Science.gov

Sample records for academic language proficiency

  1. English Language Proficiency and Teacher Judgments of the Academic and Interpersonal Competence of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Miranda E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…

  2. Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement. Multilingual Matters 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Ed.

    Selected papers from a symposium that was a component of the National Institute of Education's Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons Project are presented. The project's objectives were to pursue basic research on the nature of language proficiency and its measurement and to provide teachers with current knowledge of language…

  3. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729

  4. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.

  5. A Culpable CALP: Rethinking the Conversational/Academic Language Proficiency Distinction in Early Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aukerman, Maren

    2007-01-01

    For second-language learners, "academic" language and "social" language are inextricably interwoven. Using examples from several primary classrooms, the author critiques current conceptualizations of second-language learning that distinguish between basic interpersonal communication skills and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). She…

  6. Negotiating the World: Some Philosophical Considerations on Dealing with Differential Academic Language Proficiency in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goor, Roel; Heyting, Frieda

    2008-01-01

    Differential academic language proficiency is an issue of major educational concern, bearing on problems varying from pupil performance, to social prospects, and citizenship. In this paper we develop a conception of the language-acquiring subject, and we discuss the consequences for understanding differential language proficiency in schools.…

  7. Language Proficiency and Academic Success: The Refugee/Immigrant in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosher, Susan; Rowekamp, Jenise

    There has been a growing awareness and concern in recent years about the language proficiency and academic preparedness of refugee/immigrant students at the post-secondary level. Using this population at the General College, University of Minnesota, as subjects, this paper investigate's the relationship between English language proficiency, as…

  8. Investigating Correspondence between Language Proficiency Standards and Academic Content Standards: A Generalizability Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chih-Kai; Zhang, Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Research on the relationship between English language proficiency standards and academic content standards serves to provide information about the extent to which English language learners (ELLs) are expected to encounter academic language use that facilitates their content learning, such as in mathematics and science. Standards-to-standards…

  9. Language Proficiency as a Moderator Variable in Testing Academic Aptitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Donald L.

    1982-01-01

    Puerto Rican students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA), and the Pruebas de Aprovechamiento Academico. The strength of the relationship between scores on the SAT given in English and the PAA given in Spanish increased as proficiency in English as a second language increased (Author/BW)

  10. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  11. Spanish Academic Language Proficiency: The Case of Bilingual Education Teachers in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines key educational policies and practices that limit opportunities for bilingual education teachers to obtain academic language proficiency in Spanish. Bilingual-education teacher training cannot make up for ground lost by educators who lack prior attainment of math and science Spanish-language skills. Effective Spanish-language competency…

  12. Academic discourse: Dissociating standardized and conversational measures of language proficiency in bilingual kindergarteners.

    PubMed

    Peets, Kathleen F; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between performance on standardized measures of language proficiency and conversational measures of the same features used in academic discourse among 24 monolingual and 25 bilingual kindergarteners. Academic discourse performance was considered for both its linguistic and its genre features in two discourse forms: narrative and explanation. Bilinguals performed more poorly than monolinguals on standardized measures of language proficiency, yet they performed similarly to monolinguals in the discourse-based linguistic and genre features. Moreover, genre features were more strongly related to linguistic features assessed through discourse than to standardized tests of these same features. These findings indicate that standardized measures of language proficiency underrepresent the abilities of bilingual children and that children's second language proficiency may be more accurately reflected in conversation.

  13. Beyond Vocabulary: Exploring Cross-Disciplinary Academic-Language Proficiency and Its Association with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Barr, Christopher D.; Meneses, Alejandra; Dobbs, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long-standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic-language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic-language…

  14. Native Language Proficiency, English Literacy, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment in Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Latent Growth Modeling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, R. Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that native language (L1) proficiency promotes English acquisition and overall academic achievement, a key theoretical assumption underlying bilingual education, was tested using latent growth modeling of data from 899 limited-English-proficient (LEP) eighth graders who were followed for 12 years in the National Education…

  15. The Effects of the Extended Foreign Language Programs on Spanish-Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Abella, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of a two-way immersion bilingual program on maintenance/acquisition of Spanish-language proficiency and on reading and mathematics achievement in English over a period of 4 academic years. The researchers used Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques to compare the effects of two different…

  16. Assessing Language Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman-Marr, Annette

    A study compared two methods for assessing English proficiency of limited-English-proficient school-age children, for purposes of placement in bilingual and monolingual education programs. The two instruments used were the Idea Oral Language Proficiency Test (forms C and D) (IPT), which assesses oral English proficiency, and the Woodcock-Munoz…

  17. Theory to Practice: Cultivating Academic Language Proficiency in Developmental Reading Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Heather N.

    2015-01-01

    Academic language plays a key role in reading comprehension, disciplinary thinking, and overall academic success. However, many approaches to teaching academic language, such as a focus on academic vocabulary, overlook other language features that can pose challenges for students. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), arguably one of the three…

  18. The Relationship between English Language Proficiency, Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Non-Native-English-Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…

  19. Exploring Domain-General and Domain-Specific Linguistic Knowledge in the Assessment of Academic English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romhild, Anja; Kenyon, Dorry; MacGregor, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of domain-general and domain-specific linguistic knowledge in the assessment of academic English language proficiency using a latent variable modeling approach. The goal of the study was to examine if modeling of domain-specific variance results in improved model fit and well-defined latent factors. Analyses were…

  20. A Comparative Study of Six North Texas School Districts and Their Effects on English Language Learners' Acquisition of English Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopes, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine predictor variables significant in developing English Language Learners' (ELLs) English language proficiency skills and academic achievement in reading, math, and writing. Using a sequential mixed methods design, the study sought to unveil how state and federal mandates in assessments and programmatic…

  1. Spanish Academic Language Proficiency of Bilingual Education Teachers: Is There Equity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Explains why it is difficult for the majority of bilingual-education teachers to develop teacher-like proficiency in Spanish in the context of the United States. Explores the "subtractive" orientation of U.S. society toward bilingualism that favors replacing the native language with English. (SLD)

  2. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  3. Conceptualizing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Songren

    1993-01-01

    Discusses both Canale's and Bachman's theoretical frameworks of language proficiency (LP). These theories share the same standpoint: language use for communication is dynamic; LP is both knowledge and skills; and LP includes at least grammatical competence, discourse/textual competence, and sociolinguistic competence. (Contains 38 references.) (JP)

  4. Measuring Academic Language Proficiency in School-Age English Language Proficiency Assessments under New College and Career Readiness Standards in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…

  5. The Construct of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.; de Jong, John H. A. L., Ed.

    A collection of essays on first and second language proficiency from the fields of psychology and linguistics includes the following: "Modeling and Assessing Language Proficiency" (John H. A. L. de Jong, Ludo Verhoeven); "The Construct of Grammar in Early Language Development" (Folkert Kuiken); "Dimensions in Grammatical Proficiency" (Wim H. J.…

  6. English Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement of International Students: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongtrirat, Rachawan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to determine the impact of English language on the academic achievement of international students in higher education institutions in the United States. The results of these investigations have been varied and at times contradictory. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate studies from 1987-2009 that…

  7. Testing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L., Ed.; Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the 1974 Washington Language Testing Sumposium. The volume also includes much of the discussion that followed each paper. The participants were an international group of language testing specialists from academic institutions, research centers, and government agencies. The primary focus…

  8. The Oral Language Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    This booklet describes the test used by the federal government to determine oral proficiency in a foreign language. The test is essentially an oral interview, conducted by two testers, and lasting from 15 to 30 minutes, although the format can vary. Proficiency levels range from 0 (for no practical speaking proficiency) to 5 (for speaking…

  9. Science as a second language: Analysis of Emergent Bilinguals performance and the impact of English language proficiency and first language characteristics on the Colorado measures of academic success for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Joanna K.

    In an age when communication is highly important and states across the nation, including Colorado, have adopted Common Core State Standards, the need for academic language is even more important than ever. The language of science has been compared to a second language in that it uses specific discourse patterns, semantic rules, and a very specific vocabulary. There is a need for educators to better understand how language impacts academic achievement, specifically concerning Emergent Bilinguals (EBs). Research has identified the need to study the role language plays in content assessments and the impact they have on EBs performance (Abedi, 2008b; Abedi, Hofestter & Lord, 2004; Abedi & Lord, 2001). Since language is the means through which content knowledge is assessed, it is important to analyze this aspect of learning. A review of literature identified the need to create more reliable and valid content assessments for EBs (Abedi, 2008b) and to further study the impact of English proficiency on EBs performance on standardized assessments (Solorzano, 2008; Wolf, & Leon, 2009). This study contributes to the literature by analyzing EBs performance on a state-level science content assessment, taking into consideration English language proficiency, receptive versus productive elements of language, and students' home language. This study further contributes by discussing the relationship between language proficiency, and the different strands of science (physical, life, and earth) on the state science assessment. Finally, this study demonstrates that home language, English language proficiency, and receptive and productive elements of language are predictive of EBs' achievement on the CMAS for science, overall and by strand. It is the blending of the social (listening and speaking) with the academic (reading and writing) that is also important and possibly more important.

  10. Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…

  11. Explaining English Language Proficiency among Adolescent Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill, Avary; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Paez, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to increase understanding of factors that account for academic English language proficiency in a sample of 274 adolescent first-generation immigrant students from China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, and Mexico. Previous research has shown the importance of English language proficiency in predicting academic…

  12. Measures for Determining English Language Proficiency and the Resulting Implications for Instructional Provision and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Craig A.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Boals, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous English language proficiency (ELP) measures currently exist, many were developed prior to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). These pre-NCLB measures typically focused on social language proficiency, whereas post-NCLB measures are linked to ELP standards and focus on academic language proficiency (ALP). ELP measures are…

  13. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  14. The Relationship between Cognitive Academic Levels of Proficiency and Response to Intervention Tier Assignment and the Implications for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Bonery, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship(s) between a student's Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) levels of proficiency and Response to Intervention tier (RtI) assignment for academic instruction and the Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS) scores. The CALP levels were derived from…

  15. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  16. IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II), an individually-administered measure of speaking and listening proficiency in English as a Second Language designed for secondary school students, is described and discussed. The test consists of 91 items and requires 5-25 minutes to administer. Raw scores are converted to one of seven proficiency…

  17. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  18. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  19. Assessed Levels of Second Language Speaking Proficiency: How Distinct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwashita, Noriko; Brown, Annie; McNamara, Tim; O'Hagan, Sally

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper is an investigation of the nature of speaking proficiency in English as a second language in the context of a larger project to develop a rating scale for a new international test of English for Academic Purposes, TOEFL iBT (Brown et al. 2005). We report on a large-scale study of the relationship between detailed…

  20. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language...

  1. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  2. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2016-09-20

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.

  3. Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assessment and Accountability Comprehensive Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments" (Framework) was conceived as a critical tool in states' efforts to ensure that their English learner (EL) students achieve English language proficiency (ELP) and, also, achieve at high levels academically. Building on the best knowledge from relevant research…

  4. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  5. Academic Self-Efficacy, Social Relationships, and English Language Proficiency as Predictors of International Students' College Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldaba, Abir

    2016-01-01

    International students represent a significant proportion of the college student population in the United States (Institute of International Education, 2015). They contribute to campus research, diversity, and the economy. In order to maintain these academic, cultural, and economic profits, universities should investigate the factors related to…

  6. Beyond Linguistic Proficiency: Early Language Learning as a Lever for Building Students' Global Competence, Self-Esteem, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris

    2013-01-01

    It is no exaggeration to say that language learning is the very foundation of global competence and the most deeply effective way for students to be able to "investigate the world, recognize perspectives, communicate ideas, and take action," which is the definition of global competence developed by Asia Society Vice President for…

  7. International Student Security and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby

    2012-01-01

    "International student security" refers to the international student's maintenance of a stable capacity for self-determining human agency. The article focuses on the role of English-language proficiency in the security of students from English as Foreign Language countries, drawing on evidence from a program of semistructured interviews…

  8. Self-efficacy, foreign language anxiety as predictors of academic performance among professional program students in a general English proficiency writing test.

    PubMed

    Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2009-10-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.

  9. Profiles in Bilingualism: Factors Influencing Kindergartners' Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam

    2012-01-01

    Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…

  10. Fractionating English Language Proficiency: Policy and Practice in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Paul J.; Harrington, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Policy-makers and practitioners in Australian higher education increasingly view English language proficiency (ELP) as a tripartite construct consisting of English proficiency for academic study, interpersonal communication, and more recently, the workplace. This paper examines this assumption and identifies the significant implications it has for…

  11. Language anxiety and proficiency in a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L; Artzer, M; Siebenhar, D; Plageman, M

    1997-10-01

    Study examined the extent to which there would be differences in oral and written proficiency in a foreign language among groups of low-, average-, and high-anxious high school students. Participants were 60 girls attending a single-sex, college-preparatory high school and completing the second year of a foreign language course. Analysis showed over-all differences on measures of proficiency in the foreign language among the three groups. The results support the hypothesis that anxiety about foreign language learning is likely to represent students' differences in language learning.

  12. ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND THE FOREIGN STUDENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAPLAN, ROBERT B.

    THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY SHOULD NOT BE MADE A COLLEGE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENT FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS. HE ALSO BELIEVES, HOWEVER, THAT INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE NOT ABLE TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE TRAINING IN ENGLISH FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS SHOULD NOT ENCOURAGE THESE STUDENTS TO ENROLL. THE CONSORTIUM PLAN WHEREBY SCHOOLS WITH NO…

  13. Paper to Practice: Using the TESOL English Language Proficiency Standards in PreK-12 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Margo; Katz, Anne; Ernst-Slavit, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    Teachers of English language learners in 21st-century classrooms face a daunting task. The nature of language is complex, learners' needs are diverse, academic content challenges students, and the demand for accountability is an educational reality. "Paper to Practice: Using the TESOL English Language Proficiency Standards in PreK-12 Classrooms"…

  14. Issues in Language Proficiency Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rosaura; And Others

    Three papers on assessment and planning in bilingual education are presented. In "Language Theory Bases," Rosaura Sanchez advocates an approach toward child bilingual education that takes into account the relationship between the parallel domains of language development and cognitive development. An awareness of this relationship is…

  15. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities:…

  16. Migrant Students with Limited English Proficiency: Can Fast ForWord Language? Make a Difference in Their Language Skills and Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…

  17. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  18. Validity Issues in Assessing English Language Learners' Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Farnsworth, Tim; Herman, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP). Although states have moved rapidly to meet these requirements, they face…

  19. Assessment of Language Proficiency: Informing Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, JoAnn

    A discussion of language proficiency focuses on the conceptual framework for assessing proficiency and its implications for educational policy formation at the state and local levels. First, the concept of language is defined in terms of the interaction of these elements: language subsystems, communication skills, language domains, language…

  20. Advanced Low Language Proficiency--An Achievable Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.

    2013-01-01

    A standard of language proficiency recommended for world language preservice teachers has been set at advanced low as defined by the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requires that foreign language teacher candidates in specific languages (e.g., French, German, Spanish) achieve…

  1. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  2. Investigating Transfer of Academic Proficiency among Trilingual Immigrant Students: A Holistic Tri-Directional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…

  3. Within- and Cross-Language Relations between Oral Language Proficiency and School Outcomes in Bilingual Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen meta-analyses were conducted to examine relations of typically developing bilingual immigrant-background children's oral language proficiency in their first and second language with the school outcomes of early literacy (k = 41), reading (k = 61), spelling (k = 9), mathematics (k = 9), and academic achievement (k = 9). Moderate to strong…

  4. Language Proficiency and Language Policy in South Africa: Findings from New Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posel, Dorrit; Casale, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This study explores new data from 2008 on language proficiency and labour market outcomes in the context of South Africa's language-in-education policy. We show that the economic returns to English language proficiency are large and higher than those to home language proficiency for the majority of employed South Africans. This helps explain why…

  5. Foreign Language Proficiency in the Classroom and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Charles J., Ed.

    This collection of five essays and supporting material concerning foreign language proficiency makes specific and controversial statements about what proficiency means for diverse groups of practitioners: the classroom teacher, the curriculum developer, the language-learning researcher, the textbook publisher, and the businessperson. An…

  6. Test Review: Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment, a high stakes standardized test of the English language. It is a topic-based test that integrates listening, reading, writing and speaking. The test is designed to describe the level of English language proficiency of test takers planning to study at…

  7. Spanish for Spanish Speakers: Developing Dual Language Proficiency. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Lewelling, Vickie W.; Winke, Paula

    The increasing number of students who enter U.S. schools from homes where languages other than English are spoken, and the recognition that proficiency in non-English languages is a valuable national resource, have generated interest in the field of heritage language instruction. A heritage language student is a language student who is raised in a…

  8. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  9. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  10. Assessment of thinking style preferences and language proficiency for South African students whose native languages differ.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; de Boer, Ann-Louise

    2003-10-01

    The language proficiency of first-year students at the University of Pretoria (56 men and 59 women, M age=19.40 yr., SD=.80, range from 18.00 to 20.70) was assessed by means of the English Language Skills Assessment. More than one-third of the students did not show proficiency at Grade 10, as expected. This language assessment was not correlated with academic achievement equally well for students in a group. The diversity of thinking style preferences of the students enrolled in a language development course was also assessed on the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument. Scores indicated a range of thinking style preferences but the group's overall mean scores represented detail-oriented and feeling-based modes of thinking processes. These preferences were correlated with academic achievement and learning of languages. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that thinking styles could be a focus of educational strategies in South Africa, using the perspective that qualitatively different approaches to teaching might be associated with students' qualitatively different approaches to learning.

  11. Age at migration, language proficiency, and socioeconomic outcomes: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Guven, Cahit; Islam, Asadul

    2015-04-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of language proficiency on the economic and social integration of Australian immigrants. Identifying the effects of languages on socioeconomic outcomes is inherently difficult owing to the endogeneity of language skills. Using the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children, we construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. To achieve this, we consider the age at arrival of immigrants who came as children from Anglophone and non-Anglophone countries. We find a significant positive effect of English proficiency on wages and promotions among adults who immigrated to Australia as children. Higher levels of English proficiency are associated with increased risk-taking, more smoking, and more exercise for men, but have considerable health benefits for women. English language proficiency has a significant influence on partner choice and a number of social outcomes, as well as on children's outcomes, including their levels of academic achievement. The results are robust to alternative specifications, including accounting for between-sibling differences and alternative measures of English skills.

  12. Naming abilities in low-proficiency second language learners.

    PubMed

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a weakness in retrieval of phonological codes of words. The authors hypothesized that if naming ability is shared across languages, this difficulty would reemerge in L2 naming, which was tested using the tip-of-the-tongue experimental paradigm. Consistent with this hypothesis, low-proficiency L2 learners (n = 15) reported more tip-of-the-tongue states, more frequently mispronounced correctly retrieved words, and benefited less from phonological cuing compared to high-proficiency L2 learners (n = 23). It is notable that low-proficiency L2 learners performed worse than individuals with dyslexia (n = 16) on some of these measures, despite the same level of L2 proficiency. These results indicate that L2 naming difficulties of low-proficiency L2 learners are a manifestation not merely of their low L2 proficiency but rather of a general weakness in phonological word form retrieval, which is shared across languages. More broadly, the study provides further evidence for the existence of a distinct profile of cognitive weaknesses characteristic of the behavioral phenotype of low-proficiency L2 learners.

