Science.gov

Sample records for academic language proficiency

  1. Academic Proficiency (Language and Content) and the Role of Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This report continues the work of Krashen and Brown (2007), developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses for the development of academic proficiency. That article defined academic proficiency as having two components: academic language proficiency and knowledge of academic content.

  2. Developing Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty; Kover, Pat; Watt, David

    2005-01-01

    This study tracks the development of cognitive academic language proficiency of 47 academically competent high school ESL learners of differing age on arrival (AOA) who received instructed ESL support and one comparison group of six young arrivals who received little if any ESL support during their educational experiences. Although intake and…

  3. English Language Proficiency and Teacher Judgments of the Academic and Interpersonal Competence of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Miranda E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…

  4. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729

  5. Validating English Language Proficiency Assessment Uses for English Learners: Academic Language Proficiency and Content Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Faulkner-Bond, Molly

    2016-01-01

    States use standards-based English language proficiency (ELP) assessments to inform relatively high-stakes decisions for English learner (EL) students. Results from these assessments are one of the primary criteria used to determine EL students' level of ELP and readiness for reclassification. The results are also used to evaluate the…

  6. The Crosslinguistic Role of Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency on Reading Growth in Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laija-Rodriguez, Wilda; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Parker, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Office of Civil Rights (2001) and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Antunez, 2003) mandate that language proficiency and academic achievement be measured in order to provide equal educational opportunities to English language learners and have an accountability system for their language and academic growth. The Cognitive Academic Language…

  7. Investigating Correspondence between Language Proficiency Standards and Academic Content Standards: A Generalizability Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chih-Kai; Zhang, Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Research on the relationship between English language proficiency standards and academic content standards serves to provide information about the extent to which English language learners (ELLs) are expected to encounter academic language use that facilitates their content learning, such as in mathematics and science. Standards-to-standards…

  8. Language Proficiency as a Moderator Variable in Testing Academic Aptitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Donald L.

    1982-01-01

    Puerto Rican students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA), and the Pruebas de Aprovechamiento Academico. The strength of the relationship between scores on the SAT given in English and the PAA given in Spanish increased as proficiency in English as a second language increased (Author/BW)

  9. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  10. The Development of Academic Language Proficiency: Challenges for Middle School Immersion in Hong Kong and Xi'an

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of academic language proficiency through immersion in middle school programmes in Hong Kong and Xi'an. The study reveals that in both contexts students have exposure to complex academic language through teacher talk and textbooks; however, there is not sufficient support for students' academic language use…

  11. Beyond Vocabulary: Exploring Cross-Disciplinary Academic-Language Proficiency and Its Association with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Barr, Christopher D.; Meneses, Alejandra; Dobbs, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long-standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic-language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic-language…

  12. Foreign Language Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Academic Skills, Affective Characteristics, and Proficiency: Replication and Follow-up Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Ganschow, Leonore; Artzer, Marjorie E.; Siebenhar, David; Plageman, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Two studies explore the relationship between foreign language teachers' perceptions of their students' academic skills and affective characteristics and their native language skills, foreign language aptitude, and oral and written foreign language proficiency. In Study I (replication), students who scored significantly lower on native language and…

  13. Native Language Proficiency, English Literacy, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment in Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Latent Growth Modeling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, R. Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that native language (L1) proficiency promotes English acquisition and overall academic achievement, a key theoretical assumption underlying bilingual education, was tested using latent growth modeling of data from 899 limited-English-proficient (LEP) eighth graders who were followed for 12 years in the National Education…

  14. Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency and Language Acquisition in Bilingual Instruction--with an Outlook on a University Project in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portmann-Tselikas Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the contribution of cognitive-academic language proficiency to second language acquisition in instructional contexts, using Cummins' concepts of bilingual education. Discusses Albania's educational practices and reviews a joint project by Austrian and Albanian universities that shows how cognitive academic proficiency, along with…

  15. Assessing Language Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman-Marr, Annette

    A study compared two methods for assessing English proficiency of limited-English-proficient school-age children, for purposes of placement in bilingual and monolingual education programs. The two instruments used were the Idea Oral Language Proficiency Test (forms C and D) (IPT), which assesses oral English proficiency, and the Woodcock-Munoz…

  16. The Relationship between English Language Proficiency, Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Non-Native-English-Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…

  17. Theory to Practice: Cultivating Academic Language Proficiency in Developmental Reading Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Heather N.

    2015-01-01

    Academic language plays a key role in reading comprehension, disciplinary thinking, and overall academic success. However, many approaches to teaching academic language, such as a focus on academic vocabulary, overlook other language features that can pose challenges for students. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), arguably one of the three…

  18. Relationships between a Statewide Language Proficiency Test and Academic Achievement Assessments. LEP Projects Report 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Albus, Debra; Liu, Kristin; Guven, Kamil; Thurlow, Martha

    2004-01-01

    Minnesota is one of many states that began development of an English proficiency test before federal requirements were in place to do so. It had decided to put into place a test that would provide the state with a better and more uniform gauge of how its population of English language learners (ELLs) was doing in their acquisition of academic…

  19. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  20. Measuring Academic Language Proficiency in School-Age English Language Proficiency Assessments under New College and Career Readiness Standards in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…

  1. English Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement of International Students: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongtrirat, Rachawan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to determine the impact of English language on the academic achievement of international students in higher education institutions in the United States. The results of these investigations have been varied and at times contradictory. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate studies from 1987-2009 that…

  2. Academics' Beliefs about Language Use and Proficiency in Spanish Multilingual Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortanet-Gomez, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Today, more and more universities in Spain are starting to design language policies, usually including Spanish and English. At the same time, Spain has a special socio-political context since part of its territory is already bilingual. This paper examines the opinions and attitudes of academics at a bilingual Valencian-Spanish university which is…

  3. Testing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L., Ed.; Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the 1974 Washington Language Testing Sumposium. The volume also includes much of the discussion that followed each paper. The participants were an international group of language testing specialists from academic institutions, research centers, and government agencies. The primary focus…

  4. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. An Extended Executive Summary. CSE Report 720

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  5. Prediction of Foreign Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Ganschow, Leonore; Patton, Jon; Artzer, Marjorie; Siebenhar, David; Plageman, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Best predictors of overall proficiency in a foreign language were examined in two experiments involving 60 high school female students in a private school and 36 10th graders in a coeducational public school. Best predictors were grade at the end of one year of study of the language and foreign language word decoding. (SLD)

  6. Explaining English Language Proficiency among Adolescent Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill, Avary; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Paez, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to increase understanding of factors that account for academic English language proficiency in a sample of 274 adolescent first-generation immigrant students from China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, and Mexico. Previous research has shown the importance of English language proficiency in predicting academic…

  7. Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…

  8. The Relationship between Cognitive Academic Levels of Proficiency and Response to Intervention Tier Assignment and the Implications for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Bonery, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship(s) between a student's Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) levels of proficiency and Response to Intervention tier (RtI) assignment for academic instruction and the Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS) scores. The CALP levels were derived from…

  9. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  10. Assessment of Academic Literacy Skills: Preparing Minority and LEP (Limited English Proficient) Students for Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Phyllis

    Addressing the problem of the language-related barriers to successful postsecondary education for underprepared college students, an assessment of academic language proficiency and a curriculum to help students improve their academic language skills were developed. The nature of the language tasks required in the undergraduate curriculum was…

  11. Long-Term Relationships among Early First Language Skills, Second Language Aptitude, Second Language Affect, and Later Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-four students were followed over 10 years beginning in first grade to determine best predictors of oral and written second language (L2) proficiency. Predictor variables included measures of first language (L1) skill administered in first through fifth grades, L1 academic aptitude, L2 aptitude (Modern Language Aptitude Test), and L2 affect…

  12. Testing the Language Proficiency of Bilingual Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    As bilingual education emerges after the 1974 Lau decision, the additional need to test the language proficiency of bilingual education teachers is recognized. Examination of possible means of validating language proficiency of bilingual education teacher certification candidates shows several alternatives, some desirable and some not. A review of…

  13. IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II), an individually-administered measure of speaking and listening proficiency in English as a Second Language designed for secondary school students, is described and discussed. The test consists of 91 items and requires 5-25 minutes to administer. Raw scores are converted to one of seven proficiency…

  14. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language...

  15. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  16. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…

  17. International Student Security and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby

    2012-01-01

    "International student security" refers to the international student's maintenance of a stable capacity for self-determining human agency. The article focuses on the role of English-language proficiency in the security of students from English as Foreign Language countries, drawing on evidence from a program of semistructured interviews with 200…

  18. STRUCTURE PLUS MEANING EQUALS LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELASCO, SIMON

    TRUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY CAN BE ACHIEVED ONLY BY THE INTERNALIZATION OF THE ENTIRE GRAMMAR OF THE TARGET LANGUAGE PLUS THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL IN SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. ADHERENCE TO EITHER OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS THAT UNDERLIE TODAY'S AUDIOLINGUALLY-ORIENTED PROGRAMS WILL LEAD STUDENTS TO NOTHING MORE THAN A LEARNING PLATEAU.…

  19. Variability of ESL Learners' Acquisition of Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: What Can We Learn from Achievement Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty; Kover, Pat

    2003-01-01

    With the revamping of the Canada Immigration Act in 1985, the demographic profile of new arrivals to Canada took a marked shift to place a priority on better educated, business-class immigrants. Most of these immigrants are from the Pacific Rim, and they have high expectations for the academic achievement of their children in the Canadian school.…

  20. Beyond Linguistic Proficiency: Early Language Learning as a Lever for Building Students' Global Competence, Self-Esteem, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris

    2013-01-01

    It is no exaggeration to say that language learning is the very foundation of global competence and the most deeply effective way for students to be able to "investigate the world, recognize perspectives, communicate ideas, and take action," which is the definition of global competence developed by Asia Society Vice President for…

  1. Profiles in Bilingualism: Factors Influencing Kindergartners' Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam

    2012-01-01

    Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…

  2. Phraseology and Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Discusses, in the context of second-language learning, the definition of collocations in English and major approaches to linguistic description of prefabricated language. Presents data from a study comparing use of specific lexical collocations (phrases) by native speakers (based on existing language corpus) and learners of English (data drawn…

  3. Language Proficiency, Home-Language Status, and English Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of the Word Generation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; Capotosto, Lauren; Branum-Martin, Lee; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal quasi-experimental study examines the effects of Word Generation, a middle-school vocabulary intervention, on the learning, maintenance, and consolidation of academic vocabulary for students from English-speaking homes, proficient English speakers from language-minority homes, and limited English-proficiency students. Using…

  4. ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND THE FOREIGN STUDENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAPLAN, ROBERT B.

    THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY SHOULD NOT BE MADE A COLLEGE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENT FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS. HE ALSO BELIEVES, HOWEVER, THAT INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE NOT ABLE TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE TRAINING IN ENGLISH FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS SHOULD NOT ENCOURAGE THESE STUDENTS TO ENROLL. THE CONSORTIUM PLAN WHEREBY SCHOOLS WITH NO…

  5. Paper to Practice: Using the TESOL English Language Proficiency Standards in PreK-12 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Margo; Katz, Anne; Ernst-Slavit, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    Teachers of English language learners in 21st-century classrooms face a daunting task. The nature of language is complex, learners' needs are diverse, academic content challenges students, and the demand for accountability is an educational reality. "Paper to Practice: Using the TESOL English Language Proficiency Standards in PreK-12 Classrooms"…

  6. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities: Reconsidering…

  7. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  8. Migrant Students with Limited English Proficiency: Can Fast ForWord Language? Make a Difference in Their Language Skills and Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…

  9. Words as Tools: Learning Academic Vocabulary as Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, William; Townsend, Dianna

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the importance of academic vocabulary, and more generally, of academic language proficiency, for students' success in school. There is also a growing body of research on the nature of the demands that academic language places on readers and writers, and on interventions to help students meet these demands. In this…

  10. Advanced Low Language Proficiency--An Achievable Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.

    2013-01-01

    A standard of language proficiency recommended for world language preservice teachers has been set at advanced low as defined by the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requires that foreign language teacher candidates in specific languages (e.g., French, German, Spanish) achieve…

  11. Assessing Language Proficiency Levels: Oral Proficiency Testing, Pre- and Post-Soviet Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Robert L.

    The importance of assessing language proficiency levels and the relationship of this priority to the teaching of Russian at the university level are discussed. Serious concerns about the value of language-specific proficiency guidelines are raised, and an argument is presented suggesting that language-specific guidelines may lead to undue emphasis…

  12. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  13. The Relationship between Demotivation and EFL Learners' English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Rou-Jui Sophia

    2011-01-01

    To what extent does demotivation affect EFL learners' English language proficiency attainment? The present study addresses this question by investigating the relationship between technological institute EFL students' past demotivating factors and their English language proficiency. Although the role of demotivation in foreign language achievement…

  14. Within- and Cross-Language Relations between Oral Language Proficiency and School Outcomes in Bilingual Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen meta-analyses were conducted to examine relations of typically developing bilingual immigrant-background children's oral language proficiency in their first and second language with the school outcomes of early literacy (k = 41), reading (k = 61), spelling (k = 9), mathematics (k = 9), and academic achievement (k = 9). Moderate to strong…

  15. Investigating Transfer of Academic Proficiency among Trilingual Immigrant Students: A Holistic Tri-Directional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…

  16. Language Proficiency and Language Policy in South Africa: Findings from New Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posel, Dorrit; Casale, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This study explores new data from 2008 on language proficiency and labour market outcomes in the context of South Africa's language-in-education policy. We show that the economic returns to English language proficiency are large and higher than those to home language proficiency for the majority of employed South Africans. This helps explain why…

  17. The effect of English proficiency and ethnicity on academic performance and progress.

    PubMed

    Green, James A

    2015-03-01

    Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language proficiency. Ethnicity, citizenship, and demographic data, as well as academic performance and progress were obtained for three successive cohorts (entering in 2007, 2008 and 2009) into a three-year pharmacy programme, following a common first-year. Complete data was available for all 297 students entering via this path. By the end of the programme, controlling for grades at entry, students from some non-local ethnic backgrounds (p < .001) underperformed local students, as did males (p < .001) and those who had been identified as having low English proficiency in year 1 (p < .01). Males (p < .01) and one non-local ethnic group (p < .01) were also more likely to have to repeat a year of study. Ethnicity was a stronger predictor than English proficiency or acculturation, but English proficiency was still independently and additively predictive. This suggests that targeted support strategies for students with lower English language proficiency are still important, but that cultural differences should not be underestimated. PMID:24988998

  18. Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others

    The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…

  19. On the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to examine the strength of the relationship between language proficiency in English and the 9 types of intelligences. As such, the objectives of this study were three-folded. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency among the…

  20. Applications of Oral Proficiency Testing to Foreign Language. Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

    A guide to the adaptation of oral proficiency testing for classroom language instruction contains excerpts of projects by participants in an American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) workshop. The excerpts are examples of proficiency based curricula and materials designed to personalize instruction and simulate real-life…

  1. Spanish for Spanish Speakers: Developing Dual Language Proficiency. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Lewelling, Vickie W.; Winke, Paula

    The increasing number of students who enter U.S. schools from homes where languages other than English are spoken, and the recognition that proficiency in non-English languages is a valuable national resource, have generated interest in the field of heritage language instruction. A heritage language student is a language student who is raised in a…

  2. The Role of First Language Literacy and Second Language Proficiency in Second Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of first language (L1) literacy, second language (L2) proficiency, and L2 reading comprehension with 246 Chinese college students learning English. L1 literacy and L2 proficiency were measured with college admission exams in Chinese and English. L2 reading comprehension was measured with the reading…

  3. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. PMID:26094128

  4. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  5. Proficiency Testing in the Less Commonly Taught Languages. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard T.; Johnson, Dora E.

    Efforts to expand the generic language proficiency guidelines of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) to the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) began when developers realized that the ACTFL guidelines were too Eurocentric; the guidelines included grammatical categories specific to Western European languages and…

  6. The Measurement of Change in English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nallaya, Sasikala

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the measurement of change in English language proficiency levels of pre-service and in-service teachers enrolled in a public university in Malaysia. Path analysis was used to measure change on three occasions by examining the effects of student characteristics, learning needs and multimodal technology on proficiency levels.…

  7. The Relationship Between Anxiety and Foreign Language Oral Proficiency Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly J.

    1986-01-01

    College students (N=60) majoring in French, German, or Spanish took Self-Appraisal of Speaking Proficiency and State Anxiety Inventory before being assessed by American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages' Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI). Results showed that anxiety did not exert as much influence on scores as ability did. However, once…

  8. Age at migration, language proficiency, and socioeconomic outcomes: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Guven, Cahit; Islam, Asadul

    2015-04-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of language proficiency on the economic and social integration of Australian immigrants. Identifying the effects of languages on socioeconomic outcomes is inherently difficult owing to the endogeneity of language skills. Using the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children, we construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. To achieve this, we consider the age at arrival of immigrants who came as children from Anglophone and non-Anglophone countries. We find a significant positive effect of English proficiency on wages and promotions among adults who immigrated to Australia as children. Higher levels of English proficiency are associated with increased risk-taking, more smoking, and more exercise for men, but have considerable health benefits for women. English language proficiency has a significant influence on partner choice and a number of social outcomes, as well as on children's outcomes, including their levels of academic achievement. The results are robust to alternative specifications, including accounting for between-sibling differences and alternative measures of English skills. PMID:25749486

  9. Planning for Proficiency. Dimension: Language '86. Report of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching (1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, T. Bruce; Medley, Frank W., Jr.

