to work within those sectors. The second question was whether increasing the level of student knowledge and skill…

  3. From state to market: the Nicaraguan labour market for health personnel.

    PubMed

    Nigenda, G; Machado, M H

    2000-09-01

    Few countries in Latin America have experienced in such a short period the shift from a socialist government and centrally planned economy to a liberal market economy as Nicaragua. The impact of such a change in the health field has been supported by the quest for reform of the health system and the involvement of external financial agencies aimed at leading the process. However, this change has not been reflected in the planning of human resources for health. Trends in education reflect the policies of past decades. The Ministry of Health is the main employer of health personnel in the country, but in recent years its capacity to recruit new personnel has diminished. Currently, various categories of health personnel are looking for new opportunities in a changing labour environment where new actors are appearing and claiming an influential role. It may take more than political willingness from the government to redefine the new priorities in the field of human resources for health and subsequently turn it into positive action. PMID:11012406

  4. Labour market career among young Finnish immigrants in Sweden: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, J

    1996-01-01

    "The conditions for young immigrants in the Swedish labour market have been widely discussed in recent years. One hypothesis put forward is that young immigrants tend to remain in jobs with low wages, high risks of unemployment and bad working environments, and their mobility out of such jobs is low.... Because composition of the immigrant group, through immigration and re-emigration, changes over time, the use of longitudinal studies is especially useful. However, only a few such studies have been conducted in Sweden, none of which gives special attention to the labour market careers of immigrant youth. The aim of this paper is to remedy this deficiency by using comprehensive longitudinal data for the period 1970 to 1990. Finnish-born youth were selected for study because they are the largest immigrant group in Sweden." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12292231

  5. Labour Market Signals & Indicators. Education Research. Serial No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, L.; And Others

    A research project examined ways in which labor market signals and indicators were being used and might be used to identify needs that could be met through national Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems. Three case studies were undertaken in Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, and Costa Rica. The studies used a matrix that identified on…

  6. Sex-Specific Labour Market Indicators: What They Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Sara; Johnson, Lawrence Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Data indicate that women's experience in the labor market is substantially different from men's. Women work in different sectors for fewer hours; women have lower rates of education and literacy; and women are more likely to be unemployed, underemployed, or outside the labor force. (JOW)

  7. Skills Needs of the SA Labour Market: 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, E. Comp.; Roodt, J., Comp.

    This document, which contains information relevant to individuals planning their careers, employers, human resource planners, and training institutions, examines the skill needs of the South African labor market in 1998-2003. The preface presents a brief overview of the factors that have contributed to the high levels of unemployment and patterns…

  8. Higher Education and the Labour Market. SRHE Monograph 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Robert M., Ed.; And Others

    This publication is the first from the Leverhulme program of study, which focused on the major strategic options likely to be available to higher education institutions and policy-making bodies in the 1980s and 1990s. It resulted from a specialist seminar on higher education and the labor market. The chapters are: "Employers' Perceptions of…

  9. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleva, Iskra; Tzanov, Vasil; Noncheva, Teodora; Zareva, Iren

    A factual and descriptive analysis of the employment situation in Bulgaria showed that the transition to a market economy has led to a substantial reduction of employment. The economic restructuring begun in 1990 has proved very difficult, and the privatization of the large industrial enterprises faces problems mainly due to insufficient interest…

  10. Forecasting the Norwegian Labour Market for Graduates Holding Higher Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Terje

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the phenomenon of long-term unemployed graduates of Norwegian higher education institutions over the period 1973-1999. The phenomenon was unexpected. One explanation for it is that the market for graduates was and remains in disequilibrium because wages are not sufficiently flexible downward. Thus unemployment would be…

  11. Taking Part: Registered Nurses and the Labour Market in 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, I.; Smith, G.

    The labor market participation, pay, job satisfaction, employment patterns, and turnover of registered nurses in the United Kingdom were examined through an analysis of data from the 1997 Royal College of Nursing (RCN) Survey. Of the random sample of 5,984 nurses from the RCN membership records surveyed, 4,288 (72%) returned usable questionnaires.…

  12. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamets, Raul; Philips, Kaia; Annus, Tiina

    During the years 1989-1997 in Estonia, employment has decreased; unemployment and inactivity have increased. Females have tended to move to inactivity while males have become unemployed. The wage patterns are very flat relative to those in market economies. Estonia has opted for very low levels of unemployment benefits, pensions, and a low minimum…

  13. Migration between the United States and Canada: a study of labour market adjustment.

    PubMed

    Brox, J A

    1983-01-01

    "... The main purpose of this study is to examine population flows between Canada and the United States [from mid-1947 to mid-1972] in order to investigate the degree to which labour market adjustment is aided by such movements. [The author considers] several functional forms of the migration relationship in an attempt to empirically determine how the decision to migrate is formed. [He also compares the] results with those obtained by Courchene...for Canadian interprovincial migration in an effort to compare the effects of international and internal migration on labour market adjustment." It is found that "migration between the United States and Canada over the post-war period is an economic variable. In fact, [a] simple model employing differences in income levels and unemployment rates has been able to explain nearly ninety-five per cent of the variation in the migration rate." The author also notes that "although migration between Canada and the United States does occur in such a way as to aid labour market adjustment, it is not as efficient as internal migration." (summary in FRE, SPA) PMID:12159570

  14. Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Klas; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate what impact individuals’ position in a labour market core–periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Methods The study comprised 45 567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992–2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993–2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. Results All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core–periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20–39 years. Conclusions The core–periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life. PMID:25142263

  15. Schooling, fertility and the labour market experience of married women.

    PubMed

    Johnes, G

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses the role of formal schooling and child rearing in the determination of career path choice of women in the US. Data were collected from the adult educational component of the 1991 US National Household Education Survey. Data are available for about 12,568 respondents, of whom 6860 are female. It is established that, amongst others, expected earnings significantly affect the career path and the hours of work chosen by American women. Based on the results of the study, a number of conclusions have been drawn: 1) expectations of earnings affect women's choice of career path, including decisions such as labor market participation, the part-time work versus full-time work decision, and occupational choice; 2) the indirect and indirect effects of schooling and other variables on regime choice has been studied; the impact of schooling and fertility on women's labor supply follows an intuitively plausible pattern; 3) evidence provided here on the private rate of return to education confirms the findings of Bland that part-time workers do not receive a lower return than others; and 4) the importance of correcting for endogeneity and sample selection biases in the problem of earnings determination and career choice has been established. PMID:12322341

  16. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. The Class of '89: Initial Survey of Level III (Grade 12) High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    The Transition of Youth into the Labour Market is a developmental study of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year,…

  17. Does privatisation of vocational rehabilitation improve labour market opportunities? Evidence from a field experiment in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Laun, Lisa; Thoursie, Peter Skogman

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses if privatisation of vocational rehabilitation can improve labour market opportunities for individuals on long-term sickness absence. We use a field experiment performed by the Public Employment Service and the Social Insurance Agency in Sweden during 2008-2010, in which over 4000 participants were randomly offered private and public rehabilitation. We find no differences in employment rates following rehabilitation between individuals who received rehabilitation by private and public providers. Also the average cost of rehabilitation was essentially equal for the two types of providers. This suggests that there are no large efficiency gains from privatising vocational rehabilitation. PMID:24473220

  18. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  19. Return to Work: Work-Based Learning and the Reintegration of Unemployed Adults into the Labour Market. Working Paper No 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehmel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…

  20. Effects of Tertiary Expansion: Crowding-Out Effects and Labour Market Matches for the Higher Educated. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Bo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines crowding-out effects and the labour market match for the tertiary educated in 26 OECD countries, using attainment data and data on labour market outcomes from Education at a Glance 2006. A first-difference approach is applied on a three-period, pooled country-panel to examine the effects of changes in tertiary attainment levels…

  1. Misalignment between Post-Secondary Education Demand and Labour Market Supply: Preliminary Insight from Young Adults on the Evolving School to Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Eisenstat, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Most research on labour market outcomes and higher education finds a positive relationship. This qualitative research sought to better understand how higher educational attainment contributes to employment outcomes from a subsample (n = 15) of a larger study (N = 36) on youth labour market attachment among minority, low socioeconomic status young…

  2. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  3. Sectoral Skills Needs: The Role of Universities. Task Force on Labour Market Issues: Office for Partnerships for Advanced Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report analyzes the role of the Task Force on Labour Market Issues of the Council of Ontario Universities in meeting industry skill needs, focusing particularly on three sectors: biotechnology, culture, and software/information technology. Also included are the findings of an earlier study on the skill needs and training requirements in the…

  4. The Transition from University to the Labour Market for IT Graduates in the City of Cluj-Napoca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana; Brad, Alexandru; Cristea, Daniela; Pop, Otilia Alexandra; Radu, Adina; Sicoe, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    The European Union is deeply concerned with how education responds to the needs of society. The purpose of this article is to analyze the transition from the University education to the labour market for the IT specialists in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In order to achieve this, a survey was conducted among the recent graduates in the IT…

  5. The Labour Market, Skill Formation and Training in the "Post-Developmental" State: The Example of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Insub

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the nature of the post-developmental state in the Republic of Korea with respect to skill formation and training. It takes as its starting point the changing structure of the labour market in relation to elements of economic globalisation. In responding to these changes the state has introduced new actors with respect to…

  6. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  7. The Role of Labour Market Expectations and Admission Probabilities in Students' Application Decisions on Higher Education: The Case of Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses students' application strategies to higher education, the effects of labour market expectations and admission probabilities. The starting hypothesis of this study is that students consider the expected utility of their choices, a function of expected net lifetime earnings and the probability of admission. Based on a survey…

  8. Is Forcing Them Worth the Effort? Benefits of Mandatory Internships for Graduates from Diverse Family Backgrounds at Labour Market Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Markus; Weiss, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Mandatory internships are implemented in higher education curricula in order to ease the labour market integration of graduates. This article evaluates the utility of mandatory internships in Germany by assessing the effect on graduates' transition from higher education to work. The authors examine whether these compulsory programmes provide extra…

  9. University Student Perceptions of the Relationship between University Education and the Labour Market in Egypt and Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harthi, Hamood K.

    2011-01-01

    How do university students perceive the key relationship between their university education and the labour market? This article describes the perceptions that 827 Egyptian and Omani seniors--both males and females, studying commerce, education, and engineering--hold about that relationship. For these students, a major motivation for attending…

  10. Social Inequality in Higher Education and Labour Market in a Period of Institutional Reforms: Italy, 1992-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argentin, Gianluca; Triventi, Moris

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the relationships between social origin, participation in tertiary education (enrolment, drop-out, enrolment at second level and post-tertiary education) and occupational instability among university graduates in a recent period of university and labour market reforms (the differentiation of higher education due to…

  11. The Labour Market Perceptions of High Achieving UK University Graduates: The Role of the First Class Credential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetherham, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the main findings of research examining the labour market perceptions, orientations and experiences of UK university graduates with First Class Honours degrees, the UK's highest level of degree classification. Drawing on qualitative data from interviews with 50 graduates holding a First Class degree, it explores how they…

  12. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  13. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Qualification & Approval Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…

  14. Career Workshops as a Non-Traditional Research Model for Enhanced Relationships between Higher Education and the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MmaB Modise, Oitshepile

    2016-01-01

    Discussions surrounding the mismatch between labour market needs and graduate competences are timeworn but to date nothing much has been achieved. Solutions such as tracer studies, conferences, attachments and internships have been tried and have not yet brought satisfactory results. This paper contributes yet another strategy, career workshops.…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students…

  16. The Impact of the Reform of the Italian Higher Education System on the Labour Market for Young Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potestio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of a reform of the higher education system aimed at stimulating employability and faster access to the labour market for Italian graduates. Using the Taylor formula, the evolution of the employment rates has been followed through the movements and interaction of activity and unemployment rates. The progress…

  17. Beyond School Inclusion: Secondary School and Preparing for Labour Market Inclusion for Young People with Disabilities in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallisera, Maria; Vila, Montserrat; Fullana, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Research analysing good practices in the area of labour market inclusion for people with disabilities shows that the role of the secondary school is fundamental in improving employment opportunities. The aim of this article is to analyse to what extent secondary education in Spain prepares young people with learning difficulties for later…

  18. Skills, Positional Good or Social Closure? The Role of Education across Structural-Institutional Labour Market Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical approach is formulated that connects various theories of why education has an effect on labour market outcomes with institutional settings in which such theories provide the most likely mechanism. Three groups of mechanisms are distinguished: education as an indicator of productive skills, as a positional good and as a means for…

  19. Annual Transitions between Labour Market States for Young Australians. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Marks, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Much analysis of youth transitions focuses on the first year after education, or outcomes at a specific age. Such work looks, for example, at the effect of education on the likelihood of being employed or unemployed. This study takes a different angle by considering the effect of education on the persistence of labour market outcomes. For example,…

  20. Interactions between Vocational Education and Training and the Labour Market in Europe: A Case Study of Ireland's Formalised Feedback Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, James

    2013-01-01

    The work reported in this paper is part of a large European study commissioned by the Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop) which explores interactions between the labour market and vocational education and training as well as up-dates the content Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET) provision in 15 European…

  1. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  2. School-arranged or Market-governed Workplace Training? A Labour Market Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Ulla Arnell

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of data on 3,182 Swedish students compared those in workplace training arranged by their school with those trained in jobs acquired on their own (market governed). Girls had more of both types, especially school arranged. Those with market-governed training were three times more likely to avoid unemployment and had more positive attitudes…

  3. Competitive marketing strategies. A challenge for academic practices.

    PubMed

    Sinioris, M E

    1985-01-01

    A special challenge has been presented to academic medical practices by the new healthcare environment. While increased competition for patients and resources affects all medical groups, it is the academic practices who are responsible for training the physicians of tomorrow. Not only must they sharpen their students' awareness of the new environment and teach them to incorporate effective management strategies into their practices, but they must set an example in effective management as well. The basic concepts of competitive marketing strategy, along with helpful exhibits, are presented here, and strategies for effectively maximizing position are discussed from the viewpoints of product mix, process market, and financing. PMID:10269475

  4. Medical and Social Determinants of Subsequent Labour Market Marginalization in Young Hospitalized Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Tinghög, Petter; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Wilcox, Holly C.; Gould, Madelyn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization. Methods Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16–30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992–1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days), or disability pension in 1995–2010 were calculated with Cox regression. Results Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0), personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9), repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8) and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7), and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9). Conclusions As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account. PMID:26784886

  5. Avoiding and Stemming Abuses in Academic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1981-01-01

    Recommendations made as a result of a Wingspread Colloquium on college marketing and student recruitment are reported. Abuses and specific remedies in recruiting, providing information, pricing and financing, student selection, and performance obligations and guarantees are outlined. Focus is on ethical and public interest issues. (MSE)

  6. Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Marketing Education. Bulletin No. 9005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of marketing education. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. The first part of the guide is an introduction that…

  7. Exploring an Academic Common Market in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Alan; Somers, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Movement toward a North American free trade agreement has provided impetus for a similar academic common market. However, differences in educational structure and quality make integration difficult. Priorities must be articulated, financing cooperation arranged, credit transfers facilitated, and achievement measures coordinated. Some isolated…

  8. Household economic resources, labour-market advantage and health problems - a study on causal relationships using prospective register data.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources. PMID:22727652

  9. The effects of cancer on older workers in the English labour market.

    PubMed

    Candon, David

    2015-07-01

    The continued rise in overall cancer survival rates has ignited a field of research which examines the effect that cancer has on survivors' employment. Previous estimates of the effect of cancer on labour market outcomes, using U.S. data, show significant reductions in employment in the first 6 months after diagnosis. However, this impact has been found to dissipate after 12 and 18 months. I use data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and find that, in England, where there is a more generous welfare support system, not only does cancer have a negative impact in the first 6-month period following diagnosis, but also in the second 6-month period. I estimate that, in the second 6-month period after diagnosis, respondents with cancer are 12.2% points less likely to work and work 4.2 fewer hours a week when compared to matched, healthy controls. This suggests that the negative effects from cancer can persist for longer than the six months identified previously. These results have implications for government policy and employers, because it increases the length of time that survivors may be on government supported sick pay, and the expected time that workers will be absent from work due to illness. PMID:25965970

  10. Valuing Diversity: Guidance for Labour Market Integration of Migrants. Working Paper No 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno da Fonseca, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Europe faces an increase in the age of its natural population and a reduction in available labour force. The retirement of a highly qualified workforce, alongside a rise in demand for medium- and high-skilled workers, will likely result in labour shortages in several sectors and countries. The movement of qualified, third-country immigrants into…

  11. The Unacknowledged Value of Female Academic Labour Power for Male Research Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angervall, Petra; Beach, Dennis; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Academic work in Sweden's higher education system is changing character. Distinctly different career pathways are emerging, as facilities for developing research careers and capital have become both more restricted and more dependent on external funding. These developments are in focus in the present article. Based on ethnographic research and a…

