Science.gov

Sample records for academic language proficiency

  1. Academic Proficiency (Language and Content) and the Role of Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This report continues the work of Krashen and Brown (2007), developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses for the development of academic proficiency. That article defined academic proficiency as having two components: academic language proficiency and knowledge of academic content.

  2. English Language Proficiency and Teacher Judgments of the Academic and Interpersonal Competence of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Miranda E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…

  3. Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement. Multilingual Matters 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Ed.

    Selected papers from a symposium that was a component of the National Institute of Education's Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons Project are presented. The project's objectives were to pursue basic research on the nature of language proficiency and its measurement and to provide teachers with current knowledge of language…

  4. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.

  5. Validating English Language Proficiency Assessment Uses for English Learners: Academic Language Proficiency and Content Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Faulkner-Bond, Molly

    2016-01-01

    States use standards-based English language proficiency (ELP) assessments to inform relatively high-stakes decisions for English learner (EL) students. Results from these assessments are one of the primary criteria used to determine EL students' level of ELP and readiness for reclassification. The results are also used to evaluate the…

  6. Investigating Correspondence between Language Proficiency Standards and Academic Content Standards: A Generalizability Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chih-Kai; Zhang, Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Research on the relationship between English language proficiency standards and academic content standards serves to provide information about the extent to which English language learners (ELLs) are expected to encounter academic language use that facilitates their content learning, such as in mathematics and science. Standards-to-standards…

  7. Language Proficiency as a Moderator Variable in Testing Academic Aptitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Donald L.

    1982-01-01

    Puerto Rican students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA), and the Pruebas de Aprovechamiento Academico. The strength of the relationship between scores on the SAT given in English and the PAA given in Spanish increased as proficiency in English as a second language increased (Author/BW)

  8. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  9. The Development of Academic Language Proficiency: Challenges for Middle School Immersion in Hong Kong and Xi'an

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of academic language proficiency through immersion in middle school programmes in Hong Kong and Xi'an. The study reveals that in both contexts students have exposure to complex academic language through teacher talk and textbooks; however, there is not sufficient support for students' academic language use…

  10. Beyond Vocabulary: Exploring Cross-Disciplinary Academic-Language Proficiency and Its Association with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Barr, Christopher D.; Meneses, Alejandra; Dobbs, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long-standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic-language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic-language…

  11. Native Language Proficiency, English Literacy, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment in Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Latent Growth Modeling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, R. Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that native language (L1) proficiency promotes English acquisition and overall academic achievement, a key theoretical assumption underlying bilingual education, was tested using latent growth modeling of data from 899 limited-English-proficient (LEP) eighth graders who were followed for 12 years in the National Education…

  12. Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency and Language Acquisition in Bilingual Instruction--with an Outlook on a University Project in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portmann-Tselikas Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the contribution of cognitive-academic language proficiency to second language acquisition in instructional contexts, using Cummins' concepts of bilingual education. Discusses Albania's educational practices and reviews a joint project by Austrian and Albanian universities that shows how cognitive academic proficiency, along with…

  13. Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency, Linguistic Interdependence, the Optimum Age Question and Some Other Matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Jim

    The existence of a global language proficiency factor is discussed. This factor, cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP), is directly related to IQ and to other aspects of academic achievement. It accounts for the bulk of reliable variance in a wide variety of language learning measures. Three propositions concerning CALP are reviewed. (1)…

  14. Assessing Language Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman-Marr, Annette

    A study compared two methods for assessing English proficiency of limited-English-proficient school-age children, for purposes of placement in bilingual and monolingual education programs. The two instruments used were the Idea Oral Language Proficiency Test (forms C and D) (IPT), which assesses oral English proficiency, and the Woodcock-Munoz…

  15. Theory to Practice: Cultivating Academic Language Proficiency in Developmental Reading Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Heather N.

    2015-01-01

    Academic language plays a key role in reading comprehension, disciplinary thinking, and overall academic success. However, many approaches to teaching academic language, such as a focus on academic vocabulary, overlook other language features that can pose challenges for students. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), arguably one of the three…

  16. The Compensatory Nature of Discipline-Related Knowledge and English-Language Proficiency in Reading English for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uso-Juan, Esther

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to estimate the contribution of discipline-related knowledge and English-language proficiency to reading comprehension in English for academic purposes (EAP) and, second, to specify the levels at which the compensatory effect between the two variables takes place for successful EAP reading. The…

  17. The Relationship between English Language Proficiency, Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Non-Native-English-Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…

  18. Organizing Academic and Communication Task Components Using a Model of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The Cummins model of language proficiency is applied to analyzing communication tasks for hearing-impaired students. The model has been found to facilitate individualization in situations where teachers are required to modify lessons spontaneously. (DB)

  19. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  20. Conceptualizing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Songren

    1993-01-01

    Discusses both Canale's and Bachman's theoretical frameworks of language proficiency (LP). These theories share the same standpoint: language use for communication is dynamic; LP is both knowledge and skills; and LP includes at least grammatical competence, discourse/textual competence, and sociolinguistic competence. (Contains 38 references.) (JP)

  1. The Construct of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.; de Jong, John H. A. L., Ed.

    A collection of essays on first and second language proficiency from the fields of psychology and linguistics includes the following: "Modeling and Assessing Language Proficiency" (John H. A. L. de Jong, Ludo Verhoeven); "The Construct of Grammar in Early Language Development" (Folkert Kuiken); "Dimensions in Grammatical Proficiency" (Wim H. J.…

  2. Academics' Beliefs about Language Use and Proficiency in Spanish Multilingual Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortanet-Gomez, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Today, more and more universities in Spain are starting to design language policies, usually including Spanish and English. At the same time, Spain has a special socio-political context since part of its territory is already bilingual. This paper examines the opinions and attitudes of academics at a bilingual Valencian-Spanish university which is…

  3. English Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement of International Students: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongtrirat, Rachawan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to determine the impact of English language on the academic achievement of international students in higher education institutions in the United States. The results of these investigations have been varied and at times contradictory. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate studies from 1987-2009 that…

  4. Testing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L., Ed.; Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the 1974 Washington Language Testing Sumposium. The volume also includes much of the discussion that followed each paper. The participants were an international group of language testing specialists from academic institutions, research centers, and government agencies. The primary focus…

  5. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. An Extended Executive Summary. CSE Report 720

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  6. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. CSE Technical Report 727

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  7. Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…

  8. Explaining English Language Proficiency among Adolescent Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill, Avary; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Paez, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to increase understanding of factors that account for academic English language proficiency in a sample of 274 adolescent first-generation immigrant students from China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, and Mexico. Previous research has shown the importance of English language proficiency in predicting academic…

  9. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring.

  10. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. PMID:25704372

  11. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  12. Long-Term Relationships among Early First Language Skills, Second Language Aptitude, Second Language Affect, and Later Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-four students were followed over 10 years beginning in first grade to determine best predictors of oral and written second language (L2) proficiency. Predictor variables included measures of first language (L1) skill administered in first through fifth grades, L1 academic aptitude, L2 aptitude (Modern Language Aptitude Test), and L2 affect…

  13. IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II), an individually-administered measure of speaking and listening proficiency in English as a Second Language designed for secondary school students, is described and discussed. The test consists of 91 items and requires 5-25 minutes to administer. Raw scores are converted to one of seven proficiency…

  14. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  15. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language...

  16. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  17. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…

  18. Variability of ESL Learners' Acquisition of Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: What Can We Learn from Achievement Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty; Kover, Pat

    2003-01-01

    With the revamping of the Canada Immigration Act in 1985, the demographic profile of new arrivals to Canada took a marked shift to place a priority on better educated, business-class immigrants. Most of these immigrants are from the Pacific Rim, and they have high expectations for the academic achievement of their children in the Canadian school.…

  19. Beyond Linguistic Proficiency: Early Language Learning as a Lever for Building Students' Global Competence, Self-Esteem, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris

    2013-01-01

    It is no exaggeration to say that language learning is the very foundation of global competence and the most deeply effective way for students to be able to "investigate the world, recognize perspectives, communicate ideas, and take action," which is the definition of global competence developed by Asia Society Vice President for…

  20. Validity of the English Language Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Harvey, Anne

    The English Language Proficiency Test (ELPT) is a multiple-choice examination that is designed to assess the test taker's ability to use English in day-to-day interactions involving listening and reading. It is intended primarily as an admissions and placement test for college students with English as a second language. The ELPT consists of…

  1. Wholistic Assessment of Proficient Second Language Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Paul Michael

    A study investigated the reading behaviors of proficient second language (L2) readers through their oral retellings. Subjects, 12 advanced English-as-a-Second-Language students who were native speakers of Spanish (10 from Spain, 2 from Central America), read two passages from a college-level expository text and gave two oral retellings which were…

  2. International Student Security and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby

    2012-01-01

    "International student security" refers to the international student's maintenance of a stable capacity for self-determining human agency. The article focuses on the role of English-language proficiency in the security of students from English as Foreign Language countries, drawing on evidence from a program of semistructured interviews with 200…

  3. Conversational Style in Language Proficiency Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Compares conversational styles of intermediate and advanced learners of English as a Second Language in language proficiency interviews. The article describes differences in amount of talk and rate of speaking, extent of context dependence and ability to construct and sustain narratives, but not in frequency of initiation of new topics nor…

  4. Profiles in Bilingualism: Factors Influencing Kindergartners' Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam

    2012-01-01

    Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…

  5. Self-efficacy, foreign language anxiety as predictors of academic performance among professional program students in a general English proficiency writing test.

    PubMed

    Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2009-10-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.

  6. And Who Assesses the Bilingual Teacher's Language Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle-Zepeda, Veronica; Saldate, Macario, IV

    1978-01-01

    Describes the rationale and design of the Zepeda/Saldate Spanish Language Proficiency Exam developed at the University of Arizona for use in evaluating the language proficiency of applicants for bilingual/bicultural teacher education programs. (JG)

  7. Fractionating English Language Proficiency: Policy and Practice in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Paul J.; Harrington, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Policy-makers and practitioners in Australian higher education increasingly view English language proficiency (ELP) as a tripartite construct consisting of English proficiency for academic study, interpersonal communication, and more recently, the workplace. This paper examines this assumption and identifies the significant implications it has for…

  8. ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND THE FOREIGN STUDENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAPLAN, ROBERT B.

    THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY SHOULD NOT BE MADE A COLLEGE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENT FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS. HE ALSO BELIEVES, HOWEVER, THAT INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE NOT ABLE TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE TRAINING IN ENGLISH FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS SHOULD NOT ENCOURAGE THESE STUDENTS TO ENROLL. THE CONSORTIUM PLAN WHEREBY SCHOOLS WITH NO…

  9. Issues in Language Proficiency Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rosaura; And Others

    Three papers on assessment and planning in bilingual education are presented. In "Language Theory Bases," Rosaura Sanchez advocates an approach toward child bilingual education that takes into account the relationship between the parallel domains of language development and cognitive development. An awareness of this relationship is deemed…

  10. Words as Tools: Learning Academic Vocabulary as Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, William; Townsend, Dianna

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the importance of academic vocabulary, and more generally, of academic language proficiency, for students' success in school. There is also a growing body of research on the nature of the demands that academic language places on readers and writers, and on interventions to help students meet these demands. In this…

  11. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities: Reconsidering…

  12. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  13. Assessment of Language Proficiency: Informing Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, JoAnn

    A discussion of language proficiency focuses on the conceptual framework for assessing proficiency and its implications for educational policy formation at the state and local levels. First, the concept of language is defined in terms of the interaction of these elements: language subsystems, communication skills, language domains, language…

  14. Assessing Language Proficiency Levels: Oral Proficiency Testing, Pre- and Post-Soviet Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Robert L.

    The importance of assessing language proficiency levels and the relationship of this priority to the teaching of Russian at the university level are discussed. Serious concerns about the value of language-specific proficiency guidelines are raised, and an argument is presented suggesting that language-specific guidelines may lead to undue emphasis…

  15. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  16. Investigating Transfer of Academic Proficiency among Trilingual Immigrant Students: A Holistic Tri-Directional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…

  17. Proficiency Orientation in Foreign Language Education: Implications for Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supinski, Stanley B.

    For the second language student, proficiency is a measure of what tasks can be accomplished with acquired language and how well they can be accomplished. The necessity for specification of functional proficiency arose, and resulted in the publication of guidelines by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)'s guidelines…

  18. The Relationship between Demotivation and EFL Learners' English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Rou-Jui Sophia

    2011-01-01

    To what extent does demotivation affect EFL learners' English language proficiency attainment? The present study addresses this question by investigating the relationship between technological institute EFL students' past demotivating factors and their English language proficiency. Although the role of demotivation in foreign language achievement…

  19. Within- and Cross-Language Relations between Oral Language Proficiency and School Outcomes in Bilingual Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen meta-analyses were conducted to examine relations of typically developing bilingual immigrant-background children's oral language proficiency in their first and second language with the school outcomes of early literacy (k = 41), reading (k = 61), spelling (k = 9), mathematics (k = 9), and academic achievement (k = 9). Moderate to strong…

  20. Language Proficiency and Language Policy in South Africa: Findings from New Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posel, Dorrit; Casale, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This study explores new data from 2008 on language proficiency and labour market outcomes in the context of South Africa's language-in-education policy. We show that the economic returns to English language proficiency are large and higher than those to home language proficiency for the majority of employed South Africans. This helps explain why…

  1. Reduced frontal activation with increasing 2nd language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second language. Native English speaking exchange students learning German were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging while reading words in three different languages at two points in time: at the beginning of their stay (day 1) and 5 months later (day 2), when second language proficiency had significantly increased. On day 1, second language words evoked more frontal activation than words from the mother tongue. These differences were diminished on day 2. We therefore conclude that with increasing second language proficiency, lexico-semantic processing of second language words needs less frontal control. Our results demonstrate that lexico-semantic processing of first and second language converges onto similar networks as second language proficiency increases.

  2. On the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to examine the strength of the relationship between language proficiency in English and the 9 types of intelligences. As such, the objectives of this study were three-folded. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency among the…

  3. The Role of First Language Literacy and Second Language Proficiency in Second Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of first language (L1) literacy, second language (L2) proficiency, and L2 reading comprehension with 246 Chinese college students learning English. L1 literacy and L2 proficiency were measured with college admission exams in Chinese and English. L2 reading comprehension was measured with the reading…

  4. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  5. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  6. Proficiency Testing in the Less Commonly Taught Languages. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard T.; Johnson, Dora E.

    Efforts to expand the generic language proficiency guidelines of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) to the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) began when developers realized that the ACTFL guidelines were too Eurocentric; the guidelines included grammatical categories specific to Western European languages and…

  7. Naming abilities in low-proficiency second language learners.

    PubMed

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a weakness in retrieval of phonological codes of words. The authors hypothesized that if naming ability is shared across languages, this difficulty would reemerge in L2 naming, which was tested using the tip-of-the-tongue experimental paradigm. Consistent with this hypothesis, low-proficiency L2 learners (n = 15) reported more tip-of-the-tongue states, more frequently mispronounced correctly retrieved words, and benefited less from phonological cuing compared to high-proficiency L2 learners (n = 23). It is notable that low-proficiency L2 learners performed worse than individuals with dyslexia (n = 16) on some of these measures, despite the same level of L2 proficiency. These results indicate that L2 naming difficulties of low-proficiency L2 learners are a manifestation not merely of their low L2 proficiency but rather of a general weakness in phonological word form retrieval, which is shared across languages. More broadly, the study provides further evidence for the existence of a distinct profile of cognitive weaknesses characteristic of the behavioral phenotype of low-proficiency L2 learners.

  8. The Measurement of Change in English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nallaya, Sasikala

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the measurement of change in English language proficiency levels of pre-service and in-service teachers enrolled in a public university in Malaysia. Path analysis was used to measure change on three occasions by examining the effects of student characteristics, learning needs and multimodal technology on proficiency levels.…

  9. Age at migration, language proficiency, and socioeconomic outcomes: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Guven, Cahit; Islam, Asadul

    2015-04-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of language proficiency on the economic and social integration of Australian immigrants. Identifying the effects of languages on socioeconomic outcomes is inherently difficult owing to the endogeneity of language skills. Using the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children, we construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. To achieve this, we consider the age at arrival of immigrants who came as children from Anglophone and non-Anglophone countries. We find a significant positive effect of English proficiency on wages and promotions among adults who immigrated to Australia as children. Higher levels of English proficiency are associated with increased risk-taking, more smoking, and more exercise for men, but have considerable health benefits for women. English language proficiency has a significant influence on partner choice and a number of social outcomes, as well as on children's outcomes, including their levels of academic achievement. The results are robust to alternative specifications, including accounting for between-sibling differences and alternative measures of English skills.

  10. Planning for Proficiency. Dimension: Language '86. Report of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching (1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, T. Bruce; Medley, Frank W., Jr.

    Selected papers from the 1986 Southern Conference on Language Teaching on instruction for language proficiency are presented: "The Foreign Language Teacher: Confronting an Ever-Changing Profession" (Robert Di Donato); "Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency" (Filisha Camara-Norman, James Davis, Karen Smyley…

  11. Understanding the Relationship between Language Proficiency, Language Impairment and Rehabilitation: Evidence from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…

  12. Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) Framework Manual 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Commissioner's Rules Concerning the State Plan for Educating English Language Learners (ELLs) states that all school districts that are required to provide bilingual education and/or English as a second language (ESL) programs establish and operate a Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC). The LPACs are charged with reviewing all…

  13. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…

  14. The Impact of Second Language Proficiency in Dyadic Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Mills, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used in second and foreign language writing contexts. While second language (L2) proficiency is likely to be an important factor in determining peers' ability to give and utilize feedback, its contribution has been relatively under-researched. In the present study, 54 undergraduates in a foreign language writing context…

  15. Patterns of Various ESOL Proficiency Test Scores by Native Language and Proficiency Levels. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisama, Kay K.