  13. Examining the Relationship between Math Scores and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…

  14. Understanding the Relationship between Language Proficiency, Language Impairment and Rehabilitation: Evidence from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…

  15. Relationship between English Language Learners' Proficiency in Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking and Proficiency on Maryland School Assessments in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…

  16. The Impact of Second Language Proficiency in Dyadic Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Mills, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used in second and foreign language writing contexts. While second language (L2) proficiency is likely to be an important factor in determining peers' ability to give and utilize feedback, its contribution has been relatively under-researched. In the present study, 54 undergraduates in a foreign language writing context…

  17. The Language Proficiency Handbook: A Practitioner's Guide to Instructional Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Margo

    This guide is useful for pre-kindergarten educators who work with second language students who wish to document their students' language development over time. Although the purposes may vary among various practitioners and audiences, overall this handbook is intended to provide guidance in how to capture students' language proficiency in reliable…

  18. Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) Framework Manual 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Commissioner's Rules Concerning the State Plan for Educating English Language Learners (ELLs) states that all school districts that are required to provide bilingual education and/or English as a second language (ESL) programs establish and operate a Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC). The LPACs are charged with reviewing all…

  19. PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards: An Augmentation of the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL International Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Using TESOL's 1997 landmark publication, ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 as a building block, the new 2006 PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards expands the scope and breadth of ESL content standards: (1) Connects language to the specific core curriculum content areas of English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies; (2)…

  20. Language Proficiency and Home Languages of Students in New York City Elementary and Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Conger, Dylan

    This report describes demographic characteristics and educational experiences of New York City's elementary and middle school students by English language proficiency and home language. It compares the characteristics and achievement of students who are limited English proficiency (LEP), most of whom: live in homes where a language other than…

  1. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  2. Home Language and Language Proficiency; A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study in Dutch Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; van der Slik, Frans; De Bot, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a large-scale longitudinal study into the development of language proficiency of Dutch primary school children aged 7-10. Data on language proficiency and a range of background variables were analyzed. Results suggest that while immigrant children develop their language skill in Dutch considerably over 2 years, they are nonetheless…

  3. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  4. Second Language Proficiency Assessment: Current Issues. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr., Ed.; Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.

    A collection of essays on current issues in the field of second language proficiency assessment includes: "The Unassimilated History" (Pardee Lowe, Jr.), which chronicles the development of proficiency testing; "A Research Agenda" (John L. D. Clark and John Lett), a discussion of research considerations and needs in proficiency testing; "Issues…

  5. Core Academic Language Skills: Moving beyond Vocabulary Knowledge to Predict Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…

  6. General Language Proficiency Revisited: Current and Future Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a number of key issues that emerged during the panel discussion that followed the General Language Proficiency Symposium at the Language Testing Forum (LTF) 2010, celebrating the 30th anniversary of the LTF. The key issues that emerged during the discussion should be of interest to a wider audience, as they express current…

  7. Naming Abilities in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a…

  8. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  9. MLA FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY TESTS FOR TEACHERS AND ADVANCED STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STARR, WILMARTH H.

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA) FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY TESTS FOR TEACHERS AND ADVANCED STUDENTS ARE THE SUBJECTS OF THIS FINAL PROJECT REPORT. FOLLOWING AN ACCOUNT OF THE EVENTS THAT LED TO THE AWARDING OF A GOVERNMENT CONTRACT TO MLA TO DEVELOP NATIONALLY STANDARDIZED QUALIFICATION TESTS AND A…

  10. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  11. An Examination of English Language Proficiency and Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Tammy C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…

  12. Dictation as a Measure of Spanish Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles

    Recent research by Valette, Oller, and others has shown the utility of dictation as a measure of general language competence when correlated with achievement and proficiency batteries for French and English as a second language. No such studies have been conducted with Spanish. The investigator hypothesized that since Spanish is a phonetic…

  13. "Bridging Activities," New Media Literacies, and Advanced Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Steven L.; Reinhardt, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    In this article we propose the pedagogical model "bridging activities" to address advanced foreign language proficiency in the context of existing and emerging internet communication and information tools and communities. The article begins by establishing the need for language and genre-focused activities at the advanced level that attend to the…

  14. Academic Language in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on defining academic language in physical education and provides a step-by-step approach designed to help preservice and inservice teachers understand and incorporated academic language into their lesson planning. It provides examples of discipline-specific vocabulary, language functions, syntax, and discourse, aiming to…

  15. When Can LEP Students Exit a BE/ESL Program: Predicting Academic Growth Using a Test That Measures Cognitive Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakeley, Cecilia; Urrabazo, Theresa; Yang, Hua

    This study looks at predicting the length of time the students in the Dallas Public School District (Texas) will remain in a limited English program. Student growth rates determined from 3 years of data were analyzed and compared to expected growth rates identified by the "Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey (WMLS)." The WMLS annual expected…

  16. English Learner Students' Readiness for Academic Success: The Predictive Potential of English Language Proficiency Assessment Scores in Arizona and Nevada. REL 2017-172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    When is the right moment to transition an English learner student from part-time participation in English language development classes into full-time participation in mainstream English-only classes? English learner students should be moved into full-time mainstream English-only classes when they are sufficiently fluent in English to be able to…

  17. Identity processing styles and language proficiency among Persian learners of English as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.

  18. Positioning Proficiency: How Students and Teachers (De)Construct Language Proficiency at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the social construction of proficiency and the discursive practices prevalent in linguistically diverse schools that afford or constrain participation in language learning communities. Drawing from discourse studies, positioning theory and a sociocultural framework, this study analyzed data from audio recordings and…

  19. Impact of the Proficiency Scale and the Oral Proficiency Interview on the Foreign Language Program at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Martha

    2003-01-01

    The ACTFL oral proficiency interview (OPI) and the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale provide both a testing method and a set of rating factors for evaluating proficiency. Both are closely related to actual language tasks identified as critical for government employees. Over time, the scale has been expanded to include four skills, a…

  20. ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines for the Less Commonly Taught Languages. A Familiarization Project for the Development of Proficiency Guidelines for Less Commonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.; Harman, Chip, Ed.

    A collection of papers on the use of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Guidelines for instruction and testing in less commonly taught languages includes: the 1986 ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines; "Testing Speaking Proficiency: The Oral Interview" (Pardee Lowe, Jr., Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro); a…

  1. Academic Language Barriers and Language Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Laura Gabriela Garcia

    2006-01-01

    The ability to access a foreign language can be an issue for academics trying to publish in international journals. The barriers that non-(limited)English-speaking academics in poor countries have in accessing the academic literature pose an issue of disadvantage in a world where the current trend is to publish research work mostly in English.…

  2. Statistical Profiling of Academic Oral English Proficiency Based on an ITA Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ick Kyu

    2013-01-01

    At the University of California, Los Angeles, the Test of Oral Proficiency (TOP), an internally developed oral proficiency test, is administered to international teaching assistant (ITA) candidates to ensure an appropriate level of academic oral English proficiency. Test taker performances are rated live by two raters according to four subscales.…

  3. ESL Learners, Writing and the Acquisition of Academic Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rashid A.; Zainuddin, Hanizah

    Most research conducted on the amount of time English language learners (ELLs) require for the acquisition of academic English suggests that 4-10 years are required to be near or on par with fully proficient English (FEP) peers. In this study, data from three administrations (1999, 2000, and 2001) of the FCAT writing test of the Florida Writing…

  4. Academic Proficiency in Children Following Early Congenital Heart Disease Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Melguizo, Maria S.; Reeves, Rachel N.; Rowell, Jacob A.; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school-age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at <1 year of age from 1/1/1998─12/31/2003 at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital were identified. Out-of-state births and infants with known genetic and/or neurologic conditions were excluded. Infants were matched to an Arkansas Department of Education database containing standardized assessments at early school-age and special education codes. Predictors for achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. 256 children who attended Arkansas public schools and had surgery as infants were included; 77.7% had either school-age achievement-test scores or special education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7–13% lower than Arkansas students (p<0.01). They had an 8-fold increase in the receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities (OR 10.66, 95% CI 4.23─22.35) or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95% CI 2.6─8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with reduced literacy proficiency and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with reduced mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments and many received special education. This is concerning since achievement- test scores at school-age are “real-world” predictors of long-term outcomes. PMID:24000004

  5. Native language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in elementary school. A measure of FL aptitude was administered at the beginning of ninth grade and FL proficiency was evaluated at the end of the 10th grade. Among the variables, NL literacy measures were the best predictors of FL proficiency, and NL achievement and general (verbal) intelligence were strong predictors of FL aptitude. Results suggest that indices of NL literacy as early as first grade are related to FL proficiency and FL aptitude nine and 10 years later. Findings provide strong support for connections between L1 and L2 skills, and for speculation that "lower level" skills in phonological processing are important for written language development and oral proficiency in a FL.

  6. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  7. Examining the Relationship between Math Scores and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Denfield L.

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) at a south Florida elementary school have consistently struggled with the mathematics segment of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. Examining the relationship between ELLs' mathematics scores and English proficiency might provide local educators with ideas for reversing a downward trend in ELLs' mathematics…

  8. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  9. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Oral Language Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Lyle F.; Palmer, Adrian S.

    In a study designed to validate oral language proficiency tests, it is planned to administer a series of tests to 100 native Mandarin Chinese-speaking subjects (foreign students and their spouses). The tests will measure communicative competence in speaking (ability to speak, exhibiting control of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic rules;…

  10. Beyond the Classroom: Maintaining and Improving Teachers' Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga-Canadas, Cynthia P.

    2010-01-01

    The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the ACTFL suggest that a high proficiency in the Spanish language is essential for all Spanish teachers. With the growth of the Spanish-speaking population in the United States and the diversity of Hispanic culture, teacher education programs need to ensure that teacher candidates are…

  11. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  12. Subcomponents of Second-Language Aptitude and Second-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

    2011-01-01

    A factor analysis of a test battery that included early first-language (L1) achievement, L1 cognitive ability, second-language (L2) aptitude, and L2 affective measures to predict oral and written L2 proficiency was conducted. The analysis yielded 4 factors that were labeled Language Analysis, composed of L1 and L2 language comprehension, grammar,…

  13. Speaking in Multiple Languages: Neural Correlates of Language Proficiency in Multilingual Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Barbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a…

  14. Language Anxiety and Language Proficiency among EFL/ESL Learners at University Level: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Banna, Adel Ibrahim

    A study investigated the levels of language proficiency and language anxiety of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The goals of the study were: (1) to determine the effect of gender differences and learner specialization on levels of English language anxiety; (2) to study the relationship between gender differences and academic…

  15. Building a Framework for a Next-Generation English Language Proficiency Assessment System. Research Report. ETS RR-14-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Everson, Phil; Lopez, Alexis; Hauck, Maurice; Pooler, Emilie; Wang, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Currently, states are moving forward with developing or adopting new English language proficiency (ELP) assessments aligned with the new academic standards in order to meet accountability requirements. In this transition, it is essential to identify areas of improvement for current ELP assessment practices and discuss ways to implement effective…

  16. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities on State English Language Proficiency Assessments: A Review of 2011 State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…

  17. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  18. Language Proficiency, Reading Development, and Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the number of students studying abroad is increasing dramatically. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest among researchers in students' language gains in the study-abroad (SA) context. To deepen our understanding of second language (L2) reading acquisition in different contexts, it is necessary to examine…

  19. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  20. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  1. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  2. An Investigation of School Psychologists' Assessment Practices of Language Proficiency with Bilingual and Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…

  3. Teaching for Proficiency, the Organizing Principle. The ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V., Ed.

    A collection of reports and case studies of second language instruction for proficiency includes: "Language Teaching and the Quest for the Holy Grail" (Theodore V. Higgs); "The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines: A Historical Perspective" (Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro); "The Proficiency-Oriented Classroom" (Alice C. Omaggio);…

  4. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Halgren, Eric

    2011-03-24

    Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  5. The Impact of Experience Abroad and Language Proficiency on Language Learning Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of experience abroad and second language proficiency on foreign language classroom anxiety. Particularly, this study is an attempt to fill the gap in the literature about the affective outcomes after experiences abroad through the anxiety profiles of Korean learners of English as a foreign language (EFL)…

  6. Effects of Language Anxiety on Three Proficiency-Level Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Llinas, Monica; Garau, Maria Juan

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of language anxiety on course achievement in three foreign language proficiency levels of Spanish, namely, beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Participants completed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) and a background questionnaire. Results showed that language…

  7. The Effects of Heritage Language Instruction on First Language Proficiency: A Psycholinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Diaz, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish--L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently…

  8. Family Language Policies, Reported Language Use and Proficiency in Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…

  9. An Institutional Approach to English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil; Hicks, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    As the university student body becomes ever more diverse, the place and nature of English language provision is coming under unprecedented scrutiny and is the object of greater regulation. Today, more than ever before, institutions of higher education are being called to account for the way in which they support this diverse population in respect…

  10. Promoting a Language Proficient Society: What You Can Do. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Kathleen M.; Peyton, Joy Kneeft

    Interest in and support for language study has been strengthened in the United States in recent years by the growing recognition that proficiency in more than one language benefits both individual learners and society. For the individual language learner, research has found a positive link between second language proficiency and cognitive and…

  11. Issues in Vertical Scaling of a K-12 English Language Proficiency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary

    2011-01-01

    One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…

  12. Method for automatic measurement of second language speaking proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jared; Balogh, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Spoken language proficiency is intuitively related to effective and efficient communication in spoken interactions. However, it is difficult to derive a reliable estimate of spoken language proficiency by situated elicitation and evaluation of a person's communicative behavior. This paper describes the task structure and scoring logic of a group of fully automatic spoken language proficiency tests (for English, Spanish and Dutch) that are delivered via telephone or Internet. Test items are presented in spoken form and require a spoken response. Each test is automatically-scored and primarily based on short, decontextualized tasks that elicit integrated listening and speaking performances. The tests present several types of tasks to candidates, including sentence repetition, question answering, sentence construction, and story retelling. The spoken responses are scored according to the lexical content of the response and a set of acoustic base measures on segments, words and phrases, which are scaled with IRT methods or parametrically combined to optimize fit to human listener judgments. Most responses are isolated spoken phrases and sentences that are scored according to their linguistic content, their latency, and their fluency and pronunciation. The item development procedures and item norming are described.

  13. Integrating Science and English Proficiency for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expectation that all students should achieve high academic standards, content area instruction and English for speakers of other languages instruction for English language learners (ELLs) have traditionally been conceptualized as separate domains, resulting in educational inequities for ELLs. This is because effective instruction to…

  14. Pilot English Language Proficiency and the Prevalence of Communication Problems at Five U.S. Air Route Traffic Control Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    inadequate language proficiency was involved in some aviation accidents, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) is requiring its contracting...paired with its readback. Each readback was scored for accuracy. The ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale guided encoding English language

  15. Strategy-Based English Language Instruction: The Impact on the Language Proficiency of Young Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana; Akcayoglu, Duygu Ispinar

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the impact of strategy-based English language instruction (SBELI) on the language proficiency of gifted learners. The participants were students who were identified as gifted and thus received additional out-of-school training for a few days a week in Adana Science and Arts Centre. Their ages ranged from…

  16. Understanding the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation: Evidence from a case study.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and evaluated their impairment using the Bilingual Aphasia Test. We then attempted to replicate and extend Kiran and Roberts' study in 2010, examining results of a primarily semantic treatment for anomia in one Russian-English bilingual patient. The patient's ability to name the trained and untrained items in both the trained (English) and untrained (Russian) languages significantly improved by achieving 100% accuracy. Finally, we examined whether improvements observed in treatment were captured by a broader language test such as the Bilingual Aphasia Test. Results are discussed with respect to factors contributing to the successful treatment and the implications of rehabilitation on assessment of language skills as a function of treatment.

  17. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  18. Who's Coming to My Party? Peer Talk as a Bridge to Oral Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I investigate heterogeneous-language peer interactions in an English-only kindergarten classroom. English Learners and English Proficient students co-created language necessary to build an argument, one discourse valued in schools. Students developed complex oral language proficiency skills but were viewed as engaging…

  19. Differential Gains in Oral Proficiency during Study Abroad: The Role of Language Learning Aptitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sheri Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This inquiry analyzed the relationships between individual differences and gains made in oral proficiency of adult, second language learners of Spanish during one semester studying abroad. Oral proficiency was measured using a pre/post-SA Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI, CAL, 2009). Gain scores were correlated with two cognitive…

  20. Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    While functional changes linked to second language learning have been subject to extensive investigation, the issue of learning-dependent structural plasticity in the fields of bilingualism and language comprehension has so far received less notice. In the present study we used voxel-based morphometry to monitor structural changes occurring within five months of second language learning. Native English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were examined once at the beginning of their stay and once about five months later, when their German language skills had significantly increased. We show that structural changes in the left inferior frontal gyrus are correlated with the increase in second language proficiency as measured by a paper-and-pencil language test. Contrary to the increase in proficiency and grey matter, the absolute values of grey matter density and second language proficiency did not correlate (neither on first nor on second measurement). This indicates that the individual amount of learning is reflected in brain structure changes, regardless of absolute proficiency.

  1. The Effects of Language Environment and Oral Language Ability on Phonological Production Proficiency in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpino, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if phonological production proficiency in bilingual Spanish-English preschoolers could be predicted by their language environment, language ability, and phonological production proficiency in their other language. Method: Participants were 199 Latino children and their families. Children ranged in age…

  2. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children's growth and development.

  3. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551

  4. Factors Predicting Academic Success in Second and Third Language among Russian-Speaking Immigrant Students Studying in Israeli Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Orly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors predicting academic proficiency (AP), the specialised domains required for performing academic tasks, among Russian speaking (L1) immigrants currently studying Hebrew as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3) in Israeli schools. Specifically, the study examined the…

  5. Communicative Competence Approaches to Language Proficiency Assessment: Research and Application. Multilingual Matters 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Ed.

    A collection of selected papers from the March 1981 Language Proficiency Assessment Symposium, a component of the National Institute of Education's Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons project, are presented. Papers include: "An Overview of Communicative Competence" (Cynthia Wallat); "Some Comments on the Terminology of Language…

  6. Disclosure of Information about English Proficiency: Preservice Teachers' Presumptions about English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…

  7. Neural Bases of Language Switching in High and Early Proficient Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbin, G.; Costa, A.; Sanjuan, A.; Forn, C.; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A.; Ventura, N.; Belloch, V.; Hernandez, M.; Avila, C.

    2011-01-01

    The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan…

  8. Bilingual Program Evaluation Report on Idea Language Proficiency Tests, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangarm, Isara; And Others

    The report presents findings concerning the language proficiency of elementary, middle, and high school students receiving bilingual services in the Las Cruces Public Schools (New Mexico). The report contains five sections: general information about the bilingual program in the school district; the Idea Language Proficiency Tests (IPT); results of…

  9. A Review of the IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test Forms C & D-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Allison A.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT-I), forms C and D, aims to determine the level of English oral language proficiency as it relates to accepted levels of NonEnglish speaking (NES), limited English speaking (LES), and fluent English speaking (FES) designations in order to place students in an appropriate classroom setting. The test was…

  10. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  11. Language proficiency and metacognition as predictors of spontaneous rehearsal in children.