  12. Palestinian labour mobility.

    PubMed

    Shaban, R A

    1993-01-01

    "Following an overview of demographic and migratory trends since the late 1960s, the article examines labour force participation and analyses the distribution of Palestinian workers between the three labour markets in which they participate: the domestic market of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Israeli market and the Arab market, consisting chiefly of Jordan and the oil-rich Arab states. Since 1982 there has been a contraction of employment opportunities for Palestinians in the latter two labour markets. Domestic job creation is one of the main tasks confronting the Palestinian administration to be set up under the 1993 Israel/PLO agreement." PMID:12287545

  13. Is the core-periphery labour market structure related to perceived health? findings of the Northern Swedish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is controversy as to whether peripheral employment is related to poor health status or not. This study aims at examining whether 1) the accumulation of time in peripheral labour market positions is associated with psychological distress and poor or average self-rated health; 2) the proposed association is different among women than among men. Method Participants in the 1995 and 2007 follow-up surveys of the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 985) completed self-administered questionnaires about psychological and general health and about employment positions during the follow-up years. Associations between 12 year peripheral labour market positions (no, low, medium and high exposure) and health were examined using logistic regression. Results Exposure to peripheral employment was positively related to psychological distress in both women and men (p-values for trend < 0.001). Adjustment for sociodemographics and psychological distress at baseline, as well as for unemployment and being out of the labour market at the follow-up, resulted in attenuation of the odds ratios, particularly in the group with high exposure to peripheral employment, although results remained significant in men in the fully adjusted model. Women and men with high exposure to peripheral employment had high odds of poor or average self-rated health, but the association was rendered non-significant after adjustment for the covariates. Conclusions Our findings suggest that exposure to peripheral employment positions has an impact particularly on mental health, partly due to the over-representation of other unfavourable social and employment conditions among those with substantial exposure to peripheral employment. PMID:22202436

  14. Education and Labour Market Entry across Europe: The Impact of Institutional Arrangements in Training Systems and Labour Markets. Working Papers = Arbeitspapiere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangl, Markus

    Education is the main resource for obtaining employment for young people entering the labor market. European countries differ widely in the institutional structure of their education and training systems and labor markets in that different resources are provided to school-leavers entering into working life in different countries and these new…

  15. Publication metrics and success on the academic job market.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, David; Manor, Ohad; Carey, Lucas B

    2014-06-01

    The number of applicants vastly outnumbers the available academic faculty positions. What makes a successful academic job market candidate is the subject of much current discussion [1-4]. Yet, so far there has been no quantitative analysis of who becomes a principal investigator (PI). We here use a machine-learning approach to predict who becomes a PI, based on data from over 25,000 scientists in PubMed. We show that success in academia is predictable. It depends on the number of publications, the impact factor (IF) of the journals in which those papers are published, and the number of papers that receive more citations than average for the journal in which they were published (citations/IF). However, both the scientist's gender and the rank of their university are also of importance, suggesting that non-publication features play a statistically significant role in the academic hiring process. Our model (www.pipredictor.com) allows anyone to calculate their likelihood of becoming a PI. PMID:24892909

  16. The "Childcare Champion"? New Labour, Social Justice and the Childcare Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Vincent, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Childcare as a policy issue has received unprecedented attention under New Labour, through various aspects of the National Childcare Strategy introduced in 1998. This policy focus looks set to continue, with the government announcing the first ever 10-year plan for childcare in December 2004, and childcare playing a major role in the 2005…

  17. Acquired and Required Competencies in Interactive Computer in Labour Market Sector from the Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adodo, S. O.; Adewole, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated acquired and required competencies in interactive computer technology (ICT) in labour data were collected from employers' and employees'. The study is a descriptive research of the survey type. The population of the study consisted of unemployed graduates, employed graduates and various parastatal where graduates seek for…

  18. More of the Same? New Labour, the Coalition and Education: Markets, Localism and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw out the continuities and ruptures in current English education policy. In particular it considers the relationship between Coalition policy rhetoric and that of the Labour Party. Although the paper is concerned with the British and more specifically English context, it examines a range of questions that move beyond that…

  19. The Labour Market Situation of EU and of Third Country Nationals in the European Union. Labour Market Research Topics No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiehl, Melanie; Werner, Heinz

    The nonnational population and labor force in the 15 European Union (EU) member states were characterized from the standpoints of size and structure, and the labor market conditions faced by nationals and nonnationals were compared. In 1995, the nonnational labor force in the EU totaled approximately 7.8 million; nearly 3 million were citizens of…

  20. Marketing Today's Academic Library: A Bold New Approach to Communicating with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In "Marketing Today's Academic Library", the author uses his vast experience to speak directly to the academic library practitioner about matching services with user needs. This book proposes new visions and ideas, challenging the traditional way of thinking and providing a framework to target users more precisely. Most library marketing intended…

  1. The Effect of Culture on the Academic Honesty of Marketing and Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payan, Janice; Reardon, James; McCorkle, Denny E.

    2010-01-01

    Two trends in marketing higher education include (a) growing opportunities for intercultural encounters in the classroom and (b) a growing concern about student academic honesty. Research regarding the relationship between specific cultural measures and academic honesty is sparse in the context of marketing and business programs in higher…

  2. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…

  3. "Make Your Own Way There": An Agenda for Young People in the Modern Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spierings, John

    The problems facing young people in Australia's current labor market and the effectiveness of Australia's educational system in preparing young people for the labor market were examined. Particular attention was paid to the following issues: the reshaping of work in the modern labor market; skill development in the modern labor market; the impact…

  4. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-01-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008–2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  5. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  6. A Bermuda Triangle of Policy? "Bad Jobs", Skills Policy and Incentives to Learn at the Bottom End of the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; James, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A focus of Government policy has been the need to ensure that those at the lower end of the labour market invest in their human capital through re-engaging with learning, which has been assumed to enable progress into better-paid employment. This article explores the problems created by "bad jobs" and the evidence for the existence of a set of…

  7. Education and Labour Market Transitions in Young Adulthood. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 075

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaienks, Danielle; Gluszynski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood is filled with major life events and pursuing higher education is one of the most common transitions. It is also the time when many young adults enter the labour market, move out of their parents' household and begin family formation. These significant events affect each other and impact the rest of their lives. Given the…

  8. Safety in Stereotypes? The Impact of Gender and "Race" on Young People's Perceptions of Their Post-Compulsory Education and Labour Market Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Vanessa; Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of gender and "race" on young people's perceptions of the educational and labour market opportunities available to them after they complete their compulsory schooling in England. Its findings are based on a study of the views of girls and boys about the government-supported "Apprenticeships" programme, which,…

  9. Matching Higher Education with the Labour Market in the Knowledge Economy: The Much-Needed Reform of University Governance in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavoletti, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that in the knowledge economy and in the context of the current restrictions on public finance, matching the output of higher education with the needs of the labour market is not simply one of many key issues for policy makers addressing the sustainability of higher education: it is "the" issue. As the sources of funding for…

  10. The Power of the Purse: Student Funding and the Labour Market for Dutch Reformed and Catholic Theology Students, 1800-1880

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalk, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Several European countries were unable to match student numbers with labour market demand during the nineteenth century. The causes of this mismatch may be found in the organisation of higher education and the funding of students. Drawing on a variety of sources, this paper compares financial support available to Reformed and Catholic theology…

  11. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  12. An Unfinished Job? The Effect of Subject Choice and Family Formation Processes on Labour Market Outcomes of Young Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquet, Nils; Glorieux, Ignace; Laurijssen, Ilse; Van Dorsselaer, Yolis

    2010-01-01

    Despite their generally higher educational attainment, young women are characterised by lower labour market positions than men in Belgium. Using regression and decomposition analyses on data from the longitudinal SONAR survey on the transition from school to work, we examine to what extent subject choice and processes of family formation can…

  13. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Tertiary Education Providers & School Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for tertiary education providers and school educators from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between…

  14. The Battle over Professorship: Reform of Human Resource Management and Academic Careers in a Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majcher, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Changing conditions of academic and scientific labour markets challenge the current conceptual thinking about the mechanisms of academic promotion, selection and recruitment. This paper explores the models of academic promotion and recruitment of professors in a comparative perspective using the examples of Poland and Germany, and addresses the…

  15. Effect of labour market conditions on reporting of limiting long-term illness and permanent sickness in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, R; Bentham, G; Lovett, A; Eimermann, J

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify any bias in the reporting of limiting long term illness and permanent sickness due to labour market conditions, and show the absence of the effect in mortality rates. DESIGN: A geographically based study using data from the 1991 census. Standardised ratios for mortality and long term illness in people aged 0-64 years and permanent sickness in people of working age were compared with Carstairs deprivation scores in multilevel models which separated the effects operating at three geographical scales: census wards, travel to work areas, and standard regions. Holding ward and regional effects constant, variations between travel to work areas were compared with long term unemployment rates. SETTING: Altogether 8690 wards and 262 travel to work areas in England and Wales. MAIN RESULTS: Variations in mortality, limiting long term illness, and permanent sickness were related to Carstairs deprivation scores and standard region. With these relationships controlled, limiting long term illness and permanent sickness were significantly related to long term unemployment levels in travel to work areas, but mortality was not affected. Self reported morbidity was more sensitive to variations in long term unemployment rates in conditions of high social deprivation than in affluent populations. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting long term illness and permanent sickness measures may reflect a tendency for higher positive response in difficult labour market conditions. For average social deprivation conditions, standardised limiting long term illness for people aged 0-64 years was 20% higher in travel to work areas where employment prospects were relatively poor compared with areas with relatively good employment prospects. This casts doubt on the use of limiting long term illness as an indicator of objective health care needs for resource allocation purposes at national level. PMID:9229058

  16. Contingent and Marginalised? Academic Development and Part-Time Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Academics employed on non-standard contracts are a numerically significant part of the labour market in higher education. Concerns about access to formal academic development for this staff group have been articulated in many countries in the context of increasing emphasis on teaching quality assessment and employment regulation of "non-permanent"…

  17. Towards a New Theory of Gender Inequities in Labour Market Outcomes of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Liz

    Attempts to explain sex-related wage differentials generally rely on the human capital and segmentation labor market theories. The human capital theory explains individuals' position in the labor market primarily in terms of factors determining their productivity, whereas segmentation theory focuses on differences among jobs as determinants of the…

  18. Higher Education and the Labour Market in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich; Sanyal, Bikas C.

    Reviewing the trends in employment statistics and higher educational planning in postwar Western Germany, the authors emphasize the role of political policy as they trace the development of the mixed use of both market-orientation and the more traditional research-orientation in preparing higher education students for the job market. After a…

  19. Was It Worth It? Gender Boundaries and the Role of Adult Education in Labour Market Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 31 men and 43 women in Scotland indicated that most felt participation in adult education had direct or indirect effects on their labor market progress. A significant number had unintended labor market outcomes. Although many women were in low-paying jobs, only 10% had reservations about job satisfaction compared to one-third of…

  20. Education and the Labour Market: Subjective Aspects of Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, John; Turton, Richard; Diamond, Wayne; Dosnon, Odile; Wach, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Explores subjective aspects of human-capital investment decisions in education. Explores connections that 11th- and 13th-year British students perceive between their education and the labor market, and between qualifications mechanisms and life chances. Most students believe education plays a market-signaling role and a marginal role in raising…

  1. Do Colleges Have an Effect on the Labour Market Success of Their Graduates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, Roel; And Others

    This article explores the following questions: first, "Do colleges of higher vocational education vary in the mean success of their graduates on the labor market?" and, second, "Are the differences between these colleges stable over time?". The analysis drew upon school effectiveness, quality assurance and labor market research. The school…

  2. Changing Labour Markets in Europe: The Role of Institutions and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains five papers on the role of institutions in changing labor markets in Europe. "Introduction" (Peter Auer) explores the following topics: institutions and labor market forces; macroeconomic policy; redistribution of working times; equality of opportunity; and industrial relations and social dialogue. "Small-Economy Macroeconomics"…

  3. The Transition from Higher Education to the Labour Market: International Perspectives and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlert, Holger, Ed.; Cordier, Heidi, Ed.

    This book examines the transition from higher education to the labor market in 10 countries. Although the individual papers do not follow a rigid standard format, they all consider the following issues: (1) how the labor market for graduates is organized; (2) how vocational orientation is achieved in degree courses in individual countries; and (3)…

  4. The Academic Labour Market: Economic and Social Aspects of a Profession. Studies on Education; Vol. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth L.; And Others

    The expansion of higher education in Great Britain since World War II has been accompanied by a corresponding growth in research and publications analyzing its causes and consequences. Many have seen it as a forerunner of a type of social organization, the "post-industrial society," one in which educational and scientific training and knowledge…

  5. Temporal Adjustment in Academic Labor Markets: Time to Ph.D. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, Charlotte V.

    A research project is described that concerns "temporal adjustment" as one form of a non-wage adjustment in the academic labor market. Receipt of the doctorate, the number and length of post-doctoral fellowships, and the achievement of tenure are temporal factors in academic careers. The change in timing of these factors is a form of adjustment to…

  6. Demographic Profiling--A Determination of Academic Performance in a Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneke, J.; Beeming, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the direct effect of demographic variables on academic outcomes. The study concludes that ethnic group plays a pivotal role in determining the academic performance of students registered for the Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management at the University of Cape Town. White students (presumed to emanate from a privileged…

  7. The Effect of Action Orientation on the Academic Performance of Undergraduate Marketing Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Spector, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the effect of academic performance on employment opportunities and admission to graduate schools, researchers have long recognized the need for identifying factors that are linked to the academic performance of undergraduate marketing students. This research proposes a model that investigates the relationships among motivation, effort,…

  8. Labour Market Conditions and Training Effort: Evidence from the Plastics Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Don; Hastings, Trevor

    1993-01-01

    Presents data on the training effort within the Australian Plastics Industry; assesses how training activity is related to actual and perceived labor market conditions in the industry; and discusses the main theoretical arguments regarding industry involvement in skills formation. (JOW)

  9. The Labour Market as the Driving Force of Belgian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielemans, Willy

    1988-01-01

    An examination of internal and external forces on Belgian higher education suggests that the system is too closely controlled by economic and political forces in the labor market, which threatens to distort university life and higher education in general. (MSE)

  10. A Review of the Participation of Disabled Persons in the Labour Force: The Kenyan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opini, Bathseba M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the challenges that disabled people experience in participating in the Kenyan labour market. It draws on existing literature and on a narrative of the experiences of one disabled academic in a Kenyan university to highlight some of the forms of discrimination that disabled people have to cope with in their…

  11. Ph.D.'s and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartter, Allan M.

    How can new candidates for a Ph.D. tell whether a job in teaching or research will be waiting for them when they finally get their doctorates? How can colleges and universities plan now for adequate and efficient academic staffing in the 1980's? This document attempts to improve academic manpower forecasts and forecasting methods that reduce…

  12. Lessons We Can Learn from Other Countries. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz; Konig, Ingeborg

    This document contains three papers from an international conference on "ways and means for more employment." The first paper, "Employment Policy Comparisons and Policy Advice" (Ulrich Walwei), covers the German labor market in the second half of the 1990s and requirements for longer-term employment success through coping with structural change…

  13. Bookworms and Party Animals: An Artificial Labour Market with Human and Social Capital Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and are unemployed less often. Some researchers believe that education improves a worker's productivity (or "human capital"), making them more desirable on the job market, while others believe that it improves a worker's network (or "social capital"), giving them more…

  14. Special Features of the Finnish Labour Market and Challenges for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita

    Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement…

  15. Qualification and Employment Opportunities. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Angela; Reinberg, Alexander

    Official German unemployment statistics were analyzed along with data from Germany's microcensus and other published sources to identify recent labor market trends and to clarify the relationship between qualifications and employment opportunities in the new German economy. The analysis revealed that, as has been true for years, the lower the…

  16. The impact of migration policy on the labour market performance of migrants: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Blos, M; Fischer, P A; Straubhaar, T

    1997-10-01

    Some anticipated differences were found between the labor market performance of migrant groups in Sweden and Switzerland. However, contrary to the results of studies in other countries, the authors' data suggest that migration policy has had only a small impact upon migrants' labor market performance. In their examination of the impact of migration policy upon the labor market performance of migrants in Sweden and Switzerland, the authors focus upon the income and employment of groups of foreign residents relative to natives and explore sociodemographic characteristics and educational policies. The Swedish and Swiss migration policies differ in their approaches to achieving desired ends. Swiss policy has been economically oriented, considering migrants as merely temporary guests and lacking any explicit integration policy. In contrast, however, Swedish policy stressed humanitarian and political aspects, rejecting migration for economic labor reasons and striving for the long-term integration of foreigners admitted to the country. Relative income performance differences between migrant groups and natives in the two countries were small in 1991, and migrants' performance in the two labor markets appears to have been determined especially by the interplay of microeconomic characteristics of migrants and the microeconomic state and transition of the host country's economy. PMID:12179831

  17. Education and Labour Market in the OECD-CERI Educational Indicators Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Aurea

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-CERI) Educational Indicators Project (INES), initiated in 1988, is described in this paper, which focuses on the development of "Network B" to study education and labor market destinations (Network B is one of four networks set up by the project, each of which was assigned a different…

  18. Mature Age Workers: Are They a Disadvantaged Group in the Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenHeuvel, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Although a majority work full time, many mature-age workers (45 and older) are clearly at a disadvantage in the Australian labor market. Average unemployment duration is long, many unwillingly work part time or are underemployed, and their likelihood of unemployment is very high, especially for older women. (JOW)

  19. Labour Market Segmentation and Women's Employment: A Case-Study from the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Christine; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A summary of evidence from a study of payment structures in six industries in three local labor markets in the United Kingdom is used to show that the conditions under which labor is made available exert an influence on wages that is relatively independent of the skill, experience, and effort of the workers concerned. (Author/CT)

  20. The Labour Market Impacts of High Technology: Implications for the Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Laura J.