    A profile method was used to analyze the patterns of four English proficiency tests (Comprehensive English Language Test for Speakers of English as a Second Language: Structure, CELT: Listening, Reading for Understanding Test, and The New Cloze Test) regarding two examinee characteristics: their language proficiency levels and native language. One…

  16. Native Language Predictors of Foreign Language Proficiency and Foreign Language Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in…

  17. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their…

  18. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  19. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  20. Core Academic Language Skills: Moving beyond Vocabulary Knowledge to Predict Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…

  1. Academic Language in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on defining academic language in physical education and provides a step-by-step approach designed to help preservice and inservice teachers understand and incorporated academic language into their lesson planning. It provides examples of discipline-specific vocabulary, language functions, syntax, and discourse, aiming to…

  2. Automated Assembly of Pre-equated Language Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Grant; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an automated language proficiency test assembly system at an air force base English Language Center. The study focuses on the equivalence of mean score difficulty, total score variance, and intercorrelation covariance across test norms and finds a high level of test-form equivalence and internal consistency. (nine…

  3. General Language Proficiency Revisited: Current and Future Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a number of key issues that emerged during the panel discussion that followed the General Language Proficiency Symposium at the Language Testing Forum (LTF) 2010, celebrating the 30th anniversary of the LTF. The key issues that emerged during the discussion should be of interest to a wider audience, as they express current…

  4. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  5. Naming Abilities in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a…

  6. Host Language Proficiency, Intercultural Sensitivity, and Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The number of foreign language students who join study abroad programs continues to increase annually, especially those who take part in short-term sojourns lasting eight weeks or less. What can be accomplished in such a short stay in the host culture? Is it possible for sojourners to enhance their proficiency in the host language and…

  7. An Examination of English Language Proficiency and Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Tammy C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…

  8. The VCR Revolution: Feature Films for Language and Cultural Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Tom; Duncan, Janice

    As videocassettes of foreign films become more available, teachers will be able to show more films and bring students closer to the second language and culture. However, unfocused viewing will not develop language and cultural proficiency adequately. Class time is better spent in preparing for or reacting to the film than in viewing the film in…

  9. "Bridging Activities," New Media Literacies, and Advanced Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Steven L.; Reinhardt, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    In this article we propose the pedagogical model "bridging activities" to address advanced foreign language proficiency in the context of existing and emerging internet communication and information tools and communities. The article begins by establishing the need for language and genre-focused activities at the advanced level that attend to the…

  10. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  11. English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

  12. English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

  13. Identity processing styles and language proficiency among Persian learners of English as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.

  14. English Proficiency and Academic Performance of International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) scores, grade point averages, graduate credits earned, and academic majors of 376 international graduate students indicate that TOEFL scores are not effective predictors of academic success. Significant correlation was seen between TOEFL scores and graduate credits earned. (Author/CB)

  15. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. 107th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. Part A describes the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. Its four subparts include the following: (1) grants and subgrants for English language acquisition…

  16. Positioning Proficiency: How Students and Teachers (De)Construct Language Proficiency at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the social construction of proficiency and the discursive practices prevalent in linguistically diverse schools that afford or constrain participation in language learning communities. Drawing from discourse studies, positioning theory and a sociocultural framework, this study analyzed data from audio recordings and…

  17. Using the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) to Benchmark College Programs/Courses and Language Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Lucy; Stawychny, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes a process developed by the Language Training Centre at Red River College (RRC) to use the Canadian language benchmarks in analyzing the language levels used in programs and courses at RRC to identify appropriate entry-level language proficiency and the levels that second language students need in order to meet college or university…

  18. Native language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in elementary school. A measure of FL aptitude was administered at the beginning of ninth grade and FL proficiency was evaluated at the end of the 10th grade. Among the variables, NL literacy measures were the best predictors of FL proficiency, and NL achievement and general (verbal) intelligence were strong predictors of FL aptitude. Results suggest that indices of NL literacy as early as first grade are related to FL proficiency and FL aptitude nine and 10 years later. Findings provide strong support for connections between L1 and L2 skills, and for speculation that "lower level" skills in phonological processing are important for written language development and oral proficiency in a FL.

  19. Language Proficiency Testing in the International Setting: Bibliographies, Portfolio of Papers, and an Overview Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, D. E.

    Materials compiled for a conference on the assessment of Japanese second language proficiency include a partially annotated bibliography of references concerning proficiency testing as it may relate to the Japanese language and an overview essay entitled "Towards the Development of Proficiency and Other Tests in Japanese as a Foreign Language in…

  20. Rater Judgment and English Language Speaking Proficiency. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    The paper investigates whether there is a shared perception of speaking proficiency among raters from different English speaking countries. More specifically, this study examines whether there is a significant difference among English language learning (ELL) teachers, residing in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA when rating speech samples of…

  1. Structural and Individual Covariates of English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the empirical merits of a multilevel model of English language proficiency among immigrants. The model represents a synthesis of Blau's theory of intergroup relations and the human capital model. Hypotheses derived from the model were tested using multilevel ordinal logistic analysis with individual and aggregate data from…

  2. English Language Proficiency Study (ELPS), 1982 Microdata File. Technical Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This document consists of the printed technical documentation that accompanies the English Language Proficiency Study (ELPS) machine-readable data file when obtained from the Bureau of the Census. The ELPS was conducted by the United States Bureau of the Census for the Department of Education to provide materials with which the Department of…

  3. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  4. Severely Handicapped Language Proficiency Instrument (SH-LPI). Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Cheryl; Schnell-Torosian, Roxanne

    A test of English language proficiency designed for administration to school children with severe disabilities is presented. The test packet contains a manual for test administrators, a five-page form for recording student testing data, and a score sheet. The manual offers an introduction to the instrument, including its rationale, definitions of…

  5. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  6. Examining the Relationship between Math Scores and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Denfield L.

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) at a south Florida elementary school have consistently struggled with the mathematics segment of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. Examining the relationship between ELLs' mathematics scores and English proficiency might provide local educators with ideas for reversing a downward trend in ELLs' mathematics…

  7. Proficiency English Language Testing of International Employees: A Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arena, Louis A.

    Developments in one major corporation's ongoing program to evaluate employees' English language proficiency are discussed. The testing program was developed by the multinational E. I. DuPont de Nemours corporation for use with international employees. The history and rationale for the selection of the five English tests used are outlined, the…

  8. Subcomponents of Second-Language Aptitude and Second-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

    2011-01-01

    A factor analysis of a test battery that included early first-language (L1) achievement, L1 cognitive ability, second-language (L2) aptitude, and L2 affective measures to predict oral and written L2 proficiency was conducted. The analysis yielded 4 factors that were labeled Language Analysis, composed of L1 and L2 language comprehension, grammar,…

  9. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  10. Speaking in Multiple Languages: Neural Correlates of Language Proficiency in Multilingual Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Barbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a…

  11. Ethnic networks and language proficiency among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    1996-02-01

    "This paper uses a unique data set for Australia (1988) that includes a variety of ethnic network variables to analyze the role of the language concentration measure [in immigrants' acquisition of the language of the destination country]. These ethnic variables, in particular, ethnic press, relatives in Australia, and spouse's origin language, are highly statistically significant. Their inclusion in the equation eliminates the effect of the minority-language concentration variable. The model for analyzing the determinants of English reading and English writing skills in Australia is also shown to be very similar to the model for speaking fluency, including the effect of the ethnic network variables." PMID:12291403

  12. Ethnic networks and language proficiency among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    1996-02-01

    "This paper uses a unique data set for Australia (1988) that includes a variety of ethnic network variables to analyze the role of the language concentration measure [in immigrants' acquisition of the language of the destination country]. These ethnic variables, in particular, ethnic press, relatives in Australia, and spouse's origin language, are highly statistically significant. Their inclusion in the equation eliminates the effect of the minority-language concentration variable. The model for analyzing the determinants of English reading and English writing skills in Australia is also shown to be very similar to the model for speaking fluency, including the effect of the ethnic network variables."

  13. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  14. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. PMID:25784501

  15. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  16. Language Proficiency, Reading Development, and Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the number of students studying abroad is increasing dramatically. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest among researchers in students' language gains in the study-abroad (SA) context. To deepen our understanding of second language (L2) reading acquisition in different contexts, it is necessary to examine…

  17. Relationship of Foreign Language Proficiency to Study Abroad Outcomes and Inputs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Foreign language proficiency and learning are crucial parts of many study abroad programs; especially those whose host culture language is different than that of the native language of students electing to study in them. Indeed, how a program organizes itself regarding pre-departure language proficiency requirements, on site language learning, and…

  18. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  19. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  20. Language proficiency modulates the engagement of cognitive control areas in multilinguals.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Ding, Guosheng; Weekes, Brendan; Costa, Albert; Green, David W

    2013-03-01

    Language proficiency should modulate the regions involved in language control in predictable ways during language switching. However, prior studies reveal inconsistent effects on the regions involved in language monitoring [pre-Supplementary Motor Area/Anterior Cingulate Cortex (pre-SMA/ACC)] and language selection (left caudate) conceivably because variations in relative proficiency are confounded with other between-group differences. We circumvented this problem in an fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) study of overt picture naming in trilingual participants. In this case, the difference between a high-proficient and a low-proficient further language can be assessed within subjects with no between-group confound. We also used a monolingual group to assess the neural correlates of switching between two categories of response within the same language. We report a novel result: relative language proficiency dissociates response of the pre-SMA/ACC and left caudate during language switching. Switching between languages increased pre-SMA/ACC response regardless of proficiency differences. By contrast, left caudate response did vary with proficiency differences. Switching from the most to the least proficient language increased the response. Within-language switching, as contrasted with between-language switching, elicited a comparable increase in pre-SMA/ACC response but a decrease in left caudate response. Taken together, our data support a wider role of pre-SMA/ACC in task monitoring and establish the critical role of the left caudate in the selection of the less proficient language in language switching.

  1. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Halgren, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  2. Teaching for Proficiency, the Organizing Principle. The ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V., Ed.

    A collection of reports and case studies of second language instruction for proficiency includes: "Language Teaching and the Quest for the Holy Grail" (Theodore V. Higgs); "The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines: A Historical Perspective" (Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro); "The Proficiency-Oriented Classroom" (Alice C. Omaggio); "Curriculum Development at the…

  3. Family Language Policies, Reported Language Use and Proficiency in Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…

  4. The Effects of Heritage Language Instruction on First Language Proficiency: A Psycholinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Diaz, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish--L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently…

  5. An Investigation of School Psychologists' Assessment Practices of Language Proficiency with Bilingual and Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…

  6. Moving beyond Intermediate English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Too many English learners get stuck at intermediate levels of English language proficiency. In this article, teacher Mary Jewell describes how she uses literature and scaffolds to ensure that students develop academic language.

  7. An Institutional Approach to English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil; Hicks, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    As the university student body becomes ever more diverse, the place and nature of English language provision is coming under unprecedented scrutiny and is the object of greater regulation. Today, more than ever before, institutions of higher education are being called to account for the way in which they support this diverse population in respect…

  8. Issues in Vertical Scaling of a K-12 English Language Proficiency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary

    2011-01-01

    One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…

  9. Method for automatic measurement of second language speaking proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jared; Balogh, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Spoken language proficiency is intuitively related to effective and efficient communication in spoken interactions. However, it is difficult to derive a reliable estimate of spoken language proficiency by situated elicitation and evaluation of a person's communicative behavior. This paper describes the task structure and scoring logic of a group of fully automatic spoken language proficiency tests (for English, Spanish and Dutch) that are delivered via telephone or Internet. Test items are presented in spoken form and require a spoken response. Each test is automatically-scored and primarily based on short, decontextualized tasks that elicit integrated listening and speaking performances. The tests present several types of tasks to candidates, including sentence repetition, question answering, sentence construction, and story retelling. The spoken responses are scored according to the lexical content of the response and a set of acoustic base measures on segments, words and phrases, which are scaled with IRT methods or parametrically combined to optimize fit to human listener judgments. Most responses are isolated spoken phrases and sentences that are scored according to their linguistic content, their latency, and their fluency and pronunciation. The item development procedures and item norming are described.

  10. What Is Lexical Proficiency? Some Answers from Computational Models of Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Lexical proficiency, as a cognitive construct, is poorly understood. However, lexical proficiency is an important element of language proficiency and fluency, especially for second language (L2) learners. Lexical proficiency is also an important attribute of L2 academic achievement. Generally speaking, lexical proficiency comprises breadth of…

  11. Integrating Science and English Proficiency for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expectation that all students should achieve high academic standards, content area instruction and English for speakers of other languages instruction for English language learners (ELLs) have traditionally been conceptualized as separate domains, resulting in educational inequities for ELLs. This is because effective instruction to…

  12. Speaking in multiple languages: neural correlates of language proficiency in multilingual word production.

    PubMed

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Bärbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-06-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a homogeneous sample of multilingual native Ladin speakers from a mountain valley in South Tyrol, Italy, who speak Italian as second language at a high level, and English at an intermediate level. In a constrained word production task under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants had to name pictures of objects in Ladin, Italian and English in separate blocks. Overall, multilingual word production activated a common set of brain areas dedicated to known subcomponents of picture naming. In comparison to English, the fluently spoken languages Ladin and Italian were associated with enhanced right prefrontal activity. In addition, the MR signal in right prefrontal cortex correlated with naming accuracy as a measure of language proficiency. Our results demonstrate the significance of right prefrontal areas for language proficiency. Based on the role of these areas for cognitive control, our findings suggest that right prefrontal cortex supports language proficiency by effectively supervising word retrieval.

  13. Relationships among Second Language Proficiency, Foreign Language Aptitude, and Intelligence: A Protocol Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    1993-01-01

    In a supplement to Sasaki's 1993 study, six of the same participants took different types of second-language proficiency (SLP) tests, a foreign language aptitude battery, and an intelligence test. Results revealed differences in information processing between the high and low SLP groups. (Contains 35 references.) (Author/LB)

  14. Relationships among Second Language Proficiency, Foreign Language Aptitude, and Intelligence: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    1993-01-01

    Investigates relationships among measures of second-language proficiency (SLP), foreign-language aptitude, verbal intelligence and reasoning in 160 Japanese college students studying English. The factor analysis of several different SLP test scores was examined, and the relationship between a general SLP factor and a hypothetical general cognitive…

  15. Strategy-Based English Language Instruction: The Impact on the Language Proficiency of Young Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana; Akcayoglu, Duygu Ispinar

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the impact of strategy-based English language instruction (SBELI) on the language proficiency of gifted learners. The participants were students who were identified as gifted and thus received additional out-of-school training for a few days a week in Adana Science and Arts Centre. Their ages ranged from…

  16. The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing Language Profiles in Bilinguals and Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a reliable and valid questionnaire of bilingual language status with predictable relationships between self-reported and behavioral measures. Method: In Study 1, the internal validity of the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q) was established on the basis of self-reported data from 52 multilingual adult…

  17. Oral English Language Proficiency and Reading Mastery: The Role of Home Language and School Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…

  18. Who's Coming to My Party? Peer Talk as a Bridge to Oral Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I investigate heterogeneous-language peer interactions in an English-only kindergarten classroom. English Learners and English Proficient students co-created language necessary to build an argument, one discourse valued in schools. Students developed complex oral language proficiency skills but were viewed as engaging…

  19. The Impact of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency in Teacher Training Programs across the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Filippa

    2010-01-01

    Fewer than 25% of all states across the United States (18 total) currently require oral proficiency exams for initial foreign language teacher licensure. Of those 18 states, 8 require oral proficiency testing for all world languages certification, 5 for non-Roman based language certification only, and 5 for alternative certification only. The…

  20. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  1. Relationship between English Language Learners' Proficiency in Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking and Proficiency on Maryland School Assessments in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…

  2. Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    While functional changes linked to second language learning have been subject to extensive investigation, the issue of learning-dependent structural plasticity in the fields of bilingualism and language comprehension has so far received less notice. In the present study we used voxel-based morphometry to monitor structural changes occurring within five months of second language learning. Native English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were examined once at the beginning of their stay and once about five months later, when their German language skills had significantly increased. We show that structural changes in the left inferior frontal gyrus are correlated with the increase in second language proficiency as measured by a paper-and-pencil language test. Contrary to the increase in proficiency and grey matter, the absolute values of grey matter density and second language proficiency did not correlate (neither on first nor on second measurement). This indicates that the individual amount of learning is reflected in brain structure changes, regardless of absolute proficiency.

  3. Differential Gains in Oral Proficiency during Study Abroad: The Role of Language Learning Aptitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sheri Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This inquiry analyzed the relationships between individual differences and gains made in oral proficiency of adult, second language learners of Spanish during one semester studying abroad. Oral proficiency was measured using a pre/post-SA Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI, CAL, 2009). Gain scores were correlated with two cognitive…

  4. The Effects of Language Environment and Oral Language Ability on Phonological Production Proficiency in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpino, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if phonological production proficiency in bilingual Spanish-English preschoolers could be predicted by their language environment, language ability, and phonological production proficiency in their other language. Method: Participants were 199 Latino children and their families. Children ranged in age…

  5. Relative language proficiency modulates BOLD signal change when bilinguals perform semantic judgments. Blood oxygen level dependent.

    PubMed

    Chee, M W; Hon, N; Lee, H L; Soon, C S

    2001-06-01

    The effect of relative language proficiency on the spatial distribution and magnitude of BOLD signal change was evaluated by studying two groups of right-handed English-Mandarin bilingual participants with contrasting language proficiencies as they made semantic judgments with words and characters. Greater language proficiency corresponded to shorter response times and greater accuracy in the semantic judgment task. Within the left prefrontal and parietal regions, the change in BOLD signal was smaller in a participant's more proficient language. The least proficient performance was associated with right, in addition to left, inferior frontal activation. The results highlight the importance of taking into consideration nature of task and relative language proficiency when drawing inferences from functional imaging studies of bilinguals.

  6. Do Decision Rules Matter? A Descriptive Study of English Language Proficiency Assessment Classifications for English-Language Learners and Native English Speakers in Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Patricia E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    English language proficiency assessments (ELPA) are used in the United States to measure annually the English language progress and proficiency of English-language learners (ELLs), a subgroup of language minority students who receive language acquisition support mandated and largely funded by Title III (NCLB, 2001). ELPA proficient and…

  7. English Proficiency and Language Preference: Testing the Equivalence of Two Measures

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of language proficiency vs language preference with self-rated health among Asian American immigrants. We also examined whether modeling preference or proficiency as continuous or categorical variables changed our inferences. Methods. Data came from the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 1639). We focused on participants' proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing English and on their language preference when thinking or speaking with family or friends. We examined the relation between language measures and self-rated health with ordered and binary logistic regression. Results. All English proficiency measures were associated with self-rated health across all models. By contrast, associations between language preference and self-rated health varied by the model considered. Conclusions. Although many studies create composite scores aggregated across measures of English proficiency and language preference, this practice may not always be conceptually or empirically warranted. PMID:19696376

  8. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551

  9. Factors Predicting Academic Success in Second and Third Language among Russian-Speaking Immigrant Students Studying in Israeli Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Orly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors predicting academic proficiency (AP), the specialised domains required for performing academic tasks, among Russian speaking (L1) immigrants currently studying Hebrew as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3) in Israeli schools. Specifically, the study examined the…

  10. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  11. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  12. A Study of the Comparability of Speaking Proficiency Interview Ratings across Three Government Language Training Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John L. D.