    Selected papers from the 1986 Southern Conference on Language Teaching on instruction for language proficiency are presented: "The Foreign Language Teacher: Confronting an Ever-Changing Profession" (Robert Di Donato); "Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency" (Filisha Camara-Norman, James Davis, Karen Smyley…

  10. Understanding the Relationship between Language Proficiency, Language Impairment and Rehabilitation: Evidence from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…

  11. The Language Proficiency Handbook: A Practitioner's Guide to Instructional Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Margo

    This guide is useful for pre-kindergarten educators who work with second language students who wish to document their students' language development over time. Although the purposes may vary among various practitioners and audiences, overall this handbook is intended to provide guidance in how to capture students' language proficiency in reliable…

  12. Predictors of English-Language Proficiency among Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Mariela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the language skills and factors that predict English-language proficiency for a sample of 209 students ages 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students'…

  13. The Relationship Between Foreign Language Proficiency and Various Psychological Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskarsson, Mats

    A large-scale test development project at the Language Teaching Research Center of the University of Gothenburg aims to develop tests in English as a foreign language for use in various areas of business and public administration. After testing, certificates stating current proficiency level in each of the four language skills (listening, reading,…

  14. Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) Framework Manual 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Commissioner's Rules Concerning the State Plan for Educating English Language Learners (ELLs) states that all school districts that are required to provide bilingual education and/or English as a second language (ESL) programs establish and operate a Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC). The LPACs are charged with reviewing all…

  15. The Impact of Second Language Proficiency in Dyadic Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Mills, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used in second and foreign language writing contexts. While second language (L2) proficiency is likely to be an important factor in determining peers' ability to give and utilize feedback, its contribution has been relatively under-researched. In the present study, 54 undergraduates in a foreign language writing context…

  16. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their…

  17. Native Language Predictors of Foreign Language Proficiency and Foreign Language Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in…

  18. PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards: An Augmentation of the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL International Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Using TESOL's 1997 landmark publication, ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 as a building block, the new 2006 PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards expands the scope and breadth of ESL content standards: (1) Connects language to the specific core curriculum content areas of English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies; (2)…

  19. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  20. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  1. Language Proficiency and Home Languages of Students in New York City Elementary and Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Conger, Dylan

    This report describes demographic characteristics and educational experiences of New York City's elementary and middle school students by English language proficiency and home language. It compares the characteristics and achievement of students who are limited English proficiency (LEP), most of whom: live in homes where a language other than…

  2. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  3. Implicit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge, and General Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Youngju; Ellis, Rod

    1998-01-01

    Explores ways of measuring implicit and explicit second language (L2) knowledge and examines the relationship between these measures and measures of general language proficiency. Factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution, reflecting a clear distinction between measures that incorporated a time constraint and those that did not. (Author/VWL)

  4. Host Language Proficiency, Intercultural Sensitivity, and Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The number of foreign language students who join study abroad programs continues to increase annually, especially those who take part in short-term sojourns lasting eight weeks or less. What can be accomplished in such a short stay in the host culture? Is it possible for sojourners to enhance their proficiency in the host language and…

  5. "Bridging Activities," New Media Literacies, and Advanced Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Steven L.; Reinhardt, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    In this article we propose the pedagogical model "bridging activities" to address advanced foreign language proficiency in the context of existing and emerging internet communication and information tools and communities. The article begins by establishing the need for language and genre-focused activities at the advanced level that attend to the…

  6. Naming Abilities in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a…

  7. Dictation as a Measure of Spanish Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles

    Recent research by Valette, Oller, and others has shown the utility of dictation as a measure of general language competence when correlated with achievement and proficiency batteries for French and English as a second language. No such studies have been conducted with Spanish. The investigator hypothesized that since Spanish is a phonetic…

  8. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  9. MLA FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY TESTS FOR TEACHERS AND ADVANCED STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STARR, WILMARTH H.

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA) FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY TESTS FOR TEACHERS AND ADVANCED STUDENTS ARE THE SUBJECTS OF THIS FINAL PROJECT REPORT. FOLLOWING AN ACCOUNT OF THE EVENTS THAT LED TO THE AWARDING OF A GOVERNMENT CONTRACT TO MLA TO DEVELOP NATIONALLY STANDARDIZED QUALIFICATION TESTS AND A…

  10. General Language Proficiency Revisited: Current and Future Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a number of key issues that emerged during the panel discussion that followed the General Language Proficiency Symposium at the Language Testing Forum (LTF) 2010, celebrating the 30th anniversary of the LTF. The key issues that emerged during the discussion should be of interest to a wider audience, as they express current…

  11. English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

  12. English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

  13. Core Academic Language Skills: Moving beyond Vocabulary Knowledge to Predict Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…

  14. Impact of the Proficiency Scale and the Oral Proficiency Interview on the Foreign Language Program at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Martha

    2003-01-01

    The ACTFL oral proficiency interview (OPI) and the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale provide both a testing method and a set of rating factors for evaluating proficiency. Both are closely related to actual language tasks identified as critical for government employees. Over time, the scale has been expanded to include four skills, a…

  15. Positioning Proficiency: How Students and Teachers (De)Construct Language Proficiency at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the social construction of proficiency and the discursive practices prevalent in linguistically diverse schools that afford or constrain participation in language learning communities. Drawing from discourse studies, positioning theory and a sociocultural framework, this study analyzed data from audio recordings and…

  16. Oral Language Proficiency Assessment for Bilingual and English as a Second Language Certification in New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorro, Celeste M.

    The development of oral language proficiency as a requirement for bilingual and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) teacher certification in New Jersey is chronicled. Efforts made toward the preparation of bilingual and ESL teachers to accommodate the increasing numbers of limited English proficient students in the state are outlined, beginning…

  17. ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines for the Less Commonly Taught Languages. A Familiarization Project for the Development of Proficiency Guidelines for Less Commonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.; Harman, Chip, Ed.

    A collection of papers on the use of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Guidelines for instruction and testing in less commonly taught languages includes: the 1986 ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines; "Testing Speaking Proficiency: The Oral Interview" (Pardee Lowe, Jr., Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro); a review of…

  18. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. 107th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. Part A describes the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. Its four subparts include the following: (1) grants and subgrants for English language acquisition…

  19. Academic Language in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on defining academic language in physical education and provides a step-by-step approach designed to help preservice and inservice teachers understand and incorporated academic language into their lesson planning. It provides examples of discipline-specific vocabulary, language functions, syntax, and discourse, aiming to…

  20. Using the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) to Benchmark College Programs/Courses and Language Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Lucy; Stawychny, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes a process developed by the Language Training Centre at Red River College (RRC) to use the Canadian language benchmarks in analyzing the language levels used in programs and courses at RRC to identify appropriate entry-level language proficiency and the levels that second language students need in order to meet college or university…

  1. ESL Learners, Writing and the Acquisition of Academic Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rashid A.; Zainuddin, Hanizah

    Most research conducted on the amount of time English language learners (ELLs) require for the acquisition of academic English suggests that 4-10 years are required to be near or on par with fully proficient English (FEP) peers. In this study, data from three administrations (1999, 2000, and 2001) of the FCAT writing test of the Florida Writing…

  2. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  3. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  4. Examining the Relationship between Math Scores and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Denfield L.

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) at a south Florida elementary school have consistently struggled with the mathematics segment of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. Examining the relationship between ELLs' mathematics scores and English proficiency might provide local educators with ideas for reversing a downward trend in ELLs' mathematics…

  5. English Language Proficiency Study (ELPS), 1982 Microdata File. Technical Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This document consists of the printed technical documentation that accompanies the English Language Proficiency Study (ELPS) machine-readable data file when obtained from the Bureau of the Census. The ELPS was conducted by the United States Bureau of the Census for the Department of Education to provide materials with which the Department of…

  6. Severely Handicapped Language Proficiency Instrument (SH-LPI). Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Cheryl; Schnell-Torosian, Roxanne

    A test of English language proficiency designed for administration to school children with severe disabilities is presented. The test packet contains a manual for test administrators, a five-page form for recording student testing data, and a score sheet. The manual offers an introduction to the instrument, including its rationale, definitions of…

  7. Statistical Profiling of Academic Oral English Proficiency Based on an ITA Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ick Kyu

    2013-01-01

    At the University of California, Los Angeles, the Test of Oral Proficiency (TOP), an internally developed oral proficiency test, is administered to international teaching assistant (ITA) candidates to ensure an appropriate level of academic oral English proficiency. Test taker performances are rated live by two raters according to four subscales.…

  8. Speaking in Multiple Languages: Neural Correlates of Language Proficiency in Multilingual Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Barbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a…

  9. Subcomponents of Second-Language Aptitude and Second-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

    2011-01-01

    A factor analysis of a test battery that included early first-language (L1) achievement, L1 cognitive ability, second-language (L2) aptitude, and L2 affective measures to predict oral and written L2 proficiency was conducted. The analysis yielded 4 factors that were labeled Language Analysis, composed of L1 and L2 language comprehension, grammar,…

  10. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  11. Academic proficiency in children after early congenital heart disease surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Swearingen, Christopher J; Melguizo, Maria S; Reeves, Rachel N; Rowell, Jacob A; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T; Kaiser, Jeffrey R

    2014-02-01

    Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at <1 year of age from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2003, at the Arkansas Children's Hospital were identified. Out-of-state births and infants with known genetic and/or neurologic conditions were excluded. Infants were matched to an Arkansas Department of Education database containing standardized assessments at early school age and special-education codes. Predictors for achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. Two hundred fifty-six children who attended Arkansas public schools and who had surgery as infants were included; 77.7 % had either school-age achievement-test scores or special-education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7-13 % lower than those of Arkansas students (p < 0.01). They had an eightfold increase in receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities [odds ratio (OR) 10.66, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.23-22.35] or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95 % CI 2.6-8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with decreased literacy proficiency, and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with decreased mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments, and many received special education. This is concerning because achievement-test scores at school age are "real-world" predictors of long-term outcomes. PMID:24000004

  12. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. PMID:25784501

  13. Ethnic networks and language proficiency among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    1996-02-01

    "This paper uses a unique data set for Australia (1988) that includes a variety of ethnic network variables to analyze the role of the language concentration measure [in immigrants' acquisition of the language of the destination country]. These ethnic variables, in particular, ethnic press, relatives in Australia, and spouse's origin language, are highly statistically significant. Their inclusion in the equation eliminates the effect of the minority-language concentration variable. The model for analyzing the determinants of English reading and English writing skills in Australia is also shown to be very similar to the model for speaking fluency, including the effect of the ethnic network variables." PMID:12291403

  14. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities on State English Language Proficiency Assessments: A Review of 2011 State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…

  15. Age, Marital Status and Time in U.S. as Correlates to English Language Proficiency of Male Arab University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addou, Ibrahim Hassan; Hodinko, Bernard A.

    A study examined the difficulties that 400 male Arab students, attending five universities in the District of Columbia, experienced with academic English while seeking college degrees. A survey investigated problems with nine aspects of English language proficiency: (1) expressing ideas correctly, (2) understanding lectures, (3) taking class…

  16. Language Proficiency, Reading Development, and Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the number of students studying abroad is increasing dramatically. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest among researchers in students' language gains in the study-abroad (SA) context. To deepen our understanding of second language (L2) reading acquisition in different contexts, it is necessary to examine…

  17. Relationship of Foreign Language Proficiency to Study Abroad Outcomes and Inputs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Foreign language proficiency and learning are crucial parts of many study abroad programs; especially those whose host culture language is different than that of the native language of students electing to study in them. Indeed, how a program organizes itself regarding pre-departure language proficiency requirements, on site language learning, and…

  18. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports. PMID:26274061

  19. Teaching for Proficiency, the Organizing Principle. The ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V., Ed.

    A collection of reports and case studies of second language instruction for proficiency includes: "Language Teaching and the Quest for the Holy Grail" (Theodore V. Higgs); "The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines: A Historical Perspective" (Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro); "The Proficiency-Oriented Classroom" (Alice C. Omaggio); "Curriculum Development at the…

  20. The Effects of Heritage Language Instruction on First Language Proficiency: A Psycholinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Diaz, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish--L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently…

  1. Family Language Policies, Reported Language Use and Proficiency in Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…

  2. The Impact of Experience Abroad and Language Proficiency on Language Learning Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of experience abroad and second language proficiency on foreign language classroom anxiety. Particularly, this study is an attempt to fill the gap in the literature about the affective outcomes after experiences abroad through the anxiety profiles of Korean learners of English as a foreign language (EFL)…

  3. An Institutional Approach to English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil; Hicks, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    As the university student body becomes ever more diverse, the place and nature of English language provision is coming under unprecedented scrutiny and is the object of greater regulation. Today, more than ever before, institutions of higher education are being called to account for the way in which they support this diverse population in respect…

  4. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  5. The Symposium on the Evaluation of Foreign Language Proficiency: Challenges to the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert

    This paper presents a report of a 1987 symposium on the Evaluation of Foreign Language Proficiency held in Bloomington, Indiana. Although much has been accomplished in language testing, much remains to be done before the language teaching profession has at its disposal a common means of measuring proficiency in the functional use of language in…

  6. Promoting a Language Proficient Society: What You Can Do. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Kathleen M.; Peyton, Joy Kneeft

    Interest in and support for language study has been strengthened in the United States in recent years by the growing recognition that proficiency in more than one language benefits both individual learners and society. For the individual language learner, research has found a positive link between second language proficiency and cognitive and…

  7. Issues in Vertical Scaling of a K-12 English Language Proficiency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary

    2011-01-01

    One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…

  8. English Language Proficiency Assessment in the Pacific Region. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Don; Mauricio, Rodrigo; Ryan, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Using various approaches to identify English language learners, several Pacific Region jurisdictions are developing English language proficiency standards and assessments aligned with those standards. Others are working on content standards, including language arts, and have expressed interest in developing English language proficiency standards…

  9. What Is Lexical Proficiency? Some Answers from Computational Models of Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Lexical proficiency, as a cognitive construct, is poorly understood. However, lexical proficiency is an important element of language proficiency and fluency, especially for second language (L2) learners. Lexical proficiency is also an important attribute of L2 academic achievement. Generally speaking, lexical proficiency comprises breadth of…

  10. Integrating Science and English Proficiency for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expectation that all students should achieve high academic standards, content area instruction and English for speakers of other languages instruction for English language learners (ELLs) have traditionally been conceptualized as separate domains, resulting in educational inequities for ELLs. This is because effective instruction to…

  11. Relationships among Second Language Proficiency, Foreign Language Aptitude, and Intelligence: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    1993-01-01

    Investigates relationships among measures of second-language proficiency (SLP), foreign-language aptitude, verbal intelligence and reasoning in 160 Japanese college students studying English. The factor analysis of several different SLP test scores was examined, and the relationship between a general SLP factor and a hypothetical general cognitive…

  12. Strategy-Based English Language Instruction: The Impact on the Language Proficiency of Young Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana; Akcayoglu, Duygu Ispinar

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the impact of strategy-based English language instruction (SBELI) on the language proficiency of gifted learners. The participants were students who were identified as gifted and thus received additional out-of-school training for a few days a week in Adana Science and Arts Centre. Their ages ranged from…

  13. Oral English Language Proficiency and Reading Mastery: The Role of Home Language and School Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…

  14. Spanish Home Language Use and English Proficiency as Differential Measures of Language Maintenance and Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, Garland D.; Hudson, Alan; Chavez, Eduardo Hernandez

    1999-01-01

    Examines 1990 Census data for a large sample of the Hispanic-origin population in the Southwest, exploring two possible indices of language maintenance--Spanish home language claiming and English proficiency--as these are influenced by nativity, time, and age of immigration, citizenship status of the foreign born, education, and income.…

  15. Who's Coming to My Party? Peer Talk as a Bridge to Oral Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I investigate heterogeneous-language peer interactions in an English-only kindergarten classroom. English Learners and English Proficient students co-created language necessary to build an argument, one discourse valued in schools. Students developed complex oral language proficiency skills but were viewed as engaging…

  16. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  17. Differential Gains in Oral Proficiency during Study Abroad: The Role of Language Learning Aptitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sheri Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This inquiry analyzed the relationships between individual differences and gains made in oral proficiency of adult, second language learners of Spanish during one semester studying abroad. Oral proficiency was measured using a pre/post-SA Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI, CAL, 2009). Gain scores were correlated with two cognitive…

  18. The Effects of Language Environment and Oral Language Ability on Phonological Production Proficiency in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpino, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if phonological production proficiency in bilingual Spanish-English preschoolers could be predicted by their language environment, language ability, and phonological production proficiency in their other language. Method: Participants were 199 Latino children and their families. Children ranged in age…

  19. Language as Academic Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I argue for an understanding of EAP to be mobilised more around language, its materiality, especially in written form, and the intellectual challenge of learning it. Concomitantly, I argue against the increasing technicisation of language, as it is embodied in the regulatory framework of institutions and its emaciation as an…

  20. Do Decision Rules Matter? A Descriptive Study of English Language Proficiency Assessment Classifications for English-Language Learners and Native English Speakers in Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Patricia E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    English language proficiency assessments (ELPA) are used in the United States to measure annually the English language progress and proficiency of English-language learners (ELLs), a subgroup of language minority students who receive language acquisition support mandated and largely funded by Title III (NCLB, 2001). ELPA proficient and…

  1. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children's growth and development. PMID:22389551

  2. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551

  3. Neural Bases of Language Switching in High and Early Proficient Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbin, G.; Costa, A.; Sanjuan, A.; Forn, C.; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A.; Ventura, N.; Belloch, V.; Hernandez, M.; Avila, C.