    Implications for universities of high technology industries and the labor market are unclear. There is a need to ease the transition for those categories of workers who will be affected: women, low- and medium-skill workers in manufacturing, and certain categories of middle-level managers. The provision of highly qualified personnel is the…

  1. The Labour Market of Schooling: Maltese Girls in Education and Economic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmanin, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Examines relationships between schooling, the economy, and employment for Maltese girls and women. Despite their abilities, girls lower their aspirations to match available jobs or do not enter the labor market. Rising educational standards and social awareness have led to Maltese females' reluctance to participate in the work force. (RLC)

  2. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munich, Daniel; Jurajda, Stepan; Cihak, Martin

    The current recession in the Czech Republic is driven by aggregate demand, unsustainable growth of wages, weak enforcement of the legal system, non-operational bankruptcy law, and poor corporate governance. The wage dispersion has been growing continuously, and wage setting has become increasingly more responsive to market forces. Education has…

  3. Labour Market Relevance of European University Education. From Enrolment to Professional Employment in 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the education policy which puts human capital at its heart, higher education is expected to produce marketable competent professionals in response to the needs of an expansive knowledge-based economy. In one reading, to support competitive knowledge-based economy, higher education students should graduate as young and fast as…

  4. Comparative Analysis of Labour Market Outcomes of Graduates and Non-Graduates from Manitoba Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Labor and Manpower, Winnipeg.

    A survey of the 5,278 students who either graduated (N=3,095) or withdrew (N=2,183) from the Manitoba community colleges during 1978 was conducted during 1979 to determine: (1) the employment status of the students; (2) their earnings; (3) the number of weeks spent in the labor market before and after college enrollment; (4) the number of weeks…

  5. Flexible Labour Markets and the Adult Learner: Are We Knocking on a Locked Door?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uden, Tony

    1995-01-01

    The "other" flexible work force includes the unemployed and low-wage, part-time, temporary, and seasonal workers who are flexible but not by choice. The new labor market may be limited in terms of demand for high skills but may have great need for unskilled, disposable workers. (SK)

  6. Job Placement Regimes in Europe: Trends and Impacts of Changes. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konle-Seidl, Regina; Walwei, Ulrich

    Trends in job placement in Europe and the effects of advances in information and communication technologies on job placement practices were examined through case studies of France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The case studies revealed that the market shares of public employment services (PES) are generally higher than those…

  7. Homeland Security Education: Managerial versus Nonmanagerial Market Perspectives of an Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Daniel; Henley, Russ; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Jones, Don; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; Sumrall, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the findings of a market study that preceded the offering of an academic program in homeland security. The university disseminated a mail survey to gain data for analysis of variance testing of several hypotheses regarding market perceptions of the intended homeland security program offering. Stratification involved segregating…

  8. Explaining health marginalisation of the lower educated: the role of cross-national variations in health expenditure and labour market conditions.

    PubMed

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have shown ample cross-national variation in the risk that lower educated people run to be in poor health. However, explanations for this cross-national variation are still scarce. In this article we aim at filling this lacuna by investigating to what extent cross-national variation in the health gap between the lower and higher educated in Europe is explained by governmental health expenditure, namely, how much governments contribute to a country's total healthcare costs, and labour market conditions, that is, unemployment rates and modernisation of the labour market. We used information from the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2008 on more than 90,000 individuals in 32 European nations, and estimated hierarchical models with cross-level interactions to test our expectations. Our results show that the relative risk of being in poor health of lower educated individuals is smaller in countries where the government spends much on healthcare and with a highly modernised labour market. PMID:21834939

  9. [Patients who are in danger of being dropped from the labour-market. A study from family practice].

    PubMed

    Claussen, B; Nygård, J F

    1994-06-20

    During one week, 60 general practitioners in different parts of Norway registered those of their patients whom they believed were in danger of falling out of the labour market. Patients who risked losing their job completely constituted 12% (95% confidence interval 10-14%) of all patients aged 16-66 years. The fear of possible permanent lack of employment arose in connection with plans for a disability pension in 39% of the patients, vocational rehabilitation in 18%, current unemployment in 18% and long-term sickness certification in 16%. The doctors considered a disability pension in the case of only a quarter of the patients, while more patients, one third, had plans to apply for one. The doctors did not seem to act as promoters of early retirement. On the contrary, they often recommended vocational rehabilitation, even though earlier studies have shown that doctors are generally pessimistic about the chances of success in present day Norway. If the Government wants the doctors' help in promoting its policy of employment rather than social security benefit it will have to take practical steps to support their efforts to encourage vocational rehabilitation. PMID:8079295

  10. Hard Labour? Academic Work and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.; White, Julie, Ed.; Gunter, Helen M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book was written across a period of intense turmoil and change in higher education in Australia and England. The authors are deeply unsettled by these changes and wish to open up the discussion about what it means to be an academic and engage in academic work in the 21st century. Accordingly, each of the authors has nominated a theme or lens…

  11. Marketing the University: The Subjective Perceptions of Israeli Academics of Their Role in Attracting New Students to Their Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Israeli academics' perceptions of the introduction of educational markets and, particularly, their attitudes towards academics' roles and responsibilities in the new marketing-led university, as well as to obtain a greater understanding of their actual patterns of involvement in the marketing of…

  12. Challenges of Student Selection: Predicting Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, D.; de Beer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Finding accurate predictors of tertiary academic performance, specifically for disadvantaged students, is essential because of budget constraints and the need of the labour market to address employment equity. Increased retention, throughput and decreased dropout rates are vital. When making admission decisions, the under preparedness of students…

  13. Action programme to strengthen the position of women in the labour market, March 1985.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In March 1985, the Swedish Parliament allocated financial resources for an action program to strengthen the position of women in the labor market. This program is based on the recognition that special efforts are needed to interest girls in technical subjects at preschool age and to support women entering occupational fields where men predominate. The program includes: special technology courses for girls in grades eight and nine; further training of teaching and vocational personnel concerning equal opportunities; an experimental training scheme for women whose jobs are threatened by new technology; supportive back-up groups or study circles for women who have opted for nontraditional occupations; and the appointment of a special study group to analyze conditions for women in connection with structural changes in industry. The Government also instructed the National Board of Education to follow the progress of upper secondary school girls taking technical lines of study and to ascertain the extent to which special supporting measures are needed. PMID:12289304

  14. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, Lowell L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  15. Talent Wars: The International Market for Academic Staff. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to raise awareness and understanding among policy-makers and UK higher institutions of the international dimensions of academic staff recruitment and the factors that may influence it. This briefing summarises recent research and considers its implications for institutions and for national policies. Annex A contains:…

  16. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  17. [Two Lebanese villages in the Gulf: village transfers and labour markets].

    PubMed

    Nancy, M

    1985-01-01

    This article analyzes the experiences of 2 cohorts of Lebanese emigrants who departed from 2 dissimilar villages, a large agricultural village called Kfar Rumman with a tradition of significant migration to Kuwait beginning in 1950 and a small village called Kaakour located 30 km from Beirut in which agriculture is secondary to stonecutting and emigration to Saudi Arabia has assumed importance more recently. Among 168 current or formar migrants to Kuwait from Kfar-Rumman, 125 are still in Kuwait, almost all with their families. Members of the same village and family have shown great solidarity over 30 years in helping new migrants find jobs, and their network of friendships and alliances in Kuwait has allowed them to diversify their employment opportunities. Transport and construction were the dominant employment of the 1st 75 migrants who entered Kuwait between 1950-60; they were adroit in building up small businesses in Kuwait and in departing for Saudi Arabia or elsewhere when the construction boom slowed in Kuwait and better opportunities arose elsewhere. Among other jobs, migrants in Kuwait worked in plumbing, furniture making, interior decoration, printing, administrative and other salaried employment in the public or private sector, and iron working and transport. The history of Kfar-Rumman in Kuwait depended greatly on the solidarity and collective life of the village, which greatly reduced the external constraints of the labor market and applied internal economic capacities to the most promising situations. Villagers from Kaakour began migrating to Saudi Arabia in 1958; by 1973 the pace had accelarated greatly due to the oil boom. Until 1974 they had little difficulty establishing themselves as stonecutters and in related trades, but competition increased thereafter with the arrival of stoneworkers from other Arab countries and especially after 1978 with the entrance of Asian workers. Village migrants showed great mobility; most workers were single or left

  18. Whither the Faculty? The Changing Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jack H.

    1995-01-01

    Factors affecting the college faculty labor market now and in the future are examined, including the difficulties of forecasting teacher demand through enrollments and faculty turnover, economic and political conditions, the end of mandatory retirement, immigration issues, need for staffing flexibility, and emerging technology. Early attention to…

  19. Academic Preparation for International Pre-MBA's in Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Kay

    Adjustments to the case study approach are recommended to address three major areas of difficulty for foreign students in master's-level marketing education programs: (1) language-related problems; (2) unfamiliar class format and methodology; and (3) lack of cultural background knowledge. For language-related problems, case studies are a good…

  20. Marketing Technology. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for marketing technology. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 580 specialty and foundation key indicators for evaluating mastery of…

  1. The Market for Academic Knowledge: Its Historical Emergence and Inherent Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weik, Elke

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion about the marketisation of universities by providing a historical perspective. Going back to the time when the market for academic knowledge emerged, I argue that it was created through incorporating a number of inherent tensions that have been, and still are, shaping its development. I show how these…

  2. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. Methods We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18–34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969–1982. Beginning from the year of each subject’s 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7–16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Results Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. Conclusions These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers. PMID:25938764

  3. Gender Equity in the Academic Labor Market: An Analysis of Academic Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbach, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the effect of human capital, structural characteristics of the discipline, and disciplinary labor market conditions on faculty salaries. Faculty in disciplines characterized by relatively low demand, high teaching loads, and low amounts of research funding earn less than do faculty in…

  4. Investment in Human Capital: Vocational vs. Academic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The dilemma of providing effective education particularly in developing countries with limited resources and ambiguous calculations of rates of return due to unstable economies and labour market fluctuations makes it an absolute necessity to consider costs and benefits associated both with academic and vocational education. Through argumentation…

  5. Labour market participation after breast cancer for employees from the private and public sectors: Educational and sector gradients in the effect of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Heinesen, Eskil

    2016-05-01

    For employees who get cancer and survive, the probability of returning to work may depend on their ability to work, potential earnings losses if they do not return to work, qualifications and job type, but also on characteristics of the pre-cancer workplace. This paper focuses on differences between public and private sector employees in the effect of breast cancer on the probability of being out of the labour force three years after the diagnosis. We use propensity score weighting methods and a large longitudinal Danish administrative dataset which allows us to control for a wide range of important baseline characteristics such as education, sector of employment, labour market status, income, health, and demographics. We find that the educational gradient in the effect of cancer is significant in the public sector, where the estimated effects are 11.5 and 3.8 percentage points, respectively, for the low- and high-educated. The corresponding estimates for the private sector are 6.2 and 3.2 percentage points and here the educational gradient is only marginally significant. We discuss possible mechanisms behind the large sector gradient for the low-educated. PMID:26744998

  6. University Aviation Degree Courses: A Study of Labour Market and Student Retention Challenges for Sustainable Course Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Devinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Universities offering aviation degree courses face a dilemma when integrating flying training, which is vocational skills training, into an academic degree programme. Whilst flying training for a pilot's licence is provided by flying schools regulated by a country's Civil Aviation Authority, the HE sector is responsible for the academic standards…

  7. Graduating in Canada: Profile, Labour Market Outcomes and Student Debt of the Class of 2005. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 074

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayard, Justin; Greenlee, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the educational experiences, labour market outcomes and financing of higher education of recent graduates for Canadian postsecondary education institutions using data from the 2007 National Graduates Survey (Class of 2005). The first section describes the characteristics of graduates from college, bachelor, master and…

  8. Identification and Development of Academic and Higher-Order Workplace Competencies in the Missouri Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Section I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; Wilkinson, Richard F.

    This document provides an overview of a project to identify the basic academic skills, advanced academic skills, and the higher-order workplace competencies for marketing education. It describes the following project activities: review of current literature and research in the field; review by business and industry representatives of the skills…

  9. An Academic-Marketing Collaborative to Promote Depression Care: A Tale of Two Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Bell, Robert A.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Duberstein, Paul; Riby, Caroline H.; Caccamo, Anthony F.; Slee, Christina K.; Cipri, Camille S.; Paterniti, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Commercial advertising and patient education have separate theoretical underpinnings, approaches, and practitioners. This paper aims to describe a collaboration between academic researchers and a marketing firm working to produce demographically targeted public service anouncements (PSAs) designed to enhance depression care-seeking in primary care. Methods An interdisciplinary group of academic researcherss contracted with a marketing firm in Rochester, NY to produce PSAs that would help patients with depressive symptoms engage more effectively with their primary care physicians (PCPs). The researchers brought perspectives derived from clinical experience and the social sciences and conducted empirical research using focus groups, conjoint analysis, and a population-based survey. Results were shared with the marketing firm, which produced four PSA variants targeted to gender and socioeconomic position. Results There was no simple, one-to-one relationship between research results and the form, content, or style of the PSAs. Instead, empirical findings served as a springboard for discussion and kept the creative process tethered to the experiences, attitudes, and opinions of actual patients. Reflecting research findings highlighting patients’ struggles to recognize, label, and disclose depressive symptoms, the marketing firm generated communication objectives that emphasized: a) educating the patient to consider and investigate the possibility of depression; b) creating the belief that the PCP is interested in discussing depression and capable of offering helpful treatment; and c) modelling different ways of communicating with physicians about depression. Before production, PSA prototypes were vetted with additional focus groups. The winning prototype, “Faces,” involved a multi-ethnic montage of formerly depressed persons talking about how depression affected them and how they improved with treatment, punctuated by a physician who provided clinical

  10. History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Gustafsson, Per E; Hammarström, Anne; Virtanen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12 years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status. Design Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. Setting and participants All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Luleå in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included. Measures Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires. Results We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: ‘permanent’, ‘high level’, ‘strengthening’ and ‘poor level’ of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model. Conclusions Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health. PMID:24531448

  11. Sick leave and the impact of job-to-job mobility on the likelihood of remaining on the labour market - a longitudinal Swedish register study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Change of job could be a strategy in vocational rehabilitation when return to the original job is not possible, but research is very limited concerning the effects of job mobility on the future vocational situation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether job-to-job mobility affects the likelihood of remaining on the labour market over time among persons who are employed and have experienced long-term sick leave. Methods In a longitudinal register study, cohorts from three base years (1994, 1999 and 2004) were created, based on the Swedish population who were 20–60 years old, had sickness allowance insurance, and were employed in the base year and the following year (n > 3,000,000). The likelihood that individuals on long-term sick leave were employed later depending on whether or not they changed workplace during the present or next year of long-term sick leave was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Age, sector, industry, children, marital status, education, income, rate of sick leave and earlier sick leave and earlier mobility were taken into consideration. Results Women with more than 180 days’ sick leave who changed workplaces were more likely to have a job later compared with those who did not change jobs. For men, the association was statistically significant with 1994 and 2004 as base years, but not in the cohort from 1999. Conclusions The present study indicates that for those on long-term sick leave that changed workplaces, the opportunities to stay on the labour market might increase. However, the study has methodological limitations and the results for men are ambiguous. We do not therefore have enough evidence for recommending job change as a strategy for vocational rehabilitation. PMID:24694029

  12. Do employment protection policies reduce the relative disadvantage in the labour market experienced by unhealthy people? A natural experiment created by the Great Recession in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; Mackenbach, Johan; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008-2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008-2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (<7% fall in GDP), each additional unit of employment protection reduced job loss risk (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90). Before the recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are

  13. Premature labour

    PubMed Central

    Koh, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Prematurity is by far the commonest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The management of premature labour is empirical because little is understood about the mechanism of labour. Effective uterine relaxant drugs have an important, albeit minor role. Phototherapy has reduced the complications of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and the beneficial effect of antepartum corticosteroid therapy in minimizing the risk of respiratory distress syndrome is now convincing. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in premature rupture of the membranes does not alter perinatal mortality, although postpartum maternal morbidity is reduced. The introduction of neonatal intensive care units has improved the survival rate of premature infants. Sound clinical judgement remains the mainstay in the management of premature labour. PMID:4217

  14. The Effects of Academic Market Value on the Outliers of a Multi-Variant Regression Analysis of Faculty Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William A.; Sperber, William E.