    A study of the reliability of the proficiency ratings scale and techniques used by three federal government agencies--the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Language Institute, and the Foreign Service Institute (FSI)--to test employees' oral language proficiency in French and German had two randomly selected two-person teams of testers from…

  13. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  14. Bilingual Program Evaluation Report on Idea Language Proficiency Tests, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangarm, Isara; And Others

    The report presents findings concerning the language proficiency of elementary, middle, and high school students receiving bilingual services in the Las Cruces Public Schools (New Mexico). The report contains five sections: general information about the bilingual program in the school district; the Idea Language Proficiency Tests (IPT); results of…

  15. A Review of the IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test Forms C & D-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Allison A.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT-I), forms C and D, aims to determine the level of English oral language proficiency as it relates to accepted levels of NonEnglish speaking (NES), limited English speaking (LES), and fluent English speaking (FES) designations in order to place students in an appropriate classroom setting. The test was…

  16. Neural Bases of Language Switching in High and Early Proficient Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbin, G.; Costa, A.; Sanjuan, A.; Forn, C.; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A.; Ventura, N.; Belloch, V.; Hernandez, M.; Avila, C.

    2011-01-01

    The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan…

  17. Communicative Competence Approaches to Language Proficiency Assessment: Research and Application. Multilingual Matters 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Ed.

    A collection of selected papers from the March 1981 Language Proficiency Assessment Symposium, a component of the National Institute of Education's Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons project, are presented. Papers include: "An Overview of Communicative Competence" (Cynthia Wallat); "Some Comments on the Terminology of Language…

  18. Disclosure of Information about English Proficiency: Preservice Teachers' Presumptions about English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…

  19. Language proficiency and metacognition as predictors of spontaneous rehearsal in children.

    PubMed

    Bebko, James M; McMorris, Carly A; Metcalfe, Alisa; Ricciuti, Christina; Goldstein, Gayle

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of research on fundamental memory strategies such as verbal rehearsal, the potential underlying skills associated with the emergence of rehearsal are still not fully understood. Two studies examined the relative roles of language proficiency and metamemory in predicting rehearsal use, as well as the prediction of metamemory performance by language proficiency. In Study 1, 59 children, 5 to 8 years old, were administered a serial recall task, 2 language measures, a nonverbal cognitive measure, and a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task. Language proficiency, RAN, and age were significant individual predictors of rehearsal use. In hierarchical regression analyses, language proficiency mediated almost completely the age → rehearsal use relation. In addition, automatized naming was a strong but partial mediator of the contribution of language proficiency to rehearsal use. In Study 2, 54 children were administered a metamemory test, a language measure, and a serial recall task. Metamemory skills and, again, language proficiency significantly predicted rehearsal use in the task. The predictive strength of metamemory skills was mediated by the children's language proficiency. The mutually supportive roles of automatized naming, language, and metamemory in the emergence of spontaneous cumulative verbal rehearsal are discussed in the context of the resulting model, along with the minimal roles of age and aspects of intelligence.

  20. A Classroom Research Project: The Psychological Effects of Standardized Testing on Young English Language Learners at Different Language Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Anna Markopoulos

    This study investigates whether the growing use of standardized testing methods may impact learners differently across language proficiency levels. Survey and language proficiency data from 22 second grade native (African American) and non-native (Hispanic and Vietnamese) English speakers were analyzed to examine whether worry, or test anxiety,…

  1. Japanese Language Proficiency, Social Networking, and Language Use during Study Abroad: Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Eggett, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the self-perceived speaking proficiency development of 204 learners of Japanese who studied abroad in Japan and analyzes connections between self-reported social network development, language use, and speaking development. Learners perceived that they gained the most in areas associated with the intermediate and advanced levels…

  2. Achievement and Language Proficiency of Latino Students in Dual Language Programmes: Native English Speakers, Fluent English/Previous ELLs, and Current ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn; Hernandez, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the language proficiency and achievement outcomes of Latino students enrolled in a dual language programme who varied by language proficiency (Native English speakers, Current English Language Learners--ELLs, Fluent English Proficient/Previous ELLs). Most previous research has not disaggregated Latino students, especially…

  3. The Interrelationship among First Language Writing Skills, Second Language Writing Skills, and Second Language Proficiency of EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Fumihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background: Over the past twenty years, many investigations have been carried out to identify factors influencing second language (L2) learning. Specifically, investigations of the relationship among first language (L1) reading skills, L2 reading skills, and L2 proficiency have been variously conducted, to contribute to the overall growth of L1-L2…

  4. Highly proficient bilinguals implement inhibition: Evidence from n-2 language repetition costs.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Thoma, Aniella M; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Several, but not all, models of language control assume that highly proficient bilinguals implement little to no inhibition during bilingual language production. In the current study, we tested this assumption with a less equivocal marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) than previous language switching studies have. N-2 language repetition costs denote worse performance when switching back to a recently abandoned language (i.e., worse performance in ABA language sequences than CBA sequences, where A, B, and C refer to different languages). Whereas this marker has solely been used to investigate second-language learners in prior studies, we examined highly proficient bilinguals. The results showed that substantial n-2 language repetition costs can be observed with highly proficient bilinguals. Moreover, this inhibition effect was substantial for all 3 languages, but larger for the 2 dominant languages (Turkish and German) relative to the less proficient language (English). These findings indicate that even highly proficient bilinguals implement inhibition to restrict language production to the target language.

  5. Decreased EEG coherence between prefrontal electrodes: a correlate of high language proficiency?

    PubMed

    Reiterer, Susanne; Berger, Michael L; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Rappelsberger, Peter

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the influence of proficiency level on the cortical organization of foreign language processing, two groups of German speaking students, differing only in their proficiency in English as a second language, were subjected to EEG coherence analysis during foreign and native language processing (news reports, alpha1 frequency band). In the group with minor experience with English, coherence increase was observed with all electrode combinations, with left hemisphere (LH) predominance. In the high proficiency group, coherence increase was limited to temporal electrodes over LH. In the latter group only, coherence between prefrontal electrodes was significantly lower during the language tasks than during the baseline task (silence, noisy screen). Both results were obtained with foreign as well as native language processing. We suggest that reduced EEG coherence in highly proficient foreign language speakers reflects a more efficient operating strategy not only for their second, but also for their native language.

  6. Strategically Smart or Proficiency-Driven? An Investigation of Reading Strategy Use of EFL College Students in Relation to Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Fen; Li, Chen-Hong; Amster, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Reading strategy use has long been considered an important factor in the evaluation of effective second language (L2) reading. It is generally believed that proficient and less-proficient readers differ in their reading process and strategy use. The purpose of this study was to examine the reading strategy use of high- and low-proficiency level…

  7. The Third Language of Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…

  8. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning.

  9. Academic Language in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Erica M.; Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines academic language by examining the central features of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse function. Examples of each feature are provided, as well as methods of identifying them in oral language and printed text. We describe a yearlong study that found teachers used different types of academic language based on instructional…

  10. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  11. Do Current English Language Development/Proficiency Standards Reflect the English Needed for Success in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.

    2011-01-01

    English language development or proficiency (ELD/P) standards promise to play an important role in the instruction and assessment of the language development of English language learner (ELL) pre-K-12 students, but to do so effectively they must convey the progression of student language learning in authentic school contexts for authentic academic…

  12. Highly Proficient Bilinguals Implement Inhibition: Evidence from N-2 Language Repetition Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Thoma, Aniella M.; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Several, but not all, models of language control assume that highly proficient bilinguals implement little to no inhibition during bilingual language production. In the current study, we tested this assumption with a less equivocal marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) than previous language switching studies have. N-2…

  13. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  14. Testing Language Proficiency in the Receptive Skills; Native vs. Learner Performances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, James R.

    1984-01-01

    Responds to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency." Approaches Canale's three points of discussion from a textual point of view. Discusses the kinds of language materials likely to be encountered in texts at selected proficiency levels and how this material may be tested. (SED)

  15. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  16. The Cognitive Contribution to the Development of Proficiency in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Beno; Nikolov, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports results of a longitudinal research project studying the contribution of cognitive skills and other factors to proficiency in a foreign language (L2) in the Hungarian educational context. The larger project aims to describe the levels of L2 proficiency of school-aged populations in order to explore the conditions and…

  17. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  18. Transactional Associations between Supportive Family Climate and Young Children's Heritage Language Proficiency in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heejung; Tsai, Kim M.; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) proficiency confers developmental benefits; however, the onset of HL loss is observed among many young children from immigrant families. In this longitudinal study, transactional associations between children's HL proficiency and supportive family climate were examined in Chinese immigrant families with pre-school-aged…

  19. Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency? Evidence from Five Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between overall second language (L2) proficiency and utterance fluency measures for several L2s in order to determine whether utterance measures can be used to predict L2 proficiency. The study measured the speech rate, number of hesitations, number and length of pauses, number and length of runs, and…

  20. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This article reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face…

  1. Intelligence and Language Proficiency as Sources of Variance in Self-Reported Affective Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, John W., Jr.; Perkins, Kyle

    1978-01-01

    Discusses three possible sources of nonrandom but extraneous variance in self-reported attitude data, and demonstrates that these data may be surreptitious measures of verbal intelligence and language proficiency. (Author/AM)

  2. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  3. Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jacquelyn

    Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they

  4. How Do Highly Proficient Bilinguals Control Their Lexicalization Process? Inhibitory and Language-Specific Selection Mechanisms are Both Functional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Santesteban, Mikel; Ivanova, Iva

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 4 experiments exploring the language-switching performance of highly proficient bilinguals in a picture-naming task. In Experiment 1, they tested the impact of language similarity and age of 2nd language acquisition on the language-switching performance of highly proficient bilinguals. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 assessed the…

  5. Grammar Error Strike Hard: Language Proficiency Testing of Hong Kong Teachers and the Four "Noes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwright, Phil

    2005-01-01

    This article first reviews important issues of language, power, and testing. It then examines in critical fashion a particular instance of the use of language testing by the Hong Kong government, namely, the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (LPAT). Treating the LPAT developments as a form of narrative rather than debate, it presents…

  6. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  7. Formulaic Sequences and L2 Oral Proficiency: Does the Type of Target Language Influence the Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stengers, Helene; Boers, Frank; Housen, Alex; Eyckmans, June

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which productive use of formulaic sequences by intermediate students of two typologically different languages, i.e., English and Spanish, is associated with their oral proficiency in these languages. Previous research (e.g., Boers et al., "Language Teaching Research" 10: 245-261, 2006) has shown that…

  8. Ten Years on: The Hong Kong Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English (LPATE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David; Falvey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The "Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English" (LPATE) is a test of standards of English language ability for Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers of English. The impetus for the creation of the LPATE arose, in 1996, because of concerns in business and education communities over falling English language standards among…

  9. The Development of Speaking and Writing Proficiencies in the Spanish Language Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    An important task for foreign language (FL) instructors and researchers is to understand how the development of each language skill affects other aspects of language acquisition. This case study seeks to determine if speaking and writing proficiencies develop at similar rates among FL learners. Seventeen students enrolled in beginning,…

  10. The Relationship between English Language Learners' Language Proficiency and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Darshan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally theorized that English Language Learner (ELL) students do not succeed on state standardized tests because ELL students lack the cognitive academic language skills necessary to function on the large scale content assessments. The purpose of this dissertation was to test that theory. Through the use of quantitative methodology, ELL…

  11. The Effect of Dual-Language and Transitional-Bilingual Education Instructional Models on Spanish Proficiency for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Audrey Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of "transitional-bilingual" and "dual-language" educational models on proficiency in students' home language (Spanish) were examined in a study of English language learners in the first and second grades in a large urban elementary school. In each grade, students were taught with either a transitional-bilingual…

  12. The Effect of Sociolinguistic Factors and English Language Proficiency on the Development of French as a Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bérubé, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2014-01-01

    The classroom demographics in French immersion (FI) programs across Canada are changing: There are a growing number of multilingual students who are learning English as a second language (L2) and French as a third language (L3). However, little is known about the development of French language proficiency and reading skills of multilingual…

  13. Using genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jantien; Bakker, Arthur; van Eerde, Dolly; Kuijpers, Maggie

    2016-09-01

    The importance of language in mathematics learning has been widely acknowledged. However, little is known about how to make this insight productive in the design and enactment of language-oriented mathematics education. In a design-based research project, we explored how language-oriented mathematics education can be designed and enacted. We drew on genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. In the intervention, the teacher used scaffolding strategies to focus students' attention on the structure and linguistic features of the language involved in this particular domain. The research question addressed in this paper is how student proficiency in this language may be promoted. The study comprised nine lessons involving 22 students in grades 5 and 6 (aged 10-12); of these students, 19 had a migrant background. In light of the research aim, we first describe the rationale behind our design. Next, we illustrate how the design was enacted by means of a case study focusing on one student in the classroom practice of developing proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. On the basis of pre- and posttest scores, we conclude that overall their proficiency has increased. Together, the results indicate that and how genre pedagogy may be used to help students become more proficient in the language required in a mathematical domain.

  14. Expert-Novice Differences in Oral Foreign Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard

    Discussion of oral communication between native and non-native speakers focuses on proficiency-related differences in interactions where the non-native speaker is experienced and those in which he is a novice. Research in oral proficiency development, discourse domains, and communication strategies is reviewed. It is argued that the ways in which…

  15. Misidentification of English Language Proficiency in Triage: Impact on Satisfaction and Door-to-Room Time.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Vamsi; Roper, Jamie; Cossey, Kori; Roman, Crystal; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    We examined triage nurses' assessment of patients' language proficiency compared to patients' self-reported proficiency and the impact of language discordance on door-to-room time and patient satisfaction. This was a prospective study of emergency department walk-in patients. Patients completed a survey in which they identified their language proficiency. On a Likert scale, patients ranked how well they felt they were understood and how satisfied they were with the triage process. Nurses completed surveys identifying the patient's primary language and how well they felt they understood the patient. Door-to-room times were obtained from medical records. 163 patients were enrolled. 66% of patients identified themselves as having good English proficiency, while 34% of patients had limited English proficiency. Nurses misclassified 27% of self-identified Spanish-speaking patients as being English proficient. Spanish-speakers felt less satisfied with triage than English-speakers (p < 0.01). There were no differences in door-to-room time. Triage nurses overestimate patient language skills. Spanish-speaking patients feel less satisfied with triage than English-speakers.

  16. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  17. The bilingual brain. Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language.

    PubMed

    Perani, D; Paulesu, E; Galles, N S; Dupoux, E; Dehaene, S; Bettinardi, V; Cappa, S F; Fazio, F; Mehler, J

    1998-10-01

    Functional imaging methods show differences in the pattern of cerebral activation associated with the subject's native language (L1) compared with a second language (L2). In a recent PET investigation on bilingualism we showed that auditory processing of stories in L1 (Italian) engages the temporal lobes and temporoparietal cortex more extensively than L2 (English). However, in that study the Italian subjects learned L2 late and attained a fair, but not an excellent command of this language (low proficiency, late acquisition bilinguals). Thus, the different patterns of activation could be ascribed either to age of acquisition or to proficiency level. In the current study we use a similar paradigm to evaluate the effect of early and late acquisition of L2 in highly proficient bilinguals. We studied a group of Italian-English bilinguals who acquired L2 after the age of 10 years (high proficiency, late acquisition bilinguals) and a group of Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired L2 before the age of 4 years (high proficiency, early acquisition bilinguals). The differing cortical responses we had observed when low proficiency volunteers listened to stories in L1 and L2 were not found in either of the high proficiency groups in this study. Several brain areas, similar to those observed for L1 in low proficiency bilinguals, were activated by L2. These findings suggest that, at least for pairs of L1 and L2 languages that are fairly close, attained proficiency is more important than age of acquisition as a determinant of the cortical representation of L2.

  18. Processing morphologically complex words in second-language learners: the effect of proficiency.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-07-01

    The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550 ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450 ms and 450-500 ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500 ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model.

  19. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2016-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This paper reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability pressure, they focus attention on students closest to proficiency. We refer to this practice as educational triage, and show that the difficulty of the proficiency standard affects whether lower or higher performing students gain most on high-stakes tests used to evaluate schools. Less difficult proficiency standards decrease inequality in high-stakes achievement, while more difficult ones increase it. Second, we show that educators emphasize test-specific skills with students near proficiency, a practice that we refer to as instructional triage. As a result, the effects of accountability pressure differ across high and low-stakes tests; we find no effects on inequality in low-stakes reading and math tests of similar skills. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that instructional triage is most pronounced in the lowest performing schools. We conclude by discussing how these findings shape our understanding of accountability's impacts on educational inequality. PMID:27122642

  1. Lexical Competition during Second-Language Listening: Sentence Context, but Not Proficiency, Constrains Interference from the Native Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Cooke, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    A spoken language eye-tracking methodology was used to evaluate the effects of sentence context and proficiency on parallel language activation during spoken language comprehension. Nonnative speakers with varying proficiency levels viewed visual displays while listening to French sentences (e.g., "Marie va decrire la poule" [Marie will describe…

  2. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  3. Neural bases of language switching in high and early proficient bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Garbin, G; Costa, A; Sanjuan, A; Forn, C; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A; Ventura, N; Belloch, V; Hernandez, M; Avila, C

    2011-12-01

    The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals using a picture naming task that allowed contrasting switch and non-switch trials. Compared to the non-switching condition, language switching elicited greater activation in the head of the left caudate and the pre-SMA/ACC. When the direction of the switching was considered, the left caudate was more associated with forward switching and the pre-SMA/ACC with backward switching. The discussion is focused on the relevance of these brain structures in language control in early, high-proficient bilinguals, and the comparison with previous results in late bilinguals.