    2011-01-01

    The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan…

  4. Sex and Language Proficiency Level in Color-Naming Performance: An ESL/EFL Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yonglin

    2001-01-01

    Investigates sex and language proficiency differences in the color-naming performance of Chinese-speaking English learners at the university level. Data were obtained on color terms used by 40 females and 40 males in naming 40 color stimuli. An interest related variable, five demographic factors, and seven language proficiency indices were…

  5. Language Proficiency, Ethnicity and Standardized Test Performance of Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ima, Kenji; Labovitz, Eugene M.

    The differential effects of language proficiency on standardized test performance of elementary school students (grades 4 through 6 are examined for the San Diego (California) Unified School District. Ethnicity is examined as a mediating variable circumscribing the relationship between language proficiency and test performance. Test performance is…

  6. Progress, Proficiency and Motivation among British University Language Learners. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James A.

    A study of over 3,000 British college and university students investigated the relationship of student language proficiency and student demographic and background characteristics. Proficiency levels were assessed by means of C-Tests, while associated questionnaires sought to explore biographical data, language learning background, residence…

  7. Disclosure of Information about English Proficiency: Preservice Teachers' Presumptions about English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…

  8. A Study of the Comparability of Speaking Proficiency Interview Ratings across Three Government Language Training Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John L. D.

    A study of the reliability of the proficiency ratings scale and techniques used by three federal government agencies--the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Language Institute, and the Foreign Service Institute (FSI)--to test employees' oral language proficiency in French and German had two randomly selected two-person teams of testers from…

  9. The Assessment of Language Proficiency in Bilingual Children: An Analysis of Theories and Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles

    The three parts of a theory used in the design of a language proficiency test--linguistic components, communicative skills, and the sociolinguistic domain--are described in relation to language proficiency and testing models. In line with this discussion, a review of test formats is made with some assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of…

  10. Bilingual Program Evaluation Report on Idea Language Proficiency Tests, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangarm, Isara; And Others

    The report presents findings concerning the language proficiency of elementary, middle, and high school students receiving bilingual services in the Las Cruces Public Schools (New Mexico). The report contains five sections: general information about the bilingual program in the school district; the Idea Language Proficiency Tests (IPT); results of…

  11. A Review of the IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test Forms C & D-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Allison A.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT-I), forms C and D, aims to determine the level of English oral language proficiency as it relates to accepted levels of NonEnglish speaking (NES), limited English speaking (LES), and fluent English speaking (FES) designations in order to place students in an appropriate classroom setting. The test was…

  12. Communicative Competence Approaches to Language Proficiency Assessment: Research and Application. Multilingual Matters 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Ed.

    A collection of selected papers from the March 1981 Language Proficiency Assessment Symposium, a component of the National Institute of Education's Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons project, are presented. Papers include: "An Overview of Communicative Competence" (Cynthia Wallat); "Some Comments on the Terminology of Language…

  13. Connecting English Language Proficiency, Statewide Assessments, and Classroom Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Debra; Klein, Jean A.; Liu, Kristin; Thurlow, Martha

    2004-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) were once expected to learn English before they learned critical content needed to succeed in school, but this is longer true, because now federal education laws require that ELLs be held to the same academic standards as other students. There are, however, requirements to assess and document progress on tests of…

  14. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  15. Language proficiency and metacognition as predictors of spontaneous rehearsal in children.

    PubMed

    Bebko, James M; McMorris, Carly A; Metcalfe, Alisa; Ricciuti, Christina; Goldstein, Gayle

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of research on fundamental memory strategies such as verbal rehearsal, the potential underlying skills associated with the emergence of rehearsal are still not fully understood. Two studies examined the relative roles of language proficiency and metamemory in predicting rehearsal use, as well as the prediction of metamemory performance by language proficiency. In Study 1, 59 children, 5 to 8 years old, were administered a serial recall task, 2 language measures, a nonverbal cognitive measure, and a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task. Language proficiency, RAN, and age were significant individual predictors of rehearsal use. In hierarchical regression analyses, language proficiency mediated almost completely the age → rehearsal use relation. In addition, automatized naming was a strong but partial mediator of the contribution of language proficiency to rehearsal use. In Study 2, 54 children were administered a metamemory test, a language measure, and a serial recall task. Metamemory skills and, again, language proficiency significantly predicted rehearsal use in the task. The predictive strength of metamemory skills was mediated by the children's language proficiency. The mutually supportive roles of automatized naming, language, and metamemory in the emergence of spontaneous cumulative verbal rehearsal are discussed in the context of the resulting model, along with the minimal roles of age and aspects of intelligence. PMID:24611603

  16. The Language Proficiency Interview (LPI) and Its Applicability in Corporate Language Training Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupak, Steven A.

    The Language Proficiency Interview's structure, administration, and rating scale are outlined by an officer of the organization that designed it (Educational Testing Service), and some common mistakes made in its administration are listed. The need for training in the test's administration is emphasized. Its application in the corporate situation…

  17. Japanese Language Proficiency, Social Networking, and Language Use during Study Abroad: Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Eggett, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the self-perceived speaking proficiency development of 204 learners of Japanese who studied abroad in Japan and analyzes connections between self-reported social network development, language use, and speaking development. Learners perceived that they gained the most in areas associated with the intermediate and advanced levels…

  18. Factors Predicting Academic Success in Second and Third Language among Russian-Speaking Immigrant Students Studying in Israeli Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Orly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors predicting academic proficiency (AP), the specialised domains required for performing academic tasks, among Russian speaking (L1) immigrants currently studying Hebrew as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3) in Israeli schools. Specifically, the study examined the…

  19. Achievement and Language Proficiency of Latino Students in Dual Language Programmes: Native English Speakers, Fluent English/Previous ELLs, and Current ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn; Hernandez, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the language proficiency and achievement outcomes of Latino students enrolled in a dual language programme who varied by language proficiency (Native English speakers, Current English Language Learners--ELLs, Fluent English Proficient/Previous ELLs). Most previous research has not disaggregated Latino students, especially…

  20. Strategically Smart or Proficiency-Driven? An Investigation of Reading Strategy Use of EFL College Students in Relation to Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Fen; Li, Chen-Hong; Amster, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Reading strategy use has long been considered an important factor in the evaluation of effective second language (L2) reading. It is generally believed that proficient and less-proficient readers differ in their reading process and strategy use. The purpose of this study was to examine the reading strategy use of high- and low-proficiency level…

  1. The Interrelationship among First Language Writing Skills, Second Language Writing Skills, and Second Language Proficiency of EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Fumihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background: Over the past twenty years, many investigations have been carried out to identify factors influencing second language (L2) learning. Specifically, investigations of the relationship among first language (L1) reading skills, L2 reading skills, and L2 proficiency have been variously conducted, to contribute to the overall growth of L1-L2…

  2. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning. PMID:25594261

  3. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  4. Highly Proficient Bilinguals Implement Inhibition: Evidence from N-2 Language Repetition Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Thoma, Aniella M.; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Several, but not all, models of language control assume that highly proficient bilinguals implement little to no inhibition during bilingual language production. In the current study, we tested this assumption with a less equivocal marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) than previous language switching studies have. N-2…

  5. The Third Language of Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…

  6. An Evaluation of Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews as Measures of Spoken Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    A discussion of the simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI), a type of semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the oral proficiency interview (OPI), describes its development and research and examines its usefulness. The test used for discussion is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts, scored by a trained rater using the…

  7. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  8. Proficiency Assessment Standards in Second Language Acquisition Research: "Clozing" the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Annie

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to sensitize SLA researchers to the importance of documenting and controlling for their participants' proficiency in the target language, with the goal of establishing more robust proficiency assessment standards in experimental research. First, this article presents a survey of recent (2000-2008) foreign and second-language…

  9. Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency? Evidence from Five Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between overall second language (L2) proficiency and utterance fluency measures for several L2s in order to determine whether utterance measures can be used to predict L2 proficiency. The study measured the speech rate, number of hesitations, number and length of pauses, number and length of runs, and…

  10. The Impact of the Oral Proficiency Interview on One Foreign Language Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has been increasingly used in academia. However, while multiple studies have documented the growth in OPI implementation across the United States and the proficiency rates of its completers, few have focused specifically on foreign language teacher candidates, and even fewer have investigated the impact that…

  11. Transactional Associations between Supportive Family Climate and Young Children's Heritage Language Proficiency in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heejung; Tsai, Kim M.; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) proficiency confers developmental benefits; however, the onset of HL loss is observed among many young children from immigrant families. In this longitudinal study, transactional associations between children's HL proficiency and supportive family climate were examined in Chinese immigrant families with pre-school-aged…

  12. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  13. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  14. English Language Proficiency and Health-Related Quality of Life among Chinese and Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…

  15. Academic Language in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Erica M.; Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines academic language by examining the central features of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse function. Examples of each feature are provided, as well as methods of identifying them in oral language and printed text. We describe a yearlong study that found teachers used different types of academic language based on instructional…

  16. Intelligence and Language Proficiency as Sources of Variance in Self-Reported Affective Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, John W., Jr.; Perkins, Kyle

    1978-01-01

    Discusses three possible sources of nonrandom but extraneous variance in self-reported attitude data, and demonstrates that these data may be surreptitious measures of verbal intelligence and language proficiency. (Author/AM)

  17. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  18. How Do Highly Proficient Bilinguals Control Their Lexicalization Process? Inhibitory and Language-Specific Selection Mechanisms are Both Functional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Santesteban, Mikel; Ivanova, Iva

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 4 experiments exploring the language-switching performance of highly proficient bilinguals in a picture-naming task. In Experiment 1, they tested the impact of language similarity and age of 2nd language acquisition on the language-switching performance of highly proficient bilinguals. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 assessed the…

  19. Ten Years on: The Hong Kong Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English (LPATE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David; Falvey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The "Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English" (LPATE) is a test of standards of English language ability for Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers of English. The impetus for the creation of the LPATE arose, in 1996, because of concerns in business and education communities over falling English language standards among…

  20. English Language Proficiency and Bilingual Verbal Ability among Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Mariela M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes English language proficiency and bilingual verbal ability for a sample of 209 students aged 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students' English language proficiency…

  1. The Development of Speaking and Writing Proficiencies in the Spanish Language Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    An important task for foreign language (FL) instructors and researchers is to understand how the development of each language skill affects other aspects of language acquisition. This case study seeks to determine if speaking and writing proficiencies develop at similar rates among FL learners. Seventeen students enrolled in beginning,…

  2. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  3. Grammar Error Strike Hard: Language Proficiency Testing of Hong Kong Teachers and the Four "Noes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwright, Phil

    2005-01-01

    This article first reviews important issues of language, power, and testing. It then examines in critical fashion a particular instance of the use of language testing by the Hong Kong government, namely, the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (LPAT). Treating the LPAT developments as a form of narrative rather than debate, it presents…

  4. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This article reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face…

  5. Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jacquelyn

    Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they

  6. The Language Proficiency Profile-2: Assessment of the Global Communication Skills of Deaf Children across Languages and Modalities of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebko, James M.; Calderon, Rosemary; Treder, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigated the developmental trends and concurrent validity of the Language Proficiency Profile-2 (LPP-2), a measure of language and communication skills for deaf children. Results indicate that the LPP-2 has good utility not only as a measure of overall language development but also as a predictor of achievement for English language…

  7. The Effect of Sociolinguistic Factors and English Language Proficiency on the Development of French as a Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bérubé, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2014-01-01

    The classroom demographics in French immersion (FI) programs across Canada are changing: There are a growing number of multilingual students who are learning English as a second language (L2) and French as a third language (L3). However, little is known about the development of French language proficiency and reading skills of multilingual…

  8. The Relationship between English Language Learners' Language Proficiency and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Darshan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally theorized that English Language Learner (ELL) students do not succeed on state standardized tests because ELL students lack the cognitive academic language skills necessary to function on the large scale content assessments. The purpose of this dissertation was to test that theory. Through the use of quantitative methodology, ELL…

  9. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  10. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Lexical Competition during Second-Language Listening: Sentence Context, but Not Proficiency, Constrains Interference from the Native Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Cooke, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    A spoken language eye-tracking methodology was used to evaluate the effects of sentence context and proficiency on parallel language activation during spoken language comprehension. Nonnative speakers with varying proficiency levels viewed visual displays while listening to French sentences (e.g., "Marie va decrire la poule" [Marie will describe…

  12. Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual experience is dynamic and poses a challenge for researchers to develop instruments that capture its relevant dimensions. The present study examined responses from a questionnaire administered to 110 heterogeneous bilingual young adults. These questions concern participants’ language use, acquisition history and self-reported proficiency. The questionnaire responses and performances on standardized English proficiency measures were analyzed using factor analysis. In order to retain a realistic representation of bilingual experience, the factors were allowed to correlate with each other in the analysis. Two correlating factors were extracted, representing daily bilingual usage and English proficiency. These two factors were also related to self-rated proficiency in English and non-English language. Results were interpreted as supporting the notion that bilingual experience is composed of multiple related dimensions that will need to be considered in assessments of the consequences of bilingualism. PMID:24073327

  13. Oral Proficiency Standards and Foreign Language Teacher Candidates: Current Findings and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisan, Eileen W.; Swender, Elvira; Surface, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The renewed national focus on teacher quality and effectiveness has resulted in more rigorous standards that describe the knowledge and skills required of teacher candidates across all disciplines. In the area of foreign languages, three sets of professional standards address the oral proficiency of teachers in the target languages they teach…

  14. Instructional Practices That Promote Reading Proficiency for English Language Learners in Grades 3 and 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley-Blanton, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires that all public school students, including English language learners, achieve proficiency in reading, math, and science by 2014 as measured on state assessments. English language learners enrolled in public schools for the first time receive a 1-year deferment from these state assessments in subjects…

  15. Aptitude, Phonological Memory, and Second Language Proficiency in Nonnovice Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…

  16. Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

  17. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…

  18. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  19. Productivity, Fluency, and Grammaticality Measures from Narratives: Potential Indicators of Language Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilstra, Janet; McMaster, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential general outcome indicators (GOIs) of language proficiency. Brief narratives were elicited from 45 kindergarten, first-grade, and third-grade children using single-picture scenes and a standardized protocol. Measures of language productivity, verbal fluency, and grammaticality were examined for…

  20. The Role of Testing Language Proficiency as Part of Teacher Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Michele Anciaux

    2013-01-01

    Bridid M. Burke poses an interesting question: Is requiring high-stakes language proficiency tests really going to improve world language education? In her article, Dr. Burke shares testimonials from "several promising student teachers" [whose] dreams of being French, German, or Spanish teachers [were] crushed" based on not…

  1. Teaching Languages in College: Communicative Proficiency and Cross-Cultural Issues. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G., Ed.

    A collection of papers concerning college language instruction and exploring issues related to promoting communicative skills and cross-cultural understanding includes the following titles: (1) "Languages at College: The Student and the Curriculum," by W. M. Rivers; (2) "Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency," by A. Ramirez; (3) "Communicative…

  2. Teachers' Beliefs about Developing Language Proficiency within the Context of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Linda Quinn

    2013-01-01

    The study described here is grounded in naturalistic inquiry, a research methodology that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific settings. The goal of the study was to identify the beliefs about developing language proficiency of a group of North American French-as-a-foreign language teachers in the specific context of a three-week,…

  3. Considerations in the Post-Enrolment Assessment of English Language Proficiency: Reflections from the Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation of education has meant that English medium universities are enrolling unprecedented numbers of students for whom English is not a first language. This, in turn, has put increased pressure on institutions to ensure they have in place suitable measures for screening applicants in respect of their English language proficiency and…

  4. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  5. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  6. The Relationship between Criterion-Based Levels of Oral Proficiency and Norm-Referenced Scores of General Proficiency in English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents data from validation study of American Council on Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Oral Proficiency (OPI). Distinctness of OPI ratings from scores generated by Test of English as a Foreign Language and one other examination is assessed on basis of comparisons among 70 sets of scores from students of English as Second Language who…

  7. Critical Factors to Consider in Evaluating Standard-Setting Studies to Map Language Test Scores to Frameworks of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cho, Yeonsuk

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consolidate and present in one place what is known about quality indicators for setting standards so that stakeholders may be able to recognize the signs of standard-setting quality. We use the context of setting standards to associate English language test scores with language proficiency descriptions such as those presented…

  8. Macro-Language Policy and Planning and Lack of Proficiency in Language Learning and Use by Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the problem of non-proficiency in language learning and use among Nigerian students is investigated. Using empirical data and information from available literature on the subject as evidence, it was observed that the language deficiencies of the students could be attributed to the lack of fit between the formulation of the national…

  9. Identifying Affirmative Beliefs about English Language Learning: Self-Perceptions of Thai Learners with Different Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…

  10. Language Proficiency in Native and Nonnative Speakers: An Agenda for Research and Suggestions for Second-Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the question of what language proficiency (LP) is, both theoretically and empirically. It does so by making a distinction, on one hand, between "basic" and "higher language cognition" and, on the other hand, between "core" and "peripheral components" of LP. The article furthermore critically examines the notion of "level" in…

  11. Bilingual children: cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T

    2006-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = -.38 to -.61, p < or = .05). English scores were similarly associated. Dual language tests covering multiple specific language dimensions explained a large proportion (51%) of overall variance in aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children's proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; r(sp) = -.44, p < .01), these proficiency levels explain nonconverging variance in children's symptomatology. The findings suggest that clinical evaluation of language functioning is often needed in such populations and that it should be comprehensive and include both languages. Such thorough evaluation of bilingual children suffering from psychopathology will help us to precisely identify (1) language deficits, (2) specific relations of these deficits to the child's psychopathology, (3) differential implications of communication at home (e.g., in Spanish) and at school (e.g., in English) for clinical presentation and the child's competence in those differing contexts, and (4) language