    Three models to describe university salary structure were assessed. Attention was focused on full-time, permanent faculty in ranks of instructor through full professor. Model I postulated that the internal labor market is uninfluenced by the external academic market. The results of model I were compared to the results of a model that adjusted for…

  15. Is there a role for academic medical centers in emerging markets?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Charles M; Thompson, Steven J; Wu, Sandford; Chellappa, Mohan; Hasham, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Governments in emerging markets face mounting challenges in managing health spending, building capability and capacity, modernizing ageing infrastructure, and investing in skills and resources. One path to overcoming these challenges is to establish new public-private models of health care development and delivery based on United States academic medical centers, whose missions are to advance medical education and clinical delivery. Johns Hopkins Medicine is a participant in the collaboration developing between the Perdana University Hospital and the Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Malaysia. These two organizations comprise an academic health science center based on the United States model. The Perdana project provides constructive insights into the opportunities and challenges that governments, universities, and the private sector face when introducing new models of patient care that are integrated with medical education, clinical training, and biomedical research. PMID:23484425

  16. Welfare state, labour market inequalities and health. In a global context: an integrated framework. SESPAS report 2010.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo; Edwin, N G; Schrecker, Ted

    2010-12-01

    Since the nineteen seventies, high- and low-income countries have undergone a pattern of transnational economic and cultural integration known as globalization. The weight of the available evidence suggests that the effects of globalization on labor markets have increased economic inequality and various forms of economic insecurity that negatively affect workers' health. Research on the relation between labor markets and health is hampered by the social invisibility of many of these health inequalities. Empirical evidence of the impact of employment relations on health inequalities is scarce for low-income countries, small firms, rural settings, and sectors of the economy in which "informality" is widespread. Information is also scarce on the effectiveness of labor market interventions in reducing health inequalities. This pattern is likely to continue in the future unless governments adopt active labor market policies. Such policies include creating jobs through state intervention, regulating the labor market to protect employment, supporting unions, and ensuring occupational safety and health standards. PMID:21075490

  17. Designing the Framework Conditions for Assuring Academic Standards: Lessons Learned about Professional, Market, and Government Regulation of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D.; Beerkens, Maarja

    2013-01-01

    The new demands of mass systems of higher education and the emerging environment of global academic competition are altering the traditional institutions for assuring academic standards in universities. As a consequence many nations are experimenting with new instruments for academic quality assurance. Contemporary government control of academic…

  18. Educational Leave and the Labour Market in Europe. A Study of the (Possible) Influence of Educational Leave on the State and the Development of the Labour Market in the Countries of the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degen, Gunther; Nuissl, Ekkehard

    A study examined existing provisions for educational leaves for employees in various countries throughout Europe and the impact of any such existing provisions on labor market development. Present provisions for educational leave in the countries studied appeared to have a worker withdrawal effect that was generally well under 0.1 percent of the…

  19. Education and Unemployment: Patterns of Labour Market Entry in France, the United Kingdom and West Germany. Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauns, Hildegard; Gangl, Markus; Scherer, Stefani

    This paper explores educational stratification of unemployment in early labor market career; its institutional embeddedness in specific education and employment systems; and youth unemployment in France (F), the United Kingdom (UK), and West Germany (G), which greatly differ relative to major institutional characteristics of education systems and…

  20. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. Six Months after High School: Class of '89 Follow-Up Survey One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    This developmental study focused on the process of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year, and a second, which…

  1. "You Have to Be Well Spoken": Students' Views on Employability within the Graduate Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Andrew Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study reports upon the perceptions of a sample of Education Studies undergraduates of their employability within three jobs: teaching, accountancy and marketing/sales management. The concept of employability is framed around two themes analysed through a Bernsteinian conceptual analysis: transferable utility of an Education Studies degree for…

  2. Education, Work and Employment--Volume II. Segmented Labour Markets, Workplace Democracy and Educational Planning, Education and Self-Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; And Others

    This volume contains three studies covering separate yet complementary aspects of the problem of the relationships between the educational system and the production system as manpower user. The first monograph on the theories of the markets seeks to answer two questions: what can be learned from the work done on the segmentation of the labor…

  3. Education and the Professionalization of Nursing: Non-Collective Action and the Erosion of Labour-Market Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, John

    2000-01-01

    Between 1984-1989, following establishment of the United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, a reform-oriented, noncollective professional project emerged that marooned 30 percent of the nursing work force in an obsolescent occupational group. UKCC eroded nursing's labor-market position with the National Health…

  4. Labour Market Problems and Psychological Well-Being: A Panel Study of Canadian Youth in Transition from School to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; Krahn, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Four-year panel survey data were used to examine the effects of well-being on school-to-work transition of Canadian youth. Such labor market problems as unemployment and underemployment had small, significant negative effects on self-esteem, depression, and powerlessness for high school graduates but not college graduates. Effects of education…

  5. Labour Market Flexibility. Report by a High-Level Group of Experts to the Secretary-General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Sustainable growth has economic policies addressed to current imbalances as its necessary, though not its sufficient, condition. Labor markets are important for the growth process; as the level of economic activity increases, they function better, and as they function better, the level of economic activity increases further. Labor market…

  6. Austerity, precariousness, and the health status of Greek labour market participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of employed and unemployed persons in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-11-01

    Greece implemented the deepest austerity package in Europe during the Great Recession (from 2008), including reductions in severance pay and redundancy notice periods. To evaluate whether these measures worsened labour market participants' health status, we compared changes in self-reported health using two cohorts of employed individuals in Greece from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. During the initial recession (2008-2009) we found that self-reported health worsened both for those remaining in employment and those who lost jobs. Similarly, during the austerity programme (2010-2011) people who lost jobs experienced greater health declines. Importantly, individuals who remained employed in 2011 were also 25 per cent more likely to experience a health decline than in 2009. These harms appeared concentrated in people aged 45-54 who lost jobs. Our study moves beyond existing findings by demonstrating that austerity both exacerbates the negative health consequences of job loss and worsens the health of those still employed. PMID:26290470

  7. Household income and health problems during a period of labour-market change and widening income inequalities - a study among the Finnish population between 1987 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Income inequalities widened considerably from 1987 to 2007 in Finland. We compared the association between household income and health problems across three periods and in several different ways of modelling the dependence. Our aim was to find out whether the change in the distribution of income might have led to wider income-related inequalities in health problems. The data represent an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population, and we restricted the analysed sample to those between 18 and 67 years of age and not in receipt of any pension in each of the three six-year periods examined (n between 280,106 and 291,198). The health outcome was sickness-allowance days compensated. Household-equivalent taxable income was applied with two different scale transformations: firstly, as real income adjusted for price level and secondly, as rank position on the income distribution. We used negative binomial regression models, with and without zero inflation, as well as decomposition analysis. We found that sickness-allowance days decreased with increasing income, while differences in the shape and magnitude of the association were found between the scales and the periods. During the study period the association strengthened considerably at both the lowest fifth and the top fifth of the rank scale, while the observed per-unit effect of real income changed less. Decomposition analysis suggested that slightly less than half of the observed increase in concentration of health problems at lower end of the rank scale could be accounted for by the change in real income distribution. The results indicate that widening differences in household consumption potential may have contributed to an intensified impact of household income on inequalities in health problems. Explaining the change only in terms of consumption potential, however, was problematic, and changes in the interdependence of labour-market advantage and health problems are likely to contribute as well. PMID

  8. Higher Education Teachers and Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constanti, Panikkos; Gibbs, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Service organizations are encouraged to consider the manner in which employees perform at the customer/front-line employee interface, as a means to gain competitive advantage. The employee's behaviour requires "emotional labour" where the front-line employee (academic), has to either conceal or manage actual feelings for the benefit of a…

  9. Diversity and Research Practices among Academics in South African Universities: Race for the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaver, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    Higher education systems, globally, are being called upon to effect changes in terms of widening student access and diversifying a previously homogenous academic staff profile. In South Africa, one of the main forces driving the diversification of academic staff is state policy in the form of employment equity legislation, with racial redress…

  10. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    recommendations in CONSORT-statement in designing and reporting RCTs. Discussion This large RCT is testing the effectiveness of a preventive intervention targeting patients on short term sick leave or at risk being sick listed because of low back pain. We have developed a novel multidisciplinary team structure using the treating physiotherapist as the return to work coordinator, and having the case manager from the municipal sickness benefit office participating in team meetings. The study has the potential to contribute to the knowledge about how to target the challenges in the treatment of LBP. The aim is to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion - both on the individual level and economic costs at community level. Short term results will be available in 2014. This study is approved by the Danish Regional Ethics Committee (J.nr: H-C-2008-112) and is registered at. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01690234 PMID:23496897

  11. 75 Years of the International Labour Review: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains 18 articles published in International Labour Review from 1921-1975 that discuss the International Labour Organisation, international labor movement and law, economics and the labor market, family security, full employment, population growth, industrial welfare, trade policy and employment growth, and income expectations and rural-urban…

  12. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

  13. Digital Marketing: The Time for a New "Academic Major" Has Arrived

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly emerging digital economy is challenging the relevance of existing marketing practices, and a radical redesign of the marketing curriculum consistent with the emerging student and business needs of the 21st century is required. To remain relevant to our students and to the ultimate consumers of our output, businesses, the marketing…

  14. Moving toward the Market and Away from Public Service? Effects of Resource Dependency and Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Thronton, Courtney H.

    2005-01-01

    Research-extensive land-grant institutions face the unique challenge of asking faculty to fulfill a historic mission of public service in a time of scarce resources. This article discusses the parallel between the effects of resource dependency and academic capitalism on the research enterprise and on public service endeavors through the…

  15. "Postdocs," Seeing Little Way Into the Academic Job Market, Seek Better Terms in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1998-01-01

    In sciences, postdoctoral fellowships have become the terminal academic credential for a research career. Positions are supposed to be temporary, but amount to a holding pattern for many unable to find permanent jobs in research or needing to assemble the required publishing record. Some institutions are beginning to acknowledge this problem and…

  16. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  17. Other Duties as Assigned: Emerging Trends in the Academic Library Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beile, Penny M.; Adams, Megan M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines 900 job announcements published in four journals in 1996 and uses content analysis to compare requirements and benefits among various positions in academic libraries. Compares results with an earlier study from 1988, including levels of computer skills, foreign language requirements, previous work experience, educational requirements, and…

  18. The Flow of Instructors Through the Segmented Labor Markets of Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Gerald; Rosenblum, Barbara Rubin

    1996-01-01

    A Canadian study examined the employment patterns of seven cohorts of faculty entering Canadian universities seven years after initial appointment. Results showed that a consistent and meaningful proportion of each cohort entered the tenure stream, accounting for half the faculty who remained in academe. Disadvantages to women and young academics…

  19. The Structure of the Chinese Academic Labor Market, 1997-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Mujuan

    2009-01-01

    Universalism is critical to the development of science because it promotes the objectivity of knowledge. Particularism, on the other hand, evaluates scientists' contributions based on functionally irrelevant characteristics, including personal attributes and academic origins. Previous studies found a persistent significant correlation between…

  20. Academic Capitalism and the New Economy: Markets, State, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Rhoades, Gary

    2009-01-01

    As colleges and universities become more entrepreneurial in a post-industrial economy, they focus on knowledge less as a public good than as a commodity to be capitalized on in profit-oriented activities. In "Academic Capitalism and the New Economy," higher education scholars Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades detail the aggressive engagement of…

  1. Whither Asian Labour Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Apo

    2004-01-01

    Despite the initiatives from governments and unions alike, the need for worker-centred labour education still exists. Labour educators should have to be more creative in planning and running educational programs to empower workers so that they can be liberated from all forms of exploitation, no matter how such exploitation is disguised or…

  2. Private Higher Education in China: Access to Quality Higher Education and the Acquisition of Labour Market Qualifications by Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FengLiang, Li; Morgan, W. John

    2008-01-01

    The development of private higher education in China is an important area of policy concern and for academic research, especially under the conditions of globalization. This article reviews the current situation and forecasts the likely trend in several key areas, such as governmental regulation, funds and competition for enrolments. The article…

  3. Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Elizabeth Popp

    2012-01-01

    American universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the United States globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. "Creating the Market University" is…

  4. Gains and Losses on Academic Transfer Markets: Dropping Out and Course-Switching in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljander, Juha-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes whether giving up studies in higher education is considered a pivotal point wherein an educational career may change course. Reveals that in Finland the status-oriented inheritors of the societal elite do best on the higher education internal and external transfer market. Raises questions about equality between educational units. (CMK)

  5. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their important roles in organizational performance, internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have become more interesting subjects among researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research is limited in the literature, and the relationship between these two variables in higher educational institutions is not clear.…

  6. Marketing a Wellness Program: A Case Study in Bridging the Gap between Academic and Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dod, Glenna A.; Earwood-Smith, Glenda

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a collaborative effort between a student services division and a classroom instructor aimed at increasing student involvement in marketing a wellness program for college students. Claims program was successful in improving attendance at the wellness program and changing attitudes towards this type of programing. (Author/ABL)

  7. A Synthesis Model of Sustainable Market Orientation: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Influence on Academic Accreditation--A Case Study of Egyptian-Accredited Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Warda, Sherein H.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions are increasingly concerned about accreditation. Although sustainable market orientation (SMO) bears on academic accreditation, to date, no study has developed a valid scale of SMO or assessed its influence on accreditation. The purpose of this paper is to construct and validate an SMO scale that was developed in…

  8. United States academic medical centers: priorities and challenges amid market transformation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Irene M; Anason, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    United States academic medical centers (AMCs) have upheld their long-standing reputation for excellence by teaching and training the next generation of physicians, supporting medical research, providing world-class medical care, and offering breakthrough treatments for highly complex medical cases. In recent years, the pace and direction of change reshaping the American health care industry has created a set of new and profound challenges that AMC leaders must address in order to sustain their institutions. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is an alliance of 116 leading nonprofit academic medical centers and 276 of their affiliated hospitals, all of which are focused on delivering world-class patient care. Formed in 1984, UHC fosters collaboration with and among its members through its renowned programs and services in the areas of comparative data and analytics, performance improvement, supply chain management, strategic research, and public policy. Each year, UHC surveys the executives of its member institutions to understand the issues they view as most critical to sustaining the viability and success of their organizations. The results of UHC's most recent 2011 member survey, coupled with a 2012 Strategic Health Perspectives Harris Interactive presentation, based in parton surveys of major health care industry stakeholders reveal the most important and relevant issues and opportunities that hospital leaders face today, as the United States health care delivery system undergoes a period of unprecedented transformation. PMID:23484431

  9. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  10. Adult Education and the Labour Market. European Society for Research on the Education of Adults Seminar Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 10-12, 1993). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenovsek, Tanja Vilic, Ed.; Olesen, Henning Salling, Ed.

    This book contains papers, reports, and welcoming speeches from a seminar for European adult education researchers. The following are included: "Background and Thematic Outline for the ESREA (European Society for Research on the Education of Adults) Seminar on Research into Adult Education and the Labor Market" (Olesen); "Welcoming Speech"…

  11. Learning and Work in the Risk Society: Lessons for the Labour Markets of Europe from Eastern Germany. Anglo-German Foundation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Behrens, Martina; Kaluza, Jens

    The education-to-labor market transitions experienced by young people in England and in eastern and western Germany were compared. The eastern German portion of the study was based on a 1996 study that included a survey of 100 trainers and 1,000 apprentices in 12 companies; in-depth interviews with 18 trainers, career advisers, and others; and…

  12. Innovations for the Integration of Low-Skilled Workers into Lifelong Learning and the Labour Market: Case Studies from Six European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, Roland

    This report presents innovative vocational training (VT) initiatives to improve integration of low-skilled workers into lifelong learning and the labor market. Chapter 1 describes study structure and methodology. Chapter 2 addresses the theoretical basis for observing innovations. It analyzes the definition and significance of innovation in system…

  13. Consequences and Policy Implications for University Students Who Have Chosen Liberal or Vocational Education in Canada: Labour Market Outcomes and Employability Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zeng; Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Analyses suggest that the Canadian labor market favors vocational over liberal graduates with regard to employment status, income, job security, and job satisfaction. However, findings also indicate a surprising lack of difference between liberal and vocational graduates in their employability skills. Employers were nevertheless more likely to…

  14. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  15. [Induction of labour: which method to use?].