    PubMed

    Bebko, James M; McMorris, Carly A; Metcalfe, Alisa; Ricciuti, Christina; Goldstein, Gayle

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of research on fundamental memory strategies such as verbal rehearsal, the potential underlying skills associated with the emergence of rehearsal are still not fully understood. Two studies examined the relative roles of language proficiency and metamemory in predicting rehearsal use, as well as the prediction of metamemory performance by language proficiency. In Study 1, 59 children, 5 to 8 years old, were administered a serial recall task, 2 language measures, a nonverbal cognitive measure, and a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task. Language proficiency, RAN, and age were significant individual predictors of rehearsal use. In hierarchical regression analyses, language proficiency mediated almost completely the age → rehearsal use relation. In addition, automatized naming was a strong but partial mediator of the contribution of language proficiency to rehearsal use. In Study 2, 54 children were administered a metamemory test, a language measure, and a serial recall task. Metamemory skills and, again, language proficiency significantly predicted rehearsal use in the task. The predictive strength of metamemory skills was mediated by the children's language proficiency. The mutually supportive roles of automatized naming, language, and metamemory in the emergence of spontaneous cumulative verbal rehearsal are discussed in the context of the resulting model, along with the minimal roles of age and aspects of intelligence.

  12. Japanese Language Proficiency, Social Networking, and Language Use during Study Abroad: Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Eggett, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the self-perceived speaking proficiency development of 204 learners of Japanese who studied abroad in Japan and analyzes connections between self-reported social network development, language use, and speaking development. Learners perceived that they gained the most in areas associated with the intermediate and advanced levels…

  13. Role of Oral Proficiency on Reading Comprehension: Within-Language and Cross-Language Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Yang, Lu; Lohr, Brandi; Leung, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the role of oral proficiency on English reading comprehension, as measured with elicited narratives using a wordless picture book, "Frog Where are You?". The sample consisted 102 English language learners, including both Spanish and Cantonese speakers. Narrative samples were collected in the winter of…

  14. Highly proficient bilinguals implement inhibition: Evidence from n-2 language repetition costs.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Thoma, Aniella M; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Several, but not all, models of language control assume that highly proficient bilinguals implement little to no inhibition during bilingual language production. In the current study, we tested this assumption with a less equivocal marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) than previous language switching studies have. N-2 language repetition costs denote worse performance when switching back to a recently abandoned language (i.e., worse performance in ABA language sequences than CBA sequences, where A, B, and C refer to different languages). Whereas this marker has solely been used to investigate second-language learners in prior studies, we examined highly proficient bilinguals. The results showed that substantial n-2 language repetition costs can be observed with highly proficient bilinguals. Moreover, this inhibition effect was substantial for all 3 languages, but larger for the 2 dominant languages (Turkish and German) relative to the less proficient language (English). These findings indicate that even highly proficient bilinguals implement inhibition to restrict language production to the target language.

  15. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning.

  16. The Third Language of Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…

  17. Academic Language in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Erica M.; Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines academic language by examining the central features of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse function. Examples of each feature are provided, as well as methods of identifying them in oral language and printed text. We describe a yearlong study that found teachers used different types of academic language based on instructional…

  18. Highly Proficient Bilinguals Implement Inhibition: Evidence from N-2 Language Repetition Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Thoma, Aniella M.; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Several, but not all, models of language control assume that highly proficient bilinguals implement little to no inhibition during bilingual language production. In the current study, we tested this assumption with a less equivocal marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) than previous language switching studies have. N-2…

  19. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  20. Strategies To Increase the Language Proficiency of Third-Grade Haitian and Hispanic Limited English Proficient Students through a Second Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bien-Aime, Joseph C.

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a variety of teaching techniques, including both standard English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) methods and the teacher's own strategies, in improving the English language proficiency of 15 Haitian and 5 Hispanic third-graders. The students were administered oral and written pretests and found to be…

  1. An Evaluation of Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews as Measures of Spoken Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    A discussion of the simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI), a type of semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the oral proficiency interview (OPI), describes its development and research and examines its usefulness. The test used for discussion is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts, scored by a trained rater using the…

  2. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This article reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability…

  3. Testing Language Proficiency in the Receptive Skills; Native vs. Learner Performances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, James R.

    1984-01-01

    Responds to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency." Approaches Canale's three points of discussion from a textual point of view. Discusses the kinds of language materials likely to be encountered in texts at selected proficiency levels and how this material may be tested. (SED)

  4. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  5. The Cognitive Contribution to the Development of Proficiency in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Beno; Nikolov, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports results of a longitudinal research project studying the contribution of cognitive skills and other factors to proficiency in a foreign language (L2) in the Hungarian educational context. The larger project aims to describe the levels of L2 proficiency of school-aged populations in order to explore the conditions and…

  6. The Impact of the Oral Proficiency Interview on One Foreign Language Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has been increasingly used in academia. However, while multiple studies have documented the growth in OPI implementation across the United States and the proficiency rates of its completers, few have focused specifically on foreign language teacher candidates, and even fewer have investigated the impact that…

  7. English Language Proficiency and Health-Related Quality of Life among Chinese and Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…

  8. Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency? Evidence from Five Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between overall second language (L2) proficiency and utterance fluency measures for several L2s in order to determine whether utterance measures can be used to predict L2 proficiency. The study measured the speech rate, number of hesitations, number and length of pauses, number and length of runs, and…

  9. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  10. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  11. Transactional Associations between Supportive Family Climate and Young Children's Heritage Language Proficiency in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heejung; Tsai, Kim M.; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) proficiency confers developmental benefits; however, the onset of HL loss is observed among many young children from immigrant families. In this longitudinal study, transactional associations between children's HL proficiency and supportive family climate were examined in Chinese immigrant families with pre-school-aged…

  12. The Effects of Japanese Heritage Language Maintenance on Scholastic Verbal and Academic Achievement in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Setsue

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of the maintenance of Japanese as a heritage language on English and overall academic achievement. The interrelationships among Japanese oral and writing proficiency, SAT I Verbal, SAT I, and high school grade point average (GPA) were examined. The participants were 31 second generation Japanese-American…

  13. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  14. Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jacquelyn

    Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they

  15. High proficiency across two languages is related to better mental state reasoning for bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Katherine R

    2015-06-16

    Past research suggests that bilingualism positively affects children's performance in false belief tasks. However, researchers have yet to fully explore factors that are related to better performance in these tasks within bilingual groups. The current study includes an assessment of proficiency in both languages (which was lacking in past work) and investigates the relationship between proficiency and performance in a variety of mental state tasks (not just false belief). Furthermore, it explores whether the relationship between language proficiency and performance in mental state tasks differs between bilingual and monolingual groups. Twenty-six Spanish-English bilingual and twenty-six English monolingual preschool-age children completed seven mental state tasks. Findings provide evidence that high proficiency in English is related to better performance in mental state tasks for monolinguals. In contrast, high proficiency in both English and Spanish is related to better performance in mental state tasks for bilinguals.

  16. Universal Design Considerations for Improving Student Achievement on English Language Proficiency Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kristin K.; Anderson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article studies accessible assessment design to large-scale English language proficiency assessments that are now mandatory for elementary and secondary English language learners in public schools. Using a modified Delphi approach, a panel of 33 experts from the areas of assessment, English as a second language or bilingual education, and…

  17. English Language Proficiency and Bilingual Verbal Ability among Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Mariela M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes English language proficiency and bilingual verbal ability for a sample of 209 students aged 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students' English language proficiency…

  18. Current Issues in the Spanish Language Proficiency of Bilingual Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper examines some critical issues regarding the Spanish language proficiency of bilingual education teachers, primarily those from the Spanish-language-origin community. Recent longitudinal studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between sustained native language instruction and student achievement. Because this finding is…

  19. Proficiency-Oriented Foreign Language in the Small High School. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasheim, Lorraine A.

    This digest considers the problems of foreign language instruction in small high schools and discusses possible solutions. A critical challenge for American education, pointed out by reform reports of the 1980's, is improvement of instruction in foreign languages to instill language proficiency. These national concerns have been translated into…

  20. Formulaic Sequences and L2 Oral Proficiency: Does the Type of Target Language Influence the Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stengers, Helene; Boers, Frank; Housen, Alex; Eyckmans, June

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which productive use of formulaic sequences by intermediate students of two typologically different languages, i.e., English and Spanish, is associated with their oral proficiency in these languages. Previous research (e.g., Boers et al., "Language Teaching Research" 10: 245-261, 2006) has shown that…

  1. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  2. Using genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jantien; Bakker, Arthur; van Eerde, Dolly; Kuijpers, Maggie

    2016-09-01

    The importance of language in mathematics learning has been widely acknowledged. However, little is known about how to make this insight productive in the design and enactment of language-oriented mathematics education. In a design-based research project, we explored how language-oriented mathematics education can be designed and enacted. We drew on genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. In the intervention, the teacher used scaffolding strategies to focus students' attention on the structure and linguistic features of the language involved in this particular domain. The research question addressed in this paper is how student proficiency in this language may be promoted. The study comprised nine lessons involving 22 students in grades 5 and 6 (aged 10-12); of these students, 19 had a migrant background. In light of the research aim, we first describe the rationale behind our design. Next, we illustrate how the design was enacted by means of a case study focusing on one student in the classroom practice of developing proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. On the basis of pre- and posttest scores, we conclude that overall their proficiency has increased. Together, the results indicate that and how genre pedagogy may be used to help students become more proficient in the language required in a mathematical domain.

  3. The Effect of Sociolinguistic Factors and English Language Proficiency on the Development of French as a Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bérubé, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2014-01-01

    The classroom demographics in French immersion (FI) programs across Canada are changing: There are a growing number of multilingual students who are learning English as a second language (L2) and French as a third language (L3). However, little is known about the development of French language proficiency and reading skills of multilingual…

  4. Misidentification of English Language Proficiency in Triage: Impact on Satisfaction and Door-to-Room Time.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Vamsi; Roper, Jamie; Cossey, Kori; Roman, Crystal; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    We examined triage nurses' assessment of patients' language proficiency compared to patients' self-reported proficiency and the impact of language discordance on door-to-room time and patient satisfaction. This was a prospective study of emergency department walk-in patients. Patients completed a survey in which they identified their language proficiency. On a Likert scale, patients ranked how well they felt they were understood and how satisfied they were with the triage process. Nurses completed surveys identifying the patient's primary language and how well they felt they understood the patient. Door-to-room times were obtained from medical records. 163 patients were enrolled. 66% of patients identified themselves as having good English proficiency, while 34% of patients had limited English proficiency. Nurses misclassified 27% of self-identified Spanish-speaking patients as being English proficient. Spanish-speakers felt less satisfied with triage than English-speakers (p < 0.01). There were no differences in door-to-room time. Triage nurses overestimate patient language skills. Spanish-speaking patients feel less satisfied with triage than English-speakers.

  5. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2016-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This paper reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability pressure, they focus attention on students closest to proficiency. We refer to this practice as educational triage, and show that the difficulty of the proficiency standard affects whether lower or higher performing students gain most on high-stakes tests used to evaluate schools. Less difficult proficiency standards decrease inequality in high-stakes achievement, while more difficult ones increase it. Second, we show that educators emphasize test-specific skills with students near proficiency, a practice that we refer to as instructional triage. As a result, the effects of accountability pressure differ across high and low-stakes tests; we find no effects on inequality in low-stakes reading and math tests of similar skills. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that instructional triage is most pronounced in the lowest performing schools. We conclude by discussing how these findings shape our understanding of accountability's impacts on educational inequality. PMID:27122642

  6. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2014-04-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This paper reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability pressure, they focus attention on students closest to proficiency. We refer to this practice as educational triage, and show that the difficulty of the proficiency standard affects whether lower or higher performing students gain most on high-stakes tests used to evaluate schools. Less difficult proficiency standards decrease inequality in high-stakes achievement, while more difficult ones increase it. Second, we show that educators emphasize test-specific skills with students near proficiency, a practice that we refer to as instructional triage. As a result, the effects of accountability pressure differ across high and low-stakes tests; we find no effects on inequality in low-stakes reading and math tests of similar skills. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that instructional triage is most pronounced in the lowest performing schools. We conclude by discussing how these findings shape our understanding of accountability's impacts on educational inequality.

  7. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  8. Processing morphologically complex words in second-language learners: the effect of proficiency.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-07-01

    The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550 ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450 ms and 450-500 ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500 ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model.

  9. Attention control and ability level in a complex cognitive skill: attention shifting and second-language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Segalowitz, Norman; Frenkiel-Fishman, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between attention control and proficiency in a complex cognitive skill. The participants were English-French bilinguals with varying degrees of second-language (French) proficiency. Proficiency was operationalized as efficiency of lexical access in an animacy judgment task, as reflected in the coefficient of variability of response time adjusted for first-language performance on the same task. Attention control was operationalized as the shift cost obtained in a linguistic version of the alternating runs task-switching paradigm. Hierarchical regression revealed that, overall, attention control accounted for 59% of the variance of proficiency and that second-language attention control alone accounted for 32% of the unique variance of proficiency, indicating a high degree of skill domain (second language) specificity in the relationship between attention control and proficiency. The results speak to issues regarding the development of expertise, second-language acquisition, and a cognitive linguistic approach to language and attention.

  10. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Assessing Language Proficiency: More Than One Way To Skin a Cat. Insights on Educational Policy and Practice, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Magdalena M.

    1989-01-01

    Alternatives to standard language proficiency testing of bilingual or language minority students are discussed in this educational policy bulletin. The New Mexico strategy is described, which uses multiple assessment techniques to identify students' home language, assess oral English proficiency through standardized testing and teacher…

  12. Lexical Competition during Second-Language Listening: Sentence Context, but Not Proficiency, Constrains Interference from the Native Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; Cooke, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    A spoken language eye-tracking methodology was used to evaluate the effects of sentence context and proficiency on parallel language activation during spoken language comprehension. Nonnative speakers with varying proficiency levels viewed visual displays while listening to French sentences (e.g., "Marie va decrire la poule" [Marie will…

  13. Considerations in the Post-Enrolment Assessment of English Language Proficiency: Reflections from the Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation of education has meant that English medium universities are enrolling unprecedented numbers of students for whom English is not a first language. This, in turn, has put increased pressure on institutions to ensure they have in place suitable measures for screening applicants in respect of their English language proficiency and…

  14. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  15. Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

  16. Korean Students' Language Learning Strategies and Years of Studying English as Predictors of Proficiency in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    This study predicted the English proficiency of Korean students using the components of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and number of months spent in the formal study of English. There were 302 Korean students, ages 14-18, who were requested to answer the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English ability…

  17. Language Learning Strategy Use and English Proficiency of University Freshmen in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated language learning strategies used by 418 EFL learners in Taiwan and looked for relationships between learning strategy use and the patterns of strategy use based on language proficiency. The participants reported using compensation strategies most frequently and affective strategies least frequently. The most frequently…

  18. Effects of Verb Semantics and Proficiency in Second Language Use of Constructional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Rah, Yangon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the semantic heaviness of verbs (i.e., heavy or light verbs) and language proficiency on second language (L2) learners' use of constructional information in a sentence-sorting task and a corpus analysis. Previous studies employing a sentence-sorting task demonstrated that advanced L2 learners sorted English…

  19. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…

  20. Aptitude, Phonological Memory, and Second Language Proficiency in Nonnovice Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…

  1. The Role of Testing Language Proficiency as Part of Teacher Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Michele Anciaux

    2013-01-01

    Bridid M. Burke poses an interesting question: Is requiring high-stakes language proficiency tests really going to improve world language education? In her article, Dr. Burke shares testimonials from "several promising student teachers" [whose] dreams of being French, German, or Spanish teachers [were] crushed" based on not…

  2. Teaching Languages in College: Communicative Proficiency and Cross-Cultural Issues. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G., Ed.

    A collection of papers concerning college language instruction and exploring issues related to promoting communicative skills and cross-cultural understanding includes the following titles: (1) "Languages at College: The Student and the Curriculum," by W. M. Rivers; (2) "Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency," by A. Ramirez; (3) "Communicative…

  3. Instructional Practices That Promote Reading Proficiency for English Language Learners in Grades 3 and 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley-Blanton, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires that all public school students, including English language learners, achieve proficiency in reading, math, and science by 2014 as measured on state assessments. English language learners enrolled in public schools for the first time receive a 1-year deferment from these state assessments in subjects…

  4. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  5. Oral Proficiency Standards and Foreign Language Teacher Candidates: Current Findings and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisan, Eileen W.; Swender, Elvira; Surface, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The renewed national focus on teacher quality and effectiveness has resulted in more rigorous standards that describe the knowledge and skills required of teacher candidates across all disciplines. In the area of foreign languages, three sets of professional standards address the oral proficiency of teachers in the target languages they teach…

  6. An Examination of Reliability and Validity Claims of a Foreign Language Proficiency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mircea-Pines, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study examined the reliability and validity claims of a modified version of the Spanish Modern Language Association Foreign Language Proficiency Test for Teachers and Advanced Students administered at George Mason University (GMU). The study used the 1999 computerized GMU version that was administered to 277 test-takers via…

  7. Ten Years on: The Hong Kong Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English (LPATE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David; Falvey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The "Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English" (LPATE) is a test of standards of English language ability for Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers of English. The impetus for the creation of the LPATE arose, in 1996, because of concerns in business and education communities over falling English language…

  8. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  9. Evaluation of Bilingual Secondary Education in the Netherlands: Students' Language Proficiency in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Westhoff, Gerard; de Bot, Kees

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the effects of the use of English as the language of instruction in the first 4 years of secondary education in The Netherlands on the students' language proficiency in English and Dutch, and achievement in subject matters taught through English. Compared to a control group in regular secondary education,…

  10. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  11. Academic Language Knowledge and Comprehension of Science Text for English Language Learners and Fluent English-Speaking Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sandy Ming-San

    As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository

  12. Identifying Affirmative Beliefs about English Language Learning: Self-Perceptions of Thai Learners with Different Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…

  13. Language Proficiency in Native and Nonnative Speakers: An Agenda for Research and Suggestions for Second-Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the question of what language proficiency (LP) is, both theoretically and empirically. It does so by making a distinction, on one hand, between "basic" and "higher language cognition" and, on the other hand, between "core" and "peripheral components" of LP. The article furthermore critically examines the notion of "level" in…

  14. Macro-Language Policy and Planning and Lack of Proficiency in Language Learning and Use by Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the problem of non-proficiency in language learning and use among Nigerian students is investigated. Using empirical data and information from available literature on the subject as evidence, it was observed that the language deficiencies of the students could be attributed to the lack of fit between the formulation of the national…

  15. Language Proficiency and Early Literacy Skills of Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S. and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the language proficiency and early literacy skills of Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in kindergarten. A total of 113 Cantonese-speaking kindergarteners in Canada and the United States, composed of three subsamples from three different locations participated in this study. Results showed that on average,…

  16. Critical Factors to Consider in Evaluating Standard-Setting Studies to Map Language Test Scores to Frameworks of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cho, Yeonsuk

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consolidate and present in one place what is known about quality indicators for setting standards so that stakeholders may be able to recognize the signs of standard-setting quality. We use the context of setting standards to associate English language test scores with language proficiency descriptions such as those presented…

  17. Adolescents' Use of Academic Language in Historical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance of academic language, research on academic language is often limited to academic vocabulary and focused on the English language learners. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined adolescents' use of academic language and the relationships between its use and students' reading ability and their writing…

  18. Assessing Second Language Writing in Academic Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz, Ed.

    The articles contained in this volume on second language writing evaluation focus on the evaluation of academic English learned as a second language (ESL). Essays include: "Assessment by Misconception: Cultural Influences and Intellectual Traditions" (Brigid Ballard, John Clanchy); "Reading the World Differently: A Cross-Cultural Approach to…

  19. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  20. Lateralizing language function with pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging in early proficient bilingual patients.