  12. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  13. Academic Language Knowledge and Comprehension of Science Text for English Language Learners and Fluent English-Speaking Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sandy Ming-San

    As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository

  14. Spanish for Native Speakers: Developing Dual Language Proficiency. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewelling, Vickie W.; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This digest focuses on teaching Spanish to native or Hispanic heritage language students in the United States. Heritage language students are students who speak another language (in this case Spanish) as their first language either because they were born in another country or because their families speak another language at home. The entrance of…

  15. Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

  16. Adolescents' Use of Academic Language in Historical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance of academic language, research on academic language is often limited to academic vocabulary and focused on the English language learners. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined adolescents' use of academic language and the relationships between its use and students' reading ability and…

  17. Design, Data Collection and Analysis of a Field Test of Instruments and Procedures To Measure English Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Tyler; And Others

    A project to field test instruments and procedures for measuring English language proficiency, to be used in a large-scale national household survey, is reported. The major purposes of the field test were to measure the validity of census-type questions for determining language proficiency, using several different bilingual ethnic groups, and to…

  18. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  19. Release Time and English Language Proficiency: Does Releasing Students for Spiritual Instruction Negatively Affect Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The population of students with limited English proficiency--a disproportionate number of whom are urban Latinos living in low-income neighborhoods--is increasing rapidly. School districts serving these populations must meet escalating academic benchmarks, as stipulated by No Child Left Behind, or incur sanctions. This pressure has led many…

  20. Gaps Between Immigrant Spouses in Host Country Language Proficiency: Longitudinal Effects on Marital Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Sarid, Orly; Mor, Yaron; Mirsky, Julia; Slonim-Nevo, Vered

    2016-08-17

    Research on immigration underscores the importance of language acculturation in successful adjustment to life in a new country. However, the profound impact of different levels of language proficiency between immigrant spouses on their married life is an understudied topic. The current study explores whether differences between immigrant spouses in host language proficiency predict marital satisfaction in their first four years in the host country. Using a three-wave longitudinal study, with intervals of one to two years, we collected data from 316 married couples who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union to Germany and Israel. Language proficiency and marital satisfaction were measured via self-report questionnaires. We conducted an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analysis to control for dyadic and time data dependencies. The results indicate that differences between spouses in their host language proficiency predict marital dissatisfaction, and that this effect is exacerbated over time. These associations held across gender and host country. The findings are discussed in light of the gap-distress model. PMID:27351926

  1. Assessing Second Language Writing in Academic Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz, Ed.

    The articles contained in this volume on second language writing evaluation focus on the evaluation of academic English learned as a second language (ESL). Essays include: "Assessment by Misconception: Cultural Influences and Intellectual Traditions" (Brigid Ballard, John Clanchy); "Reading the World Differently: A Cross-Cultural Approach to…

  2. Teaching and Learning the Language of Science: A Case Study of Academic Language Acquisition in a Dual Language Middle School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, Robin Margaretha

    English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.

  3. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  4. Computer Assisted Language Learning: A Shortcut to Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Kathleen K.

    A study investigated the attitudes of language program students, teachers, and administrators concerning the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) instruction for adults, and specifically concerning EXITO courseware, a Spanish language program developed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Interviews with an adult language…

  5. The Relationship Between English Language Proficiency and Success as a Medical Resident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggly, Susan; Musial, Joseph; Smulowitz, Jack

    1999-01-01

    A study of 99 international graduate medical students in an internal medicine program compared performance on two standardized English-language-proficiency tests with three measures of success: patient satisfaction; faculty and colleague evaluations; and scores on an objective test of medical knowledge. Patient satisfaction and faculty/colleague…

  6. Oral Language Proficiency Testing at the Foreign Service Institute. An Update--1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary D.; And Others

    The Foreign Service Institute (FSI) has been engaged in oral language proficiency testing theory and practice for more than 20 years. The FSI test has been consistent during this time in format, evaluation criteria, performance standards, and level definitions. Current concerns about the degree of standardization of the format and the strength of…

  7. Priming of Code-Switches in Sentences: The Role of Lexical Repetition, Cognates, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kootstra, Gerrit Jan; van Hell, Janet G.; Dijkstra, Ton

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we tested the role of lexical repetition, cognates, and second language (L2) proficiency in the priming of code-switches, using the structural priming technique. Dutch-English bilinguals repeated a code-switched prime sentence (starting in Dutch and ending in English) and then described a target picture by means of a…

  8. High Proficiency across Two Languages Is Related to Better Mental State Reasoning for Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that bilingualism positively affects children's performance in false belief tasks. However, researchers have yet to fully explore factors that are related to better performance in these tasks within bilingual groups. The current study includes an assessment of proficiency in both languages (which was lacking in past work)…

  9. Designing and Sustaining a Foreign Language Writing Proficiency Assessment Program at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth; Molitoris, Joan; Romeo, Ken; Lin, Nina; Valderrama, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Writing in postsecondary foreign language contexts in North America has received far less attention in the curriculum than the development of oral proficiency. This article describes one institution's process of confronting the challenges not only of recognizing the contribution of writing to students' overall linguistic development, but also of…

  10. Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments: Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assessment and Accountability Comprehensive Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brief is an introduction to a "Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments" (Framework). It presents the intended purpose, uses, and organization of the Framework, as well as key background information and assumptions. The Framework was conceived as a critical tool in states' efforts to ensure that their…

  11. English Language Proficiency and Employability Framework for Australian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkoudis, Sophie; Baik, Chi; Bexley, Emmaline; Doughney, Lachlan

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the "English Language Proficiency" (ELP) and Employability Framework", which has been designed to inform and support higher education institutions' (HEIs) policies and practices on ELP and graduate employability. The "Framework" was developed through a review of the national and international…

  12. A Prediction Model of Foreign Language Reading Proficiency Based on Reading Time and Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In textbooks, foreign (second) language reading proficiency is often evaluated through comprehension questions. In case, authentic texts are used as reading material, such questions should be prepared by teachers. However, preparing appropriate questions may be a very demanding task for teachers. This paper introduces a method for automatically…

  13. The Effects of English Language Proficiency on Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the United States recognize the economic and educational benefits of international students. Although non-native English speakers (NNES) submit evidence of English language proficiency for admission purposes, many struggle with the demands of English. This study draws on qualitative and quantitative data to provide…

  14. An Ethnographic/Sociolinguistic Approach to Language Proficiency Assessment. Multilingual Matters 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Ed.

    The symposium from which these papers are gathered was one component of the Assessment of Bilingual Persons Project to pursue research on the nature of language proficiency and to keep teachers informed of related assessment issues for classroom assessment improvement. The papers include: "A Sociolinguistic/Discourse Approach to the Description of…

  15. Performance of African-American Adolescents on a Measure of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Rosa-Lugo, Linda I.; Hedrick, Dona L.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency of African-American English (AAE) features used by African-American adolescent males (n = 16) and their performance on the seven clusters comprising the "Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised" (WLPB-R) was investigated. All participants were between the ages of 15 and 19 years who had a class standing…

  16. Content Presentation Modes in Mobile Language Listening Tasks: English Proficiency as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether the modality effect of content presentation modes on students' cognitive load and listening comprehension depends on the moderating effect of the learners' language proficiencies in a mobile learning context. One hundred and sixty-two students majoring in English in a technology university used personal digital…

  17. A Study of Foreign Language Proficiency-Based Testing in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thom; Jensen, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examination of the effects of oral proficiency interview (OPI) testing on third-, fourth-, and fifth-year high school foreign language students found significant correlations between student performance at the higher OPI levels and on achievement tests as well as providing a sense of common direction to teachers and programs. (26 references)…

  18. Assessing Students' Language Proficiency: A New Model of Study Abroad Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jack Jinghui

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that integrates an at-home preparation intensive summer program with a short-term, study abroad summer program to increase students' Chinese-language proficiency, cultural awareness, and personal career development. The results indicate that the at-home preparation program can build students' self-esteem and…

  19. The Effect of Dual Task Demands and Proficiency on Second Language Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Kormos, Judit

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined how the introduction of a parallel finger-tapping task influences second language (L2) speech encoding mechanisms and monitoring processes, and how the level of proficiency impacts the efficiency and accuracy of L2 performance under single and dual task conditions. The results indicate that imposing dual task demands had…

  20. Selection and Settlement of Citizens: English Language Proficiency Among Immigrant Groups in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Christine A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews variations in levels of English-language proficiency among immigrants from non-English-speaking countries to Australia. Data on 27 of the largest birthplace groups are used from the 1996 census. Discusses immigrants' motivation to learn English and be included in Australian society and Australian policies regarding immigration-selection…

  1. The Impact of Perceived Exposure and Motivation on Oral Language Proficiency in a Traditional Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify factors impacting second language oral proficiency of native English speaking secondary students in public schools in Texas that had chosen to complete at least two years of traditional classroom Spanish instruction. Further, the study sought to determine the effectiveness of the traditional…

  2. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…

  3. Graduating as a "Native Speaker": International Students and English Language Proficiency in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzie, Helen Joy

    2010-01-01

    The current concern about low levels of English proficiency among international students who graduate from degree courses--that students' English language skills are not being developed during their higher education experience--reflects negatively on the quality of Australian higher education and its graduates. More careful selection of students…

  4. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  5. Predicting Second Language Writing Proficiency: The Roles of Cohesion and Linguistic Sophistication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses research gaps in predicting second language (L2) writing proficiency using linguistic features. Key to this analysis is the inclusion of linguistic measures at the surface, textbase and situation model level that assess text cohesion and linguistic sophistication. The results of this study demonstrate that five variables…

  6. Assessing the Accuracy and Consistency of Language Proficiency Classification under Competing Measurement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how measurement models and statistical procedures can be applied to estimate the accuracy of proficiency classification in language testing. The paper starts with a concise introduction of four measurement models: the classical test theory (CTT) model, the dichotomous item response theory (IRT) model, the testlet response…

  7. Relationships among Preschool English Language Learner's Oral Proficiency in English, Instructional Experience and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Theresa; Neal, Harriet

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-three preschool children who were learning English as a second language participated in 16 weeks of either comprehension-oriented or letter/rhyme-focused small group instruction. Pretests and posttests of book vocabulary, story comprehension, print concepts, letter naming, writing, rhyming, and English oral proficiency were given. Children…

  8. NATO Stanag Language Proficiency Levels for Joint Missions and Its Implementations at a State Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Turkish Armed Forces have been participating in joint missions together with other nations for decades. Since English is the medium of instruction in these missions, participating members should have NATO Standards in terms of language proficiency levels in four skills. Therefore, this study aims to specify personnel's views and their…

  9. Linguistic Correlates of Second Language Proficiency: Proof of Concept with "ILR 2-3" in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.; Gor, Kira; Jackson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    With Russian as the target language, a proof of concept study was undertaken to determine whether it is possible to identify linguistic features, control over which is implicated in progress on the Interagency Linguistic Roundtable (ILR) proficiency scale, thereby better to inform the instructional process. Following its development in an…

  10. Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Tremblay, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the elicited imitation task (EIT) as a tool for measuring linguistic proficiency in a second/foreign (L2) language, focusing on French. Nonnative French speakers (n = 94) and native French speakers (n = 6) completed an EIT that included 50 sentences varying in length and complexity. Three raters evaluated productions on…

  11. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  12. Implementing ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements in the Versant Aviation English Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Moere, Alistair; Suzuki, Masanori; Downey, Ryan; Cheng, Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an assessment to satisfy the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Language Proficiency Requirements. The Versant Aviation English Test utilizes speech recognition technology and a computerized testing platform, such that test administration and scoring are fully automated. Developed in…

  13. The Minimal English Test: A New Method to Measure English as a Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Kenichi; Maki, Hideki; Kasai, Chise

    2010-01-01

    Maki, Wasada, and Hashimoto developed the Minimal English Test (MET), which is a five-minute English as a Second Language (ESL) test. The Maki Group has, since the development of the MET, investigated correlations between the scores on the MET and the scores on other ESL tests, the reliability of the MET, and what kind of ESL proficiency the MET…

  14. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Late Second Language Oral Proficiency Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current project examined whether and to what degree age of acquisition (AOA), defined as the first intensive exposure to a second language (L2) environment, can be predictive of the end state of postpubertal L2 oral proficiency attainment. Data were collected from 88 experienced Japanese learners of English and two groups of 20 baseline…

  15. Critical Literacy Practices in the EFL Context and the English Language Proficiency: Further Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Mei-yun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a follow-up study that explored the relationship between EFL learners' critical literacy practices and the English language proficiency. It investigated four focal EFL learners' critical literacy practices in their dialogic interaction and also analyzed 39 students' views on their critical literacy learning. The four focal…

  16. English Language Proficiency and Progress: Students Receiving English for Speakers of Other Languages Services from 2012 to 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huafang; Maina, Nyambura

    2015-01-01

    This is one of several studies conducted by the Office of Shared Accountability that evaluated students identified as eligible for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). This study has two major purposes: (1) to examine English proficiency levels and progress in English…

  17. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  18. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  19. Bilingual Language Profiles of Deaf Students: An Analysis of the Written Narratives of Three Deaf Writers with Different Language Proficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoubou, Maria; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2006-01-01

    Literature on bilingual education suggests that the material used in teaching second language writing has an impact on the quality of the text. In addition, the material interacts differently with the level of bilingual proficiency of the students. This paper attempts to explore the written stories of three deaf students, which were produced under…

  20. The modulatory role of second language proficiency on performance monitoring: evidence from a saccadic countermanding task in high and low proficient bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2014-01-01

    We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 proficiency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR) task (Experiment1) and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR) task (Experiment 2). In the redirect task, typically a target is presented and the subject is required to make a saccade (no-step trials), unless a new target appears on a different location after some delay from the first target onset (step trials). On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first target and programme a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT), the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target as a measure of response inhibition and post-step slowing as a measure of performance monitoring. The results showed the high proficient bilinguals displayed more post-step slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals for both VGR and MGR versions of the task. Secondly, both the high and low proficient bilinguals exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR task, showing no modulatory effects of language proficiency on the response inhibition. These results suggest that language proficiency may have an effect on performance monitoring, but not the inhibitory control per se. Thus, we infer that higher proficiency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility and an ability to adjust behavior that facilitates the attainment of the cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems. PMID:25601843

  1. The modulatory role of second language proficiency on performance monitoring: evidence from a saccadic countermanding task in high and low proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K.

    2015-01-01

    We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 proficiency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR) task (Experiment1) and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR) task (Experiment 2). In the redirect task, typically a target is presented and the subject is required to make a saccade (no-step trials), unless a new target appears on a different location after some delay from the first target onset (step trials). On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first target and programme a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT), the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target as a measure of response inhibition and post-step slowing as a measure of performance monitoring. The results showed the high proficient bilinguals displayed more post-step slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals for both VGR and MGR versions of the task. Secondly, both the high and low proficient bilinguals exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR task, showing no modulatory effects of language proficiency on the response inhibition. These results suggest that language proficiency may have an effect on performance monitoring, but not the inhibitory control per se. Thus, we infer that higher proficiency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility and an ability to adjust behavior that facilitates the attainment of the cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems. PMID:25601843

  2. Children with Language Disorders: Natural History and Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Anthony S.; Scavuzzo, Annebelle

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the academic difficulties of children with language disorders (including dyslexia) and suggests that their persistent academic vulnerability results from the lifelong need to acquire language, to learn with language, and to apply language knowledge for academic learning and social development. The need for continuing…

  3. Effects of Academic Language Instruction on Relational and Syntactic Aspects of Morphological Awareness for Sixth Graders from Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    One dimension of language proficiency considered important for reading and writing academic texts is morphological awareness--the understanding of how complex words are formed from meaningful smaller units (i.e., affixes, roots) that contribute to words' meanings and functions. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of instruction on…

  4. Integration of Immigrants: The Role of Language Proficiency and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delander, Lennart; Hammarstedt, Mats; Mansson, Jonas; Nyberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a Swedish pilot scheme that targeted immigrants with weak Swedish-language skills registered as unemployed at public employment offices. By sandwiching work-oriented language teaching and practical workplace training, the project aimed at enhancing the employability of project participants but also at alerting…

  5. Cloze-Elide: A Process Oriented Model of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Winton H.

    The aims of the projects described in this paper were to develop and evaluate a new approach to the assessment of English language skills of English as a second language (ESL) students. The approach makes use of optical scanning equipment in scoring cloze-elide test exercises, thereby providing a rapid, relatively inexpensive and objective measure…

  6. Sociolinguistic Competence and Malaysian Students' English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniandy, Mohan K.; Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan; Shanmugam, Shashi Kumar Krishnan; Ahmad, Irma; Noor, Norashikin Binte Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully…

  7. Processing subject-verb agreement in a second language depends on proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Noriko; Dussias, Paola E.; Kroll, Judith F.

    2010-01-01

    Subject-verb agreement is a computation that is often difficult to execute perfectly in the first language (L1) and even more difficult to produce skillfully in a second language (L2). In this study, we examined the way in which bilingual speakers complete sentence fragments in a manner that reflects access to both grammatical and conceptual number. In two experiments, we show that bilingual speakers are sensitive to both grammatical and conceptual number in the L1 and grammatical number agreement in the L2. However, only highly proficient bilinguals are also sensitive to conceptual number in the L2. The results suggest that the extent to which speakers are able to exploit conceptual information during speech planning depends on the level of language proficiency. PMID:20640178

  8. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed. PMID:24646043

  9. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed. PMID:24646043

  10. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  11. Local and Global Task Switching Costs in Bilinguals Who Vary in Second Language Proficiency.