    PubMed

    Tinelli, A; Tinelli, R; Tinelli, F G

    2003-12-01

    Induction of labour is a common obstetric instrument to employ when the potential risk to continue a pregnancy is higher than to terminate it. The methods of induction can be pharmacological or mechanical; the choice of the method mainly depends by the cervical ripening, as it is significantly able to influence, according to the type of induction, its final issue. The mechanical methods are: stripping and sweeping of the membranes, hand dilatation of cervix, intrauterine pressure catheters, Laminaria Japonicum, transcervical Foley catheter and amniotomy. To pharmacological methods include some agents such as the prostaglandins (PG), the most common approach to induce a labour, and used above all by vaginal way in patients with unripe cervix. They simulate the natural PG effects at the beginning of delivery and show a great efficiency. There are a lot of PG on the market, but except some of them, as Dinoprostone for PGE2 and Misoprostol for PGE1, no one of them shows the same safety in management of labour. Oxytocin, another inductive method, administered by diluted intravenous infusion, is utilized alone or mainly with other methods when the labour is started or with rupture of the membranes, because it begins or maintains the myometrial contraction. PMID:14676736

  16. Learning, Labour and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2009-01-01

    Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that…

  17. Embodied labour in music work.

    PubMed

    Pettinger, Lynne

    2015-06-01

    This paper frames the work of performance as embodied labour in order to understand the contingent production of particular music performances. It is an interdisciplinary account that sits at the intersection of the sociology of work, culture and the body. The concept of embodied labour is developed with reference to the complex account of materiality - of bodies and things - present in Tim Ingold's account of skill. This material account of skill is used to inform use to develop already of well established conceptualizations of body labour: craft, emotional and aesthetic labour through a reading of how these dimensions of embodied labour make possible the work of performance. PMID:25899831

  18. The labour market, psychosocial outcomes and health conditions in cancer survivors: protocol for a nationwide longitudinal survey 2 and 5 years after cancer diagnosis (the VICAN survey)

    PubMed Central

    Bouhnik, Anne-Deborah; Bendiane, Marc-Karim; Cortaredona, Sebastien; Sagaon Teyssier, Luis; Rey, Dominique; Berenger, Cyril; Seror, Valerie; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Aparicio, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Today, a growing need exists for greater research into cancer survivorship, focusing on different spheres of the day-to-day life of diagnosed patients. This article describes the design and implementation of VICAN (VIe après le CANcer), a national survey on French cancer survivors. Method and analysis The target population included patients aged 18–82, diagnosed with cancer between January and June 2010, and registered in one of the three main French Health Insurance Schemes. It was restricted to 12 tumour sites. Sampling was stratified using a non-proportional allocation, based on age at diagnosis (18–52 and 53–82) and tumour site. Data were collected from telephone interviews with patients 2 and 5 years after diagnosis, a medical survey completed by the physician who initiated cancer treatment, and information from the national medicoadministrative database on reimbursement data and hospital discharge records. First data collection, 2 years after diagnosis, occurred between March and December 2012. Second data collection, 5 years after diagnosis, will be conducted in 2015. Analyses will be conducted on various outcomes: quality of life, health status and psychosocial conditions, with a particular focus on the impact of cancer diagnosis on the labour market. The variety of measurements included in the survey will enable us to control a wide range of factors. Ethics and dissemination The methodology of the VICAN survey was approved by three national ethics commissions. Results of the study will be disseminated through national and international research conferences, and in articles published in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25805526

  19. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  20. Learning Statistics at the Farmers Market? A Comparison of Academic Service Learning and Case Studies in an Introductory Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiedemann, Bridget; Jones, Stacey M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the effectiveness of academic service learning to that of case studies in an undergraduate introductory business statistics course. Students in six sections of the course were assigned either an academic service learning project (ASL) or business case studies (CS). We examine two learning outcomes: students' performance on the final…

  1. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  2. The Changing Status of the Ph.D. Degree in Russia: An Academic Attribute in the Nonacademic Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2007-01-01

    In Russia there is a system of two advanced academic degrees: candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences. Historically, in imperial Russia there was a system of academic regulations and degrees based on European, mostly German patterns. Then in the Soviet period from 1918, the degrees of master's and doctor of sciences, which had existed for…

  3. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  4. Impact of social factors on labour discrimination of disabled women.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaría, María-Leticia; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve their chances of entering the labour market. The current work adopts a constructivist perspective on disability and offers a preliminary examination of the influence of social factors, such as the rural or urban nature of the disabled women's place of residence, the assistance they receive from their family or outside the family, the quantity of information they receive about the labour market, and their educational level, on the activity and employment status of this group of people. PMID:19692206

  5. Marketing Strategies for the Academic Library. Papers from a One Day Conference Organized by the Library Association Colleges of Further and Higher Education Group London and South East Circle (London, England, June 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Stephen A., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The four papers in this collection consider the attitudes, concepts, and techniques involved in marketing for non-profit organizations, and explore how librarians in higher education can use these ideas to optimize the effectiveness of their service provision in a time of economic constraint. In "Marketing the Academic Library," Elizabeth…

  6. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations.

    PubMed

    Beaverstock, J V

    1994-08-01

    "Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework." PMID:12320415

  7. The second market failure phenomenon in safety-net health systems: the case of a municipal academic medical center from 1980 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David

    2011-01-01

    The specific aim of this analysis is to demonstrate how the trade-off between efficiency and equity policy approaches affects the ability of at-risk children to access quality health care services at the King/Drew Medical Center of Los Angeles County from 1980 to 2000. The concept of a second market phenomenon is used as a framework to illustrate how efficiency-seeking behaviors of federal, state, and local government actors affected government intervention efforts initiated to remedy health care access hardships created by market failure in low-income communities. A second market failure occurs when government failure results from the reintroduction of market protocols in an environment where the market had originally failed to facilitate the distribution of basic goods and services. The review suggest that financial austerity at the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services in the context of federal, state, and local government policies that emphasized allocative efficiencies, compromised equity values by undermining access to quality pediatric services at the King/Drew Medical Center which was a municipal academic medical center. PMID:21534126

  8. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Ban, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-farm sources of income for some or all of their…

  9. From Learning to Labour to Learning for Precarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovemark, Marianne; Beach, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    A demand on national economies in the 1970s was that they should begin to increase their labour market flexibility, which came to mean transferring risks and insecurity onto workers. Education was one way to prepare future workers for this new situation. The present article examines this preparation of learning for precarity some 40 years on. It…

  10. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  11. The Employment Imperative and Labour Market Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses policies which, combined with sound macro-economic policies, can contribute to reducing structural and cyclical unemployment without compounding inflation. Topic areas considered include: structural employment policies; temporary measures to promote employment during recovery; restructuring of working time; and role of collective…

  12. Labour Productivity Superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iyetomi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity.Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, i.e., from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.

  13. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  14. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  15. Help or Hindrance? The Effects of College Remediation on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes. Working Paper Version with Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Providing remedial (also known as developmental) education is the primary way colleges cope with students who do not have the academic preparation needed to succeed in college-level courses. Remediation is widespread, with nearly one-third of entering freshman taking remedial courses at a cost of at least $1 billion per year. Despite its…

  16. The Academic Librarian Labor Market and the Role of the Master of Library Science Degree: 1975 through 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Marybeth F.; Grimes, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the evolving role of the Master of Library Science (MLS) degree in academic libraries, pooled cross-sectional data were collected from job advertisements in "College and Research Library News." Beginning with 1975 and continuing at 5-year intervals through 2005, pertinent information from all job advertisements in each monthly issue…

  17. University Researchers Contributing to Technology Markets 1900-85. A Long-Term Analysis of Academic Patenting in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaataja, Sampsa

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the increased interest in technological innovation in universities, relatively little is known about the technology developed by academic scientists. Long-term analyses of researchers' technological contribution are notably missing. This paper examines university-based technology in Finland during the period 1900-85. The focus is on…

  18. Global Labour Mobility and Mutual Recognition of Skills and Qualifications: European Union and Australia/New Zealand Perspectives. Working Paper No. 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Long, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The labour market is one the most significant markets in modern economies. Today labour embodies increasing amounts of human capital in the form of skills, talents and knowledge. Migration of workers between regions and countries can contribute to efficiency. People are moving from areas in which they are underemployed or unemployed to areas in…

  19. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  20. Remifentanil for labour pain relief.

    PubMed

    Solek-Pastuszka, Joanna; Zagrodnik-Ulan, Edyta; Bohatyrewicz, Romuald; Celewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Labour is thought to be one of the most intense and painful experiences in a woman's life. Numerous studies using a Visual Analogue Scale invariably demonstrate that 20% of women in labour describe the pain as "unbearable" and 60% describe the pain as "very intense". Since the mid-1980s, continuous epidural analgesia during labour has been considered the gold standard of labour anaesthesia and is currently the most frequently used. There are situations in which this type of analgesia could not be used. An alternative pain management is administration of parenteral opioids, the most frequently used of which is pethidine. Its use is associated with adverse effects and unsatisfactory analgesia. Since the second half of the 20th century, a new generation of opioids, such as fentanyl or remifentanil, has been used. Despite their much better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists are most aware of pethidine, probably because it has been used for the longest period of time, despite its disadvantages and the risk that its use entails. The drug that is nearest to ideal is remifentanil. The countries in which it is widely used as an alternative type of labour anaesthesia have developed practice standards or guidelines practice. Guidelines and alternatives to pethidine protocols for effective labour analgesia in Poland might be merited. PMID:25751295

  1. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  2. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  3. Women "Learning to Labour" in the "Male Emporium": Exploring Gendered Work in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Sandra; Dillabough, Jo-Anne

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects an interest in exposing links between women's academic work and the gender codes which organize and shape working life in the university context, both now and in the recent past, as a contribution to the sociology of women's work. Our specific focus is the gendered division of labour in teacher education in universities in…

  4. Repositioning an Academic Department to Stimulate Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Cassandra C.; Daughton, William J.; Murray, Susan L.; Fisher, Caroline M.; Flachsbart, Barry B.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the market in higher education, and the lack of literature regarding marketing, particularly branding, at the academic department level, presented an opportunity to establish a systematic process for evaluating an academic department's brand meaning. A process for evaluating a brand's meaning for an academic department is…

  5. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  6. [Is vocational integration in the competitive labor market a realistic goal for the chronically mentally ill?].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H

    1999-09-01

    A wide range of sheltered jobs has been created in the second or special labour market with the aim of enabling the chronically mentally ill to participate in working life. However, having a job in the special labour market often precludes the chance of obtain-ing employment in the competitive labour market. To date, vocational integration programs enable only a small number of persons with psychiatric disabilities to attain reintegration into competitive employment. The predictors of successful vocational integration are subsequently discussed. A substantial increase in both sheltered and competitive jobs on the common labour market could be achieved for mentally ill and disabled people by adapting the "supported employment" model, as widely practised in the USA, to European labour market standards and appropriately funding its implementation. The utilisation of this model could serve to reduce the necessity of further expansion in the special labour market. PMID:10535087

  7. New Labour and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the second part of an edited version of a Keynote Presentation delivered at the 2006 AUA Annual Conference at Queen's University Belfast on 11 April. The first part was published in perspectives 10.3 in July 2006. In the Presentation Sir David commented on three areas of unfinished business with which New Labour has struggled; in the…

  8. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  9. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  10. Labour supply in the home care industry: A case study in a Dutch region.

    PubMed

    Breedveld, Elly J; Meijboom, Bert R; de Roo, Aad A

    2006-04-01

    Health organizations have started to become more market-driven. Therefore, it is important for health organizations to analyse the competitive dynamics of their industrial structure. However, relevant theories and models have mainly been developed for organizations acting in the profit sector. In this paper, we adapt Porter's 'five forces model' to the home care industry. In particular, we modify the (determinants of the) bargaining power of labour suppliers. We then apply the modified Porter-model to the home care industry in the Netherlands for the period of 1987-1997 with special attention for labour supply. The new instrument clarifies the complexity of the supply chains and value systems of the home care industry. As can be illustrated by developments in the home care industry in the province of North Brabant during the 1990s, competition between home care providers has influenced labour market relations, but so do other factors as well. Between 1987 and 1997, the bargaining power of labour suppliers was relatively limited. After 1997, however, the demand for home care personnel has increased strongly. In spite of the present economic recession, scarcity on this labour market seems to prevail in the longer term due to a growing demand for home care services. PMID:16011857

  11. Labour migration from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people. PMID:12342136

  12. Open Education and the Emancipation of Academic Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Joss

    2015-01-01

    I have previously argued that open education is a liberal project with a focus on the freedom of things rather than the freedom of people (Winn, Joss. 2012. "Open Education: From the Freedom of Things to the Freedom of People." In "Towards Teaching in Public: Reshaping the Modern University", edited by Michael Neary, Howard…

  13. Recognition of Skills and Qualifications: Labour Mobility and Trade in Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Long, Michael; Windle, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A skilled and flexible workforce is increasingly identified by governments as key to economic development. With the emergence of a global market in both educational services and labour, agreements on mutual recognition and transparency of skills and qualifications have become important elements of international co-operation. They are often…

  14. Rather than "Two Nation" Labour, a Good General Education for Everybody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Vocational education is supposed to improve work and employment skills, but many of the vocational courses developed in schools and colleges after the collapse of industrial apprenticeships in the 1970s have not offered real opportunities for young people in the labour market. Instead, a succession of new qualifications was introduced, which…

  15. Enrollment Management in Academic Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBiaso, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how administrative leaders make decisions regarding enrollment management within academic units at a major research university in the southwestern United States. Key enrollment management functions of recruiting, admissions, marketing, orientation, financial aid/scholarships, academic advising, student…

  16. Do 'flexicurity' Policies Work for People With Low Education and Health Problems? A Comparison of Labour Market Policies and Employment Rates in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Ashley; Nylén, Lotta; Backhans, Mona; Boye, Katarina; Thielen, Karsten; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    People with limiting longstanding illness and low education may experience problems in the labor market. Reduced employment protection that maintains economic security for the individual, known as "flexicurity," has been proposed as a way to increase overall employment. We compared the development of labor market policies and employment rates from 1990 to 2010 in Denmark and the Netherlands (representing flexicurity), the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Employment rates in all countries were much lower in the target group than for other groups over the study period. However, "flexicurity" as practiced in Denmark, far from being a "magic bullet," appeared to fail low-educated people with longstanding illness in particular. The Swedish policy, on the other hand, with higher employment protection and higher economic security, particularly earlier in the study period, led to higher employment rates in this group. Findings also revealed that economic security policies in all countries were eroding and shifting toward individual responsibility. Finally, results showed that active labor market policies need to be subcategorized to better understand which types are best suited for the target group. Increasing employment among the target group could reduce adverse health consequences and contribute to decreasing inequalities in health. PMID:26272914

  17. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  18. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  19. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  20. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

    PubMed Central

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. Results We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact

  1. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision. PMID:11560707

  2. The ethics of surrogacy: women's reproductive labour.

    PubMed Central

    van Niekerk, A; van Zyl, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish whether there is anything intrinsically immoral about surrogacy arrangements from the perspective of the surrogate mother herself. Specific attention is paid to the claim that surrogacy is similar to prostitution in that it reduces women's reproductive labour to a form of alienated and/or dehumanized labour. PMID:8778458

  3. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…

  4. The Emotional Labour of Caring in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenbarger, Lynn; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on a collaborative action research study between one teacher and a teacher educator and provides an account of the emotional labour in enacting caring teaching in an inclusive classroom. The emotional labour demanded in caring relationships is an area of research that has not received much attention. Results from this case…

  5. Hospital Expenditure as a Major Driver of Nurse Labour Force Participation: Evidence from a 10-Year Period in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991–1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991–2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors. PMID:22548099

  6. Narratives of neoliberalism: 'clinical labour' in context.

    PubMed

    Parry, Bronwyn

    2015-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care has been thrust under the international spotlight by a series of recent scandals. These have prompted calls to develop more robust means of assessing the exploitative potential of such practices and the need for overarching and normative forms of national and international regulation. Allied theorisations of the emergence of forms of clinical labour have cast the outsourcing of reproductive services such as gamete donation and gestational surrogacy as artefacts of a wider neoliberalisation of service provision. These accounts share with many other narratives of neoliberalism a number of key assertions that relate to the presumed organisation of labour relations within this paradigm. This article critically engages with four assumptions implicit in these accounts: that clinical labourers constitute a largely homogeneous underclass of workers; that reproductive labour has been contractualised in ways that disembed it from wider social and communal relations; that contractualisation can provide protection for clinical labour lessening the need for formal regulatory oversight; and that the transnationalisation of reproductive service labour is largely unidirectional and characterised by a dynamic of provision in which 'the rest' services 'the West'. Drawing on the first findings of a large-scale ethnographic research project into assisted reproduction in India I provide evidence to refute these assertions. In so doing the article demonstrates that while the outsourcing and contractualisation of reproductive labour may be embedded in a wider neoliberal paradigm these practices cannot be understood nor their impacts be fully assessed in isolation from their social and cultural contexts. PMID:26052118

  7. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma C; Hutchinson, James L; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C; Saunders, Philippa T K; Norman, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) <0.05). Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the composition of

  8. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, James L.; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Norman, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) <0.05). Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the composition of

  9. Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour

    PubMed Central

    Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188

  10. The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

  11. Labour economics and healthcare professional education

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare professional education is the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development for doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals. Labour economics is the relationship between workers and employers, and the resultant effect on employment and wages. Healthcare professional education ultimately produces a workforce, and that workforce is governed by the rules of labour economics like any other workforce. Despite all of these largely incontrovertible facts, there has been remarkably little interest in the relationship between healthcare professional education and labour economics. This short article attempts to redress this shortcoming by describing some of the factors that can affect healthcare professional education and labour economics, and aims to mention some of the methods in which these two disciplines can interact with each other. PMID:26478884

  12. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  13. Marketing: Educators New Buzz Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotoia, Anthony M.