    PubMed

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Japardi, Kevin; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2017-03-23

    Research on bilinguals with brain lesions is complicated by high patient variability, making it difficult to find well-matched controls. We benefitted from a database of over 700 patients and conducted an analysis of pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess language dominance in 25 early, highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals, and 25 carefully matched monolingual controls. Our results showed that early bilingualism is associated with greater bilateral hemispheric involvement, and monolingualism is associated with stronger left hemisphere lateralization (p=0.009). The bilinguals showed more pronounced right hemisphere activation (p=0.008). Although language dominance values were concordant in the bilingual group, there were a few (12%) atypical cases with different lateralization patterns in L1 and L2. Finally, we found distinct areas of activity in first and second language within the language network, in addition to regions of convergence. These data underscore the need to map all languages proficiently spoken by surgical candidates.

  1. Language lateralisation in late proficient bilinguals: a lexical decision fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Waldie, Karen E

    2012-04-01

    Approximately half the world's population can now speak more than one language. Understanding the neural basis of language organisation in bilinguals, and whether the cortical networks involved during language processing differ from that of monolinguals, is therefore an important area of research. A main issue concerns whether L2 (second language) is processed using the same neural mechanisms that mediate L1 (first language) processing. Moderating factors include the age of L2 acquisition and the level of proficiency. Here we used a lexical decision task with five conditions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate language processing in eight late proficient bilinguals when using Macedonian (L1) and English (L2). Bilinguals had greater bilateral activation during both L1 and L2 processing, and therefore weaker language lateralisation, compared to matched control English monolinguals. A greater amount of overall activation was also seen in bilinguals, especially during L2 conditions. Late proficient bilinguals living in their L2 environment employ a more extensive neural network than monolinguals when processing their second language.

  2. Teaching and Learning the Language of Science: A Case Study of Academic Language Acquisition in a Dual Language Middle School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, Robin Margaretha

    English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.

  3. English language proficiency and the accommodations for language non-concordance amongst patients utilizing chiropractic college teaching clinics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of households in the United States that are not proficient in the English language is growing and presenting a challenge to the health care system. Over nineteen percent of the US population speak a language other than English in the home. This increase in language discordance generates a greater need to find and implement accommodations in the clinical setting to insure accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment as well as provide for patient safety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of patients accessing the chiropractic college teaching clinics who are not proficient in the English language and to what extent the colleges provide accommodations for that language disparity. Methods The clinic directors and deans of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges were surveyed via an on-line survey engine. The survey queried the percentage of the patient population that is not English language proficient, the accommodations the college currently has in place, if the college has a language specific consent to treat document and if the college has a written policy concerning patients without English proficiency. Results Fifty percent of the contacted chiropractic colleges responded to the survey. In the respondent college clinics 16.5% of the patient population is not proficient in English, with over 75% speaking Spanish. All but one of the respondents provide some level of accommodation for the language non-concordance. Forty five percent of the responding colleges employ a language specific consent to treat form. The implementation of accommodations and the use of a language specific consent to treat form is more prevalent at colleges with a higher percentage of non-English speaking patients. Conclusions The percentage of patients with limited English proficiency accessing services at the teaching clinics of the chiropractic colleges mirrors the numbers in the general population. There is a wide disparity in the

  4. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  5. Learner Corpus Analysis and the Development of Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes a methodological contribution to the emerging field of learner corpus analysis [Granger, S., 1998. Learner English on Computer. Longman, London, 1998; Granger, S., 2002. Computer Learner corpora, Second Language Acquisition, and Foreign Language Teaching. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2002] and to Second Language Acquisition (SLA)…

  6. Exploring the Impact of Parallel Teaching on General Language Proficiency of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Bazyar, Abdonour

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades co-teaching has attracted due attention for enhancing learning process in educational systems. Drawing on the concept of "parallel model", the present study attempted to examine the extent to which this approach can affect general language proficiency of EFL learners. To this end, through a quasi-experimental…

  7. NATO Stanag Language Proficiency Levels for Joint Missions and Its Implementations at a State Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Turkish Armed Forces have been participating in joint missions together with other nations for decades. Since English is the medium of instruction in these missions, participating members should have NATO Standards in terms of language proficiency levels in four skills. Therefore, this study aims to specify personnel's views and their language…

  8. Elicited Imitation as a Measure of Second Language Proficiency: A Narrative Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xun; Maeda, Yukiko; Lv, Jing; Ginther, April

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation (EI) has been widely used to examine second language (L2) proficiency and development and was an especially popular method in the 1970s and early 1980s. However, as the field embraced more communicative approaches to both instruction and assessment, the use of EI diminished, and the construct-related validity of EI scores as a…

  9. Designing and Sustaining a Foreign Language Writing Proficiency Assessment Program at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth; Molitoris, Joan; Romeo, Ken; Lin, Nina; Valderrama, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Writing in postsecondary foreign language contexts in North America has received far less attention in the curriculum than the development of oral proficiency. This article describes one institution's process of confronting the challenges not only of recognizing the contribution of writing to students' overall linguistic development, but also of…

  10. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  11. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…

  12. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Late Second Language Oral Proficiency Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current project examined whether and to what degree age of acquisition (AOA), defined as the first intensive exposure to a second language (L2) environment, can be predictive of the end state of postpubertal L2 oral proficiency attainment. Data were collected from 88 experienced Japanese learners of English and two groups of 20 baseline…

  13. High Proficiency across Two Languages Is Related to Better Mental State Reasoning for Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that bilingualism positively affects children's performance in false belief tasks. However, researchers have yet to fully explore factors that are related to better performance in these tasks within bilingual groups. The current study includes an assessment of proficiency in both languages (which was lacking in past work)…

  14. The Effects of English Language Proficiency on Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the United States recognize the economic and educational benefits of international students. Although non-native English speakers (NNES) submit evidence of English language proficiency for admission purposes, many struggle with the demands of English. This study draws on qualitative and quantitative data to provide…

  15. The Effect of Dual Task Demands and Proficiency on Second Language Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Kormos, Judit

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined how the introduction of a parallel finger-tapping task influences second language (L2) speech encoding mechanisms and monitoring processes, and how the level of proficiency impacts the efficiency and accuracy of L2 performance under single and dual task conditions. The results indicate that imposing dual task demands had…

  16. The Impact of Perceived Exposure and Motivation on Oral Language Proficiency in a Traditional Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify factors impacting second language oral proficiency of native English speaking secondary students in public schools in Texas that had chosen to complete at least two years of traditional classroom Spanish instruction. Further, the study sought to determine the effectiveness of the traditional…

  17. Connecting the Dots: Limited English Proficiency, Second Language Learning Theories, and Information Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conteh-Morgan, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of barriers to effective learning when librarians teach students with limited English proficiency focuses on second language acquisition theories and teaching practices derived from them which can significantly impact outcomes of information literacy instruction. Includes a checklist for course preparation and instruction. (Author/LRW)

  18. Conceptualizing Accessibility for English Language Proficiency Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…

  19. English Language Proficiency and Employability Framework for Australian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkoudis, Sophie; Baik, Chi; Bexley, Emmaline; Doughney, Lachlan

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the "English Language Proficiency" (ELP) and Employability Framework", which has been designed to inform and support higher education institutions' (HEIs) policies and practices on ELP and graduate employability. The "Framework" was developed through a review of the national and international…

  20. Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Tremblay, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the elicited imitation task (EIT) as a tool for measuring linguistic proficiency in a second/foreign (L2) language, focusing on French. Nonnative French speakers (n = 94) and native French speakers (n = 6) completed an EIT that included 50 sentences varying in length and complexity. Three raters evaluated productions on…

  1. Implementing ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements in the Versant Aviation English Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Moere, Alistair; Suzuki, Masanori; Downey, Ryan; Cheng, Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an assessment to satisfy the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Language Proficiency Requirements. The Versant Aviation English Test utilizes speech recognition technology and a computerized testing platform, such that test administration and scoring are fully automated. Developed in…

  2. Student Self-Assessment of Language Proficiency: Perceptions of Self and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Christine E. B.

    A study explored the cognitive processes and social-situational influences underlying students' assessment of their own foreign language proficiency, focusing on process rather than result of self-evaluation. The subjects, 28 college student learners of French at different course levels, were administered a self-assessment questionnaire on the…

  3. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  4. Linguistic Correlates of Second Language Proficiency: Proof of Concept with "ILR 2-3" in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.; Gor, Kira; Jackson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    With Russian as the target language, a proof of concept study was undertaken to determine whether it is possible to identify linguistic features, control over which is implicated in progress on the Interagency Linguistic Roundtable (ILR) proficiency scale, thereby better to inform the instructional process. Following its development in an…

  5. Spanish language proficiency among providers and Latino clients' engagement in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Khachikian, Tenie; Kim, Tina; Kong, Yinfei; Vega, William A

    2013-12-01

    Quality of care, such as provision of services in Spanish, is a common factor believed to improve treatment engagement among Spanish-speaking Latinos in health care. However, there is little evidence that Spanish language proficiency among providers increases treatment access and retention in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. We analyzed client and program data collected in 2010-2011 from publicly funded treatment programs in Los Angeles County, California. An analytic sample of 1903 Latino clients nested within 40 treatment programs located in minority communities was analyzed using multilevel negative binomial regressions on days to initiate and spent in treatment. As hypothesized, Spanish language proficiency was negatively associated with client wait time and positively associated with retention in treatment, after controlling for individual and program characteristics. The path analysis models showed that Spanish language proficiency played a mediating role between professional accreditation and client wait time and retention. These preliminary findings provide an evidentiary base for the role of providers' Spanish language proficiency and Latino engagement in treatment for a population at high risk of treatment dropout. Implications related to health care reform legislation, which seeks to enhance linguistically competent care, are discussed.

  6. Evaluating Limited English Proficient Students' Achievement: Does Curriculum Content in the Home Language Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Maria J.

    This study followed longitudinal achievement data from Hispanic students with limited proficiency in English who participated in a pilot instructional program. The program involved bilingual curriculum content (BCC) in the home language and was initiated in the winter of 1983-84 and continued through the 1986-87 school year. Six elementary schools…

  7. Priming of Code-Switches in Sentences: The Role of Lexical Repetition, Cognates, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kootstra, Gerrit Jan; van Hell, Janet G.; Dijkstra, Ton

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we tested the role of lexical repetition, cognates, and second language (L2) proficiency in the priming of code-switches, using the structural priming technique. Dutch-English bilinguals repeated a code-switched prime sentence (starting in Dutch and ending in English) and then described a target picture by means of a…

  8. Reading Proficiency and Mathematics Problem Solving by High School English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Adams, Niall M.; Cohen, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    The study focused on the relationship of English proficiency and math performance in a sample of high school students, including 47% English language learners (ELLs). Data sources included state math test scores, study-specific pre- and posttest scores, problem solving in an online math tutorial, and responses to a self-report assessment of…

  9. The Minimal English Test: A New Method to Measure English as a Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Kenichi; Maki, Hideki; Kasai, Chise

    2010-01-01

    Maki, Wasada, and Hashimoto developed the Minimal English Test (MET), which is a five-minute English as a Second Language (ESL) test. The Maki Group has, since the development of the MET, investigated correlations between the scores on the MET and the scores on other ESL tests, the reliability of the MET, and what kind of ESL proficiency the MET…

  10. Assessing the Language Acquisition Progress of Limited English Proficient Students: Problems and a New Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, James M.; Carlo, Maria S.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of linguistic competence for limited-English-proficient students are discussed. The results for 134 students in grades 3 through 6 from a study of the reliability and validity of the Sentence Verification Technique tests as measures of listening and reading comprehension performance in native languages and English are reported. (TJH)

  11. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  12. Critical Literacy Practices in the EFL Context and the English Language Proficiency: Further Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Mei-yun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a follow-up study that explored the relationship between EFL learners' critical literacy practices and the English language proficiency. It investigated four focal EFL learners' critical literacy practices in their dialogic interaction and also analyzed 39 students' views on their critical literacy learning. The four focal…

  13. Enhancing Communication: Toward Optimal Language Learning for Limited English Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses "difficult discourse" or the psychological and sociological difficulties that arise in the conflict of language, ideology, and cultural identity occurring between students/families who are limited English proficient (LEP) and the American mainstream education system. A case example of a fifth-grade Asian student is provided…

  14. Effects of Academic Language Instruction on Relational and Syntactic Aspects of Morphological Awareness for Sixth Graders from Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    One dimension of language proficiency considered important for reading and writing academic texts is morphological awareness--the understanding of how complex words are formed from meaningful smaller units (i.e., affixes, roots) that contribute to words' meanings and functions. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of instruction on…

  15. From language-specific to shared syntactic representations: the influence of second language proficiency on syntactic sharing in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Pickering, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    Studies on cross-linguistic syntactic priming suggest that bilinguals can share syntactic representations across languages (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004). But how are these representations established in late learners of a second language? Specifically, are representations of syntactic structures in a second language (L2) immediately collapsed with similar structures of the first language (L1), or are they initially represented separately? In order to investigate this, we primed the use of English genitives with Dutch (Experiment 1) and English (Experiment 2) genitives (e.g., het hemd van de jongen/the shirt of the boy vs. de jongen zijn hemd/the boy's shirt) in late Dutch-English bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English (their L2). The head nouns of prime and target constructions either had the same meaning (hemd/shirt - shirt) or a different meaning (duim/thumb - shirt), in order to test whether the use of both genitives was generalized across nouns. Experiment 1 found stronger between-language priming for more than less proficient bilinguals in both conditions, thus suggesting a shift from language-specific to shared syntactic representations. Experiment 2 suggests that these early, language-specific syntactic representations might be item-specific: Less proficient bilinguals showed much weaker priming when the heads of prime and target constructions had different meanings than when they were repeated.

  16. Bilingual Language Profiles of Deaf Students: An Analysis of the Written Narratives of Three Deaf Writers with Different Language Proficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoubou, Maria; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2006-01-01

    Literature on bilingual education suggests that the material used in teaching second language writing has an impact on the quality of the text. In addition, the material interacts differently with the level of bilingual proficiency of the students. This paper attempts to explore the written stories of three deaf students, which were produced under…

  17. English Language Proficiency and Progress: Students Receiving English for Speakers of Other Languages Services from 2012 to 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huafang; Maina, Nyambura

    2015-01-01

    This is one of several studies conducted by the Office of Shared Accountability that evaluated students identified as eligible for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). This study has two major purposes: (1) to examine English proficiency levels and progress in English…

  18. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  19. The Relationship between Language Learning Strategies, Proficiency, Age and Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Study of Language Learners in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magogwe, Joel Mokuedi; Oliver, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This research seeks to extend our current knowledge by exploring the relationship between preferred language strategies, age, proficiency, and self-efficacy beliefs. Responding to the call for more replication of strategy research and for research in different cultural contexts, this research was undertaken in Botswana between 2002 and 2005. The…

  20. Proficiency, Policy, and Professionalism in Foreign Language Education. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Columbus, Ohio, April 9-11, 1987). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckbichler, Diane W., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers from a conference on language proficiency, policy, and language teacher professionalism include: "Proficiency in Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Sally Sieloff Magnan); "Teaching Foreign Languages: Policy and the Federal Role" (Paul Simon); "Proficiency in the 'Real World' of the Professional…

  1. Sociolinguistic Competence and Malaysian Students' English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniandy, Mohan K.; Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan; Shanmugam, Shashi Kumar Krishnan; Ahmad, Irma; Noor, Norashikin Binte Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully…

  2. Processing subject-verb agreement in a second language depends on proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Noriko; Dussias, Paola E.; Kroll, Judith F.

    2010-01-01

    Subject-verb agreement is a computation that is often difficult to execute perfectly in the first language (L1) and even more difficult to produce skillfully in a second language (L2). In this study, we examined the way in which bilingual speakers complete sentence fragments in a manner that reflects access to both grammatical and conceptual number. In two experiments, we show that bilingual speakers are sensitive to both grammatical and conceptual number in the L1 and grammatical number agreement in the L2. However, only highly proficient bilinguals are also sensitive to conceptual number in the L2. The results suggest that the extent to which speakers are able to exploit conceptual information during speech planning depends on the level of language proficiency. PMID:20640178

  3. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

  4. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  5. Even Math Requires Learning Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    ELLs need to practice using the language in their speech. Teachers can ask students to restate the definition in their own words and provide opportunities for students to use academic vocabulary in discussions. Chunking (instead of teaching inch in isolation, also teach foot, centimeter, and yard) helps students develop their schema and mentally…

  6. Processing words in two languages: An event-related brain potential study of proficient bilingualsa

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Alexandra; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Midgley, Katherine J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study of native-English speaking university learners of a second language (Spanish) we observed an asymmetric pattern of ERP translation priming effects in L1 and L2 (Alvarez et al., 2003, Brain & Language, 87, 290-304) with larger and earlier priming on the N400 component in the L2 to L1, compared with the L1 to L2 direction. In the current study 20 native-Russian speakers who were also highly proficient in English participated in a mixed language lexical decision task in which critical words were presented in Russian (L1) and English (L2) and repetitions of these words (within and between languages) were presented on subsequent trials. ERPs were recorded to all items allowing for comparisons of repetition effects within and between (translation) languages. The results revealed a symmetrical pattern of within-language repetition and between-language translation ERP priming effects, which in conjunction with Alvarez et al (2003), supports the hypothesis that L2 proficiency level rather than age or order of language acquisition is responsible for the observed patterns of translation priming. The ramifications of these results for models of bilingual word processing are discussed. PMID:21461123

  7. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA), Community School District 2 Special Alternative Instruction Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Joanne

    Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA) was a federally funded program serving 960 limited-English-proficient students in 10 Manhattan (New York) elementary schools in 1992-93 its third year of operation. The project provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and social studies in…

  8. Task-Based Language Teaching and English for Academic Purposes: An Investigation into Instructor Perceptions and Practice in the Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Scott Roy; Kim, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs designed to meet postsecondary English language proficiency requirements are a common pathway to higher education for students from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Grounded in a Canadian context, this study seeks to examine the prevalence of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) in EAP, common examples…

  9. Improving the Academic Performance of Non-Native English-Speaking Students: The Contribution of Pre-Sessional English Language Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Andy; Snell, Martin; Davey-Evans, Sue; Talman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    There is an established, if weak, inverse relationship between levels of English language proficiency and academic performance in higher education. In response, higher education institutions (HEIs) insist upon minimum entry requirements concerning language for international applicants. Many HEIs now also offer pre-sessional English courses to…

  10. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates. PMID:25431506

  11. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-03-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates.