    PubMed

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relationship between bilinguals' second language (L2) proficiency and their performance on a Stroop switching task, in which a color word (e.g., GREEN) appeared in a congruent ink color (e.g., green) or an incongruent ink color (e.g., red). Participants either read aloud the color word in the word-reading trials or named the ink color in the color-naming trials. Bilinguals who varied in L2 proficiency received 2 pure blocks, consisting of word-reading trials and color-naming trials, respectively, and 1 mixed block, consisting of intermixed word-reading and color-naming trials in an alternating-runs pattern. Comparing performance in nonswitch trials in the mixed block and the pure block provides a measure of global switch costs, whereas differences on switch trials and nonswitch trials in the mixed block reflect local switch costs. Bilinguals with higher L2 proficiency showed a marginally smaller Stroop effect in color naming, a smaller local switch cost in word reading (but not in color naming), and a smaller word-reading versus color-naming task set asymmetry in local switch costs. The latter result was consistent with the language switching finding that the L1/L2 switch cost asymmetry decreased as a function of bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings support the facilitative role of L2 proficiency in bilinguals' task set switching: Those with higher L2 proficiency have better task set shifting and reconfiguration and updating abilities when they switch from a more difficult task set (color naming) to an easier task set (word reading) in a task-switching paradigm. PMID:26219176

  12. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  13. The Relationship between the Use of Communication Strategies and Aspects of Target Language Proficiencies - A Study of ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paribakht, Tahereh

    Four hypotheses are addressed concerning the relationship of the types and proportion of strategies adopted by the subject groups to the proficiency levels, and the subjects' rate of success and effective use of communication strategies for conveying intended meaning as they relate to proficiency level in the target language. The subjects were 40…

  14. Lexical Noun Phrases in Texts Written by Deaf Children and Adults with Different Proficiency Levels in Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beijsterveldt, Liesbeth Maria; van Hell, Janet

    2010-01-01

    We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN were compared on structures that either overlap in…

  15. How Is No Child Left Behind Affecting Proficient and Advanced Students on the California STAR Test in English Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…

  16. More than Use it or Lose it: The Number of Speakers Effect on Heritage Language Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Starr, Jennie; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring a Heritage Language (HL), a minority language spoken primarily at home, is often a major step toward achieving bilingualism. Two studies examined factors that promote HL proficiency. Chinese-English and Spanish-English undergraduates and Hebrew-English children named pictures in both their languages, and they or their parents completed language history questionnaires. HL picture-naming ability correlated positively with the number of different HL speakers participants spoke to as children, independent of each language’s frequency of use, and without negatively affecting English picture naming ability. HL performance increased also when primary caregivers had lower English proficiency, with later English age-of-acquisition, and (in children) with increased age. These results suggest a prescription for increasing bilingual proficiency is regular interaction with multiple HL speakers. Responsible cognitive mechanisms could include greater variety of words used by different speakers, representational robustness from exposure to variations in form, or multiple retrieval cues, perhaps analogous to contextual diversity effects. PMID:24942146

  17. Why bother with testing? The validity of immigrants' self-assessed language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Edele, Aileen; Seuring, Julian; Kristen, Cornelia; Stanat, Petra

    2015-07-01

    Due to its central role in social integration, immigrants' language proficiency is a matter of considerable societal concern and scientific interest. This study examines whether commonly applied self-assessments of linguistic skills yield results that are similar to those of competence tests and thus whether these self-assessments are valid measures of language proficiency. Analyses of data for immigrant youth reveal moderate correlations between language test scores and two types of self-assessments (general ability estimates and concrete performance estimates) for the participants' first and second languages. More importantly, multiple regression models using self-assessments and models using test scores yield different results. This finding holds true for a variety of analyses and for both types of self-assessments. Our findings further suggest that self-assessed language skills are systematically biased in certain groups. Subjective measures thus seem to be inadequate estimates of language skills, and future research should use them with caution when research questions pertain to actual language skills rather than self-perceptions. PMID:26004451

  18. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA), Community School District 2 Special Alternative Instruction Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Joanne

    Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA) was a federally funded program serving 960 limited-English-proficient students in 10 Manhattan (New York) elementary schools in 1992-93 its third year of operation. The project provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and social studies in…

  19. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates. PMID:25431506

  20. Integration of immigrants: the role of language proficiency and experience.

    PubMed

    Delander, Lennart; Hammarstedt, Mats; Månsson, Jonas; Nyberg, Erik

    2005-02-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a Swedish pilot scheme that targeted immigrants with weak Swedish-language skills registered as unemployed at public employment offices. By sandwiching work-oriented language teaching and practical workplace training, the project aimed at enhancing the employability of project participants but also at alerting them to and preparing them for available training and further education opportunities. For the evaluation, a comparison group of nonparticipants was selected using a propensity score methodology. The results show that participation in the pilot scheme project resulted in much speedier transfers from open unemployment to employment, training, and education. PMID:15604118

  1. Even Math Requires Learning Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    ELLs need to practice using the language in their speech. Teachers can ask students to restate the definition in their own words and provide opportunities for students to use academic vocabulary in discussions. Chunking (instead of teaching inch in isolation, also teach foot, centimeter, and yard) helps students develop their schema and mentally…

  2. Inquiry Science: The Gateway to English Language Proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared to a similar group of students who were using the district's established English language development curriculum. Student performance on statemandated English and science assessments were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests for overall performance and by number of years of treatment. Modest but statistically significant improvement was found for students who participated in the blended program. Results from this study suggest that restricting instructional minutes for science to provide additional time for ELD and English language arts may be unnecessary. Rather, allowing consistent time for science instruction that incorporates ELD instruction along with inquiry science experiences may provide the authentic and purposeful context students need to develop new language without restricting access to science content.

  3. Inquiry Science: The Gateway to English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared…

  4. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  5. How Noise and Language Proficiency Influence Speech Recognition by Individual Non-Native Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Xie, Lingli; Li, Yongjun; Chatterjee, Monita; Ding, Nai

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how speech recognition in noise is affected by language proficiency for individual non-native speakers. The recognition of English and Chinese sentences was measured as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sixty native Chinese speakers who never lived in an English-speaking environment. The recognition score for speech in quiet (which varied from 15%–92%) was found to be uncorrelated with speech recognition threshold (SRTQ/2), i.e. the SNR at which the recognition score drops to 50% of the recognition score in quiet. This result demonstrates separable contributions of language proficiency and auditory processing to speech recognition in noise. PMID:25409435

  6. Multilingual Faculty across Academic Disciplines: Language Difference in Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos, Alyssa G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the dominance of the English language in scholarship, multilingual academics often encounter challenges in achieving academic biliteracy and identifying successful language negotiation practices in academia. Through personal interviews with self-identified multilingual academics across academic disciplines, this paper explores how they…

  7. Increasing Language Awareness and Self-Efficacy of FL Students Using Self-Assessment and the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.; O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how oral language was assessed in an advanced-level college foreign language (FL) conversation course. Learners used the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Proficiency Guidelines to guide self-analyses of their oral production at intervals throughout the course. The intent was to provide opportunities for…

  8. On the Viable Linkages between Extroversion/Introversion and Academic Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavinia, Parviz; Hassanlou, Adel

    2014-01-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the relationship between academic Iranian EFL learners' extroversion/introversion and their writing performance. The participants of the study were some 52 BA learners majoring in English language literature in Urmia and Tabriz state universities. The chosen sample comprised of both males and females…

  9. A Comparative Study on China-U.S.' APTHS (Academic Proficiency Test for High Schools): Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin; Yan, Wenfan

    2012-01-01

    This study followed the comparative research mode of description, interpretation, juxtaposition and comparison. Based on the literatures and data collected on the topic, the paper compared and analyzed the past, present and future of APTHS (academic proficiency test for high schools) in the two countries. Some contemplations on the common issues…

  10. Do Prior Studies Matter?: Predicting Proficiencies Required to Excel Academically in Law School at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalukenge, Betty; Wamala, Robert; Ocaya, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Introduction of law school admission examinations has increased the debate regarding the relevance of prior studies for the enrollees in the program. The key issues of contention are whether prior studies reliably predict academic achievement of enrollees, and demonstrate proficiencies required for admission in the program. The purpose of…

  11. Theoretical Considerations in the Measurement of the English-Language Proficiency of Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Muriel M.

    Limited-English-proficient (LEP) students who are not sufficiently proficient in English to participate effectively in an English-speaking instructional environment must be identified for placement in an appropriate educational program. Their progress through an instructional program that is designed to improve their acquisition of English…

  12. Properties of Dual Language Exposure that Influence Two-Year-Olds' Bilingual Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Place, Silvia; Hoff, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The mothers of 29 Spanish-English bilingual 25-month-olds kept diary records of their children's dual language exposure and provided information on their children's English and Spanish language development using the MacArthur-Bates inventories. Relative amount of exposure predicted language outcomes in English and Spanish. In addition, the number of different speakers from whom the children heard English and the percent of their English input that was provided by native speakers were unique sources of variance in children's English skills. These properties of children's dual language exposure and their bilingual proficiency varied as a function of whether the children's mother, father, or both parents were native Spanish speakers. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:22004372

  13. More than use it or lose it: the number-of-speakers effect on heritage language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Tamar H; Starr, Jennie; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-02-01

    Acquiring a heritage language (HL), a minority language spoken primarily at home, is often a major step toward achieving bilingualism. Two studies examined factors that promote HL proficiency. Chinese-English and Spanish-English undergraduates and Hebrew-English children named pictures in both their languages, and they or their parents completed language history questionnaires. HL picture-naming ability correlated positively with the number of different HL speakers participants spoke to as children, independently of each language's frequency of use, and without negatively affecting English picture-naming ability. HL performance increased also when primary caregivers had lower English proficiency, with later English age of acquisition, and (in children) with increased age. These results suggest a prescription for increasing bilingual proficiency is regular interaction with multiple HL speakers. Responsible cognitive mechanisms could include greater variety of words used by different speakers, representational robustness from exposure to variations in form, or multiple retrieval cues, perhaps analogous to contextual diversity effects. PMID:24942146

  14. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  15. Reading proficiency modulates parafoveal processing efficiency: evidence from reading Chinese as a second language.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Yan, Ming

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how native Korean readers who learned Chinese as a second language make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that, only identical and orthographically similar previews facilitated processing of the target words when they were subsequently fixated. More critically, more parafoveal information was obtained by subjects with higher reading proficiency. These results suggest that, mainly low-level features of the parafoveal words are obtained by the non-native Chinese readers and less attentional resources are available for the readers with lower reading proficiency, thereby causing a reduction of the perceptual span. PMID:25103417

  16. Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages

    PubMed Central

    Rueckl, Jay G.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J.; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H.; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Frost, Ram

    2015-01-01

    We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech–print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents. PMID:26621710

  17. Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages.

    PubMed

    Rueckl, Jay G; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Molfese, Peter J; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-15

    We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech-print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents. PMID:26621710

  18. Online and Face-to-Face Language Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Oral Proficiency in Introductory Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneypenny, Dianne Burke; Aldrich, Rosalie S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary resistance to online foreign language teaching often involves questions of spoken mastery of second language. In order to address this concern, this research comparatively assesses undergraduate students' oral proficiency in online and face-to-face Spanish classes, while taking into account students' previous second language…

  19. The USC Proficiency-Based Program in Foreign Language Instruction: Methods and Their Effects on Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a program instituted at the University of Southern California in which semester-based language requirements were replaced by a proficiency-based requirement which would be satisfied only through demonstration of communication skills in a foreign language. Gives the initial results as measured by test scores, enrollment, and attitude…

  20. The Use of Compensation Strategies in the Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking and Its Relationship with Their Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Ali Akbar; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Compensation Strategies (CpSs) are strategies which a language user employs in order to achieve his intended meaning when precise linguistic forms are for some reasons not available at that point of communication. Different factors may influence the use of CpSs, among which the level of language proficiency is one of the most important ones. The…

  1. Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

  2. Design and Psychometric Considerations for Assessments of Speaking Proficiency: The English Language Development Assessment (ELDA) as Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires all states to assess the English proficiency of English language learners each school year. Under Title I and Title III of No Child Left Behind, states are required to measure the annual growth of students' English language development in reading, listening, writing, and speaking and in comprehension…

  3. The Association between Patient-Reported Pain and Doctors' Language Proficiency in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mustajoki, Marianne; Forsén, Tom; Kauppila, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Patients' limited literacy and language fluency of different kinds cause them problems in navigating the medical interview. However, it is not known how physicians' native language skills affect the reported intensity of pain among Finnish emergency patients. Data were collected with two consecutive questionnaires in 16 healthcare centres and outpatient departments along the Finnish coast. Swedish and Finnish speaking 18–65-year-old emergency patients were eligible for this study. Our patients were predominantly Finnish speakers. Patient-rated poor language skills in Finnish among the physicians in ED setting increased statistically significantly pain reported by the Finnish speaking patients and their dissatisfaction with the health service. These patients were also less motivated to adhere to the instructions given by their physician. Patients speaking various languages reported less degree of pain. Foreign physicians' poor language proficiency in Finnish was expected to explain only some of the patients' pain experience. Physicians' good native language skills may help to reduce pain experience. Despite concordant language communication, other unknown barriers in the interaction might reduce the magnitude of pain reported. PMID:26483976

  4. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. METHODS: We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. RESULTS: Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children

  5. Not Just Good Science Teaching: Supporting Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Smith, Kathy Horak

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore ways in which they have worked together in understanding the complexities of academic language within the science classroom and discuss strategies they have used to teach academic language to young adolescent English Language Learners (ELLs) within inquiry-based science lessons. They discuss strategies they use…

  6. Pragmatic and Grammatical Competence, Length of Residence, and Overall L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Wei; Case, Rod E.; Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of length of residence in the target language community and overall L2 proficiency on L2 pragmatic competence with a reference to L2 grammatical competence. Participants were 126 international students in the US with two academic levels of English proficiency from 17 countries, speaking 20 languages. A…

  7. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term. PMID:18341120

  8. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A.; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth – the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules – notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German–French and French–German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants’ L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals’ L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2

  9. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth - the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules - notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German-French and French-German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants' L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals' L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2 gives way to

  10. Language Proficiency Tests in the Iranian Context: Do They Represent Communicative Language Testing Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2011-01-01

    The Communicative Ability in language testing originates from a theory of language as communication proposed by Hymes (1972) and known as "communicative competence". The literature on language testing suggests that the practicality of communicative language testing (CLT) varies depending on how the instructors and teachers conceptualize CLT. As…

  11. A Working Model for Assessing Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Language Proficiency through a Placement Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Having a clear idea of the knowledge in the heritage language that a student brings to the classroom is essential for a successful language-learning experience; for that reason, research in heritage language education has been focusing increasingly on assessment issues, especially language placement exams. Professionals debate whether assessment…

  12. Inhibitory control and l2 proficiency modulate bilingual language production: evidence from spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Palmer, Caroline; Titone, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control (IC) to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of IC necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2) proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, 42 English-French and French-English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1) and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech. PMID:22438846

  13. Inhibitory Control and L2 Proficiency Modulate Bilingual Language Production: Evidence from Spontaneous Monologue and Dialogue Speech

    PubMed Central

    Pivneva, Irina; Palmer, Caroline; Titone, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control (IC) to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of IC necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2) proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, 42 English–French and French–English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1) and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech. PMID:22438846

  14. The Home Language Environment of Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Their Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between home language learning activities and vocabulary in a sample of monolingual native Dutch (n = 58) and bilingual immigrant Moroccan-Dutch (n = 46) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 55) 3-year-olds, speaking Tarifit-Berber, a nonscripted language, and Turkish as their first language (L1), respectively. Despite…

  15. How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln, 1994;…

  16. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  17. Socialization to Academic Language in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of academic language for students' success in schools, this article reports on an investigation of how narrative-focused literacy events in the classroom provide opportunities for academic language socialization. Data were collected from one public elementary school in a major metropolitan area in the Mid-Atlantic region…

  18. The Effect of English Proficiency and Ethnicity on Academic Performance and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…

  19. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Amanda Hampton; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. PMID:23557881

  20. Advanced Proficiency for Foreign Language Teacher Candidates: What Can We Do to Help Them Achieve This Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lynn; Fonseca-Greber, Bonnibeth; Foell, Kristie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines various issues related to the development of advanced proficiency by foreign language teacher candidates with the goal of providing information and strategies for teacher educators and administrators at the university level. Recent changes in the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requirements…

  1. Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

  2. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  3. On the Relationship between Socio-Cultural Factors and Language Proficiency (Case Study: Shiraz University MA Students)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Movahed, Majid

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between language proficiency and socio-cultural factors among the Iranian MA students registered and entered at Shiraz University in 2008. The second objective was to explore whether or not one or a combination of socio-cultural factors are predictors of language…

  4. Assessment of Young English Language Learners in Arizona: Questioning the Validity of the State Measure of English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…

  5. Effects of M[superscript 3] Curriculum on Mathematics and English Proficiency Achievement of Mathematically Promising English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Seokhee; Yang, Jenny; Mandracchia, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Mentoring Mathematical Minds (M3) units on gains in mathematics achievement and English proficiency of mathematically promising English language learners (MPELLs) in the third grade. The M3 program, developed by Gavin et al., was implemented for 1 year with treatment MPELLs (n = 86) but not…

  6. The Effects of English Language Proficiency and Curricular Pathways: Latina/os' Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosqueda, Eduardo; Maldonado, Saul I.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes nationally-representative quantitative data from the first (2002) and second (2004) waves of the Educational Longitudinal Study to examine the relationship between Latina/o secondary school students' degree of English-language proficiency (ELP), mathematics course-taking measures, and 12th grade mathematics achievement.…