  4. Oral Proficiency Testing and Its Significance for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V.

    1987-01-01

    Oral proficiency testing is contrasted with traditional academic testing to show its appropriateness as a technique for measuring the ability to speak and understand a foreign language. Implications for teaching foreign languages are discussed. (MT)

  5. Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual experience is dynamic and poses a challenge for researchers to develop instruments that capture its relevant dimensions. The present study examined responses from a questionnaire administered to 110 heterogeneous bilingual young adults. These questions concern participants’ language use, acquisition history and self-reported proficiency. The questionnaire responses and performances on standardized English proficiency measures were analyzed using factor analysis. In order to retain a realistic representation of bilingual experience, the factors were allowed to correlate with each other in the analysis. Two correlating factors were extracted, representing daily bilingual usage and English proficiency. These two factors were also related to self-rated proficiency in English and non-English language. Results were interpreted as supporting the notion that bilingual experience is composed of multiple related dimensions that will need to be considered in assessments of the consequences of bilingualism. PMID:24073327

  6. Oral Proficiency Standards and Foreign Language Teacher Candidates: Current Findings and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisan, Eileen W.; Swender, Elvira; Surface, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The renewed national focus on teacher quality and effectiveness has resulted in more rigorous standards that describe the knowledge and skills required of teacher candidates across all disciplines. In the area of foreign languages, three sets of professional standards address the oral proficiency of teachers in the target languages they teach…

  7. TOEFL from a Communicative Viewpoint on Language Proficiency: A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Richard P.; And Others

    The content characteristics of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) are examined from a communicative viewpoint, based on current theory in applied linguistics and language proficiency assessment. The study employed a four-part operational framework. The first component analyzed the communicative characteristics of a language…

  8. Harmonizing South African Sotho Language Varieties: Lessons from Reading Proficiency Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makalela, Leketi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated degrees of mutual intelligibility among 3 structurally related languages in South Africa: Sepedi, Sesotho, and Setswana. To compare reading proficiency of mother-tongue speakers who enrolled for freshman courses at the University of Limpopo, 4 reading experimental conditions, in the 3 languages and 1 in a harmonized text,…

  9. Effects of Verb Semantics and Proficiency in Second Language Use of Constructional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Rah, Yangon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the semantic heaviness of verbs (i.e., heavy or light verbs) and language proficiency on second language (L2) learners' use of constructional information in a sentence-sorting task and a corpus analysis. Previous studies employing a sentence-sorting task demonstrated that advanced L2 learners sorted English…

  10. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  11. Clothing the Emperor: Addressing the Issue of English Language Proficiency in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The English language proficiency levels of students in Australian higher education who have English as an additional language (EAL) has become an increasingly prominent issue, particularly as it relates to international students. In 2009 this resulted in the publication of a set of good practice principles for the sector. This paper argues that…

  12. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  13. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…

  14. Instructional Practices That Promote Reading Proficiency for English Language Learners in Grades 3 and 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley-Blanton, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires that all public school students, including English language learners, achieve proficiency in reading, math, and science by 2014 as measured on state assessments. English language learners enrolled in public schools for the first time receive a 1-year deferment from these state assessments in subjects…

  15. Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

  16. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  17. Teachers' Beliefs about Developing Language Proficiency within the Context of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Linda Quinn

    2013-01-01

    The study described here is grounded in naturalistic inquiry, a research methodology that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific settings. The goal of the study was to identify the beliefs about developing language proficiency of a group of North American French-as-a-foreign language teachers in the specific context of a three-week,…

  18. The Role of Testing Language Proficiency as Part of Teacher Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Michele Anciaux

    2013-01-01

    Bridid M. Burke poses an interesting question: Is requiring high-stakes language proficiency tests really going to improve world language education? In her article, Dr. Burke shares testimonials from "several promising student teachers" [whose] dreams of being French, German, or Spanish teachers [were] crushed" based on not…

  19. Teaching Languages in College: Communicative Proficiency and Cross-Cultural Issues. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G., Ed.

    A collection of papers concerning college language instruction and exploring issues related to promoting communicative skills and cross-cultural understanding includes the following titles: (1) "Languages at College: The Student and the Curriculum," by W. M. Rivers; (2) "Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency," by A. Ramirez; (3) "Communicative…

  20. An Examination of Reliability and Validity Claims of a Foreign Language Proficiency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mircea-Pines, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study examined the reliability and validity claims of a modified version of the Spanish Modern Language Association Foreign Language Proficiency Test for Teachers and Advanced Students administered at George Mason University (GMU). The study used the 1999 computerized GMU version that was administered to 277 test-takers via…

  1. Korean Students' Language Learning Strategies and Years of Studying English as Predictors of Proficiency in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    This study predicted the English proficiency of Korean students using the components of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and number of months spent in the formal study of English. There were 302 Korean students, ages 14-18, who were requested to answer the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English ability…

  2. Aptitude, Phonological Memory, and Second Language Proficiency in Nonnovice Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…

  3. Academic Language Knowledge and Comprehension of Science Text for English Language Learners and Fluent English-Speaking Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sandy Ming-San

    As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository

  4. Adolescents' Use of Academic Language in Historical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance of academic language, research on academic language is often limited to academic vocabulary and focused on the English language learners. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined adolescents' use of academic language and the relationships between its use and students' reading ability and…

  5. Critical Factors to Consider in Evaluating Standard-Setting Studies to Map Language Test Scores to Frameworks of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cho, Yeonsuk

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consolidate and present in one place what is known about quality indicators for setting standards so that stakeholders may be able to recognize the signs of standard-setting quality. We use the context of setting standards to associate English language test scores with language proficiency descriptions such as those presented…

  6. Identifying Affirmative Beliefs about English Language Learning: Self-Perceptions of Thai Learners with Different Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…

  7. Bilingual Children: Cross-sectional Relations of Psychiatric Syndrome Severity and Dual Language Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toppelberg, Claudio O.; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = −.38 to −.61, p ≤ .05). English scores were similarly associated. Dual language tests covering multiple specific language dimensions explained a large proportion (51%) of overall variance in aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children’s proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; rsp = −.44, p <.01), these proficiency levels explain nonconverging variance in children’s symptomatology. The findings suggest that clinical evaluation of language functioning is often needed in such populations and that it should be comprehensive and include both languages. Such thorough evaluation of bilingual children suffering from psychopathology will help us to precisely identify (1) language deficits, (2) specific relations of these deficits to the child’s psychopathology, (3) differential implications of communication at home (e.g., in Spanish) and at school (e.g., in English) for clinical presentation and the child’s competence in those differing contexts, and (4

  8. Bilingual children: cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T

    2006-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = -.38 to -.61, p < or = .05). English scores were similarly associated. Dual language tests covering multiple specific language dimensions explained a large proportion (51%) of overall variance in aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children's proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; r(sp) = -.44, p < .01), these proficiency levels explain nonconverging variance in children's symptomatology. The findings suggest that clinical evaluation of language functioning is often needed in such populations and that it should be comprehensive and include both languages. Such thorough evaluation of bilingual children suffering from psychopathology will help us to precisely identify (1) language deficits, (2) specific relations of these deficits to the child's psychopathology, (3) differential implications of communication at home (e.g., in Spanish) and at school (e.g., in English) for clinical presentation and the child's competence in those differing contexts, and (4) language

  9. Impact of language proficiency and orthographic transparency on bilingual word reading: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Meschyan, Gayane; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation was to examine how language proficiency and orthographic transparency (letter-sound mapping consistency) modulate neural activity during bilingual single word reading. Spanish-English bilingual participants, more fluent in their second language (L2; English) than their native language (L1; Spanish), were asked to read words in the two languages. Behavioral results showed that participants were significantly slower in reading words in their less proficient language (Spanish) than in their more proficient language (English). fMRI results also revealed that reading words in the less proficient language yielded greater activity in the articulatory motor system, consisting of supplementary motor area/cingulate, insula, and putamen. Together, the behavioral and fMRI results suggest that the less practiced, hence less proficient, language requires greater articulatory motor effort, which results in slower reading rates. Moreover, we found that orthographic transparency also played a neuromodulatory role. More transparent Spanish words yielded greater activity in superior temporal gyrus (STG; BA 22), a region implicated in phonological processing, and orthographically opaque English words yielded greater activity in visual processing and word recoding regions, such as the occipito-parietal border and inferior parietal lobe (IPL; BA 40). Overall, our fMRI results suggest that the articulatory motor system is more plastic, hence, more amenable to change because of greater exposure to the L2. By contrast, we propose that our orthography effect is less plastic, hence, less influenced by frequency of exposure to a language system.

  10. Assessing Second Language Writing in Academic Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz, Ed.

    The articles contained in this volume on second language writing evaluation focus on the evaluation of academic English learned as a second language (ESL). Essays include: "Assessment by Misconception: Cultural Influences and Intellectual Traditions" (Brigid Ballard, John Clanchy); "Reading the World Differently: A Cross-Cultural Approach to…

  11. Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

  12. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  13. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  14. Design, Data Collection and Analysis of a Field Test of Instruments and Procedures To Measure English Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Tyler; And Others

    A project to field test instruments and procedures for measuring English language proficiency, to be used in a large-scale national household survey, is reported. The major purposes of the field test were to measure the validity of census-type questions for determining language proficiency, using several different bilingual ethnic groups, and to…

  15. Teaching and Learning the Language of Science: A Case Study of Academic Language Acquisition in a Dual Language Middle School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, Robin Margaretha

    English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.

  16. Language lateralisation in late proficient bilinguals: a lexical decision fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Waldie, Karen E

    2012-04-01

    Approximately half the world's population can now speak more than one language. Understanding the neural basis of language organisation in bilinguals, and whether the cortical networks involved during language processing differ from that of monolinguals, is therefore an important area of research. A main issue concerns whether L2 (second language) is processed using the same neural mechanisms that mediate L1 (first language) processing. Moderating factors include the age of L2 acquisition and the level of proficiency. Here we used a lexical decision task with five conditions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate language processing in eight late proficient bilinguals when using Macedonian (L1) and English (L2). Bilinguals had greater bilateral activation during both L1 and L2 processing, and therefore weaker language lateralisation, compared to matched control English monolinguals. A greater amount of overall activation was also seen in bilinguals, especially during L2 conditions. Late proficient bilinguals living in their L2 environment employ a more extensive neural network than monolinguals when processing their second language. PMID:22245007

  17. Language lateralisation in late proficient bilinguals: a lexical decision fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Waldie, Karen E

    2012-04-01

    Approximately half the world's population can now speak more than one language. Understanding the neural basis of language organisation in bilinguals, and whether the cortical networks involved during language processing differ from that of monolinguals, is therefore an important area of research. A main issue concerns whether L2 (second language) is processed using the same neural mechanisms that mediate L1 (first language) processing. Moderating factors include the age of L2 acquisition and the level of proficiency. Here we used a lexical decision task with five conditions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate language processing in eight late proficient bilinguals when using Macedonian (L1) and English (L2). Bilinguals had greater bilateral activation during both L1 and L2 processing, and therefore weaker language lateralisation, compared to matched control English monolinguals. A greater amount of overall activation was also seen in bilinguals, especially during L2 conditions. Late proficient bilinguals living in their L2 environment employ a more extensive neural network than monolinguals when processing their second language.

  18. 75 FR 13751 - Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic... Deputy Secretary and Director for the Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and...

  19. Do semantic sentence constraint and L2 proficiency influence language selectivity of lexical access in native language listening?

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether language nonselective lexical access in bilingual auditory word recognition when listening in the native language (L1) is modulated by (a) the semantic constraint of the sentence and (b) the second language (L2) proficiency level. We report 2 experiments in which Dutch-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels completed an L1 auditory lexical-decision task on the last word of low- and high-constraining sentences. The critical stimuli were interlingual homophones (e.g., lief [sweet] - leaf /li:f/). Participants recognized homophones significantly slower than matched control words. Importantly, neither the semantic constraint of the sentence, nor the proficiency level of the bilinguals interacted with this interlingual homophone effect. However, when we compared the slow and fast reaction times (RTs), we observed a reduction in the homophone interference effect when listening to high-constraining sentences in L1 for the slow RTs, but not for the fast RTs. Taken together, this provides strong evidence for a language-nonselective account of lexical access when listening in L1, and suggests that even when low-proficient bilinguals are listening to high-constraint sentences in L1, both languages of a bilingual are still activated.

  20. Developing Academic Language: Got Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynt, E. Sutton; Brozo, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about how to build academic vocabulary and weave its instruction into curricula are common among classroom teachers. The column includes a review of the research and some practical suggestions for teachers.

  1. Computer Assisted Language Learning: A Shortcut to Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Kathleen K.

    A study investigated the attitudes of language program students, teachers, and administrators concerning the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) instruction for adults, and specifically concerning EXITO courseware, a Spanish language program developed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Interviews with an adult language…

  2. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  3. Predicting Second Language Writing Proficiency: The Roles of Cohesion and Linguistic Sophistication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses research gaps in predicting second language (L2) writing proficiency using linguistic features. Key to this analysis is the inclusion of linguistic measures at the surface, textbase and situation model level that assess text cohesion and linguistic sophistication. The results of this study demonstrate that five variables…

  4. Measuring Second Language (L2) Proficiency in High School Level Exchange Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Denise; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify appropriate standardized tests of English second-language proficiency among foreign high school students after a three-month stay, for use in a battery of tests to determine achievement gains. Identification of three potential tests and further considerations in selecting the appropriate test are reported here.…

  5. Spanish language proficiency among providers and Latino clients' engagement in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Khachikian, Tenie; Kim, Tina; Kong, Yinfei; Vega, William A

    2013-12-01

    Quality of care, such as provision of services in Spanish, is a common factor believed to improve treatment engagement among Spanish-speaking Latinos in health care. However, there is little evidence that Spanish language proficiency among providers increases treatment access and retention in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. We analyzed client and program data collected in 2010-2011 from publicly funded treatment programs in Los Angeles County, California. An analytic sample of 1903 Latino clients nested within 40 treatment programs located in minority communities was analyzed using multilevel negative binomial regressions on days to initiate and spent in treatment. As hypothesized, Spanish language proficiency was negatively associated with client wait time and positively associated with retention in treatment, after controlling for individual and program characteristics. The path analysis models showed that Spanish language proficiency played a mediating role between professional accreditation and client wait time and retention. These preliminary findings provide an evidentiary base for the role of providers' Spanish language proficiency and Latino engagement in treatment for a population at high risk of treatment dropout. Implications related to health care reform legislation, which seeks to enhance linguistically competent care, are discussed.

  6. A Prediction Model of Foreign Language Reading Proficiency Based on Reading Time and Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In textbooks, foreign (second) language reading proficiency is often evaluated through comprehension questions. In case, authentic texts are used as reading material, such questions should be prepared by teachers. However, preparing appropriate questions may be a very demanding task for teachers. This paper introduces a method for automatically…

  7. High Proficiency across Two Languages Is Related to Better Mental State Reasoning for Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that bilingualism positively affects children's performance in false belief tasks. However, researchers have yet to fully explore factors that are related to better performance in these tasks within bilingual groups. The current study includes an assessment of proficiency in both languages (which was lacking in past work)…

  8. Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Tremblay, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the elicited imitation task (EIT) as a tool for measuring linguistic proficiency in a second/foreign (L2) language, focusing on French. Nonnative French speakers (n = 94) and native French speakers (n = 6) completed an EIT that included 50 sentences varying in length and complexity. Three raters evaluated productions on…

  9. Assessing Students' Language Proficiency: A New Model of Study Abroad Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jack Jinghui

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that integrates an at-home preparation intensive summer program with a short-term, study abroad summer program to increase students' Chinese-language proficiency, cultural awareness, and personal career development. The results indicate that the at-home preparation program can build students' self-esteem and…

  10. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…

  11. The Effect of Dual Task Demands and Proficiency on Second Language Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Kormos, Judit

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined how the introduction of a parallel finger-tapping task influences second language (L2) speech encoding mechanisms and monitoring processes, and how the level of proficiency impacts the efficiency and accuracy of L2 performance under single and dual task conditions. The results indicate that imposing dual task demands had…

  12. The Effects of English Language Proficiency on Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the United States recognize the economic and educational benefits of international students. Although non-native English speakers (NNES) submit evidence of English language proficiency for admission purposes, many struggle with the demands of English. This study draws on qualitative and quantitative data to provide…

  13. NATO Stanag Language Proficiency Levels for Joint Missions and Its Implementations at a State Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Turkish Armed Forces have been participating in joint missions together with other nations for decades. Since English is the medium of instruction in these missions, participating members should have NATO Standards in terms of language proficiency levels in four skills. Therefore, this study aims to specify personnel's views and their…

  14. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  15. The Impact of Perceived Exposure and Motivation on Oral Language Proficiency in a Traditional Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify factors impacting second language oral proficiency of native English speaking secondary students in public schools in Texas that had chosen to complete at least two years of traditional classroom Spanish instruction. Further, the study sought to determine the effectiveness of the traditional…

  16. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  17. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  18. Connecting the Dots: Limited English Proficiency, Second Language Learning Theories, and Information Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conteh-Morgan, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of barriers to effective learning when librarians teach students with limited English proficiency focuses on second language acquisition theories and teaching practices derived from them which can significantly impact outcomes of information literacy instruction. Includes a checklist for course preparation and instruction. (Author/LRW)

  19. English Language Proficiency and Employability Framework for Australian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkoudis, Sophie; Baik, Chi; Bexley, Emmaline; Doughney, Lachlan

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the "English Language Proficiency" (ELP) and Employability Framework", which has been designed to inform and support higher education institutions' (HEIs) policies and practices on ELP and graduate employability. The "Framework" was developed through a review of the national and international…

  20. Implementing ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements in the Versant Aviation English Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Moere, Alistair; Suzuki, Masanori; Downey, Ryan; Cheng, Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an assessment to satisfy the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Language Proficiency Requirements. The Versant Aviation English Test utilizes speech recognition technology and a computerized testing platform, such that test administration and scoring are fully automated. Developed in…

  1. Assessing the Accuracy and Consistency of Language Proficiency Classification under Competing Measurement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how measurement models and statistical procedures can be applied to estimate the accuracy of proficiency classification in language testing. The paper starts with a concise introduction of four measurement models: the classical test theory (CTT) model, the dichotomous item response theory (IRT) model, the testlet response…

  2. The Minimal English Test: A New Method to Measure English as a Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Kenichi; Maki, Hideki; Kasai, Chise

    2010-01-01

    Maki, Wasada, and Hashimoto developed the Minimal English Test (MET), which is a five-minute English as a Second Language (ESL) test. The Maki Group has, since the development of the MET, investigated correlations between the scores on the MET and the scores on other ESL tests, the reliability of the MET, and what kind of ESL proficiency the MET…

  3. Designing and Sustaining a Foreign Language Writing Proficiency Assessment Program at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth; Molitoris, Joan; Romeo, Ken; Lin, Nina; Valderrama, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Writing in postsecondary foreign language contexts in North America has received far less attention in the curriculum than the development of oral proficiency. This article describes one institution's process of confronting the challenges not only of recognizing the contribution of writing to students' overall linguistic development, but also of…

  4. Content Presentation Modes in Mobile Language Listening Tasks: English Proficiency as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether the modality effect of content presentation modes on students' cognitive load and listening comprehension depends on the moderating effect of the learners' language proficiencies in a mobile learning context. One hundred and sixty-two students majoring in English in a technology university used personal digital…

  5. More than a New Country: Effects of Immigration and Home Language on Elementary Students' Academic Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomes, Orlena P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of immigration and home language on academic achievement over time. Using data from Ontario's Assessments of Reading, Writing and Mathematics administered to the same students in Grades 3 and 6, logistic regression was used to predict if students achieved proficiency in Grade 6 if they were not proficient…

  6. Effects of Academic Language Instruction on Relational and Syntactic Aspects of Morphological Awareness for Sixth Graders from Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    One dimension of language proficiency considered important for reading and writing academic texts is morphological awareness--the understanding of how complex words are formed from meaningful smaller units (i.e., affixes, roots) that contribute to words' meanings and functions. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of instruction on…

  7. From language-specific to shared syntactic representations: the influence of second language proficiency on syntactic sharing in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Pickering, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    Studies on cross-linguistic syntactic priming suggest that bilinguals can share syntactic representations across languages (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004). But how are these representations established in late learners of a second language? Specifically, are representations of syntactic structures in a second language (L2) immediately collapsed with similar structures of the first language (L1), or are they initially represented separately? In order to investigate this, we primed the use of English genitives with Dutch (Experiment 1) and English (Experiment 2) genitives (e.g., het hemd van de jongen/the shirt of the boy vs. de jongen zijn hemd/the boy's shirt) in late Dutch-English bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English (their L2). The head nouns of prime and target constructions either had the same meaning (hemd/shirt - shirt) or a different meaning (duim/thumb - shirt), in order to test whether the use of both genitives was generalized across nouns. Experiment 1 found stronger between-language priming for more than less proficient bilinguals in both conditions, thus suggesting a shift from language-specific to shared syntactic representations. Experiment 2 suggests that these early, language-specific syntactic representations might be item-specific: Less proficient bilinguals showed much weaker priming when the heads of prime and target constructions had different meanings than when they were repeated.