  12. On the Viable Linkages between Extroversion/Introversion and Academic Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavinia, Parviz; Hassanlou, Adel

    2014-01-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the relationship between academic Iranian EFL learners' extroversion/introversion and their writing performance. The participants of the study were some 52 BA learners majoring in English language literature in Urmia and Tabriz state universities. The chosen sample comprised of both males and females…

  13. Multilingual Faculty across Academic Disciplines: Language Difference in Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos, Alyssa G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the dominance of the English language in scholarship, multilingual academics often encounter challenges in achieving academic biliteracy and identifying successful language negotiation practices in academia. Through personal interviews with self-identified multilingual academics across academic disciplines, this paper explores how they…

  14. Lexical Noun Phrases in Texts Written by Deaf Children and Adults with Different Proficiency Levels in Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beijsterveldt, Liesbeth Maria; van Hell, Janet

    2010-01-01

    We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN were compared on structures that either overlap in…

  15. Education in the World System: The Demand for Language and International Proficiencies in Economic Development and National Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoegl, Juergen K.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the role of second-language proficiency from international, national, and state perspectives, including consideration of the need for such proficiency in science, technology, and research for economic development. Trends indicate that a more internationalized curricula in higher education and a greater demand for second-language…

  16. How Is No Child Left Behind Affecting Proficient and Advanced Students on the California STAR Test in English Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…

  17. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  18. Why bother with testing? The validity of immigrants' self-assessed language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Edele, Aileen; Seuring, Julian; Kristen, Cornelia; Stanat, Petra

    2015-07-01

    Due to its central role in social integration, immigrants' language proficiency is a matter of considerable societal concern and scientific interest. This study examines whether commonly applied self-assessments of linguistic skills yield results that are similar to those of competence tests and thus whether these self-assessments are valid measures of language proficiency. Analyses of data for immigrant youth reveal moderate correlations between language test scores and two types of self-assessments (general ability estimates and concrete performance estimates) for the participants' first and second languages. More importantly, multiple regression models using self-assessments and models using test scores yield different results. This finding holds true for a variety of analyses and for both types of self-assessments. Our findings further suggest that self-assessed language skills are systematically biased in certain groups. Subjective measures thus seem to be inadequate estimates of language skills, and future research should use them with caution when research questions pertain to actual language skills rather than self-perceptions.

  19. Examining the Relationship between Course Length and Academic Performance in College-Level Psychology with an Investigation into Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    College dropout is a complex problem resulting in an array of negative repercussions for students, universities, and society. The study explored the impact of reading proficiency on academic success in a college-level introductory psychology course offered in both traditional and accelerated formats. A quantitative, quasi-experimental design was…

  20. A Comparative Study on China-U.S.' APTHS (Academic Proficiency Test for High Schools): Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin; Yan, Wenfan

    2012-01-01

    This study followed the comparative research mode of description, interpretation, juxtaposition and comparison. Based on the literatures and data collected on the topic, the paper compared and analyzed the past, present and future of APTHS (academic proficiency test for high schools) in the two countries. Some contemplations on the common issues…

  1. Do Prior Studies Matter?: Predicting Proficiencies Required to Excel Academically in Law School at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalukenge, Betty; Wamala, Robert; Ocaya, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Introduction of law school admission examinations has increased the debate regarding the relevance of prior studies for the enrollees in the program. The key issues of contention are whether prior studies reliably predict academic achievement of enrollees, and demonstrate proficiencies required for admission in the program. The purpose of…

  2. Inquiry Science: The Gateway to English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared to a…

  3. Inquiry Science: The Gateway to English Language Proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared to a similar group of students who were using the district's established English language development curriculum. Student performance on statemandated English and science assessments were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests for overall performance and by number of years of treatment. Modest but statistically significant improvement was found for students who participated in the blended program. Results from this study suggest that restricting instructional minutes for science to provide additional time for ELD and English language arts may be unnecessary. Rather, allowing consistent time for science instruction that incorporates ELD instruction along with inquiry science experiences may provide the authentic and purposeful context students need to develop new language without restricting access to science content.

  4. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  5. Supporting Postsecondary English Language Learners' Writing Proficiency Using Technological Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kathleen A.; Rutherford, Camille; Crawford, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary international students who are also English language learners face a number of challenges when studying abroad and often are provided with services to support their learning. Though some research examines how institutions can support this population of students, few studies explore how technology is used to support language…

  6. Developing Basic Skills Proficiencies for Limited English Proficient (LEP) and English as a Second Language (ESL) Students in Vocational Education. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Service Center Region 4, Houston, TX.

    A project was conducted to identify and evaluate available microcomputer software for use in helping limited English-proficient (LEP) and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) vocational students to develop career awareness and basic and employability skills. During the project, a literature review was completed in order to identify the special needs…

  7. The Assessment and Achievement of Proficiency in a Native Sign Language within a Sign Bilingual Program: The Pilot Auslan Receptive Skills Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of sign language proficiency is essential for evaluating the outcomes of sign bilingual education. This paper reports an attempt to assess the sign language proficiency of children in a self-described sign bilingual program in Sydney by adapting a British Sign Language (BSL) test to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). The test…

  8. Increasing Language Awareness and Self-Efficacy of FL Students Using Self-Assessment and the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.; O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how oral language was assessed in an advanced-level college foreign language (FL) conversation course. Learners used the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Proficiency Guidelines to guide self-analyses of their oral production at intervals throughout the course. The intent was to provide opportunities for…

  9. Developing New "Thinking-for-Speaking" Patterns in Greek as a Foreign Language: The Role of Proficiency and Stays Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andria, Maria; Serrano, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of first language thinking-for-speaking patterns on the acquisition of Greek as a second language (L2), as well as to determine whether proficiency level and stays in the target-language country have an effect on such influence. The participants (N = 50) were Spanish/Catalan learners of…

  10. Interlanguage intelligibility benefit as a function of talker and listener language background and L2 proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, Tessa; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2002-05-01

    For non-native listeners, intelligibility of non-native speakers (NNS) can surpass intelligibility of native speakers [T. Bent, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2472 (2001)]. The present study further investigated how language background and L2 proficiency of talker and listener affect L2 intelligibility. Two Chinese NNS, two Korean NNS, and one English monolingual were recorded reading simple English sentences. Listeners were English monolinguals, Chinese NNS, Korean NNS, and NNS with other L1s. For native English listeners, the native English talker was most intelligible. For non-native listeners, intelligibility of non-native talkers with high degrees of L2 proficiency was better than or equal to native talker intelligibility. This pattern held regardless of whether non-native talkers and listeners matched in L1. Additionally, the interlanguage benefit (i.e., the intelligibility difference between non-native and native talkers) decreased as the listeners' proficiency in English increased. This interlanguage benefit can be accounted for by a combination of a shared systematic interlanguage (when talker and listener match in L1) and the influence of interlanguage universals (when talker and listener do not match in L1). However, both of these factors become less influential as listeners L2 proficiency develops causing a decrease in the interlanguage benefit. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD Grant DC 03762.

  11. American Sign Language and Academic English: Factors Influencing the Reading of Bilingual Secondary School Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica A; Hoffmeister, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    For many years, researchers have sought to understand the reading development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, in this study we investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual schools for the deaf, academic English proficiency would be a significant predictor of reading comprehension alongside ASL proficiency. Using linear regression, we found statistically significant interaction effects between academic English knowledge and word reading fluency in predicting the reading comprehension scores of the participants. However, ASL remained the strongest and most consistent predictor of reading comprehension within the sample. Findings support a model in which socio-demographic factors, ASL proficiency, and word reading fluency are primary predictors of reading comprehension for secondary DHH students.

  12. More than use it or lose it: the number-of-speakers effect on heritage language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Tamar H; Starr, Jennie; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-02-01

    Acquiring a heritage language (HL), a minority language spoken primarily at home, is often a major step toward achieving bilingualism. Two studies examined factors that promote HL proficiency. Chinese-English and Spanish-English undergraduates and Hebrew-English children named pictures in both their languages, and they or their parents completed language history questionnaires. HL picture-naming ability correlated positively with the number of different HL speakers participants spoke to as children, independently of each language's frequency of use, and without negatively affecting English picture-naming ability. HL performance increased also when primary caregivers had lower English proficiency, with later English age of acquisition, and (in children) with increased age. These results suggest a prescription for increasing bilingual proficiency is regular interaction with multiple HL speakers. Responsible cognitive mechanisms could include greater variety of words used by different speakers, representational robustness from exposure to variations in form, or multiple retrieval cues, perhaps analogous to contextual diversity effects.

  13. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  14. Examining the Effectiveness of an Academic Language Planning Organizer as a Tool for Planning Science Academic Language Instruction and Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Karl G.; Brown, Julie C.

    2016-12-01

    To engage in the practices of science, students must have a strong command of science academic language. However, content area teachers often make academic language an incidental part of their lesson planning, which leads to missed opportunities to enhance students' language development. To support pre-service elementary science teachers (PSTs) in making language planning an explicit part of their science lessons, we created the Academic Language Planning Organizer (ALPO). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the ALPO on two levels: first, by examining participants' interactions with the ALPO as they identified academic language features, objectives and supports; and second, by exploring the ways that participants translated identified language supports to planned science activities. Findings indicated that, when using the ALPO, PSTs identified clear language functions and relevant vocabulary terms, and also frequently developed clear, observable and measurable language objectives. When lesson planning, PSTs were largely successful in translating previously identified language supports to their lesson plans, and often planned additional language supports beyond what was required. We also found, however, that the ALPO did not meet its intended use in supporting PSTs in identifying discourse and syntax demands associated with specific academic language functions, suggesting that revisions to the ALPO could better support PSTs in identifying these academic language demands. Implications for supporting PSTs' planning for and scaffolding of science academic language use are presented.

  15. Limited English proficient Asian Americans: Threshold language policy and access to mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Peng, Carol J; Wei-Mien Lou, Christine; Wallace, Neal T

    2011-01-01

    The importance of providing timely, effective mental health services is increasingly recognized worldwide, and language barriers are a formidable obstacle to achieving this objective. Threshold language policy is one response implemented by California and other states within the U.S., in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs receiving federal funding. This policy mandates language assistance services for Medicaid enrollees whose primary language is other than English once their population size reaches a designated level. Medicaid is the federal-state-funded health insurance program for specific classifications of low-income Americans. This study evaluated the impact of threshold language policy on Vietnamese, Cantonese, Hmong, and Cambodian limited English proficiency persons' use of public mental health services in California. Using random-effects regression on 247 observations, we regressed aggregate Vietnamese, Cantonese, Hmong, and Cambodian Medicaid mental health service penetration rates on an indicator of the threshold language policy's implementation, while controlling for a linear time trend and the effects of non-threshold language assistance programming. Immediately after implementation, threshold language policy requirements were associated with a penetration rate increase among this population. The penetration rate increase became greater after accounting for the impact of concurrent language assistance. However, this increase diminished over time. The findings indicate that, at least in the short run, language assistance measures requiring reasonable accommodations once populations of LEP persons reach a specified size have detectable effects on their mental health service use. These requirements increase the number of mental health consumers, but appear to provide declining benefit over time. California's threshold language policy provides

  16. Examining the Effectiveness of an Academic Language Planning Organizer as a Tool for Planning Science Academic Language Instruction and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Karl G.; Brown, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    To engage in the practices of science, students must have a strong command of science academic language. However, content area teachers often make academic language an incidental part of their lesson planning, which leads to missed opportunities to enhance students' language development. To support pre-service elementary science teachers (PSTs) in…

  17. Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages

    PubMed Central

    Rueckl, Jay G.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J.; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H.; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Frost, Ram

    2015-01-01

    We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech–print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents. PMID:26621710

  18. Individual differences in second-language proficiency: does musical ability matter?

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Miyake, Akira

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the relation between musical ability and second-language (L2) proficiency in adult learners. L2 ability was assessed in four domains: receptive phonology, productive phonology, syntax, and lexical knowledge. Also assessed were various other factors that might explain individual differences in L2 ability, including age of L2 immersion, patterns of language use and exposure, and phonological short-term memory. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to determine if musical ability explained any unique variance in each domain of L2 ability after controlling for other relevant factors. Musical ability predicted L2 phonological ability (both receptive and productive) even when controlling for other factors, but did not explain unique variance in L2 syntax or lexical knowledge. These results suggest that musical skills may facilitate the acquisition of L2 sound structure and add to a growing body of evidence linking language and music.

  19. The Use of Compensation Strategies in the Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking and Its Relationship with Their Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Ali Akbar; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Compensation Strategies (CpSs) are strategies which a language user employs in order to achieve his intended meaning when precise linguistic forms are for some reasons not available at that point of communication. Different factors may influence the use of CpSs, among which the level of language proficiency is one of the most important ones. The…

  20. Strategies for Proficiency in Second Language Acquisition: Tarrant County Junior College, Northeast Campus. Final Project Evaluation Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Jane; Lively, Madeleine

    In response to the needs of teachers for assistance in developing second language speaking and instructional skills, Tarrant County Junior College, Northeast Campus, designed a series of 10 16-hour workshops for teachers of foreign languages for summer 1989. The "Strategies for Proficiency Workshops" were intended primarily as in-service training…

  1. Correlating Aptitude with Oral Proficiency: A Quantitative Study of DLAB and OPI Scores across Four Language Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santizo, Isabelle Poupard

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study focuses on the relationship between foreign language learners' aptitude and proficiency test scores. Four groups of 136 beginning students received six months of Initial Acquisition Training (IAT) in four different language categories, according to the level of complexity for an English speaker: French (Category I),…

  2. Learning Strategies in Alleviating English Writing Anxiety for English Language Learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…

  3. A Descriptive Study of the Relationship between Language Reading Proficiency and the Age at Which Music Lessons Are Begun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Lynne S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore whether there is a relationship between the age at which music lessons begin and language reading proficiency as an adult. Such a relationship may indicate that transfer of learning takes place between the processes of learning to read language and learning to read music. One hundred forty-seven…

  4. Online and Face-to-Face Language Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Oral Proficiency in Introductory Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneypenny, Dianne Burke; Aldrich, Rosalie S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary resistance to online foreign language teaching often involves questions of spoken mastery of second language. In order to address this concern, this research comparatively assesses undergraduate students' oral proficiency in online and face-to-face Spanish classes, while taking into account students' previous second language…

  5. Design and Psychometric Considerations for Assessments of Speaking Proficiency: The English Language Development Assessment (ELDA) as Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires all states to assess the English proficiency of English language learners each school year. Under Title I and Title III of No Child Left Behind, states are required to measure the annual growth of students' English language development in reading, listening, writing, and speaking and in comprehension…

  6. Neural convergence for language comprehension and grammatical class production in highly proficient bilinguals is independent of age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Monica; Cafiero, Riccardo; Marin, Dario; Tettamanti, Marco; Iadanza, Antonella; Fabbro, Franco; Perani, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In bilinguals, native (L1) and second (L2) languages are processed by the same neural resources that can be modulated by age of second language acquisition (AOA), proficiency level, and daily language exposure and usage. AOA seems to particularly affect grammar processing, where a complete neural convergence has been shown only in bilinguals with parallel language acquisition from birth. Despite the fact that proficiency-related neuroanatomical differences have been well documented in language comprehension (LC) and production, few reports have addressed the influence of language exposure. A still unanswered question pertains to the role of AOA, when proficiency is comparably high across languages, with respect to its modulator effects both on LC and production. Here, we evaluated with fMRI during sentence comprehension and verb and noun production tasks, two groups of highly proficient bilinguals only differing in AOA. One group learned Italian and Friulian in parallel from birth, whereas the second group learned Italian between 3 and 6 years. All participants were highly exposed to both languages, but more to Italian than Friulian. The results indicate a complete overlap of neural activations for the comprehension of both languages, not only in bilinguals from birth, but also in late bilinguals. A slightly extra activation in the left thalamus for the less-exposed language confirms that exposure may affect language processing. Noteworthy, we report for the first time that, when proficiency and exposure are kept high, noun and verb production recruit the same neural networks for L1 and L2, independently of AOA. These results support the neural convergence hypothesis.

  7. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. METHODS: We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. RESULTS: Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children

  8. Characteristic functional networks in high- versus low-proficiency second language speakers detected also during native language processing: an explorative EEG coherence study in 6 frequency bands.

    PubMed

    Reiterer, Susanne; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Rappelsberger, Peter; Berger, Michael L

    2005-10-01

    An EEG coherence study was performed with a twofold objective: first, to scrutinize the theoretical concept of "cortical efficiency" in connection with second language (L2) acquisition and, second, to detect cooperations between cortical areas in specific frequency bands indicative for highly proficient L2 processing. Two groups differing only in their level of L2 proficiency were contrasted during presentation of natural language videos in English (L2) and German (native language, L1), with explorative coherence analysis in 6 frequency bands (0.5-31.5 Hz). The coherence brain maps revealed more pronounced and widespread increases in coherences in the alpha1-band (8-10 Hz) in low-proficiency than in the high-proficiency L2 speakers. Surprisingly, this difference was obtained also during L1 processing and corroborated for both languages by multivariate permutation tests. These tests revealed additional differences between the low- and the high-proficiency group also for coherences within the beta1- (13-18 Hz) and the beta2-band (18.5-31.5 Hz), again during L2 and L1 processing. Since the same group differences were observed during L1 and L2 processing, our high-proficiency group might have profited from a more generic advantage in language or text processing strategy. This strategic advantage was most evident at alpha1 frequencies, possibly related to a specific way of processing internal mental states (top-down processing).

  9. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A.; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth – the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules – notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German–French and French–German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants’ L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals’ L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2

  10. The Effect of English Proficiency and Ethnicity on Academic Performance and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…

  11. Language-related activations in the left prefrontal regions are differentially modulated by age, proficiency, and task demands.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2005-02-16

    It remains to be elucidated how cortical activations are modulated by factors of age, proficiency, and language task demands when mastering first language (L1) and a second language (L2). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested subjects aged 13 (the age 13 group) and 19 (the age 19 group), thereby comparing the cortical activations involved in past-tense verb identification with those involved in verb matching. We found that the activation in the dorsal triangular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was lower, corresponding to a higher proficiency in English (L2) in the older subjects, suggesting that the proficiency level plays a major role in the activation of this region during L2 acquisition. Moreover, the lower activation in the triangular and orbital parts of the left IFG (F3t/F3O) for the irregular past tense corresponding to a higher proficiency in L2, together with the nonsignificant activation for the regular past tense when its performance almost reached perfection for age 19, suggests that the modulation of the left F3t/F3O activation reflects language task demands for identifying correct past-tense forms. On the other hand, the left F3t/F3O activation in Japanese (L1) for age 13 was significantly greater than that for age 19, despite the matched performances in L1. These results suggest that the left IFG subserves language-specific functions that are critically required when mastering any language.