  7. Cross-Lagged Relations between Motivation and Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…

  8. The Relationship between Receptive and Expressive Subskills of Academic L2 Proficiency in Nonnative Speakers of English: A Multigroup Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…

  9. Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

  10. Communicative Intention and Language Proficiency in a 'Real Life' and Second Language Teaching Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Lothar

    The notional-functional or communicative approach to foreign language teaching as practiced in East Germany is described. The purpose of communicative foreign language teaching is to prepare the learner to communicate in real-life situations. Classroom and real-life situations differ in several respects, most notably in communicative intention.…

  11. Effects of length of stay and language proficiency on health care experiences among immigrants in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Lydie A

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to examine the influence of length of stay and language proficiency on immigrants' access to and utilization of care in Canada and the United States (U.S,). Data came from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to foreign-born, non-elderly adults in each country (n = 12,870 in Canada and n = 7440 in the U.S.). Health care indicators included having a usual source of care; annual consultation with a health professional, dentist, and eye doctor; flu shot in the past year; and Pap test in the past 3 years. Logistic regression models were employed to estimate the relative odds of access or use of care, adjusting for need, demographic factors, socioeconomic status, and insurance coverage. In general, rates of health care access and utilization were higher in Canada than the U.S. among all immigrant groups. In both countries, adjusted analyses indicated that immigrants with shorter length of stay (less than 10 years) and limited language proficiency generally had lower rates of access/use compared with those with longer length of stay (10 years or more) and proficiency in each country's official language(s), respectively. There was one exception to this pattern in the U.S.: immigrants with limited English had higher odds of having a recent Pap test relative to English-proficient immigrants. The persistence of disparities in health care experiences based on length of stay and language proficiency in Canada suggests that universal health insurance coverage may not be sufficient for ensuring access to and utilization of primary and preventive care for this population. PMID:22326103

  12. Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibold, Claire

    2011-01-01

    According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

  13. Opportunities and Outcomes: The Role of Peers in Developing the Oral Academic English Proficiency of Adolescent English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill-Poza, Avary

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…

  14. English Academic Language Skills: Perceived Difficulties by Undergraduate and Graduate Students, and Their Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Robert; Cheng, Liying

    2001-01-01

    An English for academic purposes needs survey conducted at a Canadian university among first-year Bachelor's and Master's level students reveals native speakers (NS) and nonnative speakers (NNS) of English perceive that the language skills necessary for academic study are of different levels of difficulty. English language difficulties appear to…

  15. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content assessments. Two research questions…

  16. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes a study that examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content…

  17. The Relationship between Mathematics and Language: Academic Implications for Children with Specific Language Impairment and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…

  18. A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Dale April; Hinojosa, Fanny

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the varying degrees to which learners of Spanish at the intermediate and advanced levels use paragraph-like structure in their answers during a simulated oral proficiency exam. Subjects were 24 students preparing for the Spanish Texas Oral Proficiency Test. Data from simulated oral proficiency interviews were compared to a model…

  19. Playing Football without a Ball: Language, Reading and Academic Performance in a High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Mampuru, Deborah Maphoko

    2007-01-01

    Second language (L2) reading research suggests that there is a complex interplay between L2 proficiency, first language (L1) reading and L2 reading. However, not much is known about the effect of L1 proficiency on L1 reading, and of L1 reading on L2 reading, or vice versa, in bilingual settings when readers have few opportunities for extensive…

  20. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  1. What and When Second-Language Learners Revise When Responding to Timed Writing Tasks on the Computer: The Roles of Task Type, Second Language Proficiency, and Keyboarding Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on second language (L2) learners' revision behavior by describing what, when, and how often L2 learners revise their texts when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer and by examining the effects of task type, L2 proficiency, and keyboarding skills on what and when L2 learners revise. Each of 54…

  2. Effects of Curriculum and Teacher Professional Development on the Language Proficiency of Elementary English Language Learner Students in the Central Region. Final Report. NCEE 2012-4013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, Sheila A.; Stoker, Ginger; Barker, Jane; Shebby, Susan; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Lou F.; Williams, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    This study responds to regional and national needs by examining the impact on students' English language proficiency of a particular set of ELL-specific classroom materials in combination with a specific teacher professional development program. The classroom materials used in this study, entitled On Our Way to English (OWE), were authored by…

  3. Linguist Proficiency Improvement Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaman, David L.; And Others

    The processes used by the Defense Language Institute (DLI) Foreign Language Center to develop proficiency-based nonresident courses in Czech, Polish, and Russian for language maintenance is described. Based on needs assessment and analysis of Department of Defense endusers, DLI provided the concept and design for the Proficiency Improvement…

  4. Revising the Revised Format of the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaberry, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that performance tests as currently represented in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)-Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) may not adequately address the basic concerns brought about by the perceived shortcomings of academic second language programs. Supports this argument with a critical analysis of the ACTFL…

  5. General Language Proficiency (GLP): Reflections on the "Issues Revisited" from the Perspective of a UK Examination Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Looking back to the language testing world of the 1980s in the United Kingdom, we need to be aware that how we perceive or remember ourselves to have been then--whether as individual language testing academics or as corporate language testing organisations--will be shaped by multiple influences. Although we may have been present at and shared in…

  6. The Effects of First- and Second-Language Proficiency on Conflict Resolution and Goal Maintenance in Bilinguals: Evidence from Reaction Time Distributional Analyses in a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    By administering a Stroop task to college-student bilinguals varied in self-rated first- (L1) and second-language (L2) proficiency, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiencies on selective attention performance. We conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time…

  7. The Relationship between Oral Language Proficiency and the Success of English Language Learners in Reading Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Reading Recovery (RR) is an early intervention program that addresses the needs of struggling readers in 1st grade. Numerous studies support the positive effect RR has with struggling readers, but research is limited on the effects of RR with English language learners (ELLs). The purpose of this study examined the relationship between oral…

  8. Problems in Language Proficiency Assessment: A Review of the Language Assessment Battery (English, Level I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, John A.

    Questions are addressed pertaining to the Language Assessment Battery (LAB), currently the only single battery that meets all of the state of Connecticut criteria for an instrument to determine which pupils must be offered bilingual education. Normed on an English dominant population, the primary purpose was to obtain its psychometric…

  9. Predictors and Outcomes of Early versus Later English Language Proficiency among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self-control,…

  10. Multilingual Interaction and Minority Languages: Proficiency and Language Practices in Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Durk

    2015-01-01

    In this plenary speech I examine multilingual interaction in a number of European regions in which minority languages are being revitalized. Education is a crucial variable, but the wider society is equally significant. The context of revitalization is no longer bilingual but increasingly multilingual. I draw on the results of a long-running…

  11. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  12. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  13. The effect of age of acquisition, socioeducational status, and proficiency on the neural processing of second language speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the role of age of acquisition (AoA), socioeducational status (SES), and second language (L2) proficiency on the neural processing of L2 speech sounds. In a task of pre-attentive listening and passive viewing, Spanish-English bilinguals and a control group of English monolinguals listened to English syllables while watching a film of natural scenery. Eight regions of interest were selected from brain areas involved in speech perception and executive processes. The regions of interest were examined in 2 separate two-way ANOVA (AoA×SES; AoA×L2 proficiency). The results showed that AoA was the main variable affecting the neural response in L2 speech processing. Direct comparisons between AoA groups of equivalent SES and proficiency level enhanced the intensity and magnitude of the results. These results suggest that AoA, more than SES and proficiency level, determines which brain regions are recruited for the processing of second language speech sounds. PMID:25528287

  14. Who's Using the Language? Supporting Middle School Students with Content Area Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines middle school students' academic language development in the context of a year-long professional development project titled, Developing Content Area Academic Language (DCAAL). The purpose of DCAAL was to partner middle school teachers (n = 8) with a team of university researchers to explore how to integrate…

  15. Assessing the Language Proficiency of Tribal Heritage Language Learners: Issues and Concerns for American Indian Pueblo Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Among American Indian Pueblo tribes, community-based language revitalisation initiatives have been established in response to a growing language shift towards English. This has been most prominent among school age children, prompting some tribes to extend tribal language programmes into local public schools. For centuries, the transmission of…

  16. English Language Learners and Their Academic Progress: 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This is the 2010-11 annual report on the academic progress of English language learners in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the report is to: (1) Describe the demographic characteristics of students classified as English Language Learners (ELL) in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS); (2) Provide data regarding ELL…

  17. The Work of Management Academics: An English Language Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietze, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the English language on the work of management academics. They are seen as knowledge workers in the context of business and management, who have to be able to use the English language in such ways to pursue successfully and competently the main purpose of their work--the generation, dissemination and…

  18. Developmental Changes in the Nature of Language Proficiency and Reading Fluency Paint a More Complex View of Reading Comprehension in ELL and EL1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Esther; Farnia, Fataneh

    2012-01-01

    We examined theoretical issues concerning the development of reading fluency and language proficiency in 390 English Language Learners (ELLs,) and 149 monolingual, English-as-a-first language (EL1) students. The extent to which performance on these constructs in Grade 5 (i.e., concurrent predictors) contributes to reading comprehension in the…

  19. Can Two Tongues Live in Harmony: Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS88) Longitudinal Data on the Maintenance of Home Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Marsh, Herbert W.; Suliman, Rosemary

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to examine the relationships among first language (not English), maintenance of that home language, English proficiency, and academic achievement. Results do not support speculation that home language proficiency would have persistent negative effects on English and other academic outcomes…

  20. The Influence of Textbook Format on Postsecondary Proficient and Remedial Readers: Designing Information Using Visual Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlan, W. Lou

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the design of textbook material affects comprehension and memory of textbook material under certain cognitive conditions for proficient and remedial readers. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, format was found to significantly affect comprehension and memory. Proficient Male scored significantly…

  1. The Vocational and Language Development of Limited English Proficient Adults. Information Series No. 363.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenberg, Joan E.

    This critical review of the literature examines the characteristics and needs of limited English proficient (LEP) adults and the programs and services typically available to them. The complexities of the LEP population are explored first, including differences in education, English proficiency, labor market experience, and economic status.…

  2. Language Background and Early Academic Achievement: Disentangling Language-Minority Status, Social Background, and Academic Engagement. CSE Technical Report 679

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paret, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that language-minority students both do poorly on standardized tests, and receive low academic ratings from their teachers (August & Hakuta, 1998). Explanations for the low performance, however, are limited. This is at least partially due to the fact that language-minority status is intimately entangled with issues related to…

  3. Validity and Fairness Implications of Varying Time Conditions on a Diagnostic Test of Academic English Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute; Elder, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars have questioned the practice of assessing academic writing in the context of a one-off language test, claiming that the time restrictions imposed in the test environment, when compared to the writing conditions typical at university, may prevent learners from displaying the kinds of writing skills required in academic…

  4. Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners

    PubMed Central

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  5. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    PubMed

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  6. Re-Integrating Academic Development and Academic Language and Learning: A Call to Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percy, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the re-integration of academic development (AD) and a academic language and learning (ALL) practitioners in Australian higher education. This argument is made as universities aim to develop internationally recognised, inter-disciplinary and standards-based curricula against the backdrop of international comparative education…

  7. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning*

    PubMed Central

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z.

    2014-01-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader. PMID:25984550

  8. Identifying Gaps in Academic Writing of ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giridharan, Beena

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…

  9. The Influence of Language Proficiency on Lexical Semantic Processing in Native and Late Learners of English

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Aaron J.; Tremblay, Antoine; Nichols, Emily S.; Neville, Helen J.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of English proficiency on ERPs elicited by lexical semantic violations in English sentences, in both native English speakers and native Spanish speakers who learned English in adulthood. All participants were administered a standardized test of English proficiency, and data were analyzed using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Relative to native learners, late learners showed reduced amplitude and delayed onset of the N400 component associated with reading semantic violations. As well, after the N400 late learners showed reduced anterior negative scalp potentials and increased posterior potentials. In both native and late learners, N400 amplitudes to semantically appropriate words were larger for people with lower English proficiency. N400 amplitudes to semantic violations, however, were not influenced by proficiency. Although both N400 onset latency and the late ERP effects differed between L1 and L2 learners, neither correlated with proficiency. Different approaches to dealing with the high degree of correlation between proficiency and native/late learner group status are discussed in the context of LME modeling. The results thus indicate that proficiency can modulate ERP effects in both L1 and L2 learners, and for some measures (in this case, N400 amplitude), L1–L2 differences may be entirely accounted for by proficiency. On the other hand, not all effects of L2 learning can be attributed to proficiency. Rather, the differences in N400 onset and the post-N400 violation effects appear to reflect fundamental differences in L1–L2 processing. PMID:21981676

  10. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess

  11. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to

  12. Improving Science and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners. CREATE Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Mazrum, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This brief reviews previous research related to the development of science knowledge and academic language in English language learners as well as the role of English language proficiency, learning in a second language, and first language knowledge in science learning. It also describes two successful CREATE interventions that build academic and…

  13. Adaptation of the Language Proficiency Interview (LPI) for Assessing Sign Communicative Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, William; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Sign Communication Proficiency Interview (SCPI) and discusses the SCPI rating scale, linguistic and cultural factors important for sign communicative competence, and skills in communicating simultaneously in signing and speaking. (EKN)

  14. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  15. National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report: Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress. Draft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP) standards aligned with language demands of…

  16. A Reevaluation of the Role of Anxiety: Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Their Relation to Reading and Listening Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nicole; Pajares, Frank; Herron, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Research findings from several academic domains have demonstrated that students' judgments of their own academic capabilities, or self-efficacy beliefs, influence their academic behaviors and performances. Absent from this body of research are studies assessing self-efficacy beliefs and their relation to foreign language proficiency. Informed by…

  17. Leadership Practice in Elementary School Dual Language Programs: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Joanie K.

    2012-01-01

    Research in effective programming for English language learners has demonstrated the efficacy of dual language education as a model for closing persistent achievement gaps for this growing population of students. With goals of high academic achievement, linguistic proficiency in two languages, and cross-cultural proficiency, dual language…

  18. Assessing English Language Learners' Opportunity to Learn Mathematics: Issues and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Herman, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: English language learner (ELL) students are lagging behind because of the extra challenges they face relative to their peers in acquiring academic English language proficiency, and the added burden of learning content in a language in which they are not proficient. The mandated inclusion of ELL students in the nation's…

  19. Thought and Second Language: A Vygotskian Framework for Understanding BICS and CALP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, James

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often point to the work of Cummins (1981), who proposed that two distinct types of language proficiency exist, basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS) and cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP). BICS includes aspects of language such as basic vocabulary and pronunciation, skills that are readily apparent during…

  20. Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students' Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…

  1. Dual Language Teachers' Use of Conventional, Environmental, and Personal Resources to Support Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that investigated the ways in which first-grade dual language teachers drew on various resources to instructionally support academic language development among Spanish-English emergent bilingual students. Classroom observations, semistructured interviews, and document collection were conducted over a…

  2. Chatting in Paragraphs: Towards Academic Discourse in Foreign Language Chat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an individual student's increasing approximation of academic discourse during a third-semester Spanish class that included chat-based instruction. During both chat-based activities and oral discussions in class, the student's language use became increasingly characterized by longer turns and the use of…

  3. Defense Intelligence: Foreign Area/Language Needs and Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) need for foreign language/area expertise was assessed, along with opportunities for the academic community to supplement government training. In addition to interviewing intelligence managers, questionnaires were administered to defense analysts to determine their background, training, and use of external…

  4. Assessing Academic Writing in Foreign and Second Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Alister

    2009-01-01

    Academic writing and education in foreign and second languages both have lengthy histories. Their histories have diverged but also intersected. Matsuda (2005), for example, described the convergence in policies that led to a distinctive discipline of "L2 writing" in higher education in the U.S.A. during the latter part of the 20th century.…

  5. Indiana's Academic Standards: 12th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 12 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides parents with a list of 10 things they can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following…

  6. Indiana's Academic Standards: 10th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 10 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  7. Indiana's Academic Standards: 9th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should be able to do in Grade 9 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and comes accompanied with a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  8. Indiana's Academic Standards: 11th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 11 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  9. A Neuroscientific Perspective on Second Language Learning and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawson, Anne

    It is proposed that research on neurological organization, cognitive psychology, and artificial intelligence can contribute to understanding the relationship between second language learning processes and academic achievement. Relevant research in these areas and in the field of neurolinguistics is reviewed, with several themes or topics…

  10. Corporate Versus Academic Perceptions of the Need for Language Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Berg, Camille Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the academic emphasis on students acquiring fluency in a second language to foster their advancement in the business world of international commerce. Notes that human resource experts in U.S.-based international corporations often give a low priority to linguistic fluency and emphasize the need for cultural expertise. (Seven references)…

  11. Using Language to Organize Academic Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Miriam T.

    The specific goal of language instruction at any level is to develop students' communicative abilities by increasing their awareness of necessary linguistic tools. The degree to which instructors in the English classroom are successful in attaining this specific goal is dependent on the ability of students to organize their experiences. College…

  12. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  13. Developing the Assessment Literacy of University Proficiency Test Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing use of English language proficiency test scores by universities around the world to select international students has resulted in a range of admissions, marketing, academic and teaching support staff interacting with the tests in different ways. To date, there has been little research investigating the assessment literacy…

  14. Cooperative Learning with Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn; Mattson, Beverly

    Theory and research indicate that cooperative learning methods may provide a way to help limited-English-proficient (LEP) students achieve academically and develop the English language skills necessary for successful classroom functioning. The method involves small groups of two to six students in tasks that require cooperation and positive…

  15. The Secondary School English Language Reading Curriculum: A Teacher's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Hazlina; Rahman, Nik Suryani Nik Abdul; Adnan, Airil Haimi Mohd

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, the issue of weak and non-proficient graduates is a pressing matter. This implies that they are not well-equipped to cope with academic literacy, which is closely related to their language proficiency, as the main medium of instruction at most higher institutions is the English language. At this level, reading is the essence of…

  16. Evidence That International Undergraduates Can Succeed Academically Despite Struggling with English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2015-01-01

    Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…

  17. Metanotes (Written Languaging) in a Translation Task: Do L2 Proficiency and Task Outcome Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Yet, compared to oral languaging, such as collaborative dialogs in contextualized settings, little seems to be known about written languaging. In order to fill this gap, this study investigates languaging in the form of "metanotes," that is, metatalk in a written…

  18. Oral Proficiency Testing in the Real World: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swender, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    The ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) is used to assess the ability of individuals to use language for real-world purposes. Today, OPIs are used by academic institutions, government agencies, and private corporations for many purposes: academic placement, student assessment, program evaluation, professional certification, hiring, and…

  19. The Role of Language Proficiency in Self-Related Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Zarei, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level on their self-related personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy). To this end, 141 English major students, male and female, studying at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) and Kar Non-profit University in Qazvin, Iran were…

  20. An Overview of Adult English as a Second Language Programs for Limited English Proficient Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education and Literacy.