  8. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  9. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  10. English Language Proficiency and Progress: Students Receiving English for Speakers of Other Languages Services from 2012 to 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huafang; Maina, Nyambura

    2015-01-01

    This is one of several studies conducted by the Office of Shared Accountability that evaluated students identified as eligible for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). This study has two major purposes: (1) to examine English proficiency levels and progress in English…

  11. Proficiency, Policy, and Professionalism in Foreign Language Education. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Columbus, Ohio, April 9-11, 1987). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckbichler, Diane W., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers from a conference on language proficiency, policy, and language teacher professionalism include: "Proficiency in Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Sally Sieloff Magnan); "Teaching Foreign Languages: Policy and the Federal Role" (Paul Simon); "Proficiency in the 'Real World' of the Professional Classroom Teacher"…

  12. The modulatory role of second language proficiency on performance monitoring: evidence from a saccadic countermanding task in high and low proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K.

    2015-01-01

    We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 proficiency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR) task (Experiment1) and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR) task (Experiment 2). In the redirect task, typically a target is presented and the subject is required to make a saccade (no-step trials), unless a new target appears on a different location after some delay from the first target onset (step trials). On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first target and programme a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT), the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target as a measure of response inhibition and post-step slowing as a measure of performance monitoring. The results showed the high proficient bilinguals displayed more post-step slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals for both VGR and MGR versions of the task. Secondly, both the high and low proficient bilinguals exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR task, showing no modulatory effects of language proficiency on the response inhibition. These results suggest that language proficiency may have an effect on performance monitoring, but not the inhibitory control per se. Thus, we infer that higher proficiency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility and an ability to adjust behavior that facilitates the attainment of the cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems. PMID:25601843

  13. Cloze-Elide: A Process Oriented Model of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Winton H.

    The aims of the projects described in this paper were to develop and evaluate a new approach to the assessment of English language skills of English as a second language (ESL) students. The approach makes use of optical scanning equipment in scoring cloze-elide test exercises, thereby providing a rapid, relatively inexpensive and objective measure…

  14. Even Math Requires Learning Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    ELLs need to practice using the language in their speech. Teachers can ask students to restate the definition in their own words and provide opportunities for students to use academic vocabulary in discussions. Chunking (instead of teaching inch in isolation, also teach foot, centimeter, and yard) helps students develop their schema and mentally…

  15. Processing subject-verb agreement in a second language depends on proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Noriko; Dussias, Paola E.; Kroll, Judith F.

    2010-01-01

    Subject-verb agreement is a computation that is often difficult to execute perfectly in the first language (L1) and even more difficult to produce skillfully in a second language (L2). In this study, we examined the way in which bilingual speakers complete sentence fragments in a manner that reflects access to both grammatical and conceptual number. In two experiments, we show that bilingual speakers are sensitive to both grammatical and conceptual number in the L1 and grammatical number agreement in the L2. However, only highly proficient bilinguals are also sensitive to conceptual number in the L2. The results suggest that the extent to which speakers are able to exploit conceptual information during speech planning depends on the level of language proficiency. PMID:20640178

  16. An fMRI study with semantic access in low proficiency second language learners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi; Jin, Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yue

    2004-04-01

    Brain activity was measured with fMRI in twelve 10- to 12-year-old Chinese children who began learning English when they were 8 years old in order to find out whether there is a common or a distinct neural semantic system for native language (L1) and second language (L2) in low proficiency bilingual subjects. Although they performed less well in L2 in the semantic decision task administered during fMRI measurement, these subjects showed similar robust activation, for both languages, in brain areas involved in semantic processing (e.g. the left inferior frontal cortex). Within-subject and group analyses revealed no significant difference in the activation patterns for L1 and L2 in these regions. These results suggest that at least at single-word level, there are shared neural substrates for semantic processing of L1 and L2 even when one is at a very low L2 proficiency level.

  17. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

  18. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  19. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates. PMID:25431506

  20. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA), Community School District 2 Special Alternative Instruction Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Joanne

    Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA) was a federally funded program serving 960 limited-English-proficient students in 10 Manhattan (New York) elementary schools in 1992-93 its third year of operation. The project provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and social studies in…

  1. Helping ELLs Meet the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science: The Impact of an Instructional Intervention Focused on Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Branum-Martin, Lee; Cárdenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J.; Powell, Jennifer; Moore, Sarah; Haynes, Erin F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention--Quality English and Science Teaching 2--designed to help English language learners (ELLs) and their English proficient classmates develop academic language in science, as required by the Common Core State Standards. The intervention consisted of supplementary instructional…

  2. Understanding the Language Demands of Schooling: Nouns in Academic Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Zhihui; Schleppegrell, Mary J.; Cox, Beverly E.

    2006-01-01

    Developing academic, or school-based, literacy poses a significant challenge for many students, because the language through which academic subjects are presented is markedly different from the social language that students use in everyday ordinary life. This article focuses on one aspect of academic language, the functions of nouns and nominal…

  3. Multilingual Faculty across Academic Disciplines: Language Difference in Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos, Alyssa G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the dominance of the English language in scholarship, multilingual academics often encounter challenges in achieving academic biliteracy and identifying successful language negotiation practices in academia. Through personal interviews with self-identified multilingual academics across academic disciplines, this paper explores how they…

  4. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... least two skills (listening, reading, speaking, or writing, as required). (2) FLPP may be paid for... particular language skills; (3) The difficulty of recruiting or retaining employees with the...

  5. Local and Global Task Switching Costs in Bilinguals Who Vary in Second Language Proficiency.

    PubMed

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relationship between bilinguals' second language (L2) proficiency and their performance on a Stroop switching task, in which a color word (e.g., GREEN) appeared in a congruent ink color (e.g., green) or an incongruent ink color (e.g., red). Participants either read aloud the color word in the word-reading trials or named the ink color in the color-naming trials. Bilinguals who varied in L2 proficiency received 2 pure blocks, consisting of word-reading trials and color-naming trials, respectively, and 1 mixed block, consisting of intermixed word-reading and color-naming trials in an alternating-runs pattern. Comparing performance in nonswitch trials in the mixed block and the pure block provides a measure of global switch costs, whereas differences on switch trials and nonswitch trials in the mixed block reflect local switch costs. Bilinguals with higher L2 proficiency showed a marginally smaller Stroop effect in color naming, a smaller local switch cost in word reading (but not in color naming), and a smaller word-reading versus color-naming task set asymmetry in local switch costs. The latter result was consistent with the language switching finding that the L1/L2 switch cost asymmetry decreased as a function of bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings support the facilitative role of L2 proficiency in bilinguals' task set switching: Those with higher L2 proficiency have better task set shifting and reconfiguration and updating abilities when they switch from a more difficult task set (color naming) to an easier task set (word reading) in a task-switching paradigm.

  6. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  7. How Is No Child Left Behind Affecting Proficient and Advanced Students on the California STAR Test in English Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…

  8. Integration of immigrants: the role of language proficiency and experience.

    PubMed

    Delander, Lennart; Hammarstedt, Mats; Månsson, Jonas; Nyberg, Erik

    2005-02-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a Swedish pilot scheme that targeted immigrants with weak Swedish-language skills registered as unemployed at public employment offices. By sandwiching work-oriented language teaching and practical workplace training, the project aimed at enhancing the employability of project participants but also at alerting them to and preparing them for available training and further education opportunities. For the evaluation, a comparison group of nonparticipants was selected using a propensity score methodology. The results show that participation in the pilot scheme project resulted in much speedier transfers from open unemployment to employment, training, and education.

  9. On the Viable Linkages between Extroversion/Introversion and Academic Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavinia, Parviz; Hassanlou, Adel

    2014-01-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the relationship between academic Iranian EFL learners' extroversion/introversion and their writing performance. The participants of the study were some 52 BA learners majoring in English language literature in Urmia and Tabriz state universities. The chosen sample comprised of both males and females…

  10. A Common Metric for Language Proficiency. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Protase

    This is a report on a project established to develop a "common yardstick" to describe performance in one or more language skills. Descriptive scales for oral interaction were prepared as well as a general outline of scale characteristics for listening comprehension and reading. Experts in the field reviewed the project proposal and recommendations…

  11. Inquiry Science: The Gateway to English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared…

  12. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  13. Inquiry Science: The Gateway to English Language Proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared to a similar group of students who were using the district's established English language development curriculum. Student performance on statemandated English and science assessments were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests for overall performance and by number of years of treatment. Modest but statistically significant improvement was found for students who participated in the blended program. Results from this study suggest that restricting instructional minutes for science to provide additional time for ELD and English language arts may be unnecessary. Rather, allowing consistent time for science instruction that incorporates ELD instruction along with inquiry science experiences may provide the authentic and purposeful context students need to develop new language without restricting access to science content.

  14. Explaining Learning Gaps in Namibia: The Role of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2011-01-01

    In a multilingual context, this study investigates the role on mathematics achievement of the provision of instruction in the home language. It compares characteristics of 5048 Grade 6 learners in 275 Namibian schools. The outcome variable is the standardized SACMEQ mathematics score collected in year 2000. Hierarchical linear modeling is used to…

  15. How Noise and Language Proficiency Influence Speech Recognition by Individual Non-Native Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Xie, Lingli; Li, Yongjun; Chatterjee, Monita; Ding, Nai

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how speech recognition in noise is affected by language proficiency for individual non-native speakers. The recognition of English and Chinese sentences was measured as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sixty native Chinese speakers who never lived in an English-speaking environment. The recognition score for speech in quiet (which varied from 15%–92%) was found to be uncorrelated with speech recognition threshold (SRTQ/2), i.e. the SNR at which the recognition score drops to 50% of the recognition score in quiet. This result demonstrates separable contributions of language proficiency and auditory processing to speech recognition in noise. PMID:25409435

  16. A Comparative Study on China-U.S.' APTHS (Academic Proficiency Test for High Schools): Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin; Yan, Wenfan

    2012-01-01

    This study followed the comparative research mode of description, interpretation, juxtaposition and comparison. Based on the literatures and data collected on the topic, the paper compared and analyzed the past, present and future of APTHS (academic proficiency test for high schools) in the two countries. Some contemplations on the common issues…

  17. Do Prior Studies Matter?: Predicting Proficiencies Required to Excel Academically in Law School at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalukenge, Betty; Wamala, Robert; Ocaya, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Introduction of law school admission examinations has increased the debate regarding the relevance of prior studies for the enrollees in the program. The key issues of contention are whether prior studies reliably predict academic achievement of enrollees, and demonstrate proficiencies required for admission in the program. The purpose of…

  18. Increasing Language Awareness and Self-Efficacy of FL Students Using Self-Assessment and the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.; O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how oral language was assessed in an advanced-level college foreign language (FL) conversation course. Learners used the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Proficiency Guidelines to guide self-analyses of their oral production at intervals throughout the course. The intent was to provide opportunities for…

  19. More than use it or lose it: the number-of-speakers effect on heritage language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Tamar H; Starr, Jennie; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-02-01

    Acquiring a heritage language (HL), a minority language spoken primarily at home, is often a major step toward achieving bilingualism. Two studies examined factors that promote HL proficiency. Chinese-English and Spanish-English undergraduates and Hebrew-English children named pictures in both their languages, and they or their parents completed language history questionnaires. HL picture-naming ability correlated positively with the number of different HL speakers participants spoke to as children, independently of each language's frequency of use, and without negatively affecting English picture-naming ability. HL performance increased also when primary caregivers had lower English proficiency, with later English age of acquisition, and (in children) with increased age. These results suggest a prescription for increasing bilingual proficiency is regular interaction with multiple HL speakers. Responsible cognitive mechanisms could include greater variety of words used by different speakers, representational robustness from exposure to variations in form, or multiple retrieval cues, perhaps analogous to contextual diversity effects.

  20. Not Just Good Science Teaching: Supporting Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Smith, Kathy Horak

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore ways in which they have worked together in understanding the complexities of academic language within the science classroom and discuss strategies they have used to teach academic language to young adolescent English Language Learners (ELLs) within inquiry-based science lessons. They discuss strategies they use…

  1. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  2. Reading proficiency modulates parafoveal processing efficiency: evidence from reading Chinese as a second language.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Yan, Ming

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how native Korean readers who learned Chinese as a second language make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that, only identical and orthographically similar previews facilitated processing of the target words when they were subsequently fixated. More critically, more parafoveal information was obtained by subjects with higher reading proficiency. These results suggest that, mainly low-level features of the parafoveal words are obtained by the non-native Chinese readers and less attentional resources are available for the readers with lower reading proficiency, thereby causing a reduction of the perceptual span.

  3. Lexical competition during second-language listening: sentence context, but not proficiency, constrains interference from the native lexicon.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Craig G; Cooke, Hilary

    2009-07-01

    A spoken language eye-tracking methodology was used to evaluate the effects of sentence context and proficiency on parallel language activation during spoken language comprehension. Nonnative speakers with varying proficiency levels viewed visual displays while listening to French sentences (e.g., Marie va décrire la poule [Marie will describe the chicken]). Displays depicted several objects including the final noun target (chicken) and an interlingual near-homophone (e.g., pool) whose name in English is phonologically similar to the French target (poule). Listeners' eye movements reflected temporary consideration of the interlingual competitor when hearing the target noun, demonstrating cross-language lexical competition. However, competitor fixations were dramatically reduced when prior sentence information was incompatible with the competitor (e.g., Marie va nourrir... [Marie will feed...]). In contrast, interlingual competition from English did not vary according to participants' rated proficiency in French, even though proficiency reliably predicted other aspects of processing behavior, suggesting higher proficiency in the active language does not provide a significant independent source of control over interlingual competition. The results provide new insights into the nature of parallel language activation in naturalistic sentential contexts.

  4. Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages.

    PubMed

    Rueckl, Jay G; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Molfese, Peter J; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-15

    We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech-print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents. PMID:26621710

  5. Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages

    PubMed Central

    Rueckl, Jay G.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J.; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H.; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Frost, Ram

    2015-01-01

    We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech–print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents. PMID:26621710

  6. Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages.

    PubMed

    Rueckl, Jay G; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Molfese, Peter J; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-15

    We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech-print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents.

  7. Learning Strategies in Alleviating English Writing Anxiety for English Language Learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…

  8. The Impact of Phonetic Instruction on the Oral Proficiency of English Language Learners in a Cooperative Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Oral proficiency is an important goal in second language learning not only for communication, but also for developing reading and writing skills. Use of cooperative learning (CL) strategies has been shown to successfully improve second language learning in many cases for its focus on individual accountability and positive interdependence (Kagan &…

  9. "El Sendero Torcido al Espanol" [The Twisted Path to Spanish]: The Development of Bilingual Teachers' Spanish-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutterby, John A.; Ayala, Javier; Murillo, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Spanish-language proficiency in bilingual preservice teachers at a university on the Texas--Mexico border. A survey with open-ended questions was administered to preservice teachers in bilingual and English as a Second Language certification programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the paths…

  10. The Use of Compensation Strategies in the Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking and Its Relationship with Their Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Ali Akbar; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Compensation Strategies (CpSs) are strategies which a language user employs in order to achieve his intended meaning when precise linguistic forms are for some reasons not available at that point of communication. Different factors may influence the use of CpSs, among which the level of language proficiency is one of the most important ones. The…

  11. Online and Face-to-Face Language Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Oral Proficiency in Introductory Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneypenny, Dianne Burke; Aldrich, Rosalie S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary resistance to online foreign language teaching often involves questions of spoken mastery of second language. In order to address this concern, this research comparatively assesses undergraduate students' oral proficiency in online and face-to-face Spanish classes, while taking into account students' previous second language…

  12. Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

  13. What Does Research Say about Effective Practices for English Learners? Introduction and Part I: Oral Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Rhoda; Goldenberg, Claude

    2009-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs)--students whose second language is English and who are not fully proficient in English--constitute the fastest growing portion of the K-12 student population. Because many of these students tend to do poorly in school, teachers are encouraged to regularly use research-based practices to improve these students'…

  14. Neural convergence for language comprehension and grammatical class production in highly proficient bilinguals is independent of age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Monica; Cafiero, Riccardo; Marin, Dario; Tettamanti, Marco; Iadanza, Antonella; Fabbro, Franco; Perani, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In bilinguals, native (L1) and second (L2) languages are processed by the same neural resources that can be modulated by age of second language acquisition (AOA), proficiency level, and daily language exposure and usage. AOA seems to particularly affect grammar processing, where a complete neural convergence has been shown only in bilinguals with parallel language acquisition from birth. Despite the fact that proficiency-related neuroanatomical differences have been well documented in language comprehension (LC) and production, few reports have addressed the influence of language exposure. A still unanswered question pertains to the role of AOA, when proficiency is comparably high across languages, with respect to its modulator effects both on LC and production. Here, we evaluated with fMRI during sentence comprehension and verb and noun production tasks, two groups of highly proficient bilinguals only differing in AOA. One group learned Italian and Friulian in parallel from birth, whereas the second group learned Italian between 3 and 6 years. All participants were highly exposed to both languages, but more to Italian than Friulian. The results indicate a complete overlap of neural activations for the comprehension of both languages, not only in bilinguals from birth, but also in late bilinguals. A slightly extra activation in the left thalamus for the less-exposed language confirms that exposure may affect language processing. Noteworthy, we report for the first time that, when proficiency and exposure are kept high, noun and verb production recruit the same neural networks for L1 and L2, independently of AOA. These results support the neural convergence hypothesis.

  15. The Association between Patient-Reported Pain and Doctors' Language Proficiency in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mustajoki, Marianne; Forsén, Tom; Kauppila, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Patients' limited literacy and language fluency of different kinds cause them problems in navigating the medical interview. However, it is not known how physicians' native language skills affect the reported intensity of pain among Finnish emergency patients. Data were collected with two consecutive questionnaires in 16 healthcare centres and outpatient departments along the Finnish coast. Swedish and Finnish speaking 18–65-year-old emergency patients were eligible for this study. Our patients were predominantly Finnish speakers. Patient-rated poor language skills in Finnish among the physicians in ED setting increased statistically significantly pain reported by the Finnish speaking patients and their dissatisfaction with the health service. These patients were also less motivated to adhere to the instructions given by their physician. Patients speaking various languages reported less degree of pain. Foreign physicians' poor language proficiency in Finnish was expected to explain only some of the patients' pain experience. Physicians' good native language skills may help to reduce pain experience. Despite concordant language communication, other unknown barriers in the interaction might reduce the magnitude of pain reported. PMID:26483976

  16. Characteristic functional networks in high- versus low-proficiency second language speakers detected also during native language processing: an explorative EEG coherence study in 6 frequency bands.