    Many concerned academic administrators are turning to marketing as the cure for shrinking enrollments. These administrators often have unrealistic expectations of what marketing techniques can achieve. Marketing cannot cover up for programs of poor quality, create customers in an over-harvested market, or overcome high attrition when students…

  14. Parental School Choices in Market-Oriented School Systems: Why Middle Class Asian Immigrants Self-Select into Specialized Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Hoang-Thuy

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses racial segregation in schools by examining the self-selecting patterns of middle class Asian immigrant parents in a public non-charter school district who enrolled their children in specialized academic programs. This phenomenological study focused on the educational history and the decision-making process of school choice in…

  15. Cross Cultural Marketing Teachers' Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Natalia; Boluda, Ines Kuster

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Marketing has attracted increased interested over the past 15 years in both academic and commercial circles and there has been a market rise in the number of students. At the university level, the characteristics of the teacher play an essential role in student/teacher interaction and influence academic results and future professional…

  16. Marketing the College Brand in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgerson, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Since inception of the Ontario college system in 1967, the quality of a diploma or certificate in comparison to a university degree has been perceived as an inferior rather than alternative academic credential. As public institutions, community colleges are mandated to respond to regional labour force needs, and to provide graduates who will…

  17. Different Research Markets: A Disciplinary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Lyytinen, Anu; Marttila, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the notions of academic capitalism and the transformation of academic research from traditional academic orientation into market orientation, the paper sets out to empirically scrutinize the changing nature of academic research, focusing especially on disciplinary differences. The paper is based on a survey of heads of departments and…

  18. A safe, sensible and social AHRSE: New Labour and alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter

    2007-10-01

    When the Labour government came to power in the UK in 1997, it took over high and rising levels of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Contrary to 'old Labour''s views on alcohol policy, New Labour did nothing to reverse this trend, and, if anything, exacerbated it. Since New Labour has been in power, alcohol has become 40% more affordable; consumption has increased by 14% and alcohol-related deaths have increased by over 40%. New Labour viewed alcohol-related harm as a question of individual responsibility and, as expressed in its long awaited 2004 alcohol harm reduction strategy (commonly known as AHRSE), viewed partnerships with the alcohol industry as the solution to reducing harm. Ten years on we have safe, sensible and social, the 3Ss, AHRSE's next steps. On first reading it would seem that the government has learnt nothing from its mistakes of the previous ten years, and in its approach to alcohol policy continues to disable the public interest. Nevertheless, there remain areas where science might inform policy, including health sector policy where there is an emphasis on early diagnosis and treatment, and transport policy, where reducing the legal blood alcohol level to the European Commission maximum recommended level of 0.5g/L is again on the agenda. The 3Ss propose an independent review of the evidence of the relationship between alcohol price, promotion and harm. However, unless this fully reviews the international evidence of the relationship between the economic and physical availability of alcohol, the marketing of alcohol and alcohol related harm, AHRSE and its successor will continue to be a recipe for ineffectiveness. PMID:17854326

  19. Immersion in water in labour and birth

    PubMed Central

    Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference −32.4 minutes; 95% CI −58.7 to −6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight

  20. Epidural labour analgesia using Bupivacaine and Clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Syal, K; Dogra, RK; Ohri, A; Chauhan, G; Goel, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the effects of addition of Clonidine (60 μg) to Epidural Bupivacaine (0.125%) for labour analgesia, with regard to duration of analgesia, duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section, foetal outcome, patient satisfaction and side effects. Patients & Methods: On demand, epidural labour analgesia was given to 50 nulliparous healthy term parturients (cephalic presentation), divided in two groups randomly. Group I received bupivacaine (0.125%) alone, whereas Group II received bupivacaine (0.125%) along with Clonidine (60 μg). 10 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine was injected as first dose and further doses titrated with patient relief (Numerical Rating Scale <3). Top ups were given whenever Numerical Rating Scale went above 5. Results: There was statistically significant prolongation of duration of analgesia in Group II, with no difference in duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section or foetal outcome. Also clonidine gave dose sparing effect to bupivacaine and there was better patient satisfaction without any significant side effects in Group II. Conclusion: Clonidine is a useful adjunct to bupivacaine for epidural labour analgesia and can be considered as alternative to opioids. PMID:21804714

  1. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  2. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  3. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  4. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  5. Econonatology: the physics of the economy in labour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2003-06-01

    A fear of crashes preoccupies stock market observers, both investors and economic decision makers (governments, banks). This is reflected in major efforts to predict future stock values. However, an economic system under prolonged stress may have in its nature to plunge to lower performance levels but recover without suffering damage. To support this claim, we draw parallels between two complex systems: that of the heart, as observed through the rate of heartbeat, and the economy, measured by the stock index record. The ultimate stress situation of fetal heartbeat during labour provides a conceptual basis for accommodating heavy crashes. It also suggests a different perspective for evaluating crashes and post crash recovery in order to diagnose, and (ultimately) prognose, ‘economic health’, in addition to monitoring the stock index value.

  6. How and Why Does Two-Year College Entry Influence Baccalaureate Aspirants' Academic and Labor Market Outcomes? A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Fletcher, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed administrative data from Virginia, this paper examines how and why the community college pathway to a baccalaureate influences students' degree attainment and short-term labor market performance. We find that the community college pathway sharply reduces the likelihood of earning a bachelor's degree but does not have a significant…

  7. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  8. The Rise of Intangible Capital and Labour Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    The tendency for companies to invest in their employees has set up a cycle whereby better workers get jobs in which complex skills matter and are improved through work experience and training, whereas the rest of the labor force is relegated to more routine jobs. (Contains 32 references.) (JOW)

  9. Immigration and the Italian labour market: a contradiction.

    PubMed

    Neri, F

    1988-01-01

    The role of immigration in the evolution of the labor force in Italy is analyzed. The author notes that not only is there a growing number of foreign immigrants, but return migration of natives to Italy is greater than Italian emigration. It is also noted that neither Italian migration policy nor the statistical system have evolved to cope with these new conditions. The high level of illegal immigration is also described, and the author concludes that such immigrants either find work in positions Italians no longer wish to fill, or in the black, or illegal, economy. PMID:12342265

  10. Labour market outcomes of public health graduates: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ian W; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-09-01

    Little information is available on the public health workforce. This study contributes to the gap in the literature and examines the demographic characteristics, career destinations and earnings of Masters in Public Health (MPH) graduates in Australia, using data from the 1999-2009 waves of the Graduate Destination Survey. It was found that public health graduates had a high amount of female representation and very low proportions of indigenous representation. Public health graduates experienced a relatively low unemployment rate and 85% were employed within 120 days of graduation. However, close to half of the graduates did not work in the health industry or in health-related roles. The mean salaries of public health graduates working in public health roles were relatively low compared to those in other occupations, but they had a range comparable to that observed for public health professionals in the USA and were higher than those of other Masters graduates in some other health fields. The results indicate strong demand and positive employment prospects for public health graduates in Australia. Strategies to target recruitment and/or retention of female or indigenous graduates in the public health workforce should be a priority. Mapping of public health graduate destinations and employment prospects should might be prioritised, given its strong potential to facilitate workforce planning and provide potential public health workers with more comprehensive career trajectories. PMID:23782503

  11. Qualifications and the Future Labour Market in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This report has been prepared for the National Training Reform Taskforce to report on the future supply of, and requirements for, vocational education and training (VET) qualifications in Australia. It is intended to inform the next stages of reform of the sector to be considered by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG). The report…

  12. Unemployment Duration and Employability in Remote Rural Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Colin; McCracken, Martin; McQuaid, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of 190 unemployed job seekers and interviews with 17 employers in the remote northern Highlands of Scotland found that the employability of many job seekers, particularly the long-term unemployed, was limited by significant gaps in their skills and work experience, their lack of connection to informal social networks used in job seeking,…

  13. Labour Market Strategies and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtner, Maurizio

    1991-01-01

    Challenges of a changing Europe for education and training are new technology and organizational patterns, youth unemployment, professional mobility, and migration. Developments in Italy that exemplify change include literacy for immigrants, work-related education for women, "Green Universities," and transferable skills. (SK)

  14. People and the labour market: integration and differences.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, E; Campo, G

    2006-01-01

    This survey aims at identifying methods and procedures to prevent possible gender discrimination at the workplace. It is intended to: a) establish whether mobbing is present in the companies involved in this survey; b) verify whether the aetiology and mobbing dynamics are the same for men and women. This survey involved 887 persons in eight companies, operating in different economic sectors, and located in the VIII, IX and X Municipalities, in the south east area of Rome. The collected data seem to exclude the presence of evident psychological terrorism, even though there can be sound reasons for it to develop: bad job organization, lack of personnel policy and an increase in the stress level, all of which are the most common elements paving the way for mobbing. The results of the survey reveal a highly dysfunctional working situation even though they do not comply with the characteristic criteria of psychological violence, known as mobbing. In Italy, a major organizational restructuring (privatisation, mergers, etc), as well as the introduction of new types of jobs, has contributed to turn mobbing from an occasional phenomenon into a social problem about which everyone is concerned (anti-mobbing centres, specialized clinics, bills, etc). This study focuses on some aspects of the organizational work structure which would otherwise usually be disregarded at the risk of causing uneasiness and/or stress pathologies. PMID:17291403

  15. Education and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi; Unni, Jeemol

    2001-01-01

    A study to determine association between level of female education and gender wage differentials in India finds that while gender-based wage discrimination exits, level of female education is not a significant factor. Finds return on investment rises with education level for both sexes. (Contains 37 references.) (PKP)

  16. University Rank and Bachelor's Labour Market Positions in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop; Sun, Yuze; Ding, Xiaohao

    2010-01-01

    We report evidence that university reputation affects wages of bachelors in China. An unconditional difference between a top-100 university and a top 400-500 university of 23% is increased to some 28% by adding controls. Within the top-100 there is no differentiation in pay-off. Self-rated quality of high school, while affecting quality of…

  17. The Labour Market Effects of "Alma Mater": Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio; Cappellari, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    We use data from a nationally representative survey of Italian graduates to study whether "Alma Mater" matters for employment and earnings 3 years after graduation. We find that the attended college matters, and that there are important college-related differences, both among and within regions of the country. These differences, however, do not…

  18. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciobanu, Adrian; Parciog, Speranta

    Romania's adoption of a more gradual approach in restructuring and privatizing the state-owned sector has resulted in industry with an unchanged structure that remains the main cause of social and economic decline. Employment has shown a steady decline. Industrial employment has decreased dramatically. Sectors like transport, hotels, and…

  19. Predictors of Higher Technological Education Graduates' Labour Market Entrance Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostoglou, Vassilis; Garmpis, Aristogiannis; Koilias, Christos; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the successful transition of graduates from university into the world of work is one of the most important priorities of all involved stakeholders: governments, institutions of higher education, and individuals, as well as researchers. The present study analyzes the employability characteristics of higher technological education…

  20. The Evolution of Economist's Labour Market in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaic-Maniu, Alexandru; Herteliu, Claudiu

    2006-01-01

    The modern world is undergoing a fundamental transformation characterized by a lot of challenges, dynamism, globalization, and the increasing influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). These new technologies have implications for all aspects of the society and economy; they are changing the way of doing business, the way of…

  1. First Employment Experiences of Graduates. Labour Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moleke, Percy; Albertyn, Linda

    This study examined first employment experiences of graduates from South African universities, highlighting educational and noneducational factors that affected their ability to secure employment in their fields of study, as well as graduates' perceptions of their studies in relation to their jobs. Researchers sent surveys to 8,000 graduates…

  2. Educational Mismatch and Spatial Flexibility in Italian Local Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Giuseppe; Ghignoni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    According to recent literature, this paper highlights the relevance of spatial mobility as an explanatory factor of the individual risk of job-education mismatch. To investigate this causal link, we use individual information about daily home-to-work commuting time and choices to relocate in a different local area to get a job. Our model takes…

  3. Professional Educational Offer and Its Impact on the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Castro, Patricia Eugenia Garcia; Barrientos, Laura Gatica; Garcia, Jesus Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    The fact that in Mexico a large part of the population has access to higher education institutions, both public and private, does not indicate that the students are going to have the opportunity of developing the knowledge acquired in the university. Unemployment is often present; therefore their hopes to get a better life are diminished.…

  4. Labour Markets and Training in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesporova, Alena

    1997-01-01

    Economic upheaval in Central and Eastern Europe has led to excessive labor supply, increased unemployment, and enforced economic inactivity. Economic policies promoting growth, efficiency, and education and training to improve the quality and adaptability of the workforce are needed. (SK)

  5. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  6. Professional Learning in Higher Education: Understanding How Academics Interpret Student Feedback and Access Resources to Improve Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott; Tomitsch, Martin; Thomson, Kate; Hendry, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on professional learning has identified that face-to-face consultation is an effective approach to support academics' learning from student feedback. However, this approach is labour and time intensive, and does not necessarily provide all academics with just-in-time support. In this article, we describe an alternative approach,…

  7. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  8. Contemporary specificities of labour in the health care sector: introductory notes for discussion

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Francisco Eduardo; Albuquerque, Eduardo da Motta e

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper combines the literature on public health, on economics of health and on economics of technological innovation to discuss the peculiarities of labour in the health care sector. Method and framework The starting point is the investigation of the economic peculiarities of medical care. Results and discussions This investigation leads to the identification of the prevalence of non-market forms of medical care in the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Furthermore, the health care system has a distinctive characteristic from other economic sectors: it is the intersection between social welfare and innovation systems. The relationship between technological innovation and cost in the health care sector is surveyed. Finally, the Brazilian case is discussed as an example of a developing country. Conclusion The peculiarities of labour in the health care sector suggest the need to recognize the worth of sectoral labour and to cease to treat it separately. This process should take into account the rapid development of the health innovation system and one important consequence: the obsolescence of the acquired knowledge. One way to dignify labour is to implement continued education and training of health professions personnel. PMID:16109174

  9. Transnational labour migration and the politics of care in the Southeast Asian family

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother’s absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother. PMID:22984293

  10. Transnational labour migration and the politics of care in the Southeast Asian family.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S A; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2012-06-01

    Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother's absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother. PMID:22984293

  11. Hypnosis: removing the labour from birth.

    PubMed

    Mottershead, Natalie

    2006-03-01

    Hypnosis has been used in obstetrics for more than a century. However, with increasing numbers of women looking for alternative coping strategies for use during labour, the birth of a new discipline, HypnoBirthing, is gaining in popularity. HypnoBirthing is a hypnotherapy programme specifically designed for birth, employing the principles and techniques of hypnosis and self-relaxation. This article explains the philosophy and principles of HypnoBirthing, the evidence base and its physiological impact on labouring women, brought to life by real accounts. PMID:16562656

  12. Complementary therapy for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michelle; Grabowska, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Midwives at West Middlesex hospital (WMUH) offer complementary therapies as part of antenatal care. Aromatherapy and reflex zone therapy (also known as 'reflexology', a system of using touch on areas of the feet that stimulate parts of the body) are offered to induce spontaneous labour for women with low risk pregnancies once post dates, reducing the need for medical induction of labour (IOL) and intervention and reducing the cost to the NHS. This paper discusses how this service was implemented and developed, and the audit results and feedback from women and midwives. PMID:24163924