    A summary of state activities to serve the limited English proficient (LEP) adult population includes the following: (1) brief state-by-state descriptions of programs and services offered; (2) a table of educational program enrollment rates for all the states listed, the District of Columbia, and territories for July 1, 1987-June 30, 1988; (3) a…

  1. Aspects of Lexical Proficiency in Writing Summaries in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Kyoko

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of aspects of the lexical proficiency of EFL students on their summary writing in English (L2) by controlling for the impact of a range of linguistic abilities in English and Japanese (L1). Sixty-eight Japanese undergraduate students wrote two summaries of English texts in English. Their English lexical…

  2. Second Language Vocabulary Learning: The Role of Context versus Translations as a Function of Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Discusses an experiment in testing college students in France on their recall of newly learned English words in order to compare the advantages and disadvantages of context and translation learning as a function of learner proficiency. Results reveal a superiority of translation learning in terms of quantity, but an inability of weaker learners to…

  3. Helping ELLs Meet Standards in English Language Arts and Science: An Intervention Focused on Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…

  4. Jump-Starting Language and Schema for English-Language Learners: Teacher-Composed Digital Jumpstarts for Academic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rance-Roney, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-composed digital stories can assist an English-language learner in accessing academic reading while aiding in the learner's acquisition of academic language. Acknowledging the synergy between oral language and reading comprehension for English learners, every teacher of reading to English learners must also be a teacher of oral and aural…

  5. Examining the Relationship between TELPAS Reading and TAKS Reading for Students with Limited English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin; Harrell, Scott; Carman, Carol A.; Lyles, Lance

    2012-01-01

    In the performance-driven culture of education today, though arguments regarding the definition of student success abound, few argue its importance. This issue is complicated with an additional dimension for those who are learning English as a second language. For those students who lack proficiency in the English language, academic content must…

  6. Language Lateralisation in Late Proficient Bilinguals: A Lexical Decision fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haeme R. P.; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Waldie, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half the world's population can now speak more than one language. Understanding the neural basis of language organisation in bilinguals, and whether the cortical networks involved during language processing differ from that of monolinguals, is therefore an important area of research. A main issue concerns whether L2 (second language)…

  7. The Role of Peer Facilitator in Enhancing English Language Proficiency in a Simulated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nur Salina; Atek, Engku Suhaimi Engku; Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff; Mohamad, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    For many learners, language class can be anxiety-provoking than other courses. Mostly, university students are seen to have language anxiety especially in their second language learning. They tend to be nervous when using English language in the formal situation like in classroom. English Outdoor Programme (EOP) in 2011 as part of informal setting…

  8. The Reading Strategies of Proficient and Less Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Faizah Abdul; Azman, Norzaini; Jelas, Zalizan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the choice and use of academic reading strategies of adult learners who were identified as proficient and less proficient readers. The major objective was to explore the potential influence of their adult characteristics on their use of their academic reading strategies. Data were gathered using…

  9. Oral Proficiency Testing in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Barbara H., Comp.; Mayewski, Sandi, Comp.

    A handbook compiled for use in a one-day workshop on oral proficiency testing for teachers of Russian gives an overview of oral proficiency assessment principles and the available techniques. One section explains the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview process and…

  10. How Language Proficiency Tests Mislead Us about Ability: Implications for English Language Learner Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macswan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that English language learner (ELL) language assessment policy and poor language tests partly account for ELLs' disproportionate representation in special education. Previous research indicates that many states routinely assess ELLs' first language (L1) at initial enrollment and that ELLs identified as limited in both languages…

  11. Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in an ASL/English Bilingual Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing…

  12. In Support of a Proficiency-Based Definition of Heritage Language Learners: The Case of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of placing and teaching heritage speakers of immigrant languages in college-level foreign language programmes, drawing conclusions from research on heritage speakers of Russian. For pedagogical purposes, heritage speakers cannot be viewed either as native speakers of the target language or as foreign language…

  13. Effect of the Affordances of a Virtual Environment on Second Language Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Heidy P. Cuervo

    2013-01-01

    The traditional language laboratory consists of computer-based exercises in which students practice the language individually, working on language form drills and listening comprehension activities. In addition to the traditional approach to the laboratory requirement, students in the study participated in a weekly conversation hour focusing on…

  14. How Deaf American Sign Language/English Bilingual Children Become Proficient Readers: An Emic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…

  15. Bilingualism/Second-Language Research and the Assessment of Oral Proficiency in Minority Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges that researchers working in the fields of bilingualism and second-language acquisition (SLA) and in the field of language testing face in developing comparable and culturally and cognitively appropriate data collection and language assessment tools for bilingual children from rural minority-language…

  16. Elementary Language Development Handbook for Students with Limited Proficiency in English. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This handbook was developed to suggest an approach for language development in the elementary school that uses existing curricula and the child's experiences to help students develop the language skills necessary for success in school and society. After an introductory chapter on the theories of language learning and teaching, the guide provides:…

  17. Properties of Dual Language Exposure that Influence 2-Year-Olds' Bilingual Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Silvia; Hoff, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The mothers of 29 Spanish English bilingual 25-month-olds kept diary records of their children's dual language exposure and provided information on their children's English and Spanish language development using the MacArthur-Bates inventories. Relative amount of exposure predicted language outcomes in English and Spanish. In addition, the number…

  18. Language Proficiency and Socio-Cultural Orientation of Turkish and Moroccan Youngsters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2010-01-01

    In this study, data and discourses on immigrant minority groups and languages other than Dutch at home and at school are presented in order to contextualise the status of Turkish and Moroccan communities and their languages in the Netherlands. Patterns of language use, choice and attitudes of Turkish (n = 63) and Moroccan (n = 64) youngsters in…

  19. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. First Year Report on Language Minority and Limited English Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Marc; Puma, Michael

    This report presents descriptive findings from the Language Minority/Limited English Proficiency Student Supplement of "Prospects," a six-year longitudinal evaluation concerning the impact of federal Chapter 1 programs. These programs provide supplemental instruction to low-achieving elementary and secondary school students in low-income schools.…

  20. ALPBP Teacher Training Component. A Sociolinguistic/Ethnographic Approach to Language Proficiency Assessment: Tucson and Berkeley Program Descriptions and Evaluations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Comp.

    A description is presented of the teacher training component of the Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons (ALPBP) project that was implemented over a period of 2 years in Tucson (Arizona) and Berkeley (California). The goal of the Tucson section was to provide a forum wherein teachers and administrators could explore the…

  1. Voice over Instant Messaging as a Tool for Enhancing the Oral Proficiency and Motivation of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Gamble, Jeffrey; Tang, Shiun-Yi S.

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of providing authentic experiences and interactions for fostering oral proficiency and motivation in foreign languages is an opportunity for innovation in educational technology and instructional design. Although several recent innovations have received the attention of scholars, empirical investigation and validation is often…

  2. The Role of Proficiency and Social Context on the Grade-6 Students' Acquisition of French as a Second Official Language in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I report on the findings of a study that compared the French as a second official language (FSOL) proficiency of three groups of Grade-6 students in English-dominant Canada: Canadian-born monolingual English-speaking students, Canadian-born bilingual students and immigrant bilingual students (IMBs). The goal of the study was to…

  3. The Development of Instructional Materials for Vocational Personnel Serving Students Who Are Speakers of Other Languages and Have Limited English Proficiency. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamsky, Richard A.; And Others

    The first part of this document provides a brief account of a project to develop learning modules on the microcomputer and the microscope for use with limited English-proficient speakers of other languages who are enrolled in vocational education courses. The bulk of the document consists of appendixes presenting the modules themselves. The…

  4. Initial Perceptions of English as a Second Language Educators on Including Students with Limited English Proficiency in Minnesota's High Standards. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie; Liu, Kristin; Thurlow, Martha

    This report presents findings from an investigation of the perceptions, beliefs, and expectations of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) educators as they work toward including students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's High Standards. More and more states are implementing standards-based educational systems in which all…

  5. National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report: Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    The "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP)…

  6. Cognitive and Psychosocial Factors in the Long-Term Development of Implicit and Explicit Second Language Knowledge in Adult Learners of Spanish at Increasing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Ellen Johnson

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the second language (L2) development of adult learners of Spanish at three levels of proficiency during and after a semester of instruction. A fundamental goal was to identify cognitive and psychosocial individual differences (IDs) that can explain between-learner variation over time in order to expand our understanding of the…

  7. When do speakers use gesture to specify who does what to whom? The role of language proficiency and type of gesture in narratives

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing Chee; Kita, Sotaro; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that iconic gestures (i.e., gestures that depict the actions, motions or shapes of entities) identify referents that are also lexically specified in the co-occurring speech produced by proficient speakers. This study examines whether concrete deictic gestures (i.e., gestures that point to physical entities) bear a different kind of relation to speech, and whether this relation is influenced by the language proficiency of the speakers. Two groups of speakers who had different levels of English proficiency were asked to retell a story in English. Their speech and gestures were transcribed and coded. Our findings showed that proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures for referents that were not specified in speech, and iconic gestures for referents that were specified in speech, suggesting that these two types of gestures bear different kinds of semantic relations with speech. In contrast, less proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures and iconic gestures whether or not referents were lexically specified in speech. Thus, both type of gesture and proficiency of speaker need to be considered when accounting for how gesture and speech are used in a narrative context. PMID:23337950

  8. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese) and second-language (L2, English) proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time distributions in the Simon and Simon switching tasks. Bilinguals' L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in μ), and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ) regardless of trial types in the Simon task. Bilinguals' L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants' age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in μ. In contrast, neither bilinguals' L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants' age, only (a) scores in the working memory task and (b) RT in incongruent trials and (c) Simon effect in μ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children's L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies. PMID:25232345

  9. E?ffects of English Language Proficiency on the Choice of Language Learning Strategies by Saudi English-Major Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javid, Choudhary Z.; Al-thubaiti, Turki S.; Uthman, Awwadh

    2013-01-01

    It is reported that language learning is a creative and dynamic process and the learners are active partners in this process. This trend in language teaching motivated the researchers to investigate the learners' individual differences and the identification of language learning strategies (LLS) has become a major area of interest in this regard…

  10. From Language-Specific to Shared Syntactic Representations: The Influence of Second Language Proficiency on Syntactic Sharing in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on cross-linguistic syntactic priming suggest that bilinguals can share syntactic representations across languages (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004). But how are these representations established in late learners of a second language? Specifically, are representations of syntactic structures in a second language (L2)…

  11. ALL Academics Facilitating Articulated Learning for English as an Additional Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard N.; Picard, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of articulated learning and relates it to the role of Academic Language and Learning (ALL) academics in facilitating the progress of international and other English as an additional language (EAL) students from program to program, between generic, academic and disciplinary skills and from their studies to the work…

  12. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  13. Long-Term English Language Learners' Perceptions of Their Language and Academic Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Won Gyoung; García, Shernaz B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term, adolescent English language learners (ELLs) experience persistent academic underachievement in spite of several years of schooling; yet, the research on this topic is scant. To increase our understanding of these students' educational experiences, we explored perceptions of 13 long-term ELLs about their schooling in the context of…

  14. Effects of sex and proficiency in second language processing as revealed by a large-scale fNIRS study of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in adults have revealed that first and second languages (L1/L2) share similar neural substrates, and that proficiency is a major determinant of the neural organization of L2 in the lexical-semantic and syntactic domains. However, little is known about neural substrates of children in the phonological domain, or about sex differences. Here, we conducted a large-scale study (n = 484) of school-aged children using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and a word repetition task, which requires a great extent of phonological processing. We investigated cortical activation during word processing, emphasizing sex differences, to clarify similarities and differences between L1 and L2, and proficiency-related differences during early L2 learning. L1 and L2 shared similar neural substrates with decreased activation in L2 compared to L1 in the posterior superior/middle temporal and angular/supramarginal gyri for both sexes. Significant sex differences were found in cortical activation within language areas during high-frequency word but not during low-frequency word processing. During high-frequency word processing, widely distributed areas including the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in boys, while more restricted areas, excluding the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in girls. Significant sex differences were also found in L2 proficiency-related activation: activation significantly increased with proficiency in boys, whereas no proficiency-related differences were found in girls. Importantly, cortical sex differences emerged with proficiency. Based on previous research, the present results indicate that sex differences are acquired or enlarged during language development through different cognitive strategies between sexes, possibly reflecting their different memory functions. PMID:26147179

  15. "Words that Hold Us up": Teacher Talk and Academic Language in Five Upper Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Mason, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the oral academic language used by English as a second language prepared teachers during content area instruction in five upper elementary classrooms in the United States. Using ethnographic and sociolinguistic perspectives the authors examine the oral, academic language exposure students received from their teachers during…

  16. A Template Analysis of Teacher Agency at an Academically Successful Dual Language School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Juliet M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that dual language (DL) programs have the potential to foster both significant academic achievement and increased cultural awareness in the students they serve. As such, DL programs offer both language majority and language minority learners the opportunity to reach advanced levels of academic achievement. Nonetheless, the…

  17. A Snapshot of Teacher Candidates' Readiness for Incorporating Academic Language in Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Woong; Moseley, Lauren Jeneva; Son, Ji-Won; Seelke, John

    2014-01-01

    With the national rollout of edTPA that champions language supports in content lessons, there is a renewed interest in academic language across disciplines and related pedagogy in the U.S. This study examines current knowledge of academic language demonstrated by teacher candidates at middle grades. An analysis (n = 42) of teacher candidates'…

  18. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), an oral proficiency test used by government agencies to assess general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts. It begins with simple, personal…

  19. How deaf American Sign Language/English bilingual children become proficient readers: an emic perspective.

    PubMed

    Mounty, Judith L; Pucci, Concetta T; Harmon, Kristen C

    2014-07-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from learning to read to reading to learn. Analysis of 12 interactive, semi-structured interviews identified informal and formal teaching and learning practices in ASL/English bilingual homes and classrooms. These practices value, reinforce, and support the bidirectional acquisition of both languages and provide a strong foundation for literacy. PMID:24212202

  20. Developing Writing Proficiency for the Lower-Level Foreign Language Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Valetta Jane

    1984-01-01

    Learning to communicate is important for today's foreign language student, and it is important to provide meaningful communicative experiences in writing as well as speaking the language. A letter exchange between peers can provide a meaningful and exciting writing experience for lower-level students. While not entirely without problems, arranging…

  1. Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

  2. The Influence of Second Language Experience and Accent Familiarity on Oral Proficiency Rating: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether raters' knowledge of test takers' first language (L1) affects how the raters orient themselves to the task of rating oral speech. The authors qualitatively investigated the effects of accent familiarity on raters' score assignment processes. Twenty-six trained raters with a second language of Mandarin…

  3. Syntactic Complexity Measures and Their Relation to Oral Proficiency in Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwashita, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    The study reported in this article is a part of a large-scale study investigating syntactic complexity in second language (L2) oral data in commonly taught foreign languages (English, German, Japanese, and Spanish; Ortega, Iwashita, Rabie, & Norris, in preparation). In this article, preliminary findings of the analysis of the Japanese data are…

  4. Effect of Developing Pragmatic Competence through Telecollaboration on Improving English as Foreign Language Learners' Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…

  5. Foreign Languages: Human Capital Approach Needed To Correct Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoff, Joseph A.

    This report examines the use of foreign language skills within the Army, Department of State, Department of Commerce's Foreign Commercial Service, and Federal Bureau of Investigation, discussing the nature and impact of foreign language shortages, strategies for addressing these shortages, and efforts to address current and projected shortages.…

  6. How Bilingual Is Bilingual? Mother-Tongue Proficiency and Learning through a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Zeliha; Ilter, Binnur Genc; Glover, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In a bilingual context, the mother tongue plays a key role in a child's social and personal development, in education and in second-language learning. There is a complex relationship between these three areas. Support for children receiving education through a second language is often in the form of additional learning opportunities in the second…

  7. Reading-Writing Relationships in First and Second Language Academic Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…

  8. The Impact of an Instructional Intervention on the Science and Language Learning of Middle Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Branum-Martin, Lee; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention--Quality English and Science Teaching (QuEST)--designed to develop the science knowledge and academic language of middle grades English language learners studying science in their second language and their English-proficient classmates. Both English language learners and…

  9. State Funding Mechanisms for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…

  10. Looking into a Crystal Ball: Is Requiring High-Stakes Language Proficiency Tests Really Going to Improve World Language Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Brigid M.