    PubMed

    Reiterer, Susanne; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Rappelsberger, Peter; Berger, Michael L

    2005-10-01

    An EEG coherence study was performed with a twofold objective: first, to scrutinize the theoretical concept of "cortical efficiency" in connection with second language (L2) acquisition and, second, to detect cooperations between cortical areas in specific frequency bands indicative for highly proficient L2 processing. Two groups differing only in their level of L2 proficiency were contrasted during presentation of natural language videos in English (L2) and German (native language, L1), with explorative coherence analysis in 6 frequency bands (0.5-31.5 Hz). The coherence brain maps revealed more pronounced and widespread increases in coherences in the alpha1-band (8-10 Hz) in low-proficiency than in the high-proficiency L2 speakers. Surprisingly, this difference was obtained also during L1 processing and corroborated for both languages by multivariate permutation tests. These tests revealed additional differences between the low- and the high-proficiency group also for coherences within the beta1- (13-18 Hz) and the beta2-band (18.5-31.5 Hz), again during L2 and L1 processing. Since the same group differences were observed during L1 and L2 processing, our high-proficiency group might have profited from a more generic advantage in language or text processing strategy. This strategic advantage was most evident at alpha1 frequencies, possibly related to a specific way of processing internal mental states (top-down processing).

  17. Pragmatic and Grammatical Competence, Length of Residence, and Overall L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Wei; Case, Rod E.; Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of length of residence in the target language community and overall L2 proficiency on L2 pragmatic competence with a reference to L2 grammatical competence. Participants were 126 international students in the US with two academic levels of English proficiency from 17 countries, speaking 20 languages. A…

  18. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and...

  19. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term. PMID:18341120

  20. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term.

  1. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A.; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth – the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules – notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German–French and French–German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants’ L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals’ L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2

  2. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth - the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules - notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German-French and French-German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants' L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals' L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2 gives way to

  3. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth - the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules - notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German-French and French-German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants' L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals' L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2 gives way to

  4. Bridges to Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornowich, Barbara Bernstein; Nelson, Anthony

    The materials comprise the curriculum for an introductory course in academic writing for limited English proficient adult or college students. The guide is intended for the upper end of a survival language skills course or the lowest end of an academic developmental writing sequence. The curriculum instructs students on academic life and assists…

  5. A Working Model for Assessing Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Language Proficiency through a Placement Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Having a clear idea of the knowledge in the heritage language that a student brings to the classroom is essential for a successful language-learning experience; for that reason, research in heritage language education has been focusing increasingly on assessment issues, especially language placement exams. Professionals debate whether assessment…

  6. Assessing Foreign Language Proficiency of Undergraduates. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teschner, Richard V., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: "Foreign Language Testing Today: Issues in Language Program Direction" (Frank Nuessel); "Assessing the Problems of Assessment" (M. Peter Hagiwara); "Testing in Foreign Language Programs and Testing Programs in Foreign Language Departments: Reflections and Recommendations" (Elizabeth B. Bernhardt and Craig…

  7. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  8. Socialization to Academic Language in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of academic language for students' success in schools, this article reports on an investigation of how narrative-focused literacy events in the classroom provide opportunities for academic language socialization. Data were collected from one public elementary school in a major metropolitan area in the Mid-Atlantic region…

  9. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  10. Inhibitory Control and L2 Proficiency Modulate Bilingual Language Production: Evidence from Spontaneous Monologue and Dialogue Speech

    PubMed Central

    Pivneva, Irina; Palmer, Caroline; Titone, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control (IC) to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of IC necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2) proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, 42 English–French and French–English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1) and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech. PMID:22438846

  11. Language-related activations in the left prefrontal regions are differentially modulated by age, proficiency, and task demands.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2005-02-16

    It remains to be elucidated how cortical activations are modulated by factors of age, proficiency, and language task demands when mastering first language (L1) and a second language (L2). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested subjects aged 13 (the age 13 group) and 19 (the age 19 group), thereby comparing the cortical activations involved in past-tense verb identification with those involved in verb matching. We found that the activation in the dorsal triangular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was lower, corresponding to a higher proficiency in English (L2) in the older subjects, suggesting that the proficiency level plays a major role in the activation of this region during L2 acquisition. Moreover, the lower activation in the triangular and orbital parts of the left IFG (F3t/F3O) for the irregular past tense corresponding to a higher proficiency in L2, together with the nonsignificant activation for the regular past tense when its performance almost reached perfection for age 19, suggests that the modulation of the left F3t/F3O activation reflects language task demands for identifying correct past-tense forms. On the other hand, the left F3t/F3O activation in Japanese (L1) for age 13 was significantly greater than that for age 19, despite the matched performances in L1. These results suggest that the left IFG subserves language-specific functions that are critically required when mastering any language.

  12. The Effect of English Proficiency and Ethnicity on Academic Performance and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…

  13. Demands and Opportunities: Analyzing Academic Language in a First Grade Dual Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Academic language, the register necessary to be successful in school, has been widely studied in recent years. Researchers have devoted much energy to defining the construct of academic language and identifying ways that teachers can support students--particularly those learning two languages simultaneously--as they develop it. Several scholars…

  14. The Impact of Patient Language Proficiency and Interpreter Service Use on the Quality of Psychiatric Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Amy M.; Alegría, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of limited English proficiency and use of interpreters on the quality of psychiatric care. Methods A systematic literature search for English-language publications was conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINAHL and by review of the reference lists of included articles and expert sources. Of 321 citations, 26 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria by reporting primary data on the clinical care for psychiatric disorders among patients with limited proficiency in English or in the providers’ language. Results Little systematic research has addressed the impact of language proficiency or interpreter use on the quality of psychiatric care in contemporary US settings. Therefore, the literature to date is insufficient to inform evidence-based guidelines for improving quality of care among patients with limited English proficiency. Nonetheless, evaluation in a patient’s non-primary language can lead to incomplete or distorted mental status assessment whereas assessments conducted via untrained interpreters may contain interpreting errors. Consequences of interpreter errors include clinicians’ failure to identify disordered thought or delusional content. Use of professional interpreters may improve disclosure and attenuate some difficulties. Diagnostic agreement, collaborative treatment planning, and referral for specialty care may be compromised. Conclusions Clinicians should become aware of the types of quality problems that may occur when evaluating patients in a non-primary language or via an interpreter. Given demographic trends in the US, future research should aim to address the deficit in the evidence base to guide clinical practice and policy. PMID:20675834

  15. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PMID:25313591

  16. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs.

  17. The Home Language Environment of Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Their Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between home language learning activities and vocabulary in a sample of monolingual native Dutch (n = 58) and bilingual immigrant Moroccan-Dutch (n = 46) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 55) 3-year-olds, speaking Tarifit-Berber, a nonscripted language, and Turkish as their first language (L1), respectively. Despite…

  18. How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln, 1994;…

  19. Efficacy of Explicit English Instruction in Phonemic Awareness and the Alphabetic Principle for English Learners and English Proficient Kindergarten Children in Relationship to Oral Language Proficiency, Primary Language and Verbal Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Theresa; Corbett, Caro

    A study examined the degree to which children with limited English proficiency can benefit from English instruction in phonemic awareness and phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Subjects were 27 kindergarten children in a suburban northern California school--16 spoke Hmong as their primary language and the rest were monolingual English speakers. The…

  20. Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibold, Claire

    2011-01-01

    According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

  1. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Amanda Hampton; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. PMID:23557881

  2. Opportunities and Outcomes: The Role of Peers in Developing the Oral Academic English Proficiency of Adolescent English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill-Poza, Avary

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…

  3. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  4. Large-Scale Assessment of Language Proficiency: Theoretical and Pedagogical Reflections on the Use of Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argüelles Álvarez, Irina

    2013-01-01

    The new requirement placed on students in tertiary settings in Spain to demonstrate a B1 or a B2 proficiency level of English, in accordance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), has led most Spanish universities to develop a program of certification or accreditation of the required level. The first part of this…

  5. Cross-Lagged Relations between Motivation and Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…

  6. Assessment of Young English Language Learners in Arizona: Questioning the Validity of the State Measure of English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…

  7. The Effects of English Language Proficiency and Curricular Pathways: Latina/os' Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosqueda, Eduardo; Maldonado, Saul I.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes nationally-representative quantitative data from the first (2002) and second (2004) waves of the Educational Longitudinal Study to examine the relationship between Latina/o secondary school students' degree of English-language proficiency (ELP), mathematics course-taking measures, and 12th grade mathematics achievement.…

  8. Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many states have begun the process of developing or adapting English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards to align with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the forthcoming Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This need stems not only from a desire to ensure that "all" students receive the rigorous and systematic education they need to…

  9. Advanced Proficiency for Foreign Language Teacher Candidates: What Can We Do to Help Them Achieve This Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lynn; Fonseca-Greber, Bonnibeth; Foell, Kristie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines various issues related to the development of advanced proficiency by foreign language teacher candidates with the goal of providing information and strategies for teacher educators and administrators at the university level. Recent changes in the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requirements…

  10. Effects of M[superscript 3] Curriculum on Mathematics and English Proficiency Achievement of Mathematically Promising English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Seokhee; Yang, Jenny; Mandracchia, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Mentoring Mathematical Minds (M3) units on gains in mathematics achievement and English proficiency of mathematically promising English language learners (MPELLs) in the third grade. The M3 program, developed by Gavin et al., was implemented for 1 year with treatment MPELLs (n = 86) but not…

  11. Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

  12. Do It Yourself? A Learners' Perspective on Learner Autonomy and Self-Access Language Learning in an English Proficiency Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo

    This research paper presents a learners' perspective on (the promotion of) learner autonomy and Self-Access Language Learning in an English Proficiency Program. It provides an evaluation of the success of these course elements as well as an interpretation of students' understanding of the related concepts. Finally, it identifies factors that…

  13. A Linguistic Guide to English Proficiency Testing in Schools. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieterich, Thomas G.; Freeman, Cecilia

    Part One of this guide explores issues in English proficiency testing. Tests are discussed in terms of the aspect of language tested, and of different kinds of test tasks. The following kinds of test task defects are treated: (1) tests that required literacy skills, (2) tasks that reduce to a vocabulary test, and (3) errant notions of linguistic…

  14. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Evaluation of Foreign Language Proficiency (Indiana University, Bloomington, March 4-6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The proceedings of a two and one-half day symposium concerning the assessment of functional language ability through the oral interview process included the following papers: "The FSI/ILR/ACTFL Proficiency Scales and Testing Techniques: Development, Current Status, and Need Research" (John L. D. Clark, Ray T. Clifford); "The ACTFL Proficiency…

  15. Assessment of second language proficiency in bilingual children with specific language impairment: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing bilingual children, and monolingual Dutch children with SLI. Assuming that speaking a language in varying environments involves distinct subskills that can be acquired in differential patterns, the achievement of phonological, lexical, morphosyntactic and textual abilities were assessed separately. For each of these abilities, it was determined to what extent the conditions of restricted input (first vs. second language) and language deficit (typically developing vs. SLI) cause stagnation or a delay in language acquisition. Bilingual children with SLI perform at a lower level than the other groups in almost all aspects of achievement in Dutch. For language tasks related to the mental lexicon and grammar, an additional disadvantage was evidenced as a result of the combination of learning Dutch as second language and having SLI. PMID:21550769

  16. Assessment of Second Language Proficiency in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing…

  17. The Processing Behaviours of Adult Second Language Learners and Their Relationship to Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the behaviors for processing language input demonstrated by five adults beginning to learn Hindi as a second language through the Total Physical Response method. The study suggests that, when adult learners are provided with comprehensive input, they engage in a variety of behaviors to extract meaning from it. (73 references) (GLR)

  18. Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

  19. Parent and Teacher Rating of Bilingual Language Proficiency and Language Development Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Joyner, Debbie; Macken, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Educators of young children, including speech-language pathologists, are often uncertain as to how to effectively work with children from diverse backgrounds because they do not know enough about cultural and linguistic diversity and its impact on language development. The current study helps to address this gap by examining the validity of parent…

  20. Effects of length of stay and language proficiency on health care experiences among immigrants in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Lydie A

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to examine the influence of length of stay and language proficiency on immigrants' access to and utilization of care in Canada and the United States (U.S,). Data came from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to foreign-born, non-elderly adults in each country (n = 12,870 in Canada and n = 7440 in the U.S.). Health care indicators included having a usual source of care; annual consultation with a health professional, dentist, and eye doctor; flu shot in the past year; and Pap test in the past 3 years. Logistic regression models were employed to estimate the relative odds of access or use of care, adjusting for need, demographic factors, socioeconomic status, and insurance coverage. In general, rates of health care access and utilization were higher in Canada than the U.S. among all immigrant groups. In both countries, adjusted analyses indicated that immigrants with shorter length of stay (less than 10 years) and limited language proficiency generally had lower rates of access/use compared with those with longer length of stay (10 years or more) and proficiency in each country's official language(s), respectively. There was one exception to this pattern in the U.S.: immigrants with limited English had higher odds of having a recent Pap test relative to English-proficient immigrants. The persistence of disparities in health care experiences based on length of stay and language proficiency in Canada suggests that universal health insurance coverage may not be sufficient for ensuring access to and utilization of primary and preventive care for this population.

  1. Playing Football without a Ball: Language, Reading and Academic Performance in a High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Mampuru, Deborah Maphoko

    2007-01-01

    Second language (L2) reading research suggests that there is a complex interplay between L2 proficiency, first language (L1) reading and L2 reading. However, not much is known about the effect of L1 proficiency on L1 reading, and of L1 reading on L2 reading, or vice versa, in bilingual settings when readers have few opportunities for extensive…

  2. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes a study that examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content…

  3. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content assessments. Two research questions…

  4. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  6. Increasing Academic Oral Language Development: Using English Language Learner Shadowing in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Hinman, Ivannia

    2011-01-01

    According to Diane August (2002), a senior research scientist at the Center for Applied Linguistics, English Language Learners (ELLs) spend less than two percent of their school day in oral language development. Worse yet, when ELLs are speaking in school, it is often not about academic topics or rigorous content. This lack of academic oral…

  7. Who's Using the Language? Supporting Middle School Students with Content Area Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines middle school students' academic language development in the context of a year-long professional development project titled, Developing Content Area Academic Language (DCAAL). The purpose of DCAAL was to partner middle school teachers (n = 8) with a team of university researchers to explore how to integrate…

  8. What and When Second-Language Learners Revise When Responding to Timed Writing Tasks on the Computer: The Roles of Task Type, Second Language Proficiency, and Keyboarding Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on second language (L2) learners' revision behavior by describing what, when, and how often L2 learners revise their texts when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer and by examining the effects of task type, L2 proficiency, and keyboarding skills on what and when L2 learners revise. Each of 54…

  9. Bilingual and English as a Second Language (ESL) Services for Limited English Proficient (LEP)/English Language Learners (ELLs) Who Are Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Rebecca H.; Stevens, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to clarify State policy regarding English as a Second Language (ESL) services for LEP/ELL students who are also identified as having disabilities. Part 154 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education establishes the State's requirements for services for students with limited English proficiency. The…

  10. Effects of Curriculum and Teacher Professional Development on the Language Proficiency of Elementary English Language Learner Students in the Central Region. Final Report. NCEE 2012-4013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, Sheila A.; Stoker, Ginger; Barker, Jane; Shebby, Susan; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Lou F.; Williams, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    This study responds to regional and national needs by examining the impact on students' English language proficiency of a particular set of ELL-specific classroom materials in combination with a specific teacher professional development program. The classroom materials used in this study, entitled On Our Way to English (OWE), were authored by…

  11. The MBA and Japanese Language: Toward Proficiency-Oriented Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Yoshiko

    It is proposed that Master's in Business Administration (MBA) degree programs integrate Japanese language instruction in order to train business people to be sensitive to cultural differences and capable of operating effectively and comfortably in Japanese environments. The discussion begins by presenting some issues concerning traditional MBA…

  12. Predictors and Outcomes of Early versus Later English Language Proficiency among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self-control,…

  13. Multilingual Interaction and Minority Languages: Proficiency and Language Practices in Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Durk

    2015-01-01

    In this plenary speech I examine multilingual interaction in a number of European regions in which minority languages are being revitalized. Education is a crucial variable, but the wider society is equally significant. The context of revitalization is no longer bilingual but increasingly multilingual. I draw on the results of a long-running…

  14. English for Academic Purposes Activity in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The greatest importance of the continuing professional development is the use of 3-5 languages, with at least 2-3 on the level of native/first language to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. English for Academic Purposes activity as a form of life activity is a basic demand for studying English for…

  15. English Language Learners and Their Academic Progress: 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This is the 2010-11 annual report on the academic progress of English language learners in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the report is to: (1) Describe the demographic characteristics of students classified as English Language Learners (ELL) in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS); (2) Provide data regarding ELL…

  16. Second Language Students' Discourse Socialization in Academic Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Yoon-kyung Kecia

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of second language (L2) students' class participation in English-language university courses in two different modes: face-to-face off-line and asynchronous online. The study addressed (1) what characteristics of academic online discourse were created in graduate courses; (2) how students reported their…

  17. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  18. The Effects of First- and Second-Language Proficiency on Conflict Resolution and Goal Maintenance in Bilinguals: Evidence from Reaction Time Distributional Analyses in a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    By administering a Stroop task to college-student bilinguals varied in self-rated first- (L1) and second-language (L2) proficiency, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiencies on selective attention performance. We conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time…

  19. The effect of age of acquisition, socioeducational status, and proficiency on the neural processing of second language speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the role of age of acquisition (AoA), socioeducational status (SES), and second language (L2) proficiency on the neural processing of L2 speech sounds. In a task of pre-attentive listening and passive viewing, Spanish-English bilinguals and a control group of English monolinguals listened to English syllables while watching a film of natural scenery. Eight regions of interest were selected from brain areas involved in speech perception and executive processes. The regions of interest were examined in 2 separate two-way ANOVA (AoA×SES; AoA×L2 proficiency). The results showed that AoA was the main variable affecting the neural response in L2 speech processing. Direct comparisons between AoA groups of equivalent SES and proficiency level enhanced the intensity and magnitude of the results. These results suggest that AoA, more than SES and proficiency level, determines which brain regions are recruited for the processing of second language speech sounds. PMID:25528287

  20. The effect of age of acquisition, socioeducational status, and proficiency on the neural processing of second language speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the role of age of acquisition (AoA), socioeducational status (SES), and second language (L2) proficiency on the neural processing of L2 speech sounds. In a task of pre-attentive listening and passive viewing, Spanish-English bilinguals and a control group of English monolinguals listened to English syllables while watching a film of natural scenery. Eight regions of interest were selected from brain areas involved in speech perception and executive processes. The regions of interest were examined in 2 separate two-way ANOVA (AoA×SES; AoA×L2 proficiency). The results showed that AoA was the main variable affecting the neural response in L2 speech processing. Direct comparisons between AoA groups of equivalent SES and proficiency level enhanced the intensity and magnitude of the results. These results suggest that AoA, more than SES and proficiency level, determines which brain regions are recruited for the processing of second language speech sounds.