  12. Inhibitory control and l2 proficiency modulate bilingual language production: evidence from spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Palmer, Caroline; Titone, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control (IC) to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of IC necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2) proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, 42 English-French and French-English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1) and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech.

  13. Can Lextale-Esp discriminate between groups of highly proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals with different language dominances?

    PubMed

    Ferré, Pilar; Brysbaert, Marc

    2016-03-22

    Researchers have recently introduced various LexTALE-type word recognition tests in order to assess vocabulary size in a second language (L2) mastered by participants. These tests correlate well with other measures of language proficiency in unbalanced bilinguals whose second language ability is well below the level of their native language. In the present study, we investigated whether LexTALE-type tests also discriminate at the high end of the proficiency range. In several regions of Spain, people speak both the regional language (e.g., Catalan or Basque) and Spanish to very high degrees. Still, because of their living circumstances, some consider themselves as either Spanish-dominant or regional-language dominant. We showed that these two groups perform differently on the recently published Spanish Lextale-Esp: The Spanish-dominant group had significantly higher scores than the Catalan-dominant group. We also showed that the noncognate words of the test have the highest discrimination power. This indicates that the existing Lextale-Esp can be used to estimate proficiency differences in highly proficient bilinguals with Spanish as an L2, and that a more sensitive test could be built by replacing the cognates.

  14. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals. PMID:18834625

  15. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  16. An ERP study of second language learning after childhood: effects of proficiency.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Nakata, Hiroki; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2005-08-01

    Whether there is an absolute critical period for acquiring language is a matter of continuous debate. One approach to address this issue is to compare the processes of second language (L2) learning after childhood and those of first language (L1) learning during childhood. To study the cortical process of postchildhood L2 learning, we compared event-related brain potentials recorded from two groups of adult Japanese speakers who attained either high or intermediate proficiency in English after childhood (J-High and J-Low), and adult native English speakers (ENG). Semantic anomalies embedded in English sentences evoked a clear N400 component in all three groups, with only the time course of the brain activation varying among the groups. Syntactic violations elicited a left-lateralized negativity similar to the left anterior negativity in ENG and J-High, but not in J-Low. In ENG, a P600 component was additionally found. These results suggest that semantic processing is robust from early on in L2 learning, whereas the development of syntactic processing is more dependent on proficiency as evidenced by the lack of the left-lateralized negativity in J-Low. Because early maturation and stability of semantic processing as opposed to syntactic processing are also a feature of L1 processing, postchildhood L2 learning may be governed by the same brain properties as those which govern childhood L1 learning. We argue that these processes are qualitatively similar in many respects, with only restricted domains of language processing being subject to absolute critical period effects.

  17. Socialization to Academic Language in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of academic language for students' success in schools, this article reports on an investigation of how narrative-focused literacy events in the classroom provide opportunities for academic language socialization. Data were collected from one public elementary school in a major metropolitan area in the Mid-Atlantic region…

  18. Second language proficiency modulates conflict-monitoring in an oculomotor Stroop task: evidence from Hindi-English bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement toward the color patch in the same color as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals. PMID:23781210

  19. Second language proficiency modulates conflict-monitoring in an oculomotor Stroop task: evidence from Hindi-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement toward the color patch in the same color as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.

  20. Setting Language Proficiency Score Requirements for English-as-a-Second-Language Placement Decisions in Secondary Education. Research Report. ETS RR-16-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…

  1. Issues in Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Practice Review (Part 2 of 3). CRESST Report 732

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Griffin, Noelle; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Patina L.; Chang, Sandy M.; Farnsworth, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states have moved…

  2. Issues in Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Literature Review (Part 1 of 3). CRESST Report 731

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison; Bachman, Patina L.; Farnsworth, Tim; Chang, Sandy M.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP), as well as content knowledge and skills. Although states have…

  3. Recommendations for Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Recommendations Report (Part 3 of 3). CRESST Report 737

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison L.; Griffin, Noelle

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states…

  4. Mother-tongue training in school as a determinant of global language proficiency: A Belgian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesi, Marcel

    1988-12-01

    Experimental models of education that incorporate the mother tongue of immigrant children into the structure of their curricula constitute obvious cases-in-point for assessing the validity of bilingual or multilingual education for such children. The present case study of one such model, the so-called `Foyer Bicultural Education Project' of Brussels, is intended to shed some light on the relationship between formal mother-tongue training and the development of global language proficiency in minority-language children. Since this particular case-in-point involves three languages — Italian (the mother tongue), Flemish and French — it is especially interesting with regard to the validity of the so-called `interdependence principle', as formulated by Cummins (1979). The findings presented here confirm Cummins' principle that the development of literacy in the mother tongue is a determinant of global language proficiency in minority-language children.

  5. Academic Language across Content Areas: Lessons from an Innovative Assessment and from Students' Reflections about Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Phillips Galloway, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Educators are aware of the need to promote students' academic language to support text comprehension. Yet, besides teaching academic vocabulary, many educators continue to ask, What would this instruction entail? Guided by a new framework known as core academic language skills (CALS), the authors' research focuses on delineating core language…

  6. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs.

  7. An Evaluation of the Relationship among State Accountability Reading Test Scores and Levels of Language Proficiency of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Dana Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Growing numbers of English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States have become a trend in recent years; and North Carolina, including the region of this study, is no exception to this trend. As a result of the national rise in ELLs, NCLB was enacted with the goal of increasing academic achievement and closing the achievement gap between…

  8. Hierarchical levels of representation in language prediction: The influence of first language acquisition in highly proficient bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Giannelli, Francesco; Caffarra, Sendy; Martin, Clara

    2017-04-03

    Language comprehension is largely supported by predictive mechanisms that account for the ease and speed with which communication unfolds. Both native and proficient non-native speakers can efficiently handle contextual cues to generate reliable linguistic expectations. However, the link between the variability of the linguistic background of the speaker and the hierarchical format of the representations predicted is still not clear. We here investigate whether native language exposure to typologically highly diverse languages (Spanish and Basque) affects the way early balanced bilingual speakers carry out language predictions. During Spanish sentence comprehension, participants developed predictions of words the form of which (noun ending) could be either diagnostic of grammatical gender values (transparent) or totally ambiguous (opaque). We measured electrophysiological prediction effects time-locked both to the target word and to its determiner, with the former being expected or unexpected. Event-related (N200-N400) and oscillatory activity in the low beta-band (15-17Hz) frequency channel showed that both Spanish and Basque natives optimally carry out lexical predictions independently of word transparency. Crucially, in contrast to Spanish natives, Basque natives displayed visual word form predictions for transparent words, in consistency with the relevance that noun endings (post-nominal suffixes) play in their native language. We conclude that early language exposure largely shapes prediction mechanisms, so that bilinguals reading in their second language rely on the distributional regularities that are highly relevant in their first language. More importantly, we show that individual linguistic experience hierarchically modulates the format of the predicted representation.

  9. The Home Language Environment of Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Their Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between home language learning activities and vocabulary in a sample of monolingual native Dutch (n = 58) and bilingual immigrant Moroccan-Dutch (n = 46) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 55) 3-year-olds, speaking Tarifit-Berber, a nonscripted language, and Turkish as their first language (L1), respectively. Despite…

  10. How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln,…

  11. Opportunities and Outcomes: The Role of Peers in Developing the Oral Academic English Proficiency of Adolescent English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill-Poza, Avary

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…

  12. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning.

    PubMed

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z

    2015-06-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader.

  13. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Amanda Hampton; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. PMID:23557881

  14. Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibold, Claire

    2011-01-01

    According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

  15. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  16. Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many states have begun the process of developing or adapting English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards to align with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the forthcoming Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This need stems not only from a desire to ensure that "all" students receive the rigorous and systematic education…

  17. The Effects of a Summer Reading Program Using Simultaneous Multisensory Instruction of Language Arts on Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magpuri-Lavell, Theresa; Paige, David; Williams, Rosemary; Akins, Kristia; Cameron, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the Simultaneous Multisensory Institute for Language Arts (SMILA) approach on the reading proficiency of 39 students between the ages of 7-11 participating in a summer reading program. The summer reading clinic draws students from the surrounding community which is located in a large urban district in the…

  18. Cross-Lagged Relations between Motivation and Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…

  19. Latino and Asian Students' Perceptions of the Quality of Their Educators: The Role of Generational Status and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Adam M.; Melde, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Extant research has primarily assessed the quality of the American school experience for immigrant students by focusing on performance-based outcomes (e.g., grade point average [GPA]). Unlike such research, the current study examines the impact of generational status and language proficiency on Latino and Asian students' (n = 2,261) attitudes…

  20. A Standardised English Language Proficiency Test as the Graduation Benchmark: Student Perspectives on Its Application in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yau; Tsou, Chia-Hsiau

    2009-01-01

    The adoption of standardised English Language Proficiency (ELP) tests as a tool for assessing students' English competence for graduation is becoming more and more common in higher education in Taiwan. This paper focuses on university undergraduate students and uses data from a questionnaire survey to investigate their views of the application of…

  1. Effects of M[superscript 3] Curriculum on Mathematics and English Proficiency Achievement of Mathematically Promising English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Seokhee; Yang, Jenny; Mandracchia, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Mentoring Mathematical Minds (M3) units on gains in mathematics achievement and English proficiency of mathematically promising English language learners (MPELLs) in the third grade. The M3 program, developed by Gavin et al., was implemented for 1 year with treatment MPELLs (n = 86) but not…

  2. The Effect of Explicit Affective Strategy Training on Iranian EFL Learners' Oral Language Proficiency and Anxiety Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh; Vahdany, Fereidoon

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the possible effects of explicit teaching of affective strategies on Iranian EFL learners' oral language proficiency and the extent of their anxiety in EFL classroom. First, PET test was administered to a total number of 120 female third grade high school EFL students. Then, 60 participants whose score fell…

  3. Large-Scale Assessment of Language Proficiency: Theoretical and Pedagogical Reflections on the Use of Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argüelles Álvarez, Irina

    2013-01-01

    The new requirement placed on students in tertiary settings in Spain to demonstrate a B1 or a B2 proficiency level of English, in accordance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), has led most Spanish universities to develop a program of certification or accreditation of the required level. The first part of this…

  4. Assessment of Young English Language Learners in Arizona: Questioning the Validity of the State Measure of English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…

  5. Predicting New Jersey High School Proficiency Test Results in Mathematics and Language Arts Using Community Demographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the 2013 New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA) Language Arts and Mathematics scores and school level data related to family human capital and community social capital found in the extant literature to influence student achievement on high-stakes standardized assessments. School level data…

  6. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Evaluation of Foreign Language Proficiency (Indiana University, Bloomington, March 4-6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The proceedings of a two and one-half day symposium concerning the assessment of functional language ability through the oral interview process included the following papers: "The FSI/ILR/ACTFL Proficiency Scales and Testing Techniques: Development, Current Status, and Need Research" (John L. D. Clark, Ray T. Clifford); "The ACTFL…

  7. Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

  8. Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment: Defense Language Proficiency Test (DLPT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    DATES COVERED (From - To) Jun 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES LANGUAGE AND CULTURE NEEDS ASSESSMENT: DEFENSE LANGUAGE...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Special Operations Forces Culture and Language Office HQ USSOCOM Attn: SOKL-J7—SOFLO 7701 Tampa Point Blvd MacDill... Culture Needs Assessment Project. The larger study consisted of 23 focus groups conducted across the SOF community and an issue-oriented web-based

  9. Assessment of second language proficiency in bilingual children with specific language impairment: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing bilingual children, and monolingual Dutch children with SLI. Assuming that speaking a language in varying environments involves distinct subskills that can be acquired in differential patterns, the achievement of phonological, lexical, morphosyntactic and textual abilities were assessed separately. For each of these abilities, it was determined to what extent the conditions of restricted input (first vs. second language) and language deficit (typically developing vs. SLI) cause stagnation or a delay in language acquisition. Bilingual children with SLI perform at a lower level than the other groups in almost all aspects of achievement in Dutch. For language tasks related to the mental lexicon and grammar, an additional disadvantage was evidenced as a result of the combination of learning Dutch as second language and having SLI.

  10. Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

  11. Teaching Strategies and Practices That Impact English Language Learners' Vocabulary and Language Proficiency in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Jacqueline Rushin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify teaching strategies and practices that impact the vocabulary and language development for English Language Learners. Today, there are over 3.5 million non-English speaking students enrolled in public classrooms and the number has continued to climb over the past decade. Many ELL students live in poverty…

  12. The Processing Behaviours of Adult Second Language Learners and Their Relationship to Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the behaviors for processing language input demonstrated by five adults beginning to learn Hindi as a second language through the Total Physical Response method. The study suggests that, when adult learners are provided with comprehensive input, they engage in a variety of behaviors to extract meaning from it. (73 references) (GLR)

  13. Assessment of Second Language Proficiency in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing…

  14. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  15. Playing Football without a Ball: Language, Reading and Academic Performance in a High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Mampuru, Deborah Maphoko

    2007-01-01

    Second language (L2) reading research suggests that there is a complex interplay between L2 proficiency, first language (L1) reading and L2 reading. However, not much is known about the effect of L1 proficiency on L1 reading, and of L1 reading on L2 reading, or vice versa, in bilingual settings when readers have few opportunities for extensive…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  17. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content assessments. Two research questions…

  18. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes a study that examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content…

  19. Measuring Academic Proficiency Under the No Child Left Behind Act: Implications for Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.; Sunderman, Gail L.

    2005-01-01

    The accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 place high-poverty schools and racially diverse schools at a disadvantage because they rely on mean proficiency scores and require all subgroups to meet the same goals for accountability. In this article, student achievement data from six states are used to highlight…

  20. General Language Proficiency (GLP): Reflections on the "Issues Revisited" from the Perspective of a UK Examination Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Looking back to the language testing world of the 1980s in the United Kingdom, we need to be aware that how we perceive or remember ourselves to have been then--whether as individual language testing academics or as corporate language testing organisations--will be shaped by multiple influences. Although we may have been present at and shared in…

  1. What and When Second-Language Learners Revise When Responding to Timed Writing Tasks on the Computer: The Roles of Task Type, Second Language Proficiency, and Keyboarding Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on second language (L2) learners' revision behavior by describing what, when, and how often L2 learners revise their texts when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer and by examining the effects of task type, L2 proficiency, and keyboarding skills on what and when L2 learners revise. Each of 54…

  2. Effects of Curriculum and Teacher Professional Development on the Language Proficiency of Elementary English Language Learner Students in the Central Region. Final Report. NCEE 2012-4013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, Sheila A.; Stoker, Ginger; Barker, Jane; Shebby, Susan; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Lou F.; Williams, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    This study responds to regional and national needs by examining the impact on students' English language proficiency of a particular set of ELL-specific classroom materials in combination with a specific teacher professional development program. The classroom materials used in this study, entitled On Our Way to English (OWE), were authored by…

  3. Functional activity and white matter microstructure reveal the independent effects of age of acquisition and proficiency on second-language learning.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Emily S; Joanisse, Marc F

    2016-12-01

    Two key factors govern how bilingual speakers neurally maintain two languages: the speakers' second language age of acquisition (AoA) and their subsequent proficiency. However, the relative roles of these two factors have been difficult to disentangle given that the two can be closely correlated, and most prior studies have examined the two factors in isolation. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging to identify specific brain areas that are independently modulated by AoA and proficiency in second language speakers. First-language Mandarin Chinese speakers who are second language speakers of English were scanned as they performed a picture-word matching task in either language. In the same session we also acquired diffusion-weighted scans to assess white matter microstructure, along with behavioural measures of language proficiency prior to entering the scanner. Results reveal gray- and white-matter networks involving both the left and right hemisphere that independently vary as a function of a second-language speaker's AoA and proficiency, focused on the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. These results indicate that proficiency and AoA explain separate functional and structural networks in the bilingual brain, which we interpret as suggesting distinct types of plasticity for age-dependent effects (i.e., AoA) versus experience and/or predisposition (i.e., proficiency).

  4. Predictors and Outcomes of Early versus Later English Language Proficiency among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self-control,…

  5. The effect of age of acquisition, socioeducational status, and proficiency on the neural processing of second language speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the role of age of acquisition (AoA), socioeducational status (SES), and second language (L2) proficiency on the neural processing of L2 speech sounds. In a task of pre-attentive listening and passive viewing, Spanish-English bilinguals and a control group of English monolinguals listened to English syllables while watching a film of natural scenery. Eight regions of interest were selected from brain areas involved in speech perception and executive processes. The regions of interest were examined in 2 separate two-way ANOVA (AoA×SES; AoA×L2 proficiency). The results showed that AoA was the main variable affecting the neural response in L2 speech processing. Direct comparisons between AoA groups of equivalent SES and proficiency level enhanced the intensity and magnitude of the results. These results suggest that AoA, more than SES and proficiency level, determines which brain regions are recruited for the processing of second language speech sounds.

  6. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  7. English for Academic Purposes Activity in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The greatest importance of the continuing professional development is the use of 3-5 languages, with at least 2-3 on the level of native/first language to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. English for Academic Purposes activity as a form of life activity is a basic demand for studying English for…

  8. English Language Learners and Their Academic Progress: 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This is the 2010-11 annual report on the academic progress of English language learners in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the report is to: (1) Describe the demographic characteristics of students classified as English Language Learners (ELL) in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS); (2) Provide data regarding ELL…

  9. Second Language Students' Discourse Socialization in Academic Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Yoon-kyung Kecia

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of second language (L2) students' class participation in English-language university courses in two different modes: face-to-face off-line and asynchronous online. The study addressed (1) what characteristics of academic online discourse were created in graduate courses; (2) how students reported their…

  10. Foreign Languages and the College Board's "Academic Preparation for College."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauvin, Jean-Pierre

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the findings of the College Board's "Academic Preparation for College," with respect to the foreign language preparedness of secondary-school students. Reveals a shocking, intellectually crippling decline in student preparation. Supports the recommendations of the foreign language statement of the Green Book. (DMM)

  11. Re-Integrating Academic Development and Academic Language and Learning: A Call to Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percy, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the re-integration of academic development (AD) and a academic language and learning (ALL) practitioners in Australian higher education. This argument is made as universities aim to develop internationally recognised, inter-disciplinary and standards-based curricula against the backdrop of international comparative education…

  12. The influence of language proficiency on lexical semantic processing in native and late learners of English.

    PubMed

    Newman, Aaron J; Tremblay, Antoine; Nichols, Emily S; Neville, Helen J; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the influence of English proficiency on ERPs elicited by lexical semantic violations in English sentences, in both native English speakers and native Spanish speakers who learned English in adulthood. All participants were administered a standardized test of English proficiency, and data were analyzed using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Relative to native learners, late learners showed reduced amplitude and delayed onset of the N400 component associated with reading semantic violations. As well, after the N400 late learners showed reduced anterior negative scalp potentials and increased posterior potentials. In both native and late learners, N400 amplitudes to semantically appropriate words were larger for people with lower English proficiency. N400 amplitudes to semantic violations, however, were not influenced by proficiency. Although both N400 onset latency and the late ERP effects differed between L1 and L2 learners, neither correlated with proficiency. Different approaches to dealing with the high degree of correlation between proficiency and native/late learner group status are discussed in the context of LME modeling. The results thus indicate that proficiency can modulate ERP effects in both L1 and L2 learners, and for some measures (in this case, N400 amplitude), L1-L2 differences may be entirely accounted for by proficiency. On the other hand, not all effects of L2 learning can be attributed to proficiency. Rather, the differences in N400 onset and the post-N400 violation effects appear to reflect fundamental differences in L1-L2 processing.