  13. Acceptability, predictors and attitudes of Canadian women in labour toward point-of-care HIV testing at a single labour and delivery unit

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Salikah; De Souza, Leanne R; Yudin, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess attitudes and opinions surrounding point-of-care HIV testing among Canadian women, and to determine predictors for acceptance of testing. METHODS: A survey assessing acceptability and attitudes toward rapid HIV testing was distributed on the labour and delivery unit in an academic hospital (St Michael’s Hospital) in Toronto, Ontario, in 2011. Information collected included demographic data, health and pregnancy history, willingness to undergo rapid HIV testing while in labour and barriers to testing. RESULTS: Responses in 92 completed questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of respondents was 32 years and all were HIV negative. Twelve percent of patients reported having at least one risk factor for HIV transmission. The study showed that only 59% of women were willing to be tested at the time of survey completion, and these women stated that they would accept saliva, urine or serum testing. If found to be positive, 96% would accept antiretroviral treatment and 94% would formula feed their infants. Of the 41% who were not willing to be tested, their reasons for refusal included “don’t want to know” (39%) and being in “too much labour pain” (29%). Regardless of willingness to be tested, the most frequently cited barriers to testing were social stigma (64%) and reaction from partners (69%). CONCLUSIONS: Canadian women in labour were willing to undergo rapid HIV testing via urine, saliva or serum. If found to be positive, women were willing to undergo treatment and to formula feed to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:25285124

  14. Physics Academic Workforce Report, 2002. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie; Nies, Kimberley

    This report discusses trends in the physics academic workforce and the implications of these trends for the future academic job market. Data are from a survey of physics departments that was completed by 722 departments, a response rate of 94%. The number of physics faculty increased almost 5% since 2000, and much of this growth resulted from…

  15. Physics Academic Workforce Report, 2000. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie; Czujko, Roman

    This report discusses trends in the physics academic workforce and the implications of these trends for the future academic job market. In March 2000, a survey was sent to 766 U.S. physics departments that grant at least a bachelor's degree in physics, and 725 responses were received, a response rate of 95%. Degree-granting physics departments in…

  16. Academic Research in the Cyberspace Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses research in the cyberspace era, exploring why academics may be naive about what information they are being allowed to access on the academic databases they rely on for research. Asserts that the real issue of the cyberspace age is the marketing of knowledge. (EV)

  17. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  18. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  19. Revitalizing Higher Education through Innovative Labor Market Based Curriculum for Sustainable National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of higher education in preparing youths for the labour market is becoming more challenging in the modern society. This is visible in the high number of tertiary institutions' graduates that are unemployable for lack of necessary skills, which would make them contribute profitably to any employer of labour. This paper examines the history…

  20. A New Direction for Schools and Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audsley, Jamie; O'Connell, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that it is time to get radical about the Left's vision for education and develop a direction that communities can really own. The Labour Party being out of government for the first time in 13 years gives us a chance to consider what education means to the Left, and allows us to be innovative in how the Party can approach…

  1. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  2. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  3. Precarious Learning and Labour in Financialized Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Our current globalized economic regimes of financialized capital have systematically altered relations of learning and labour through the dynamics of precarity, debt, and the political economy of new wars. The risks of these regimes are absorbed unevenly across transnational landscapes, creating cartographies of violence and dispossession,…

  4. Academics in the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The job market on North American campuses may be heading for the deep freeze, but hundreds of positions are opening up in the Persian Gulf as American universities scramble to set down roots in those petrodollar-rich states. The combination of money and opportunity on offer may seem hard to resist. But academics who trade the rich intellectual…

  5. The Business of Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potacco, Donna R.; De Young, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Academia has traditionally avoided adopting the fast-paced, profit-oriented operational style that accompanies corporate culture. However, a business model can be successfully adapted to the unique needs of an academic institution, discipline, faculty, and students through the selective adoption of business principles. A classic marketing mix…

  6. Entrepreneurism in the Academic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossberg, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on entrepreneurship is reviewed as it relates to the university setting. Academic entrepreneurship is defined as actions designed to increase individual or institutional profit or prestige through development and marketing of research ideas or products. Case studies in the fields of pharmacy and biochemistry are presented. (MSE)

  7. Challenges to academic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pardes, H; Pincus, H A

    1983-09-01

    Economic constraints, effects of retrenchments in federal health policy, and increased competition for resources are challenging all sectors of academic medicine. Departments of psychiatry are at particular risk during this era for reasons including the lack of a sound research and research training base in many psychiatry departments; the small number of students entering the field and implications therein for the availability of residency slots in psychiatry; and patterns of allocating resources within academic medical centers which, combined with biases in reimbursement policy toward cognitively based specialties, threaten the economic strength of psychiatric departments. A conceptual model based on marketing principles is proposed to aid in identifying and capitalizing on the unique strengths of the field. PMID:6412571

  8. Fools, Facilitators and Flexians: Academic Identities in Marketised Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Employing the interdisciplinary field of health inequalities as a case study, this paper draws on interviews to explore subjective accounts of academic identities. It finds widespread acceptance that academia is a market place in which research-active careers require academics to function as entrepreneurs marketing ideas to funders. Beyond this,…

  9. An approach to the socio-labour situation of disabled women in rural communities in a Spanish region.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio; Bayot-Mestre, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer socio-labour discrimination because of both their gender and their disability. The situation is gradually improving, thanks to the national and supranational organisations, which in the past few decades have made considerable progress in improving the legislation, providing financial resources and encouraging social awareness. Despite this, few studies quantify this double discrimination in order to permit the evaluation of the socio-labour situation of this group of people. This scarcity is even more pronounced for rural areas, where many other factors hinder the integration of disabled women into the labour market and generate some specific problems that the specialist literature seldom addresses. The current work presents the results of a survey on the socio-economic situation of disabled women in a strongly rural area: the Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha. It stresses the fundamental difficulties of these women in integrating into the labour market and the most urgent political measures needed to help this group. PMID:19479497

  10. The Market Comes to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    New Labour reform in publicly funded services is giving shape to a new kind of liberal or market state designed to promote economic efficiency and individual choice, rather than the collective provision of public goods. Government policy and commercial forces are integrating higher education into a global education economy. In consequence,…

  11. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  12. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  13. Academic Prophecies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert M.; Polishook, Irwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Academic prophecies are characterized by their innocence, detachment from the realities of politics and economics, and deference to a limited cohort of administrative representatives. Careless forecasting of the untested future contributes to public misunderstanding of higher education's role in society. (MLW)

  14. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  15. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  16. Walking biped humanoids that perform manual labour.

    PubMed

    Hirukawa, Hirohisa

    2007-01-15

    The Humanoid Robotics Project of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan realized that biped humanoid robots can perform manual labour. The project developed humanoid robot platforms, consisting of humanoid robot hardware and a package of fundamental software, and explored applications of humanoid robots on them. The applications include maintenance tasks of industrial plants, teleoperation of industrial vehicles, cooperative tasks with a human, guarding the home and office and the care of patients in beds. PMID:17148050

  17. Laboratory Management, Academic Production, and the Building Blocks of Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Academic capitalism has been among the most influential lines of research into markets in higher education. This paper takes up the distinct but related topic of academic production. This study makes use of a theory of fields and the concept of strategic action fields Fligstein and McAdam ("Social Theory" 29:1-26, 2011; "A theory of…

  18. The Composition of the Editorial Boards of General Marketing Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yue; Zhang, Jason Q.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the diversity issues in corporate governance, the diversity in top academic positions (e.g., editorial boards of academic journals in business) is rather underresearched. The editorial boards of academic marketing journals are important gatekeepers and trendsetters in the creation and dissemination of marketing knowledge. Membership on…

  19. Fertility and labour supply in Femina economica.

    PubMed

    Grafen, A

    1998-10-01

    This paper sets out a formal framework for the biological-evolutionary study of human economic behaviour. Femina economica is a hypothetical parthenogenetic species with a simple economy. Individuals make decisions about labour supply and fertility subject to time and resource constraints. Labour is of differing types and a parent determines the type of her offspring's labour. Wages are determined as marginal productivities from an economy-wide production function. Three propositions are proved, of which the first shows that under very general conditions there exists a population genetic equilibrium, in which individuals' decisions are assumed to be under genetic control. The second shows that at a population genetic equilibrium, individuals have the same behaviour as they would at an economic equilibrium, in which individuals are assumed to maximise a common utility function. The third proposition shows that if the common utility function fulfils certain conditions, the attainment of an economic equilibrium brings about the same behaviour as a population genetic equilibrium. This suggests a way in which evolutionarily stable behaviour can be brought about without the necessity for changes in gene frequencies. Demographic implications include the possibility of interpreting in Darwinian terms the reductions in offspring number that occur in fertility transitions, and the weak or even negative correlation in economically developed societies between control of resources and offspring number. There are implications for economics of deriving utility maximisation from population genetics. PMID:9778448

  20. The academic surgeon and industry.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, L R

    2000-04-01

    Academic surgeons should be aware of the tremendous potential that exists to partner with private companies on projects relating either to basic or clinical research. This is particularly timely now because many of these companies are experiencing unprecedented growth and market valuation. The development of these relationships requires knowing who to deal with as well as how to negotiate. Most academic medical centers have individuals who have expertise in developing sponsored research agreements, and young investigators should take advantage of this expertise. PMID:10727959

  1. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  2. Academic Performance and Burnout: An Efficient Frontier Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency among Employed University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of university student burnout on academic achievement. With a longitudinal sample of working undergraduate university business and economics students, we use a two-step analytical process to estimate the efficient frontiers of student productivity given inputs of labour and capital and then analyse the potential determinants…

  3. New Labour and the Logic of Practice in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Forrester, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on data and theorising from the Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership (KPEL) Project where we have investigated New Labour's education policy and investment in headteachers as school leaders in England. New Labour took up office in May 1997 with a modernisation agenda and the leadership of schools is central to this…

  4. Performing Labour in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the theme of "performing labour" in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond" (2013). In this performance, individual audience members participate as a generic staff member in a fully functioning five star hotel in London. I consider three modes of performing labour in "Above and Beyond":…

  5. New Labour and Teacher Education: The End of an Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the development of teacher education policy during the first two terms of the New Labour government. It argues that there is substantial evidence to support the claim that during their two terms of office, New Labour forged a policy on teacher education that was distinctively different from the Conservative administrations that…

  6. New Labour and Education: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galton, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the evidence concerning performance and progress in the primary school over the lifetime of New Labour's tenure in government since 1997. It examines the claims made by New Labour that the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies have been an outstanding success and have changed the ways that teachers teach. On the evidence of the…

  7. Faculty in the U.S. Community College: Corporate Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Community college faculty are a major labour force in the U.S. and constitute one-third of all postsecondary education faculty. As a labour force, community college faculty epitomize professional work in the new economy and the post-bureaucratic organization: they are predominantly temporary or part-time; the majority bargain collectively for a…

  8. Workers with Disabilities and the Challenges of Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilton, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of emotional labour for workers with disabilities, drawing on qualitative data from interviews with 59 respondents who had disabilities and who worked in service sector occupations. The analysis illustrates that employer demands for emotional labour may prove difficult for workers with a range of disabilities,…

  9. Gove's Offensive and the Failure of Labour's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author examines the response of the Labour leadership to the Conservative-led Government's policies for restructuring and re-agenting the school system. His focus is on the role of local authorities and local democracy. He identifies two contradictory dynamics in Labour's current thinking. One promises to enhance local…

  10. New Labour's Policies for Schools: Raising the Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docking, Jim, Ed.

    This book, which is designed primarily for undergraduate and graduate students of education, contains 12 papers devoted the New Labour's policies for schools in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Jim Docking) presents an overview of the book's contents and lists questions to help evaluate the effectiveness of New Labour's educational policies.…

  11. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  12. Availability of Skilled Labour in Selected Occupations in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Cooney, Richard; Long, Michael; Burke, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This report investigates the future supply of and demand for certain types of skilled labour at the trades and sub-trades levels that will be required for these projects up to 2010. In particular, it focuses on skilled labour in the mechanical, fabrication and electrical trades and mobile plant operators and construction workers in the sub-trades.…

  13. Marketing Science, Marketing Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, David C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the quest for external funding has dominated academic science and argues that today's scientists should think about pledging allegiance to traditional academic values. Enthusiasm for the pre-Cold War model of the university can probably not be justified in utilitarian terms or explained as a consequence of…

  14. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  15. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  16. Eliminating child labour in Malawi: a British American Tobacco corporate responsibility project to sidestep tobacco labour exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, M G; Muggli, M E; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. Design Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. Results British American Tobacco co‐founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US$2.3 million over four years. Labour unions and leaf dealers, through ECLT funds, have undertook modest efforts such as building schools, planting trees, and constructing shallow wells to address the use of child labour in tobacco farming. In stark contrast, the tobacco companies receive nearly US$40 million over four years in economic benefit through the use of unpaid child labour in Malawi during the same time. BAT's efforts to combat child labour in Malawi through ECLT was developed to support the company's “corporate social responsibility agenda” rather than accepting responsibility for taking meaningful steps to eradicate child labour in the Malawi tobacco sector. Conclusion In Malawi, transnational tobacco companies are using child labour projects to enhance corporate reputations and distract public attention from how they profit from low wages and cheap tobacco. PMID:16728754

  17. Identification of Chemokines Associated with the Recruitment of Decidual Leukocytes in Human Labour: Potential Novel Targets for Preterm Labour

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Sarah A.; Tower, Clare L.; Jones, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Current therapies for preterm labour (PTL) focus on arresting myometrial contractions but are largely ineffective, thus alternative therapeutic targets need to be identified. Leukocytes infiltrate the uterus around the time of labour, and are in particularly abundant in decidua (maternal-fetal interface). Moreover, decidual inflammation precedes labour in rat pregnancies and thus may contribute to initiation of labour. We hypothesized that chemokines mediate decidual leukocyte trafficking during preterm labour (PTL) and term labour (TL), thus representing potential targets for preventing PTL. Women were recruited into 4 groups: TL, term not in labour (TNL), idiopathic PTL and PTL with infection (PTLI). Choriodecidual RNA was subjected to a pathway-specific PCR array for chemokines. Differential expression of 12 candidate chemokines was validated by real time RT-PCR and Bioplex assay, with immunohistochemistry to confirm cellular origin. 25 chemokines were upregulated in choriodecidua from TL compared to TNL. A similar pattern was detected in PTL, however a distinct profile was observed in PTLI consistent with differences in leukocyte infiltration. Upregulation of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein was confirmed in TL, with CCL8 upregulated in PTL. Significant correlations were detected between these chemokines and decidual leukocyte abundance previously assessed by immunohistochemical and image analysis. Chemokines were primarily expressed by decidual stromal cells. In addition, CXCL8 and CCL5 were significantly elevated in maternal plasma during labour, suggesting chemokines contribute to peripheral inflammatory events during labour. Differences in chemokine expression patterns between TL and idiopathic PTL may be attributable to suppression of chemokine expression by betamethasone administered to women in PTL; this was supported by in vitro evidence of chemokine downregulation by clinically relevant concentrations of the steroid. The current

  18. Lady Academe and Labor-Market Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in the global economy is not represented particularly well by old-school "pipeline" theories of women entering particular industries, whether it is manufacturing, medicine, or college teaching. The pipeline analogy suggests that if women enter a field in equal or greater numbers to men, they will somehow automatically be "piped"…

  19. Academic Productivity as Perceived by Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Aminuddin; Tymms, Peter; Ismail, Habsah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the perspectives of Malaysian academics in relation to academic productivity and some factors affecting it. A large scale online questionnaire was used to gather information from six public universities. The most productive role in the eyes of the academics was found to be teaching, with research and…

  20. Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today in the late 1980s, developed in the Demos thinktank in the 1990s, and influenced policy of the New Labour government. The encouragement of public participation and deliberation in relation to science and technology has been part of a broader implementation of participatory mechanisms under New Labour. This participatory program has been explicitly oriented toward producing forms of social consciousness and activity seen as essential to a viable knowledge economy and consumer society. STS arguments for public engagement in science have gained influence insofar as they have intersected with the Third Way politics of post-Fordism. PMID:21258426

  1. Induction of Labour: Change of Method and its Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kehl, S.; Weiss, C.; Dammer, U.; Raabe, E.; Burghaus, S.; Heimrich, J.; Hackl, J.; Winkler, M.; Beckmann, M. W.; Faschingbauer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The combination of mechanical and drug procedures for the induction of labour seems to be beneficial. Accordingly, the normal procedure in clinical routine has been changed and induction of labour by means of a balloon catheter has been implemented. The aim of this study was to find out if this procedural change has resulted in a more effective induction of labour. Materials and Method: In this historical cohort study 230 inductions of labour at term in the year 2012 were compared with 291 inductions of labour in the year 2013, all at the University of Erlangen Perinatal Centre. Exclusion criteria were, among others, a multiple pregnancy, a premature rupture of membranes and a prior Caesarean section. In 2012 births were induced solely by use of the drugs dinoprostone and misoprostol, in 2013 not only with misoprostol but also mainly by use of a balloon catheter. The primary target parameter was the rate of failed labour inductions, defined as “no birth within 72 hours”. Results: Altogether 521 inductions of labour were analysed. The rate of failed inductions of labour could be reduced by the changes in induction method (first-time mothers: 23 vs. 9 %, p = 0.0059; multiparous women: 10 vs. 1 %, p = 0.0204). Furthermore, the rate of primary Caesarean sections due to failed induction of labour (5.7 vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.0064), that of the observation of green amniotic fluid (first-time mothers: 23 vs. 9 %, p = 0.0059; multiparous women: 10 vs. 1 %, p = 0.0204) and of infantile infections (first-time mothers: 23 vs. 9 %, p = 0.0059; multiparous women: 10 vs. 1 %, p = 0.0204) were all reduced as well. Conclusion: The routine use of a balloon catheter for induction of labour has markedly improved the procedure. There were fewer failed labour inductions and fewer Caesarean sections due to failed induction of labour. PMID:25914416

  2. [A blind bicycle repair man at the Stedelijk Museum: the exhibition and congress 'labour for the disabled' of 1928].