  1. Re-Integrating Academic Development and Academic Language and Learning: A Call to Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percy, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the re-integration of academic development (AD) and a academic language and learning (ALL) practitioners in Australian higher education. This argument is made as universities aim to develop internationally recognised, inter-disciplinary and standards-based curricula against the backdrop of international comparative education…

  2. Language Background and Early Academic Achievement: Disentangling Language-Minority Status, Social Background, and Academic Engagement. CSE Technical Report 679

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paret, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that language-minority students both do poorly on standardized tests, and receive low academic ratings from their teachers (August & Hakuta, 1998). Explanations for the low performance, however, are limited. This is at least partially due to the fact that language-minority status is intimately entangled with issues related to…

  3. The influence of language proficiency on lexical semantic processing in native and late learners of English.

    PubMed

    Newman, Aaron J; Tremblay, Antoine; Nichols, Emily S; Neville, Helen J; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the influence of English proficiency on ERPs elicited by lexical semantic violations in English sentences, in both native English speakers and native Spanish speakers who learned English in adulthood. All participants were administered a standardized test of English proficiency, and data were analyzed using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Relative to native learners, late learners showed reduced amplitude and delayed onset of the N400 component associated with reading semantic violations. As well, after the N400 late learners showed reduced anterior negative scalp potentials and increased posterior potentials. In both native and late learners, N400 amplitudes to semantically appropriate words were larger for people with lower English proficiency. N400 amplitudes to semantic violations, however, were not influenced by proficiency. Although both N400 onset latency and the late ERP effects differed between L1 and L2 learners, neither correlated with proficiency. Different approaches to dealing with the high degree of correlation between proficiency and native/late learner group status are discussed in the context of LME modeling. The results thus indicate that proficiency can modulate ERP effects in both L1 and L2 learners, and for some measures (in this case, N400 amplitude), L1-L2 differences may be entirely accounted for by proficiency. On the other hand, not all effects of L2 learning can be attributed to proficiency. Rather, the differences in N400 onset and the post-N400 violation effects appear to reflect fundamental differences in L1-L2 processing.

  4. Validity and Fairness Implications of Varying Time Conditions on a Diagnostic Test of Academic English Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute; Elder, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars have questioned the practice of assessing academic writing in the context of a one-off language test, claiming that the time restrictions imposed in the test environment, when compared to the writing conditions typical at university, may prevent learners from displaying the kinds of writing skills required in academic…

  5. Developmental Changes in the Nature of Language Proficiency and Reading Fluency Paint a More Complex View of Reading Comprehension in ELL and EL1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Esther; Farnia, Fataneh

    2012-01-01

    We examined theoretical issues concerning the development of reading fluency and language proficiency in 390 English Language Learners (ELLs,) and 149 monolingual, English-as-a-first language (EL1) students. The extent to which performance on these constructs in Grade 5 (i.e., concurrent predictors) contributes to reading comprehension in the…

  6. The Influence of Textbook Format on Postsecondary Proficient and Remedial Readers: Designing Information Using Visual Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlan, W. Lou

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the design of textbook material affects comprehension and memory of textbook material under certain cognitive conditions for proficient and remedial readers. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, format was found to significantly affect comprehension and memory. Proficient Male scored significantly…

  7. Identifying Gaps in Academic Writing of ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giridharan, Beena

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…

  8. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    PubMed

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.

  9. Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners

    PubMed Central

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  10. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to

  11. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess

  12. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess

  13. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning*

    PubMed Central

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z.

    2014-01-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader. PMID:25984550

  14. Improving Science and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners. CREATE Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Mazrum, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This brief reviews previous research related to the development of science knowledge and academic language in English language learners as well as the role of English language proficiency, learning in a second language, and first language knowledge in science learning. It also describes two successful CREATE interventions that build academic and…

  15. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution of cortical processing of first and second languages in bilinguals. I. Effects of proficiency and linguistic setting.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Hillel; Abbasi, Dalal Abu-Amneh; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi; Starr, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    The study determined how spatiotemporal distribution of cortical activity to words in first and second language is affected by language, proficiency, and linguistic setting. Ten early bilinguals and 14 late adult bilinguals listened to pairs of words presented in Arabic (L1), Hebrew (L2), or in mixed pairs and indicated whether both words had the same meaning or not. Source current densities of event-related potentials were estimated. Activity to first words in the pair lateralized to right hemisphere, higher to L1 than L2 during early processing (<300 ms) among both groups but only among late bilinguals during late processing (>300 ms). During early and late processing, activities were larger in mixed than monolinguistic settings among early bilinguals but lower in mixed than in monolinguistic settings among late bilinguals. Late processing in auditory regions was of larger magnitude in left than right hemispheres among both groups. Activity to second words in the pair was larger in mixed than in monolinguistic settings during both early and late processing among both groups. Early processing of second words in auditory regions lateralized to the right among early bilinguals and to the left among late bilinguals, whereas late processing did not differ between groups. Wernicke's area activity during late processing of L2 was larger on the right, while on the left no significant differences between languages were found. The results show that cortical language processing in bilinguals differs between early and late processing and these differences are modulated by linguistic proficiency and setting.

  17. Assessing Academic Writing in Foreign and Second Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Alister

    2009-01-01

    Academic writing and education in foreign and second languages both have lengthy histories. Their histories have diverged but also intersected. Matsuda (2005), for example, described the convergence in policies that led to a distinctive discipline of "L2 writing" in higher education in the U.S.A. during the latter part of the 20th century.…

  18. Indiana's Academic Standards: 11th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 11 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  19. Indiana's Academic Standards: 9th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should be able to do in Grade 9 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and comes accompanied with a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  20. Indiana's Academic Standards: 12th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 12 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides parents with a list of 10 things they can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following…

  1. Indiana's Academic Standards: 10th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 10 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  2. Negotiating Grammatical Choices: Academic Language Learning by Secondary ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a part of a year-long investigation into high school ESL students' academic language development. Eight participants were pulled out of their intermediate ESL class for weekly 50-minute sessions with the author for a year. While the main focus of the sessions was reading news magazine articles for meaning, the author…

  3. Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students' Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…

  4. Partnering to Develop Academic Language for English Language Learners through Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Smith, Kathy Horak; Barreto, Guadalupe; Gabel, Joan

    2008-01-01

    An urban school district and a university developed a curriculum emphasizing academic language for its English language learners (ELL) students. The partnership began when the district's elementary ESL coordinator approached three university faculty for support in developing a three-year summer school curriculum emphasizing mathematics and science…

  5. Dual Language Teachers' Use of Conventional, Environmental, and Personal Resources to Support Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that investigated the ways in which first-grade dual language teachers drew on various resources to instructionally support academic language development among Spanish-English emergent bilingual students. Classroom observations, semistructured interviews, and document collection were conducted over a…

  6. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  7. The Effect of Voice Thread® Integration on High School Students' Anxiety and Oral Proficiency in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Melanie Gail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the asynchronous voice-conferencing technology, "Voice Thread"®, on the anxiety and oral proficiency of high school students in their third year of studying Spanish as a foreign language. In this quasi-experimental study students' foreign language anxiety levels and oral…

  8. A Developmental English Proficiency Test (ADEPT): A Study in the Effectiveness of the ADEPT Assessment on Teacher Candidate Instructional Planning for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nancy; Tucker, Janice

    2011-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) are a dynamic and rapidly growing population within the California school system. In this age of greater accountability, teachers need access to the tools necessary for effectively reaching this growing subpopulation of students. In this study, A Developmental English Proficiency Test (ADEPT), a language assessment…

  9. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  10. National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report: Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress. Draft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP) standards aligned with language demands of…

  11. Literacy-Based Technology Support for Post-Secondary Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakimchuk, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The academic performance of many international students admitted to Canadian universities is undermined by the students' English language proficiency. The goal of this study was to improve English language proficiency of post-secondary second-language learners (SLLs) through the use of literacy-based assistive technology. Fifty-four participants…

  12. Leadership Practice in Elementary School Dual Language Programs: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Joanie K.

    2012-01-01

    Research in effective programming for English language learners has demonstrated the efficacy of dual language education as a model for closing persistent achievement gaps for this growing population of students. With goals of high academic achievement, linguistic proficiency in two languages, and cross-cultural proficiency, dual language…

  13. Assessing English Language Learners' Opportunity to Learn Mathematics: Issues and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Herman, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: English language learner (ELL) students are lagging behind because of the extra challenges they face relative to their peers in acquiring academic English language proficiency, and the added burden of learning content in a language in which they are not proficient. The mandated inclusion of ELL students in the nation's…

  14. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.

  15. The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: an fMRI study during verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin; Paulesu, Eraldo; Brambati, Simona; Scifo, Paola; Cappa, Stefano F; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2003-07-01

    We assessed the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on the cerebral correlates of lexical retrieval in high-proficient, early-acquisition bilinguals. Functional MRI was used to study Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired either Spanish or Catalan as a first language in the first years of life. Subjects were exposed to the second language at 3 years of age, and have used both languages in daily life since then. Subjects had a comparable level of proficiency in the comprehension of both languages. Lexical retrieval with the verbal fluency task resulted in the well-established pattern of left hemispheric activation centered on the inferior frontal region. The effect of age of acquisition was assessed by dividing the subjects into two groups, on the basis of the language acquired first (Catalan-born or Spanish-born bilinguals). Functional comparisons indicated that less extensive brain activation was associated with lexical retrieval in the language acquired earlier in life. The two groups were also different in language usage/exposure, as assessed with a specific questionnaire; in particular, the exposure to the second language (Spanish) was less intensive in the case of Catalans. This was reflected in a significant interaction, indicating a more extensive activation in Catalans during production in Spanish. Overall, these results indicate that, during a production task, both age of acquisition and language exposure affect the pattern of brain activation in bilinguals, even if both languages are acquired early and with a comparable level of proficiency.

  16. Evidence That International Undergraduates Can Succeed Academically Despite Struggling with English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2015-01-01

    Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…

  17. Developing the Assessment Literacy of University Proficiency Test Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing use of English language proficiency test scores by universities around the world to select international students has resulted in a range of admissions, marketing, academic and teaching support staff interacting with the tests in different ways. To date, there has been little research investigating the assessment literacy…

  18. Cooperative Learning with Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn; Mattson, Beverly

    Theory and research indicate that cooperative learning methods may provide a way to help limited-English-proficient (LEP) students achieve academically and develop the English language skills necessary for successful classroom functioning. The method involves small groups of two to six students in tasks that require cooperation and positive…

  19. High proficiency in a second language is characterized by greater involvement of the first language network: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A; Booth, James R

    2013-10-01

    The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters.

  20. Helping ELLs Meet Standards in English Language Arts and Science: An Intervention Focused on Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…

  1. The Secondary School English Language Reading Curriculum: A Teacher's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Hazlina; Rahman, Nik Suryani Nik Abdul; Adnan, Airil Haimi Mohd

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, the issue of weak and non-proficient graduates is a pressing matter. This implies that they are not well-equipped to cope with academic literacy, which is closely related to their language proficiency, as the main medium of instruction at most higher institutions is the English language. At this level, reading is the essence of…

  2. The Link between Academic Success and L2 Proficiency in the Context of Two Professional Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Doreen; Raymond, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on two studies conducted at the same university, one investigating the link between ESL scores on an advanced ESL test and the grade point average (GPA) obtained over two semesters and the other investigating the link between French second language (FSL) scores on an advanced L2 test and both the number of courses failed and…

  3. Designing Oral Participation in Second Life--A Comparative Study of Two Language Proficiency Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutschmann, Mats; Panichi, Luisa; Molka-Danielsen, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The following paper presents two stages of an action research project involving two oral proficiency courses held in the virtual world Second Life. Course 1 was conducted during the Autumn of 2007. Based on the experiences of this course, we redesigned many aspects of it in order to improve student activity in terms of oral participation and gave…

  4. The Role of Language Proficiency in Self-Related Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Zarei, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level on their self-related personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy). To this end, 141 English major students, male and female, studying at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) and Kar Non-profit University in Qazvin, Iran were…

  5. Second Language Vocabulary Learning: The Role of Context versus Translations as a Function of Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Discusses an experiment in testing college students in France on their recall of newly learned English words in order to compare the advantages and disadvantages of context and translation learning as a function of learner proficiency. Results reveal a superiority of translation learning in terms of quantity, but an inability of weaker learners to…

  6. Examining the Relationship between TELPAS Reading and TAKS Reading for Students with Limited English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin; Harrell, Scott; Carman, Carol A.; Lyles, Lance

    2012-01-01

    In the performance-driven culture of education today, though arguments regarding the definition of student success abound, few argue its importance. This issue is complicated with an additional dimension for those who are learning English as a second language. For those students who lack proficiency in the English language, academic content must…

  7. Language Lateralisation in Late Proficient Bilinguals: A Lexical Decision fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haeme R. P.; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Waldie, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half the world's population can now speak more than one language. Understanding the neural basis of language organisation in bilinguals, and whether the cortical networks involved during language processing differ from that of monolinguals, is therefore an important area of research. A main issue concerns whether L2 (second language)…

  8. The Role of Peer Facilitator in Enhancing English Language Proficiency in a Simulated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nur Salina; Atek, Engku Suhaimi Engku; Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff; Mohamad, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    For many learners, language class can be anxiety-provoking than other courses. Mostly, university students are seen to have language anxiety especially in their second language learning. They tend to be nervous when using English language in the formal situation like in classroom. English Outdoor Programme (EOP) in 2011 as part of informal setting…

  9. The Reading Strategies of Proficient and Less Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Faizah Abdul; Azman, Norzaini; Jelas, Zalizan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the choice and use of academic reading strategies of adult learners who were identified as proficient and less proficient readers. The major objective was to explore the potential influence of their adult characteristics on their use of their academic reading strategies. Data were gathered using…

  10. Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in an ASL/English Bilingual Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing…

  11. How Language Proficiency Tests Mislead Us about Ability: Implications for English Language Learner Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macswan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that English language learner (ELL) language assessment policy and poor language tests partly account for ELLs' disproportionate representation in special education. Previous research indicates that many states routinely assess ELLs' first language (L1) at initial enrollment and that ELLs identified as limited in both languages…

  12. Long-Term English Language Learners' Perceptions of Their Language and Academic Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Won Gyoung; García, Shernaz B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term, adolescent English language learners (ELLs) experience persistent academic underachievement in spite of several years of schooling; yet, the research on this topic is scant. To increase our understanding of these students' educational experiences, we explored perceptions of 13 long-term ELLs about their schooling in the context of…

  13. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  14. A Philosophy for Assessing the Language Proficiency of Hearing-Impaired Students to Promote English Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed on bilingual education and its application to the education of hearing-impaired students. Assessment procedures for obtaining valid samples of language behavior, distinguishing between competence and performance, and considering language variation are emphasized. (CL)

  15. A Snapshot of Teacher Candidates' Readiness for Incorporating Academic Language in Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Woong; Moseley, Lauren Jeneva; Son, Ji-Won; Seelke, John

    2014-01-01

    With the national rollout of edTPA that champions language supports in content lessons, there is a renewed interest in academic language across disciplines and related pedagogy in the U.S. This study examines current knowledge of academic language demonstrated by teacher candidates at middle grades. An analysis (n = 42) of teacher candidates'…

  16. A Template Analysis of Teacher Agency at an Academically Successful Dual Language School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Juliet M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that dual language (DL) programs have the potential to foster both significant academic achievement and increased cultural awareness in the students they serve. As such, DL programs offer both language majority and language minority learners the opportunity to reach advanced levels of academic achievement. Nonetheless, the…

  17. Effect of the Affordances of a Virtual Environment on Second Language Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Heidy P. Cuervo

    2013-01-01

    The traditional language laboratory consists of computer-based exercises in which students practice the language individually, working on language form drills and listening comprehension activities. In addition to the traditional approach to the laboratory requirement, students in the study participated in a weekly conversation hour focusing on…

  18. How Deaf American Sign Language/English Bilingual Children Become Proficient Readers: An Emic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…

  19. Assessing Language Competence: Guidelines for Assisting Persons with Limited English Proficiency in Research and Clinical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Marcela C.; Reyes, Carla J.; Annett, Robert D.; Lopez, Edith M.

    2003-01-01

    Current guidelines indicate that therapeutic interactions must be in the client's primary language. This article addresses the ethical dilemmas faced by monolingual clinicians and researchers who must assess the foreign language competence of an interpreter. Guidelines are proposed for assessing language competence of staff in clinical and…

  20. Properties of Dual Language Exposure that Influence 2-Year-Olds' Bilingual Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Silvia; Hoff, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The mothers of 29 Spanish English bilingual 25-month-olds kept diary records of their children's dual language exposure and provided information on their children's English and Spanish language development using the MacArthur-Bates inventories. Relative amount of exposure predicted language outcomes in English and Spanish. In addition, the number…

  1. Bilingualism/Second-Language Research and the Assessment of Oral Proficiency in Minority Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges that researchers working in the fields of bilingualism and second-language acquisition (SLA) and in the field of language testing face in developing comparable and culturally and cognitively appropriate data collection and language assessment tools for bilingual children from rural minority-language…

  2. Voice over Instant Messaging as a Tool for Enhancing the Oral Proficiency and Motivation of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Gamble, Jeffrey; Tang, Shiun-Yi S.

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of providing authentic experiences and interactions for fostering oral proficiency and motivation in foreign languages is an opportunity for innovation in educational technology and instructional design. Although several recent innovations have received the attention of scholars, empirical investigation and validation is often…

  3. Job-Related Language Training for Limited English Proficient Employees: A Handbook for Program Developers and A Guide for Decision Makers in Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert J.; And Others

    This two-part manual is designed to assist employers who desire to retain, promote, or retrain their limited-English-proficient (LEP) workforce to meet the challenge of training and adaptation to job restructuring. This document contains manuals for both English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program developers and business/industry decision makers.…

  4. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  5. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. First Year Report on Language Minority and Limited English Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Marc; Puma, Michael

    This report presents descriptive findings from the Language Minority/Limited English Proficiency Student Supplement of "Prospects," a six-year longitudinal evaluation concerning the impact of federal Chapter 1 programs. These programs provide supplemental instruction to low-achieving elementary and secondary school students in low-income schools.…

  6. The Effects of Classroom Interaction Patterns and Student Characteristics on the Acquisition of Proficiency in English as a Second Language. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Meredith K.; McDonald, Frederick J.