    2013-01-01

    Brigid Burke is the program coordinator of World Language Education at her university, which is housed in the College of Education and Human Development. Since obtaining this position 4 years ago, she has become most concerned about certain recommendations that were made by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) in 2002,…

  11. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  12. Williams syndrome: A surprising deficit in oromotor praxis in a population with proficient language production

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Saloni; Bergström, Lina; Alcock, Katherine J.; Dick, Frederic; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of known genetic origin, characterized by serious delays in language onset yet relatively verbose, intelligible and fluent speech in late childhood and adulthood. How do motor abilities relate to language in this group? We investigated planning and co-ordination of the movement of the speech articulators (oromotor praxis) in 28 fluent-speaking individuals with WS, aged between 12 and 30 years. Results indicate that, despite their fluent language, oromotor praxis was impaired in WS relative to two groups of typically-developing children, matched on either vocabulary or visuospatial ability. These findings suggest that the ability to plan, co-ordinate and execute complex sensorimotor movements contribute to an explanation of the delay in expressive language early in development in this neurodevelopmental disorder. In the discussion, we turn to more general issues of how individual variation in oromotor praxis may account for differences in speech/language production abilities across developmental language disorders. PMID:25433223

  13. Bilingualism and the increased attentional blink effect: evidence that the difference between bilinguals and monolinguals generalizes to different levels of second language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Khare, Vatsala; Verma, Ark; Kar, Bhoomika; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The attentional blink task involves rapid serial presentation of visual stimuli, two of which the participants have to report. The usual finding is that participants are impaired at reporting the second target if it appears in close temporal proximity to the first target. Previous research has shown that the effect is stronger in bilinguals than monolinguals. We investigated whether the difference between monolinguals and proficient bilinguals can be extended to bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Therefore, we replicated the paradigm in a large sample of Hindi-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels of English, as measured with a validated vocabulary test. We additionally measured the participants' intelligence with the raven progressive matrices. We found that the size of the attentional blink effect correlates with the degree of second language proficiency and not with the degree of intelligence. This indicates that research on executive control functions can be done with bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Our results are also in line with recent findings showing that the attentional blink effect is not primarily due to limited processing resources. PMID:23196431

  14. Confounds in Assessing the Associations between Biliteracy and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been theorized, if not exhaustively researched, that bilingualism and biliteracy are beneficial in promoting linguistic and academic gains; but the operationalization of these constructs is confounding. In the current study, the authors worked with 118 Spanish-English bilingual Latina/o students and investigated whether Spanish-English…

  15. Perceptual context and individual differences in the language proficiency of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children. PMID:26547248

  16. Using Academic Language to Level the Playing Field for English-Language Learners in Physical Education: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the common core emphasis on English language art and mathematics skills, physical educators are faced with a challenging task. Educators, in general, are expected to identifying the language demands of their discipline and develop academic language skills within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to prepare…

  17. Using Academic Language to Level the Playing Field for English Language Learners in Physical Education: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The common core, with its emphasis on the development of English language art and mathematics skills and literacy, presents challenges for teachers of all subjects. Academic language is expected to be developed within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to identify the language demands of their discipline and prepare…

  18. The effect of in-service English education on medical professionals’ language proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Samad; Ahmadi, Majid; Heidarpour, Maryam; Yakta, Ali Salahi; Khadembashi, Naghmeh; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians’ heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. Materials and Methods: A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the promotion of faculty members’ English proficiency was formulated. Then, following a placement test, 235 applicants from the university colleges and hospitals were classified into 28 homogeneous groups. After four terms of instruction, the participants’ scores on the pre- and post- assessments were analyzed. Results: There was significant improvement in participants’ total scores on different communicative skills (P<0.001). Regarding individual skills also, they achieved meaningful gains on listening (P<0.001), writing (P = 0.038), and grammar (P<0.001), but failed to progress significantly on reading comprehension (P = 0.523). Conclusion: The administration of in-service education for skill-oriented courses, over a long period, can be quite encouraging and should be further strengthened. Regular instructions on each individual skill on the one hand and on their combination on the other are essential for success in such education. PMID:23264797

  19. Differential Effect of Social-Emotional Behaviors on Academic Achievement of Language-Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youngji

    2014-01-01

    Background: Language minority students, who are mostly immigrant students tend to perform at lower levels in school and to be at risk of school failure when they are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Objective: Based on the previous studies that addressed the importance of students' social skills for school success, I examined the social…

  20. Testing the Limits of Data-Driven Learning: Language Proficiency and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The potential for corpora in language learning has attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years, including in the form of data-driven learning (DDL). Careful not to appear to over-promote the field, enthusiasts have urged caution in its application, in particular with regard to lower-level learners, and have argued that extensive…

  1. Experience Effects on the Development of Late Second Language Learners' Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of second language (L2) experience--operationalized as length of residence (LOR) in Canada--on late Japanese learners of English. Data collected from 65 participants consisted of three groups of learners (short-, mid-, and long-LOR groups) and two baseline groups of native Japanese and native…

  2. Testing Second Language Oral Proficiency in Direct and Semidirect Settings: A Social-Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Shiozaki, Shuken; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify differences in the neural processes underlying direct and semidirect interviews. We examined brain activation patterns while 20 native speakers of Japanese participated in direct and semidirect interviews in both Japanese (first language [L1]) and English (second language…

  3. Modelling Learning Difficulty and Second Language Proficiency: The Differential Contributions of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    This article re-examines the question of what makes some grammatical structures more difficult to learn than others, arguing that this question can only be properly understood and investigated with reference to the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language. Using a battery of tests that were designed to measure…

  4. Second Language Figurative Proficiency: A Comparative Study of Malay and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the potential of cognitive linguistic notions such as conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonym for comparing the figurative phraseologies of English and Malay and anticipating second language learner difficulty. A comparative analysis is undertaken that identifies six types of relationship between figurative expressions in the two…

  5. Motor Proficiency of 6- to 9-Year-Old Children with Speech and Language Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne; Moolenaar, Ben; Lyons, Jim; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Hartman, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study compared the gross motor skills of school-age children (mean age 7y 8mo, range 6-9y) with developmental speech and language disorders (DSLDs; n = 105; 76 males, 29 females) and typically developing children (n = 105; 76 males, 29 females). The relationship between the performance parameters and the children's age was investigated…

  6. Age of Acquisition and Proficiency as Factors in Language Production: Agreement in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Research on the production of subject-verb number agreement in monolinguals suggests differences between and within languages in how it proceeds as a function of morphological richness. When agreement morphology is relatively rich, the influence of conceptual number over grammatical number is less than when it is relatively poor. Within the…

  7. Improving the Classroom Language Proficiency of Non-Native Teachers of English: What and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The present paper attempts to examine the possibilities of the Classroom Language Assessment Benchmark (CLAB) as a professional development tool for EFL teachers in Japan. Two questionnaire surveys were carried out several months after the last day of the graduate course (both in 2006 and 2007) where CLAB was used as a self- and peer-assessment…

  8. Widening Participation and English Language Proficiency: A Convergence with Implications for Assessment Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The widening participation agenda has important implications for those in English-medium higher education institutions responsible for the provision of English language support. Importantly, given the diverse nature of the "non-traditional" student cohort that is the focus of this agenda, that section of the student population…

  9. English Language Proficiency and Employment: A Case Study of Bangladeshi Graduates in Australian Employment Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roshid, Mohammod Moninoor; Chowdhury, Raqib

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied…

  10. Writing Performance Standards Proficient Level Descriptors: Relationship to Alaska Content Standards for English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    The writing performance standard descriptors in this paper support the sections of the English/Language Arts Content Standards adopted by the Alaska State Board of Education. It begins with listing competencies associated with speaking and writing well for a variety of purposes and audiences; and thinking logically and reflectively. It then…

  11. Reading Performance Standards Proficient Level Descriptors: Relationship to Alaska Content Standards for English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    The reading performance standard descriptors in this document support the sections of the English/Language Arts Content Standards adopted by the Alaska State Board of Education. It begins with listing competencies associated with being a competent and thoughtful reader; thinking logically and reflectively; and understanding and respecting the…

  12. Enhancing the Interpretability of the Overall Results of an International Test of English-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…

  13. Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…

  14. The Academic English Language Needs of Industrial Design Students in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adzmi, Nor Aslah; Bidin, Samsiah; Ibrahim, Syazliyati; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the academic English language lacks and needs of Industrial Design students in Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah (UiTM). It highlights the lacks and needs for English for Academic Purposes in helping the students to succeed in the program through the usage of English language. The research tools used were in…

  15. A Proposed Pedagogical Approach for Preparing Teacher Candidates to Incorporate Academic Language in Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Woong; Stallings, Lynn; Kim, Dong Joong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present issues related to prioritizing academic language in teaching performance assessments and to propose a pedagogical approach that prepares middle grades mathematics teacher candidates to teach academic language. Based on our experience with teacher candidates and our knowledge of edTPA standards involving…

  16. Academic Language in Shared Book Reading: Parent and Teacher Input to Mono- and Bilingual Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Rian; Demir-Vegter, Serpil; Kurvers, Jeanne; Henrichs, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined academic language (AL) input of mothers and teachers to 15 monolingual Dutch and 15 bilingual Turkish-Dutch 4- to 6-year-old children and its relationships with the children's language development. At two times, shared book reading was videotaped and analyzed for academic features: lexical diversity, syntactic…

  17. Genre-Based Curricula: Multilingual Academic Literacy in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses academic literacy in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) secondary education. More precisely, this paper focuses on attempts to meet modern standards for language competences set in areas like Europe, where the notion involves multilingual academic competence. The study centres on new proposals for language…

  18. The Academic and Functional Academic Skills of Youth Who Are at Risk for Language Impairment in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; DeSalvo, Cathy; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Undiagnosed language impairment (LI) for youth in residential care is a concern as similar populations have shown elevated levels of language delays. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the percentage of youth in residential care who are at risk for LI and to compare the demographic, academic achievement, and functional…

  19. Assessing Listening for Academic Purposes: Defining and Operationalising the Test Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynda; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    English language proficiency tests designed to assess the high-level listening skills required for academic purposes have a surprisingly long history, but recent developments in English language testing indicate a resurgence of interest in assessing academic literacy and aural/oral skills, including the listening skills needed in an academic…

  20. Improving Academic Achievement through Building Self-Esteem in At-Risk Limited English Proficient Ninth Grade Haitian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Gloria H.

    A self-esteem building program was developed and implemented to reduce the failure and potential dropout rate of limited English proficient 9th-grade Haitian students (N=15) who were enrolled in bilingual classes and were selected based on recommendations from their bilingual teachers, referrals for behavior problems, and failure in two or more…

  1. Challenges Facing Chinese Academic Staff in a UK University in Terms of Language, Relationships and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hui-hua

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…

  2. Words Fail Us: How Academics View Language and Ideas in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Language can provide an entree into an academic discipline, but can also serve as a barrier to exclude newcomers. How does this apply to academic developers trying to promote teaching and learning on their campuses? Using an online survey, academics at two institutions in the UK and USA were asked to describe their typical and ideal reading in…

  3. The Texas Successful Schools Study: Quality Education for Limited English Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study by the Texas Education Agency examined the variables contributing to the academic success of economically disadvantaged and language minority students. Data were collected from seven high-achieving elementary schools with high poverty rates and high percentages of limited English proficient (LEP) students via teacher questionnaires;…

  4. Learning Strategies and Motivation among Procrastinators of Various English Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Yoshiko; Yamada, Masanori; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Our research project focuses on learning strategies and motivation among academic procrastinators in computer assisted language learning (CALL) settings. In this study, we aim to compare them according to students' levels of English proficiency. One hundred and fourteen university students participated in this research project. Sixty-four students…

  5. Reliability and the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview: Reporting Indices of Interrater Consistency and Agreement for 19 Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Eric A.; Dierdorff, Erich C.

    2003-01-01

    The reliability of the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has not been reported since ACTFL revised its speaking proficiency guidelines in 1999. Reliability data for assessments should be reported periodically to provide users with enough information to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the assessment. This study provided the most…

  6. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…

  7. The Neural Processing of Second Language Comprehension Modulated by the Degree of Proficiency: A Listening Connected Speech fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesling, Isabelle; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Bordessoules, Martine; Allard, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    While the neural network encompassing the processing of the mother tongue (L1) is well defined and has revealed the existence of a bilateral ventral pathway and a left dorsal pathway in which 3 loops have been defined, the question of the processing of a second language (L2) is still a matter of debate. Among variables accounting for the discrepancies in results, the degree of L2 proficiency appears to be one of the main factors. The present study aimed at assessing both pathways in L2, making it possible to determine the degree of mastery of the different speech components (prosody, phonology, semantics and syntax) that are intrinsically embedded within connected speech and that vary according to the degree of proficiency using high degrees of prosodic information. Two groups of high and moderate proficiency in L2 performed an fMRI comprehension task in L1 and L2. The modifications in brain activity observed within the dorsal and the ventral pathways according to L2 proficiency suggest that different processes of L2 are supported by differences in the integrated activity within distributed networks that included the left STSp, the left Spt and the left pars triangularis. PMID:22927897

  8. Polylingual and Polycultural Learning Ecologies: Mediating Emergent Academic Literacies for Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Bien, Andrea C.; Selland, Makenzie K.; Pierce, Daisy M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the affordances of polylingual and polycultural learning ecologies in expanding the linguistic repertoires of children, particularly young Dual Language Learners. In contrast to settings that promote the development of English and academic language at the expense of maintaining and developing home language, we argue…

  9. Predicting Academic Performance in Children with Language Impairment: The Role of Parent Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nancy E.; Segarra, Veronica Rosa

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the ability of preschool speech-language measures and parent report in predicting later academic performance. Preschool measures of speech, language and communication for 35 children with language impairment were analyzed for their ability to predict reading, writing, spelling, and mathematics in these same children at age…

  10. Adult ESL in Higher Education: Balancing Academic Learning, Speech Science and English Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Replicating earlier studies, 66 English as a second language speech students at a community college undertook content-based second language learning in psychology, sociology, and history. End-of-semester assessments showed they had improved second-language confidence and learned academic subject matter; most agreed sheltered courses were a useful…

  11. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…

  12. The Impact of an Instructional Intervention on the Science and Language Learning of Middle Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Branum-Martin, Lee; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention--Quality English and Science Teaching (QuEST)--designed to develop the science knowledge and academic language of middle grades English language learners studying science in their second language and their English-proficient classmates. Ten sixth-grade science teachers in 5…

  13. Narrative Discourse Intervention for School-Aged Children with Language Impairment: Supporting Knowledge in Language and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2016-01-01

    Narrative language proficiency is a critical contributor to academic success for school-aged students. This article presents a narrative language intervention, Supporting Knowledge in Language and Literacy (SKILL), that is based on research in the fields of developmental psycholinguistics and discourse processing. SKILL was designed to provide…

  14. The effects of types of reflective scaffolding and language proficiency on the acquisition of physics knowledge in a game-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsu-Ting

    With the capability of creating a situated and engaging learning environment, video games have been considered as a powerful tool to enhance students' learning outcomes and interest in learning. Yet, little empirical evidence exists to support the effectiveness of video games in learning. Particularly, little attention has been given to the design of specific game elements. Focusing on middle school students, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of representations of reflective scaffolds (verbal and visual) on students' learning outcomes, game performance, and level of engagement in a video game for physics learning. In addition, the role of students' level of English proficiency was examined to understand whether the effects of reflective scaffolds were influenced by students' language proficiency. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 playtested the game with target players and led to game modification for its use in Study 2, which focused on the effects of different types of reflective scaffolds and level of English proficiency. The results of Study 2 showed that students who received both verbal and visual reflective scaffolds completed the most levels compared to the other groups in the given time. No significant effect of type of reflective scaffolds were found on learning outcomes despite the fact that the pattern of the learning outcomes across conditions was close to prediction. Participants' engagement in gameplay was high regardless of the type of scaffolds they received, their interest in learning physics, and their prior knowledge of physics. The results of video analysis also showed that the game used in this study was able to engage students not only in gameplay but also in learning physics. Finally, English proficiency functioned as a significant factor moderating the effects of scaffolds, learning outcomes and game performance. Students with limited English proficiency benefited more from visual reflective scaffolds than

  15. The Influence of Classroom Drama on English Learners' Academic Language Use during English Language Arts Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N =…

  16. Academic Bias in Language Testing: A Construct Validity Critique of the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSwan, Jeff; Mahoney, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity concerns for the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT-S) as a measure of native oral language proficiency are examined. The examination included describing a subset of items that contributes most to overall score and native-language proficiency designation. Correlations between this subset of items and the overall…

  17. ACTFL Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This digest focuses on the American Council on the Speaking of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. The history and development of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (originally, the ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines) are reviewed, the generic characteristics of each level of the speaking guidelines are presented in…

  18. Bilingual Academic Computer and Technology Oriented Program: Project COM-TECH. Evaluation Section Report. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Plotkin, Donna

    Project COM-TECH offered bilingual individualized instruction, using an enrichment approach, to Spanish- and Haitian Creole-speaking students with varying levels of English and native language proficiency and academic preparation. The program provided supplementary instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL); Native Language Arts (NLA); and…

  19. Immersing the Library in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bobby

    2008-01-01

    The author relates how his school has a very active English Language Learner (ELL) program. ELL students typically have varying levels of social and academic language, but almost always have some English proficiency. Recently, his school established a Newcomer Program that drastically changed the school system. They acquired students lacking any…

  20. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…