    PubMed

    Hermans, H J E; Schmidt, S H

    2002-01-01

    In the 1920's concern about the rising number of disabled unemployed urban poor led to the founding of the AVO (Dutch organization for labour care for the disabled) in 1927. The AVO presented the problem of the vulnerability of the physically and mentally disabled in the labour market as a matter of collective responsibility. At the Amsterdam AVO congress of 1928 expert contributors discussed the economic, social and medical aspects of disability and work. Simultaneously, a museum exhibition aimed at arousing the interest of the general public and at promoting a more understanding attitude towards the disabled. Though the twofold AVO manifestation raised an immediate favourable general response and the subject was put on the political agenda, the subsequent economic recession and war forestalled concrete measures. Essentially it was the first public debate on disability in the Netherlands. PMID:12683366

  3. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  4. Rapid radiation in bacteria leads to a division of labour.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook; Levy, Stuart B; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain to gain new territory. The two strains self-organize in space: one provides a wetting polymer at the colony edge, whereas the other sits behind and pushes them both along. The emergence of the interaction is repeatable, bidirectional and only requires a single mutation to alter production of the intracellular messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. Our work demonstrates the power of the division of labour to rapidly solve biological problems without the need for long-term evolution or derived sociality. We predict that the division of labour will evolve frequently in microbial populations, where rapid genetic diversification is common. PMID:26852925

  5. Rapid radiation in bacteria leads to a division of labour

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wook; Levy, Stuart B.; Foster, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain to gain new territory. The two strains self-organize in space: one provides a wetting polymer at the colony edge, whereas the other sits behind and pushes them both along. The emergence of the interaction is repeatable, bidirectional and only requires a single mutation to alter production of the intracellular messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. Our work demonstrates the power of the division of labour to rapidly solve biological problems without the need for long-term evolution or derived sociality. We predict that the division of labour will evolve frequently in microbial populations, where rapid genetic diversification is common. PMID:26852925

  6. Why Should Workers Know More about International Labour Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Zdenek

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness and importance of international labor standards for workers; workers' participation in the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) standard-setting activities and in the implementation of international labor standards; and the ILO's procedures of supervision. (CT)

  7. Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Annemarie; Lewis, Lucy; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Dowswell, Therese; Styles, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background It is more common for women in the developed world, and those in low-income countries giving birth in health facilities, to labour in bed. There is no evidence that this is associated with any advantage for women or babies, although it may be more convenient for staff. Observational studies have suggested that if women lie on their backs during labour this may have adverse effects on uterine contractions and impede progress in labour. Objectives The purpose of the review is to assess the effects of encouraging women to assume different upright positions (including walking, sitting, standing and kneeling) versus recumbent positions (supine, semi-recumbent and lateral) for women in the first stage of labour on length of labour, type of delivery and other important outcomes for mothers and babies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (November 2008). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing women randomised to upright versus recumbent positions in the first stage of labour. Data collection and analysis We used methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for carrying out data collection, assessing study quality and analysing results. A minimum of two review authors independently assessed each study. Main results The review includes 21 studies with a total of 3706 women. Overall, the first stage of labour was approximately one hour shorter for women randomised to upright as opposed to recumbent positions (MD −0.99, 95% CI −1.60 to −0.39). Women randomised to upright positions were less likely to have epidural analgesia (RR 0.83 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96).There were no differences between groups for other outcomes including length of the second stage of labour, mode of delivery, or other outcomes related to the wellbeing of mothers and babies. For women who had epidural analgesia there were no differences between those randomised to upright

  8. The Academic Job Search Handbook. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Mary Morris; Vick, Julia Miller

    This handbook provides specific advice on all aspects of job-seeking in an increasingly tight academic market, from the timetable for the application process through seeking tenure. New material in this edition provides more information for candidates in scientific and technical fields and more advice for those applying to technical and community…

  9. Privatising State Workers: The Case of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    1990-01-01

    The trend toward unionization of Australia's public university faculty and the redefinition of academic work according to market forces are examined. It is concluded that there are substantial contradictions in subjecting public sector employment to private sector modes of work organization, reward systems, and management models that must be…

  10. Labour mobility and housing: the impact of housing tenure and housing affordability on labour migration in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague. These results demonstrate that housing tenure has a significant impact on labour migration plans in case of unemployment and that the dynamic impact of regional differences in housing affordability on labour mobility is concentrated within the most highly skilled segment of the labour force. PMID:22500343

  11. Non-Market Effects of Education on Crime: Evidence from Italian Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonanno, Paulo; Leonida, Leone

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the non-market effects of education on crime using a panel dataset for the 20 Italian regions over the period 1980-1995. Our empirical results suggest that education reduces crime over and above its effect through labour market opportunities (employment rate and wage rate). Because of the absence of a credible instrumental…

  12. Building the Technology Toolkit of Marketing Students: The Emerging Technologies in Marketing Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred L.; Mangold, W. Glynn; Roach, Joy; Holmes, Terry

    2013-01-01

    New information technologies are transforming marketing practice, leading to calls for marketing academics to focus their research and teaching more tightly on areas relevant to practitioners. Developments in e-commerce, business geographic information systems (GIS), and social media offer powerful marketing tools to nontechnical users. This paper…

  13. Polyglots, Vernaculars and Global Markets: Variable Trends in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2004-01-01

    Using a framework from cultural studies and focusing on theories put forward by Pierre Bourdieu, the goal in this paper is to consider how some West Africans interact with foreign languages and cultures in an era of global capital, especially when it comes to the activities of migrants venturing into overseas labour markets and to the production…

  14. Training, Market and Business in the Social Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igado, Manuel Fandos; Aguaded Gómez, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The development and implementation of web 2.0 or social web are threatening the basis of the ways of mixing with other people. These changes are affecting everybody and, in particular, companies and institutions related to people's education, teaching and training for their inclusion in society and labour market. This article brings up some…

  15. Trans-Local Academic Credentials and the (Re)production of Financial Elites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah; Appleyard, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which credentials from a range of education providers are used to (re)produce transnational financial elites in London's international financial district. Extant research has examined the long-standing relationship between educational background and entry into these financial labour markets. Far less attention has…

  16. Marketing approval of mogamulizumab

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alain; Reichert, Janice M.

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic properties of antibodies strongly depend on the composition of their glycans. Most of the currently approved antibodies are produced in mammalian cell lines, which yield mixtures of different glycoforms that are close to those of humans, but not fully identical. Glyco-engineering is being developed as a method to control the composition of carbohydrates and to enhance the pharmacological properties of mAbs. The recent approval in Japan of mogamulizumab (POTELIGEO®), the first glyco-engineered antibody to reach the market, is a landmark in the field of therapeutic antibodies. Mogamulizumab is a humanized mAb derived from Kyowa Hakko Kirin’s POTELLIGENT® technology, which produces antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. The approval was granted April 30, 2012 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for patients with relapsed or refractory CCR4-positive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma. PMID:22699226

  17. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  18. Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

  19. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  20. The Ulysses contract in obstetrics: a woman's choices before and during labour.

    PubMed

    Burcher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Women recognise that labour represents a mind-altering event that may affect their ability to make and communicate decisions and choices. For this reason, birth plans and other pre-labour directives can represent a form of Ulysses contract: an attempt to make binding choices before the sometimes overwhelming circumstances of labour. These choices need to be respected during labour, but despite the reduced decisional and communicative capacity of a labouring woman, her choices, when clear, should supersede decisions made before labour. PMID:23065492

  1. Managing CD-ROM Service in Malaysian Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Shaheen

    1998-01-01

    Explores the management of CD-ROM service in Malaysian academic libraries and marketing strategies used to popularize it. Findings revealed that these libraries use a variety of marketing and promotional channels, some of which need improvement; the libraries need to strengthen their end-user education programs to suit users with different levels…

  2. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  3. The origin of violent behaviour among child labourers in India.

    PubMed

    Dalal, K; Rahman, F; Jansson, B

    2008-01-01

    We explored the causes and circumstances of violent behaviour among a group of child labourers in the Indian unorganized sectors. From 14 categories of occupations, a total of 1,400 child labourers were interviewed in both urban and rural areas. The average family size of these mostly illiterate child labourers is seven, and average family income is 3,200 INR per month. In the short term child labourers become violent, aggressive, and criminal, following a pyramid of violent behaviour, including socio-economic pressure, cultural deviance, and psychological pressure. When considering family history it seems that the problem is part of a vicious cycle of violence, which persists through generations and evolves with financial crisis, early marriage, and violence in the family and workplace. Our study demonstrates that the most vulnerable groups of child labourers belong to the following workplaces: dhabas, food stalls, rail/bus stations, rail-floor cleaning, and rag picking. Giving high priority to capacity building within the community, including support for locally-generated solutions, is warranted. PMID:19288361

  4. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  5. [Causative hormonal prevention of premature labour].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Labour is the most important caesura in the life of every human being, as it is the ultimate test of the child's fetal maturity to self dependent life, whose onset is connected with a violent change in the circulatory system and the commencement of breathing. Maturity assessment scale comprises such features as, among others: posture, angle forearm, pulling an elbow to the middle line of the body, distribution of lanugo, plantar creases, breast development. They can be objectified through their technical quantification the same way as we give the appropriate number of grams and centimeters when assessing the weight and length of the newborn. However, two equally mature fetuses call differ in mass by 800g, body length by 6 cm, and gestational age by 6 weeks. Relativity of pregnancy duration clearly demonstrates that only the quantitativization of maturity enabled its prenatal assessment on the basis of the rate of increase of the spatial parameters of the baby developing in the mother's womb. The date of the end of pregnancy is determined depending equally on the child's fetal maturity and the mother's readiness to birth, where the placenta plays an important role, as its existence coincides with the individual duration of every pregnancy. The use of industrially synthesized hormones means that those pharmaceuticals contain the whole mixture of side-products of the synthesis of the hormones. The biologically alien corticoid analogues like dexamethasone and betamethasone must, when exerting prolonged action, cause unwanted side effects. In contrast the ACTH-depot administration leads to desired production and secretion of corticoids through the control of the whole body function of the adrenals. Such naturally stimulated endogenous steroid hormones are free from unwanted side effects of drugs from the group of their synthetic analogues. An enormous body of evidence supports the link between the administration of corticotrophin and fetal body mass, maturity and age of

  6. Labour Migration in Moldova: Context and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugas, Petru

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Moldova proclaimed its independence in 1991. Like other republics of the former USSR, during the last decade of the Twentieth Century, Moldova initiated social and economic reforms aimed at the country's transition to a market economy. A series of relevant social changes were achieved in Moldova but, contrary to initial estimates,…

  7. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  8. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  9. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  10. A general equilibrium model of a production economy with asset markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raberto, Marco; Teglio, Andrea; Cincotti, Silvano

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a general equilibrium model of a monetary production economy is presented. The model is characterized by three classes of agents: a representative firm, heterogeneous households, and the government. Two markets (i.e., a labour market and a goods market, are considered) and two assets are traded in exchange of money, namely, government bonds and equities. Households provide the labour force and decide on consumption and savings, whereas the firm provides consumption goods and demands labour. The government receives taxes from households and pays interests on debt. The Walrasian equilibrium is derived analytically. The dynamics through quantity constrained equilibria out from the Walrasian equilibrium is also studied by means of computer simulations.

  11. Elevated serum melatonin levels during human late pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Wierrani, F; Grin, W; Hlawka, B; Kroiss, A; Grünberger, W

    1997-09-01

    Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days before and 4 days after delivery. Antepartum AUCs were significantly increased compared with postpartum AUCs. Additionally, MLT levels were measured every 2 hours in a subgroup of 11 women during spontaneous labour between 08.00 and 12.00 h at a time when physiological serum MLT levels were low. Increased MLT levels were determined and compared to MLT levels measured in a previous evaluation of the antepartum AUCs. Elevated serum MLT levels during late-pregnancy and labour may influence the concentration of receptors of gonadal steroids in the gravid uterus at term and the psychic perception of painful uterine contractions during labour. PMID:15511919

  12. Changes in Motives and Values of Academic Labour before the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayrynen, Yrjo-Paavo

    1985-01-01

    Follow-up to a 1965 study of the relationships of student self-concept, values, vocational choice, and education suggests that (1) while career choice may be harder for this generation of students, they have higher expectations, and (2) the real personal values guiding career choice may be revealed only well after schooling is completed. (MSE)

  13. Librarians' Attitudes towards Marketing Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2009-01-01

    This research set out to explore the attitudes of school, academic and public librarians towards marketing libraries. The main question that was examined is whether personality characteristics such as empowerment, extroversion and resistance to change influence librarians' attitudes towards the marketing of libraries. One hundred and fifty-six…

  14. Marketisation of Education: Marketing, Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stephen; Jahdi, Khosro

    2009-01-01

    Further and higher education have witnessed something of a paradigm shift in recent years. This article aims to examine the reasons behind, and the possible impact on, academic staff and students of one aspect of the so-called marketisation of education--namely, the increased importance of institutional marketing. Aspects of marketing theory are…

  15. Marketing: Putting People in the Process. White House Conference on Library and Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisner, Anthony

    Noting that some public, school, law, academic, and special libraries have adopted marketing as a management tool, this paper begins by discussing marketing principles as defined by the American Marketing Association (AMA). Librarians are advised to center their marketing activities around what is known as the "4 P's" of marketing: Product, Price,…

  16. Epidemiology and hazards of student labour in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gilany, A H; Khalil, I A H; El-Wehady, A

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of student labour, underlying causes and impacts, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 1293 students enrolled in government secondary schools in Mansoura. Year-round work was reported by 8.6% of students and summer work by 27.5%. The majority worked for > or =6 hours/day. Lower social status, attending vocational school, male sex, large family size and rural residence were significant predictors of student labour. Hazards at the workplace, injuries and corporal punishment were prevalent among working students. Work adversely affected education and social life. Contribution to family income was the main reason for working. PMID:17684857

  17. South Carolina Shipyards: Labour, Logistics, Lumber and Ladies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn

    2010-10-01

    Southern shipyards, like Hobcaw and Mars Bluff, were established at locations chosen primarily for convenient access to transportation networks, building materials, clientele and labour. The historical record reveals a home front role played by local plantation owners and slaves as shipyard labour. Women served as project fundraisers, shipyard dilettantes, shipwright’s wives and possibly slave mistresses with a paucity of material culture to confirm their presence in the archaeological record. Archaeological investigations on land and underwater yield evidence of artefacts associated with diet, shipbuilding, warfare and ethnicity.

  18. Archeology and the art market.

    PubMed

    Coggins, C

    1972-01-21

    The illegal antiquities market is financing the destruction of the remains of pre-Columbian civilization. In the United States, this process has often been aided by museums, collectors, and scholars who have unwittingly collaborated. Recently, initiatives toward refrom have been taken by UNESCO, professional organizations, and two academic institutions. Further organized action is recommended. PMID:17814526

  19. Migratory labour in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Zahlan, A B

    1984-10-01

    Some aspects of modern labor migration to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East are considered. Data on international labor migration among the countries of the region in 1980 are presented. The qualifications of the expatriate labor forces are then examined, and the stability and uncertainties of the labor market are discussed. The political implications of such migration for both host and sending countries are also considered. PMID:12313382

  20. Educational Aspirations, Child Labour Imperatives and Structural Inequality in the South African Agricultural Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…