  13. Assessing the Language Proficiency of Tribal Heritage Language Learners: Issues and Concerns for American Indian Pueblo Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Among American Indian Pueblo tribes, community-based language revitalisation initiatives have been established in response to a growing language shift towards English. This has been most prominent among school age children, prompting some tribes to extend tribal language programmes into local public schools. For centuries, the transmission of…

  14. Developmental Changes in the Nature of Language Proficiency and Reading Fluency Paint a More Complex View of Reading Comprehension in ELL and EL1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Esther; Farnia, Fataneh

    2012-01-01

    We examined theoretical issues concerning the development of reading fluency and language proficiency in 390 English Language Learners (ELLs,) and 149 monolingual, English-as-a-first language (EL1) students. The extent to which performance on these constructs in Grade 5 (i.e., concurrent predictors) contributes to reading comprehension in the…

  15. Identifying Gaps in Academic Writing of ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giridharan, Beena

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…

  16. The Vocational and Language Development of Limited English Proficient Adults. Information Series No. 363.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenberg, Joan E.

    This critical review of the literature examines the characteristics and needs of limited English proficient (LEP) adults and the programs and services typically available to them. The complexities of the LEP population are explored first, including differences in education, English proficiency, labor market experience, and economic status.…

  17. Language Proficiency in the Multi-Racial Junior School: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, E. C.; And Others

    This book documents the results of a survey to acquire information regarding the English proficiency of second generation minority group children in Britain. The aim of the survey was to do the following: to establish the level of proficiency in English of minority group pupils of junior school age who had received different educational…

  18. The Influence of Textbook Format on Postsecondary Proficient and Remedial Readers: Designing Information Using Visual Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlan, W. Lou

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the design of textbook material affects comprehension and memory of textbook material under certain cognitive conditions for proficient and remedial readers. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, format was found to significantly affect comprehension and memory. Proficient Male scored significantly…

  19. Proficiency Sample Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apodaca, Mary

    The instrument for Colorado's Foreign Language Proficiency Sample Project and directions for its administration are provided in this document. The project is a voluntary, teacher-designed and -administered effort to standardize high school student language proficiency assessment techniques. The materials are used in teacher workshops. The…

  20. Hindi Proficiency Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambhir, Vijay; And Others

    The Hindi language proficiency guidelines are based on the 1986 generic ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) proficiency guidelines. They represent a hierarchy of global characterizations of integrated performance in four skill areas (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) in Hindi. The guidelines for each skill area…

  1. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    PubMed

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.

  2. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess

  3. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to

  4. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning*

    PubMed Central

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z.

    2014-01-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader. PMID:25984550

  5. Improving Science and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners. CREATE Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Mazrum, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This brief reviews previous research related to the development of science knowledge and academic language in English language learners as well as the role of English language proficiency, learning in a second language, and first language knowledge in science learning. It also describes two successful CREATE interventions that build academic and…

  6. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  7. Higher Educanto: Doublespeak in Academe (Language Watching).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehl, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that academia, which should both teach and model the clear, effective use of language, is one of the worst offenders in its pervasive use of doublespeak. Offers numerous examples from campuses across the country. (SR)

  8. Applying the Writing Scales of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with reference to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…

  9. Teachers' language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David K

    2011-08-19

    Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.

  10. Collaborative Work and Language Learners' Identities When Editing Academic Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caviedes, Lorena; Meza, Angélica; Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative case study that involved three groups of English as a foreign language pre-service teachers at a Colombian private university. Each group attended tutoring sessions during an academic semester. Along these sessions, students were asked to work collaboratively in the editing process of some chapters of their thesis…

  11. University Academic Excellence and Language Policy: A Case of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabekova, Anastasia A.; Gorbatenko, Rimma G.; Shoustikova, Tatyana V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the university academic excellence projects worldwide and tries to explore the higher education institutions experience and trends regarding their language policies within the international landscape and increasing globalisation. The article agrees that English goes as a major medium of instruction at universities that strive…

  12. Chatting in Paragraphs: Towards Academic Discourse in Foreign Language Chat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an individual student's increasing approximation of academic discourse during a third-semester Spanish class that included chat-based instruction. During both chat-based activities and oral discussions in class, the student's language use became increasingly characterized by longer turns and the use of…

  13. English Language Learner Academic Engagement and Instructional Grouping Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Katie; Thurston, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used an ecobehavioral approach to investigate the conditional probability that English language learning (ELL) students would engage in academic tasks in urban middle school content area classrooms within different instructional grouping configurations. These configurations included whole class, small group, one-to-one, and individual…

  14. Defense Intelligence: Foreign Area/Language Needs and Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) need for foreign language/area expertise was assessed, along with opportunities for the academic community to supplement government training. In addition to interviewing intelligence managers, questionnaires were administered to defense analysts to determine their background, training, and use of external…

  15. Processing Academic Language through Four Corners Vocabulary Chart Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sarah; Sanchez, Claudia; Betty, Sharon; Davis, Shiloh

    2016-01-01

    4 Corners Vocabulary Charts (FCVCs) are explored as a multipurpose vehicle for processing academic language in a 5th-grade classroom. FCVCs typically display a vocabulary word, an illustration of the word, synonyms associated with the word, a sentence using a given vocabulary word, and a definition of the term in students' words. The use of…

  16. The Influence of Classroom Drama on English Learners' Academic Language Use during English Language Arts Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N = 18) with…

  17. Academic Language, English Language Learners, and Systemic Functional Linguistics: Connecting Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Teacher educators need linguistic tools to help preservice teachers develop a deeper understanding of the academic language demands of the literacy practices required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) serves as a tool for developing teachers' knowledge of content-area language. Teachers' increased…

  18. 75 FR 13751 - Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic... Priority 2 is from Title V, Part D, Subpart 9, section 5493 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act... Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) in 34 CFR parts 75, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82,...

  19. Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students' Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…

  20. Dual Language Teachers' Use of Conventional, Environmental, and Personal Resources to Support Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that investigated the ways in which first-grade dual language teachers drew on various resources to instructionally support academic language development among Spanish-English emergent bilingual students. Classroom observations, semistructured interviews, and document collection were conducted over a…

  1. National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report: Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress. Draft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP) standards aligned with language demands of…

  2. The Effect of Voice Thread® Integration on High School Students' Anxiety and Oral Proficiency in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Melanie Gail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the asynchronous voice-conferencing technology, "Voice Thread"®, on the anxiety and oral proficiency of high school students in their third year of studying Spanish as a foreign language. In this quasi-experimental study students' foreign language anxiety levels and oral proficiency…

  3. Language Proficiency Assessment: What Does That Mean? A Report of the NABE Pre-Conference Workshop (Los Alamitos, California, April 19, 1980). Professional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Victor, Ed.

    Materials are presented from a workshop designed to provide an opportunity for bilingual education researchers and practitioners to share knowledge, experiences, and concerns related to assessing language proficiency. The sessions included: (1) "Formal and Informal Evaluation of Oral English Language Skills," by William Russell; (2) "Assessing…

  4. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  5. Thought and Second Language: A Vygotskian Framework for Understanding BICS and CALP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, James

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often point to the work of Cummins (1981), who proposed that two distinct types of language proficiency exist, basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS) and cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP). BICS includes aspects of language such as basic vocabulary and pronunciation, skills that are readily apparent during…

  6. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  7. Evidence That International Undergraduates Can Succeed Academically Despite Struggling with English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2015-01-01

    Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…

  8. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.

  9. Developing the Assessment Literacy of University Proficiency Test Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing use of English language proficiency test scores by universities around the world to select international students has resulted in a range of admissions, marketing, academic and teaching support staff interacting with the tests in different ways. To date, there has been little research investigating the assessment literacy…

  10. The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: an fMRI study during verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin; Paulesu, Eraldo; Brambati, Simona; Scifo, Paola; Cappa, Stefano F; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2003-07-01

    We assessed the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on the cerebral correlates of lexical retrieval in high-proficient, early-acquisition bilinguals. Functional MRI was used to study Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired either Spanish or Catalan as a first language in the first years of life. Subjects were exposed to the second language at 3 years of age, and have used both languages in daily life since then. Subjects had a comparable level of proficiency in the comprehension of both languages. Lexical retrieval with the verbal fluency task resulted in the well-established pattern of left hemispheric activation centered on the inferior frontal region. The effect of age of acquisition was assessed by dividing the subjects into two groups, on the basis of the language acquired first (Catalan-born or Spanish-born bilinguals). Functional comparisons indicated that less extensive brain activation was associated with lexical retrieval in the language acquired earlier in life. The two groups were also different in language usage/exposure, as assessed with a specific questionnaire; in particular, the exposure to the second language (Spanish) was less intensive in the case of Catalans. This was reflected in a significant interaction, indicating a more extensive activation in Catalans during production in Spanish. Overall, these results indicate that, during a production task, both age of acquisition and language exposure affect the pattern of brain activation in bilinguals, even if both languages are acquired early and with a comparable level of proficiency.

  11. English Proficiency and Academic Achievement in Relation to Extraversion: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiany, G. Reza

    1998-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether extroversion or introversion has anything to do with English-as-a-foreign-language learning and content-subject learning of Iranian non-English major postgraduates currently studying in the United Kingdom. Subjects were given the Persian form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire twice and asked to report…

  12. The Link between Academic Success and L2 Proficiency in the Context of Two Professional Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Doreen; Raymond, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on two studies conducted at the same university, one investigating the link between ESL scores on an advanced ESL test and the grade point average (GPA) obtained over two semesters and the other investigating the link between French second language (FSL) scores on an advanced L2 test and both the number of courses failed and…

  13. Oral Proficiency Testing in the Real World: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swender, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    The ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) is used to assess the ability of individuals to use language for real-world purposes. Today, OPIs are used by academic institutions, government agencies, and private corporations for many purposes: academic placement, student assessment, program evaluation, professional certification, hiring, and…

  14. Pictures speak louder than numbers: on communicating medical risks to immigrants with limited non‐native language proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Garcia‐Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives  Medical risk communication has been infrequently studied in immigrants with limited non‐native language proficiency, even though they may be at greatest risk of illness. In a study, we examined to what extent Polish immigrants to the UK have difficulties in understanding treatment risk reduction expressed as ratios either in their native language or in a non‐native language (English). We further investigated whether this population can be aided by using visual displays to enhance comprehension. Design, setting, and participants  A survey was conducted in the UK in spring, 2009, involving a sample of Polish immigrants (n = 96). Outcome measures  Estimates of treatment risk reduction, confidence in estimates, and perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Results  When assessing treatment risk reduction, participants often paid too much attention to the number of treated and non‐treated patients who died (i.e. numerators) and insufficient attention to the overall number of treated and non‐treated patients (i.e. denominators). This denominator neglect was especially noticeable when treatment risk reduction was not expressed in participants’ native language. However, provision of visual aids in addition to the numerical information about risk reduction proved to be an effective method for eliminating denominator neglect. The visual aids drew participants’ attention to the overall number of treated and non‐treated patients and helped them to make more accurate risk estimates. Conclusions  When communicating risks to immigrants with limited non‐native language proficiency, we should move beyond the simple, direct translation of health messages that are already being used with the indigenous population to messages that are more appropriate. The use of materials that include visual aids is an effective method of communicating medical risk information to immigrant populations. PMID:21323820

  15. Languages for Specific Academic Purposes or Languages for General Academic Purposes? A Critical Reappraisal of a Key Issue for Language Provision in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krekeler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the subject specificity of university language tuition has been going on for decades; it has mostly been discussed in the context of English for Academic Purposes. This paper considers the case for disciplinary specificity with regard to languages other than English. Few, if any, developed curricula, syllabuses, suitable textbooks…

  16. High Proficiency in a Second Language is Characterized by Greater Involvement of the First Language Network: Evidence from Chinese Learners of English

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A.; Booth, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. PMID:23654223

  17. High proficiency in a second language is characterized by greater involvement of the first language network: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A; Booth, James R

    2013-10-01

    The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters.

  18. Helping ELLs Meet Standards in English Language Arts and Science: An Intervention Focused on Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…

  19. Metanotes (Written Languaging) in a Translation Task: Do L2 Proficiency and Task Outcome Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Yet, compared to oral languaging, such as collaborative dialogs in contextualized settings, little seems to be known about written languaging. In order to fill this gap, this study investigates languaging in the form of "metanotes," that is, metatalk in a written…

  20. The Role of Language Proficiency in Self-Related Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Zarei, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level on their self-related personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy). To this end, 141 English major students, male and female, studying at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) and Kar Non-profit University in Qazvin, Iran were…

  1. Examining the Relationship between TELPAS Reading and TAKS Reading for Students with Limited English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin; Harrell, Scott; Carman, Carol A.; Lyles, Lance

    2012-01-01

    In the performance-driven culture of education today, though arguments regarding the definition of student success abound, few argue its importance. This issue is complicated with an additional dimension for those who are learning English as a second language. For those students who lack proficiency in the English language, academic content must…

  2. The Impacts of Cooperative Learning on Anxiety and Proficiency in an EFL Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effectiveness of cooperative learning approach in reducing foreign language anxiety and to investigate its impact on language proficiency of 40 sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2009 academic year at Bangkok University. Three instruments employed were the…

  3. On the time course of exogenous cueing effects in bilinguals: higher proficiency in a second language is associated with more rapid endogenous disengagement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ramesh K; Hilchey, Matthew D; Singh, Niharika; Klein, Raymond M

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated a bilingual advantage on various aspects of executive control. It remains unclear how the language proficiency of bilinguals might relate to the mechanisms involved in attentional disengagement. In the present investigation, we tested the hypothesis that high bilingual proficiency would lead to a more rapid endogenous disengagement of attention from task-irrelevant peripheral cues. We predicted that more rapid attentional disengagement would result in an earlier appearance of inhibition of return (IOR). In this study Hindi-English bilinguals who differed in their L2 (English) proficiency participated in a target detection task. Visual targets were preceded by uninformative peripheral cues at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) allowing for us to visualize the time course of cue-related facilitation and inhibition. High-proficient Hindi-English bilinguals showed an earlier appearance of IOR than did low-proficient bilinguals, suggesting increased efficiency in disengagement of attention from task-irrelevant inputs. Furthermore, consistent with the "global" advantage that characterizes bilinguals in many tasks, the high-proficient group outperformed low-proficient bilinguals in overall reaction time.

  4. Academic language and the challenge of reading for learning about science.

    PubMed

    Snow, Catherine E

    2010-04-23

    A major challenge to students learning science is the academic language in which science is written. Academic language is designed to be concise, precise, and authoritative. To achieve these goals, it uses sophisticated words and complex grammatical constructions that can disrupt reading comprehension and block learning. Students need help in learning academic vocabulary and how to process academic language if they are to become independent learners of science.

  5. Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in an ASL/English Bilingual Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing…

  6. No Child Left Behind Act: Assistance from Education Could Help States Better Measure Progress of Students with Limited English Proficiency. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-06-815

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    2006-01-01

    In school year 2003-2004, state data showed that the percentage of students with limited English proficiency scoring proficient on a state's language arts and mathematics tests was lower than the state's annual progress goals in nearly two-thirds of the 48 states for which data was obtained. To help these students progress academically, state and…

  7. The Role of Peer Facilitator in Enhancing English Language Proficiency in a Simulated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nur Salina; Atek, Engku Suhaimi Engku; Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff; Mohamad, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    For many learners, language class can be anxiety-provoking than other courses. Mostly, university students are seen to have language anxiety especially in their second language learning. They tend to be nervous when using English language in the formal situation like in classroom. English Outdoor Programme (EOP) in 2011 as part of informal setting…

  8. Language Lateralisation in Late Proficient Bilinguals: A Lexical Decision fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haeme R. P.; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Waldie, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half the world's population can now speak more than one language. Understanding the neural basis of language organisation in bilinguals, and whether the cortical networks involved during language processing differ from that of monolinguals, is therefore an important area of research. A main issue concerns whether L2 (second language)…

  9. How Language Proficiency Tests Mislead Us about Ability: Implications for English Language Learner Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macswan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that English language learner (ELL) language assessment policy and poor language tests partly account for ELLs' disproportionate representation in special education. Previous research indicates that many states routinely assess ELLs' first language (L1) at initial enrollment and that ELLs identified as limited in both languages…

  10. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language (ESL).

    PubMed

    Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.

  11. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  12. How Deaf American Sign Language/English Bilingual Children Become Proficient Readers: An Emic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…

  13. Language Proficiency and Socio-Cultural Orientation of Turkish and Moroccan Youngsters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2010-01-01

    In this study, data and discourses on immigrant minority groups and languages other than Dutch at home and at school are presented in order to contextualise the status of Turkish and Moroccan communities and their languages in the Netherlands. Patterns of language use, choice and attitudes of Turkish (n = 63) and Moroccan (n = 64) youngsters in…

  14. Properties of Dual Language Exposure that Influence 2-Year-Olds' Bilingual Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Silvia; Hoff, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The mothers of 29 Spanish English bilingual 25-month-olds kept diary records of their children's dual language exposure and provided information on their children's English and Spanish language development using the MacArthur-Bates inventories. Relative amount of exposure predicted language outcomes in English and Spanish. In addition, the number…

  15. Using Genre Pedagogy to Promote Student Proficiency in the Language Required for Interpreting Line Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Jantien; Bakker, Arthur; van Eerde, Dolly; Kuijpers, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    The importance of language in mathematics learning has been widely acknowledged. However, little is known about how to make this insight productive in the design and enactment of language-oriented mathematics education. In a design-based research project, we explored how language-oriented mathematics education can be designed and enacted. We drew…

  16. Assessing Language Competence: Guidelines for Assisting Persons with Limited English Proficiency in Research and Clinical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Marcela C.; Reyes, Carla J.; Annett, Robert D.; Lopez, Edith M.