    A study to determine the effects of certain teaching methods on English proficiency is summarized. Participants were students and teachers of English as a second language at the West New York (New Jersey) Adult Learning Center. A pretest, observation, post test design was used. Data on student background characteristics such as age, sex, previous…

  7. The Development of Instructional Materials for Vocational Personnel Serving Students Who Are Speakers of Other Languages and Have Limited English Proficiency. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamsky, Richard A.; And Others

    The first part of this document provides a brief account of a project to develop learning modules on the microcomputer and the microscope for use with limited English-proficient speakers of other languages who are enrolled in vocational education courses. The bulk of the document consists of appendixes presenting the modules themselves. The…

  8. National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report: Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    The "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP)…

  9. A Comparison of Two Standardized Reading and Mathematics Achievement Tests in the Native Language for Hispanic Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Carlos M.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to examine psychometric properties of "La Prueba Riverside de Realizacion en Espanol" (PRRE) and the "Spanish Assessment of Basic Education" (SABE) when administered to a sample of limited-English-proficient students, grades 1 through 8. Spanish-language versions of both tests were used for the study. Subjects included a…

  10. Initial Perceptions of English as a Second Language Educators on Including Students with Limited English Proficiency in Minnesota's High Standards. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie; Liu, Kristin; Thurlow, Martha

    This report presents findings from an investigation of the perceptions, beliefs, and expectations of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) educators as they work toward including students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's High Standards. More and more states are implementing standards-based educational systems in which all…

  11. The Role of Proficiency and Social Context on the Grade-6 Students' Acquisition of French as a Second Official Language in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I report on the findings of a study that compared the French as a second official language (FSOL) proficiency of three groups of Grade-6 students in English-dominant Canada: Canadian-born monolingual English-speaking students, Canadian-born bilingual students and immigrant bilingual students (IMBs). The goal of the study was to…

  12. Reading-Writing Relationships in First and Second Language Academic Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…

  13. When do speakers use gesture to specify who does what to whom? The role of language proficiency and type of gesture in narratives

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing Chee; Kita, Sotaro; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that iconic gestures (i.e., gestures that depict the actions, motions or shapes of entities) identify referents that are also lexically specified in the co-occurring speech produced by proficient speakers. This study examines whether concrete deictic gestures (i.e., gestures that point to physical entities) bear a different kind of relation to speech, and whether this relation is influenced by the language proficiency of the speakers. Two groups of speakers who had different levels of English proficiency were asked to retell a story in English. Their speech and gestures were transcribed and coded. Our findings showed that proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures for referents that were not specified in speech, and iconic gestures for referents that were specified in speech, suggesting that these two types of gestures bear different kinds of semantic relations with speech. In contrast, less proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures and iconic gestures whether or not referents were lexically specified in speech. Thus, both type of gesture and proficiency of speaker need to be considered when accounting for how gesture and speech are used in a narrative context. PMID:23337950

  14. E?ffects of English Language Proficiency on the Choice of Language Learning Strategies by Saudi English-Major Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javid, Choudhary Z.; Al-thubaiti, Turki S.; Uthman, Awwadh

    2013-01-01

    It is reported that language learning is a creative and dynamic process and the learners are active partners in this process. This trend in language teaching motivated the researchers to investigate the learners' individual differences and the identification of language learning strategies (LLS) has become a major area of interest in this regard…

  15. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese) and second-language (L2, English) proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time distributions in the Simon and Simon switching tasks. Bilinguals' L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in μ), and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ) regardless of trial types in the Simon task. Bilinguals' L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants' age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in μ. In contrast, neither bilinguals' L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants' age, only (a) scores in the working memory task and (b) RT in incongruent trials and (c) Simon effect in μ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children's L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies. PMID:25232345

  16. Williams syndrome: a surprising deficit in oromotor praxis in a population with proficient language production.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Bergström, Lina; Alcock, Katherine J; Dick, Frederic; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of known genetic origin, characterized by serious delays in language onset yet relatively verbose, intelligible and fluent speech in late childhood and adulthood. How do motor abilities relate to language in this group? We investigated planning and co-ordination of the movement of the speech articulators (oromotor praxis) in 28 fluent-speaking individuals with WS, aged between 12 and 30 years. Results indicate that, despite their fluent language, oromotor praxis was impaired in WS relative to two groups of typically-developing children, matched on either vocabulary or visuospatial ability. These findings suggest that the ability to plan, co-ordinate and execute complex sensorimotor movements contribute to an explanation of the delay in expressive language early in development in this neurodevelopmental disorder. In the discussion, we turn to more general issues of how individual variation in oromotor praxis may account for differences in speech/language production abilities across developmental language disorders.

  17. Effects of sex and proficiency in second language processing as revealed by a large-scale fNIRS study of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in adults have revealed that first and second languages (L1/L2) share similar neural substrates, and that proficiency is a major determinant of the neural organization of L2 in the lexical-semantic and syntactic domains. However, little is known about neural substrates of children in the phonological domain, or about sex differences. Here, we conducted a large-scale study (n = 484) of school-aged children using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and a word repetition task, which requires a great extent of phonological processing. We investigated cortical activation during word processing, emphasizing sex differences, to clarify similarities and differences between L1 and L2, and proficiency-related differences during early L2 learning. L1 and L2 shared similar neural substrates with decreased activation in L2 compared to L1 in the posterior superior/middle temporal and angular/supramarginal gyri for both sexes. Significant sex differences were found in cortical activation within language areas during high-frequency word but not during low-frequency word processing. During high-frequency word processing, widely distributed areas including the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in boys, while more restricted areas, excluding the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in girls. Significant sex differences were also found in L2 proficiency-related activation: activation significantly increased with proficiency in boys, whereas no proficiency-related differences were found in girls. Importantly, cortical sex differences emerged with proficiency. Based on previous research, the present results indicate that sex differences are acquired or enlarged during language development through different cognitive strategies between sexes, possibly reflecting their different memory functions.

  18. How deaf American Sign Language/English bilingual children become proficient readers: an emic perspective.

    PubMed

    Mounty, Judith L; Pucci, Concetta T; Harmon, Kristen C

    2014-07-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from learning to read to reading to learn. Analysis of 12 interactive, semi-structured interviews identified informal and formal teaching and learning practices in ASL/English bilingual homes and classrooms. These practices value, reinforce, and support the bidirectional acquisition of both languages and provide a strong foundation for literacy.

  19. Effect of Developing Pragmatic Competence through Telecollaboration on Improving English as Foreign Language Learners' Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…

  20. Bilingualism, Language Proficiency, and Learning to Read in Two Writing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Luk, Gigi

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and four 5- and 6-year-olds who were monolingual English-, bilingual English-Chinese-, or Chinese-speaking children beginning to learn English (2nd-language learners) were compared on phonological awareness and word decoding tasks in English and Chinese. Phonological awareness developed in response to language exposure and instruction…

  1. Ethnolinguistic Vitality, Self-Confidence and Second Language Proficiency: An Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Normand; Clement, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Ninth-grade Francophone students (N=95) living in a bicultural milieu responded to tests including scales of ethnolinguistic vitality, attitudes, motivation, self-confidence, and second language competence and usage. Analyses indicated that contact with Anglophones and self-confidence with English as a second language were related to motivation,…

  2. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  3. How Bilingual Is Bilingual? Mother-Tongue Proficiency and Learning through a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Zeliha; Ilter, Binnur Genc; Glover, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In a bilingual context, the mother tongue plays a key role in a child's social and personal development, in education and in second-language learning. There is a complex relationship between these three areas. Support for children receiving education through a second language is often in the form of additional learning opportunities in the second…

  4. The Influence of Second Language Experience and Accent Familiarity on Oral Proficiency Rating: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether raters' knowledge of test takers' first language (L1) affects how the raters orient themselves to the task of rating oral speech. The authors qualitatively investigated the effects of accent familiarity on raters' score assignment processes. Twenty-six trained raters with a second language of Mandarin…

  5. Foreign Languages: Human Capital Approach Needed To Correct Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoff, Joseph A.

    This report examines the use of foreign language skills within the Army, Department of State, Department of Commerce's Foreign Commercial Service, and Federal Bureau of Investigation, discussing the nature and impact of foreign language shortages, strategies for addressing these shortages, and efforts to address current and projected shortages.…

  6. Syntactic Complexity Measures and Their Relation to Oral Proficiency in Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwashita, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    The study reported in this article is a part of a large-scale study investigating syntactic complexity in second language (L2) oral data in commonly taught foreign languages (English, German, Japanese, and Spanish; Ortega, Iwashita, Rabie, & Norris, in preparation). In this article, preliminary findings of the analysis of the Japanese data are…

  7. The Impact of an Instructional Intervention on the Science and Language Learning of Middle Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Branum-Martin, Lee; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention--Quality English and Science Teaching (QuEST)--designed to develop the science knowledge and academic language of middle grades English language learners studying science in their second language and their English-proficient classmates. Both English language learners and…

  8. The Correlates of Academic Performance for English Language Learner Students in a New England District. REL 2014-020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. The study found that ELL students in special education had English proficiency scores significantly lower than the mean for all ELL students…

  9. State Funding Mechanisms for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…

  10. Using Academic Language to Level the Playing Field for English-Language Learners in Physical Education: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the common core emphasis on English language art and mathematics skills, physical educators are faced with a challenging task. Educators, in general, are expected to identifying the language demands of their discipline and develop academic language skills within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to prepare…

  11. Using Academic Language to Level the Playing Field for English Language Learners in Physical Education: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The common core, with its emphasis on the development of English language art and mathematics skills and literacy, presents challenges for teachers of all subjects. Academic language is expected to be developed within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to identify the language demands of their discipline and prepare…

  12. Looking into a Crystal Ball: Is Requiring High-Stakes Language Proficiency Tests Really Going to Improve World Language Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Brigid M.

    2013-01-01

    Brigid Burke is the program coordinator of World Language Education at her university, which is housed in the College of Education and Human Development. Since obtaining this position 4 years ago, she has become most concerned about certain recommendations that were made by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) in 2002,…

  13. Differential Effect of Social-Emotional Behaviors on Academic Achievement of Language-Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youngji

    2014-01-01

    Background: Language minority students, who are mostly immigrant students tend to perform at lower levels in school and to be at risk of school failure when they are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Objective: Based on the previous studies that addressed the importance of students' social skills for school success, I examined the social…

  14. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  15. Williams syndrome: A surprising deficit in oromotor praxis in a population with proficient language production

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Saloni; Bergström, Lina; Alcock, Katherine J.; Dick, Frederic; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of known genetic origin, characterized by serious delays in language onset yet relatively verbose, intelligible and fluent speech in late childhood and adulthood. How do motor abilities relate to language in this group? We investigated planning and co-ordination of the movement of the speech articulators (oromotor praxis) in 28 fluent-speaking individuals with WS, aged between 12 and 30 years. Results indicate that, despite their fluent language, oromotor praxis was impaired in WS relative to two groups of typically-developing children, matched on either vocabulary or visuospatial ability. These findings suggest that the ability to plan, co-ordinate and execute complex sensorimotor movements contribute to an explanation of the delay in expressive language early in development in this neurodevelopmental disorder. In the discussion, we turn to more general issues of how individual variation in oromotor praxis may account for differences in speech/language production abilities across developmental language disorders. PMID:25433223

  16. Bilingualism and the increased attentional blink effect: evidence that the difference between bilinguals and monolinguals generalizes to different levels of second language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Khare, Vatsala; Verma, Ark; Kar, Bhoomika; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The attentional blink task involves rapid serial presentation of visual stimuli, two of which the participants have to report. The usual finding is that participants are impaired at reporting the second target if it appears in close temporal proximity to the first target. Previous research has shown that the effect is stronger in bilinguals than monolinguals. We investigated whether the difference between monolinguals and proficient bilinguals can be extended to bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Therefore, we replicated the paradigm in a large sample of Hindi-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels of English, as measured with a validated vocabulary test. We additionally measured the participants' intelligence with the raven progressive matrices. We found that the size of the attentional blink effect correlates with the degree of second language proficiency and not with the degree of intelligence. This indicates that research on executive control functions can be done with bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Our results are also in line with recent findings showing that the attentional blink effect is not primarily due to limited processing resources.

  17. Confounds in Assessing the Associations between Biliteracy and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been theorized, if not exhaustively researched, that bilingualism and biliteracy are beneficial in promoting linguistic and academic gains; but the operationalization of these constructs is confounding. In the current study, the authors worked with 118 Spanish-English bilingual Latina/o students and investigated whether Spanish-English…

  18. Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Kathy; Ettrich, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks are organized by division: kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, grades 7-9, and grades 10-12. They are descriptors of language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The descriptors are arranged in a continuum of seven language competences across five proficiency levels. Several…

  19. A Proposed Pedagogical Approach for Preparing Teacher Candidates to Incorporate Academic Language in Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Woong; Stallings, Lynn; Kim, Dong Joong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present issues related to prioritizing academic language in teaching performance assessments and to propose a pedagogical approach that prepares middle grades mathematics teacher candidates to teach academic language. Based on our experience with teacher candidates and our knowledge of edTPA standards involving…

  20. Genre-Based Curricula: Multilingual Academic Literacy in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses academic literacy in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) secondary education. More precisely, this paper focuses on attempts to meet modern standards for language competences set in areas like Europe, where the notion involves multilingual academic competence. The study centres on new proposals for language…

  1. Academic Language in Shared Book Reading: Parent and Teacher Input to Mono- and Bilingual Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Rian; Demir-Vegter, Serpil; Kurvers, Jeanne; Henrichs, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined academic language (AL) input of mothers and teachers to 15 monolingual Dutch and 15 bilingual Turkish-Dutch 4- to 6-year-old children and its relationships with the children's language development. At two times, shared book reading was videotaped and analyzed for academic features: lexical diversity, syntactic…

  2. The Academic English Language Needs of Industrial Design Students in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adzmi, Nor Aslah; Bidin, Samsiah; Ibrahim, Syazliyati; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the academic English language lacks and needs of Industrial Design students in Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah (UiTM). It highlights the lacks and needs for English for Academic Purposes in helping the students to succeed in the program through the usage of English language. The research tools used were in…

  3. Perceptual context and individual differences in the language proficiency of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children.

  4. The effect of in-service English education on medical professionals’ language proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Samad; Ahmadi, Majid; Heidarpour, Maryam; Yakta, Ali Salahi; Khadembashi, Naghmeh; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians’ heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. Materials and Methods: A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the promotion of faculty members’ English proficiency was formulated. Then, following a placement test, 235 applicants from the university colleges and hospitals were classified into 28 homogeneous groups. After four terms of instruction, the participants’ scores on the pre- and post- assessments were analyzed. Results: There was significant improvement in participants’ total scores on different communicative skills (P<0.001). Regarding individual skills also, they achieved meaningful gains on listening (P<0.001), writing (P = 0.038), and grammar (P<0.001), but failed to progress significantly on reading comprehension (P = 0.523). Conclusion: The administration of in-service education for skill-oriented courses, over a long period, can be quite encouraging and should be further strengthened. Regular instructions on each individual skill on the one hand and on their combination on the other are essential for success in such education. PMID:23264797

  5. Challenges Facing Chinese Academic Staff in a UK University in Terms of Language, Relationships and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hui-hua

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…

  6. Modelling Learning Difficulty and Second Language Proficiency: The Differential Contributions of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    This article re-examines the question of what makes some grammatical structures more difficult to learn than others, arguing that this question can only be properly understood and investigated with reference to the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language. Using a battery of tests that were designed to measure…

  7. Enhancing the Interpretability of the Overall Results of an International Test of English-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…

  8. Experience Effects on the Development of Late Second Language Learners' Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of second language (L2) experience--operationalized as length of residence (LOR) in Canada--on late Japanese learners of English. Data collected from 65 participants consisted of three groups of learners (short-, mid-, and long-LOR groups) and two baseline groups of native Japanese and native…

  9. Age of Acquisition and Proficiency as Factors in Language Production: Agreement in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Research on the production of subject-verb number agreement in monolinguals suggests differences between and within languages in how it proceeds as a function of morphological richness. When agreement morphology is relatively rich, the influence of conceptual number over grammatical number is less than when it is relatively poor. Within the…

  10. The Use of Latent Trait Methods To Examine Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Adult Migrant Education Service (AMES) of Victoria, Australia provides courses in English as a Second Language to non-English speaking migrants. Reviews currently under way are attempting to determine the effectiveness of this program and to find ways that might be used to help teachers assess the development of the students and to diagnose…

  11. Widening Participation and English Language Proficiency: A Convergence with Implications for Assessment Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The widening participation agenda has important implications for those in English-medium higher education institutions responsible for the provision of English language support. Importantly, given the diverse nature of the "non-traditional" student cohort that is the focus of this agenda, that section of the student population…

  12. English Language Proficiency and Employment: A Case Study of Bangladeshi Graduates in Australian Employment Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roshid, Mohammod Moninoor; Chowdhury, Raqib

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied…

  13. Improving Academic Achievement through Building Self-Esteem in At-Risk Limited English Proficient Ninth Grade Haitian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Gloria H.

    A self-esteem building program was developed and implemented to reduce the failure and potential dropout rate of limited English proficient 9th-grade Haitian students (N=15) who were enrolled in bilingual classes and were selected based on recommendations from their bilingual teachers, referrals for behavior problems, and failure in two or more…

  14. Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…

  15. Event-Related Brain Potentials and Second Language Learning: Syntactic Processing in Late L2 Learners at Different L2 Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2 proficiency? In this article, we review studies that…

  16. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…

  17. Learning Strategies and Motivation among Procrastinators of Various English Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Yoshiko; Yamada, Masanori; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Our research project focuses on learning strategies and motivation among academic procrastinators in computer assisted language learning (CALL) settings. In this study, we aim to compare them according to students' levels of English proficiency. One hundred and fourteen university students participated in this research project. Sixty-four students…

  18. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…

  19. Examining the Dependability of Academic Achievement Measures for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2008-01-01

    The dependability of academic achievement measures for English language learners (ELLs) is influenced by three facts: (a) Each ELL has unique strengths and weaknesses in each language mode (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) both in English and in his or her first language, (b) each test item poses a different set of linguistic demands…

  20. Polylingual and Polycultural Learning Ecologies: Mediating Emergent Academic Literacies for Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Bien, Andrea C.; Selland, Makenzie K.; Pierce, Daisy M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the affordances of polylingual and polycultural learning ecologies in expanding the linguistic repertoires of children, particularly young Dual Language Learners. In contrast to settings that promote the development of English and academic language at the expense of maintaining and developing home language, we argue…