    2003-01-01

    Current guidelines indicate that therapeutic interactions must be in the client's primary language. This article addresses the ethical dilemmas faced by monolingual clinicians and researchers who must assess the foreign language competence of an interpreter. Guidelines are proposed for assessing language competence of staff in clinical and…

  17. In Support of a Proficiency-Based Definition of Heritage Language Learners: The Case of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of placing and teaching heritage speakers of immigrant languages in college-level foreign language programmes, drawing conclusions from research on heritage speakers of Russian. For pedagogical purposes, heritage speakers cannot be viewed either as native speakers of the target language or as foreign language…

  18. Preparing Teachers in Italy for CLIL: Reflections on Assessment, Language Proficiency and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Jacqueline; Di Martino, Emilia; Di Sabato, Bruna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to open a window onto Italian Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) teachers' language competence and the ways it is currently being assessed by presenting a specific case: one testing session of the first batch of future CLIL teachers aimed at assessing their level of competence in a foreign language, in…

  19. Effect of the Affordances of a Virtual Environment on Second Language Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Heidy P. Cuervo

    2013-01-01

    The traditional language laboratory consists of computer-based exercises in which students practice the language individually, working on language form drills and listening comprehension activities. In addition to the traditional approach to the laboratory requirement, students in the study participated in a weekly conversation hour focusing on…

  20. Bilingualism/Second-Language Research and the Assessment of Oral Proficiency in Minority Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges that researchers working in the fields of bilingualism and second-language acquisition (SLA) and in the field of language testing face in developing comparable and culturally and cognitively appropriate data collection and language assessment tools for bilingual children from rural minority-language…

  1. A Snapshot of Teacher Candidates' Readiness for Incorporating Academic Language in Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Woong; Moseley, Lauren Jeneva; Son, Ji-Won; Seelke, John

    2014-01-01

    With the national rollout of edTPA that champions language supports in content lessons, there is a renewed interest in academic language across disciplines and related pedagogy in the U.S. This study examines current knowledge of academic language demonstrated by teacher candidates at middle grades. An analysis (n = 42) of teacher candidates'…

  2. Long-Term English Language Learners' Perceptions of Their Language and Academic Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Won Gyoung; García, Shernaz B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term, adolescent English language learners (ELLs) experience persistent academic underachievement in spite of several years of schooling; yet, the research on this topic is scant. To increase our understanding of these students' educational experiences, we explored perceptions of 13 long-term ELLs about their schooling in the context of their…

  3. Voice over Instant Messaging as a Tool for Enhancing the Oral Proficiency and Motivation of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Gamble, Jeffrey; Tang, Shiun-Yi S.

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of providing authentic experiences and interactions for fostering oral proficiency and motivation in foreign languages is an opportunity for innovation in educational technology and instructional design. Although several recent innovations have received the attention of scholars, empirical investigation and validation is often…

  4. Next-Generation Summative English Language Proficiency Assessments for English Learners: Priorities for Policy and Research. Research Report. ETS RR-16-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Hauck, Maurice Cogan

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The series, produced from Educational Testing Service (ETS), is intended to provide theory- and evidence-based principles and recommendations for improving next-generation ELP assessment systems, policies, and practices…

  5. Creating a Next-Generation System of K-12 English Learner Language Proficiency Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Maurice Cogan; Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Mislevy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The goal of this paper, and the series, is to present research-based ideas, principles, and recommendations for consideration by those who are conceptualizing, developing, and…

  6. Cognitive and Psychosocial Factors in the Long-Term Development of Implicit and Explicit Second Language Knowledge in Adult Learners of Spanish at Increasing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Ellen Johnson

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the second language (L2) development of adult learners of Spanish at three levels of proficiency during and after a semester of instruction. A fundamental goal was to identify cognitive and psychosocial individual differences (IDs) that can explain between-learner variation over time in order to expand our understanding of the…

  7. Meeting the Needs of Limited English Proficient Students...And What about the CDE Student? Program Design Considerations for English Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo, Ida S.; Carrillo, Federico M.

    A guide to designing programs in English language arts for limited English proficient (LEP) students is intended for school districts to use in developing their own program manuals based on locally relevant needs. An introductory section gives background for LEP program development, and subsequent sections outline (1) identification procedures for…

  8. National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report: Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    The "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP)…

  9. A Comparison of Two Standardized Reading and Mathematics Achievement Tests in the Native Language for Hispanic Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Carlos M.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to examine psychometric properties of "La Prueba Riverside de Realizacion en Espanol" (PRRE) and the "Spanish Assessment of Basic Education" (SABE) when administered to a sample of limited-English-proficient students, grades 1 through 8. Spanish-language versions of both tests were used for the study.…

  10. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. First Year Report on Language Minority and Limited English Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Marc; Puma, Michael

    This report presents descriptive findings from the Language Minority/Limited English Proficiency Student Supplement of "Prospects," a six-year longitudinal evaluation concerning the impact of federal Chapter 1 programs. These programs provide supplemental instruction to low-achieving elementary and secondary school students in low-income schools.…

  11. A Comparison of Self-Reported Educational Technology Integration Proficiencies and Evidence-Based Educational Technology Integration Practices among Select Elementary Language Arts Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Monika R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a variety of techniques and data sources, to describe and to compare the self-reported educational technology integration proficiency levels with the evidence-based educational technology integration practices among select elementary language arts teachers. A collective case study design (Stake, 1995) was used…

  12. The Role of Proficiency and Social Context on the Grade-6 Students' Acquisition of French as a Second Official Language in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I report on the findings of a study that compared the French as a second official language (FSOL) proficiency of three groups of Grade-6 students in English-dominant Canada: Canadian-born monolingual English-speaking students, Canadian-born bilingual students and immigrant bilingual students (IMBs). The goal of the study was to…

  13. The Development of Instructional Materials for Vocational Personnel Serving Students Who Are Speakers of Other Languages and Have Limited English Proficiency. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamsky, Richard A.; And Others

    The first part of this document provides a brief account of a project to develop learning modules on the microcomputer and the microscope for use with limited English-proficient speakers of other languages who are enrolled in vocational education courses. The bulk of the document consists of appendixes presenting the modules themselves. The…

  14. When do speakers use gesture to specify who does what to whom? The role of language proficiency and type of gesture in narratives

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing Chee; Kita, Sotaro; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that iconic gestures (i.e., gestures that depict the actions, motions or shapes of entities) identify referents that are also lexically specified in the co-occurring speech produced by proficient speakers. This study examines whether concrete deictic gestures (i.e., gestures that point to physical entities) bear a different kind of relation to speech, and whether this relation is influenced by the language proficiency of the speakers. Two groups of speakers who had different levels of English proficiency were asked to retell a story in English. Their speech and gestures were transcribed and coded. Our findings showed that proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures for referents that were not specified in speech, and iconic gestures for referents that were specified in speech, suggesting that these two types of gestures bear different kinds of semantic relations with speech. In contrast, less proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures and iconic gestures whether or not referents were lexically specified in speech. Thus, both type of gesture and proficiency of speaker need to be considered when accounting for how gesture and speech are used in a narrative context. PMID:23337950

  15. Reading-Writing Relationships in First and Second Language Academic Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…

  16. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese) and second-language (L2, English) proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time distributions in the Simon and Simon switching tasks. Bilinguals' L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in μ), and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ) regardless of trial types in the Simon task. Bilinguals' L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants' age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in μ. In contrast, neither bilinguals' L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants' age, only (a) scores in the working memory task and (b) RT in incongruent trials and (c) Simon effect in μ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children's L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies. PMID:25232345

  17. From Language-Specific to Shared Syntactic Representations: The Influence of Second Language Proficiency on Syntactic Sharing in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on cross-linguistic syntactic priming suggest that bilinguals can share syntactic representations across languages (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004). But how are these representations established in late learners of a second language? Specifically, are representations of syntactic structures in a second language (L2)…

  18. E?ffects of English Language Proficiency on the Choice of Language Learning Strategies by Saudi English-Major Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javid, Choudhary Z.; Al-thubaiti, Turki S.; Uthman, Awwadh

    2013-01-01

    It is reported that language learning is a creative and dynamic process and the learners are active partners in this process. This trend in language teaching motivated the researchers to investigate the learners' individual differences and the identification of language learning strategies (LLS) has become a major area of interest in this regard…

  19. Effects of sex and proficiency in second language processing as revealed by a large-scale fNIRS study of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in adults have revealed that first and second languages (L1/L2) share similar neural substrates, and that proficiency is a major determinant of the neural organization of L2 in the lexical-semantic and syntactic domains. However, little is known about neural substrates of children in the phonological domain, or about sex differences. Here, we conducted a large-scale study (n = 484) of school-aged children using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and a word repetition task, which requires a great extent of phonological processing. We investigated cortical activation during word processing, emphasizing sex differences, to clarify similarities and differences between L1 and L2, and proficiency-related differences during early L2 learning. L1 and L2 shared similar neural substrates with decreased activation in L2 compared to L1 in the posterior superior/middle temporal and angular/supramarginal gyri for both sexes. Significant sex differences were found in cortical activation within language areas during high-frequency word but not during low-frequency word processing. During high-frequency word processing, widely distributed areas including the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in boys, while more restricted areas, excluding the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in girls. Significant sex differences were also found in L2 proficiency-related activation: activation significantly increased with proficiency in boys, whereas no proficiency-related differences were found in girls. Importantly, cortical sex differences emerged with proficiency. Based on previous research, the present results indicate that sex differences are acquired or enlarged during language development through different cognitive strategies between sexes, possibly reflecting their different memory functions.

  20. Williams syndrome: a surprising deficit in oromotor praxis in a population with proficient language production.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Bergström, Lina; Alcock, Katherine J; Dick, Frederic; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of known genetic origin, characterized by serious delays in language onset yet relatively verbose, intelligible and fluent speech in late childhood and adulthood. How do motor abilities relate to language in this group? We investigated planning and co-ordination of the movement of the speech articulators (oromotor praxis) in 28 fluent-speaking individuals with WS, aged between 12 and 30 years. Results indicate that, despite their fluent language, oromotor praxis was impaired in WS relative to two groups of typically-developing children, matched on either vocabulary or visuospatial ability. These findings suggest that the ability to plan, co-ordinate and execute complex sensorimotor movements contribute to an explanation of the delay in expressive language early in development in this neurodevelopmental disorder. In the discussion, we turn to more general issues of how individual variation in oromotor praxis may account for differences in speech/language production abilities across developmental language disorders.

  1. The consequences of language proficiency and difficulty of lexical access for translation performance and priming

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Wendy S.; Tokowicz, Natasha; Kroll, Judith F.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition priming was used to assess how proficiency and the ease or difficulty of lexical access influence bilingual translation. Two experiments, conducted at different universities with different Spanish–English bilingual populations and materials, showed repetition priming in word translation for same-direction and different-direction repetitions. Experiment 1, conducted in an English-dominant environment, revealed an effect of translation direction but not of direction match, whereas Experiment 2, conducted in a more balanced bilingual environment, showed an effect of direction match but not of translation direction. A combined analysis on the items common to both studies revealed that bilingual proficiency was negatively associated with response time (RT), priming, and the degree of translation asymmetry in RTs and priming. An item analysis showed that item difficulty was positively associated with RTs, priming, and the benefit of same-direction over different-direction repetition. Thus, although both participant accuracy and item accuracy are indices of learning, they have distinct effects on translation RTs and on the learning that is captured by the repetition-priming paradigm. PMID:23757092

  2. The consequences of language proficiency and difficulty of lexical access for translation performance and priming.

    PubMed

    Francis, Wendy S; Tokowicz, Natasha; Kroll, Judith F

    2014-01-01

    Repetition priming was used to assess how proficiency and the ease or difficulty of lexical access influence bilingual translation. Two experiments, conducted at different universities with different Spanish-English bilingual populations and materials, showed repetition priming in word translation for same-direction and different-direction repetitions. Experiment 1, conducted in an English-dominant environment, revealed an effect of translation direction but not of direction match, whereas Experiment 2, conducted in a more balanced bilingual environment, showed an effect of direction match but not of translation direction. A combined analysis on the items common to both studies revealed that bilingual proficiency was negatively associated with response time (RT), priming, and the degree of translation asymmetry in RTs and priming. An item analysis showed that item difficulty was positively associated with RTs, priming, and the benefit of same-direction over different-direction repetition. Thus, although both participant accuracy and item accuracy are indices of learning, they have distinct effects on translation RTs and on the learning that is captured by the repetition-priming paradigm.

  3. How Bilingual Is Bilingual? Mother-Tongue Proficiency and Learning through a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Zeliha; Ilter, Binnur Genc; Glover, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In a bilingual context, the mother tongue plays a key role in a child's social and personal development, in education and in second-language learning. There is a complex relationship between these three areas. Support for children receiving education through a second language is often in the form of additional learning opportunities in the second…

  4. Effect of Developing Pragmatic Competence through Telecollaboration on Improving English as Foreign Language Learners' Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…

  5. Foreign Languages: Human Capital Approach Needed To Correct Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoff, Joseph A.

    This report examines the use of foreign language skills within the Army, Department of State, Department of Commerce's Foreign Commercial Service, and Federal Bureau of Investigation, discussing the nature and impact of foreign language shortages, strategies for addressing these shortages, and efforts to address current and projected shortages.…

  6. Task-Based Learning and Language Proficiency in a Business University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom-Ray, Amelia Chloe Caroline; Rutter, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    This project adds to the growing body of empirical research focusing on the effects of task-based learning (TBL) on second language acquisition. Through the design and implementation of two business English case studies, in which learning was scaffolded through a sequence of tasks, the authors argue that a TBL approach to language teaching more…

  7. Bridging Required with Needed Assessment Measures for Students with Limited English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Joan E.

    2006-01-01

    The paper offers ideas for assessing and teaching English language learners (ELL)--English as Second Language (ESL, 2L, CLD) learners--through dynamic evaluation using children's literature. Given the increased demands within the general education classroom, the teacher needs ways to combine assessment procedures with effective instructional…

  8. Bilingualism, Language Proficiency, and Learning to Read in Two Writing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Luk, Gigi

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and four 5- and 6-year-olds who were monolingual English-, bilingual English-Chinese-, or Chinese-speaking children beginning to learn English (2nd-language learners) were compared on phonological awareness and word decoding tasks in English and Chinese. Phonological awareness developed in response to language exposure and instruction…

  9. The Interface of Language Proficiency and Identity: A Profile Analysis of Bilingual Adolescents and Their Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzak, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how adolescent English language learners' (ELLs') language and literacy experiences impacted their identities as bilingual writers. Method: Six students were randomly selected from a group of 20 Spanish-speaking ELLs, ages 11-14, who participated in a larger, mixed-methods study on bilingual…

  10. Proficiency Verification Systems (PVS): Skills Indices for Language Arts. Technical Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Ann

    The procedures undertaken in developing and organizing skills indexes for use in coding elementary school language arts textbooks to determine what is actually taught are presented in this paper. The outlined procedures included performing a preliminary analysis on four language arts textbooks to compile an extensive list of skills and performance…

  11. Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

  12. The Influence of Second Language Experience and Accent Familiarity on Oral Proficiency Rating: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether raters' knowledge of test takers' first language (L1) affects how the raters orient themselves to the task of rating oral speech. The authors qualitatively investigated the effects of accent familiarity on raters' score assignment processes. Twenty-six trained raters with a second language of Mandarin Chinese,…

  13. Proficiency-Guided Business Units in High School Foreign Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, T. Bruce

    Business terminology should be included in foreign language instruction because of: (1) the need to be able to operate in an international business arena; (2) an increasingly linguistically diverse population; (3) real-world communication needs; and (4) business transactions being part of daily living. Language instruction must be made more…

  14. The Correlates of Academic Performance for English Language Learner Students in a New England District. REL 2014-020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. The study found that ELL students in special education had English proficiency scores significantly lower than the mean for all ELL students…

  15. State Funding Mechanisms for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…

  16. Looking into a Crystal Ball: Is Requiring High-Stakes Language Proficiency Tests Really Going to Improve World Language Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Brigid M.

    2013-01-01

    Brigid Burke is the program coordinator of World Language Education at her university, which is housed in the College of Education and Human Development. Since obtaining this position 4 years ago, she has become most concerned about certain recommendations that were made by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) in 2002,…

  17. French Cuisine in the Classroom: Using Culture to Enhance Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jane E.

    1993-01-01

    French cuisine offers a valuable resource for creating culture-based contexts for language use in the classroom. Suggestions and ideas are presented for incorporating food-related activities in the French class. (VWL)

  18. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  19. Using Academic Language to Level the Playing Field for English-Language Learners in Physical Education: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the common core emphasis on English language art and mathematics skills, physical educators are faced with a challenging task. Educators, in general, are expected to identifying the language demands of their discipline and develop academic language skills within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to prepare…

  20. Using Academic Language to Level the Playing Field for English Language Learners in Physical Education: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The common core, with its emphasis on the development of English language art and mathematics skills and literacy, presents challenges for teachers of all subjects. Academic language is expected to be developed within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to identify the language demands of their discipline and prepare…

  1. Bilingualism and the increased attentional blink effect: evidence that the difference between bilinguals and monolinguals generalizes to different levels of second language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Khare, Vatsala; Verma, Ark; Kar, Bhoomika; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The attentional blink task involves rapid serial presentation of visual stimuli, two of which the participants have to report. The usual finding is that participants are impaired at reporting the second target if it appears in close temporal proximity to the first target. Previous research has shown that the effect is stronger in bilinguals than monolinguals. We investigated whether the difference between monolinguals and proficient bilinguals can be extended to bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Therefore, we replicated the paradigm in a large sample of Hindi-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels of English, as measured with a validated vocabulary test. We additionally measured the participants' intelligence with the raven progressive matrices. We found that the size of the attentional blink effect correlates with the degree of second language proficiency and not with the degree of intelligence. This indicates that research on executive control functions can be done with bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Our results are also in line with recent findings showing that the attentional blink effect is not primarily due to limited processing resources.

  2. Differential Effect of Social-Emotional Behaviors on Academic Achievement of Language-Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youngji

    2014-01-01

    Background: Language minority students, who are mostly immigrant students tend to perform at lower levels in school and to be at risk of school failure when they are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Objective: Based on the previous studies that addressed the importance of students' social skills for school success, I examined the social…

  3. Perceptual context and individual differences in the language proficiency of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children.

  4. The Academic and Functional Academic Skills of Youth Who Are at Risk for Language Impairment in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; DeSalvo, Cathy; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Undiagnosed language impairment (LI) for youth in residential care is a concern as similar populations have shown elevated levels of language delays. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the percentage of youth in residential care who are at risk for LI and to compare the demographic, academic achievement, and functional…

  5. An Academic Writing Needs Assessment of English-as-a-Second-Language Clinical Investigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min-Fen; Bakken, Lori L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Academic writing for publication is competitive and demanding for researchers. For the novice English-as-a-second-language (ESL) researcher, the pressure to publish compounds the difficulties of mastering the English language. Very few studies have used ESL graduate and post-graduate students as academic writing research subjects.…

  6. A Proposed Pedagogical Approach for Preparing Teacher Candidates to Incorporate Academic Language in Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Woong; Stallings, Lynn; Kim, Dong Joong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present issues related to prioritizing academic language in teaching performance assessments and to propose a pedagogical approach that prepares middle grades mathematics teacher candidates to teach academic language. Based on our experience with teacher candidates and our knowledge of edTPA standards involving…

  7. The Cognitive Coaching-Supported Reflective Teaching Approach in English Language Teaching: Academic and Permanence Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyildiz, Seçil Tümen; Semerci, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the cognitive coaching-supported reflective teaching approach in English language teaching on the academic success of students and on the permanence of success. It was conducted during the spring semester of 2013/2014 academic year at the School of Foreign Languages, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.…

  8. The Academic English Language Needs of Industrial Design Students in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adzmi, Nor Aslah; Bidin, Samsiah; Ibrahim, Syazliyati; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the academic English language lacks and needs of Industrial Design students in Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah (UiTM). It highlights the lacks and needs for English for Academic Purposes in helping the students to succeed in the program through the usage of English language. The research tools used were in…

  9. Genre-Based Curricula: Multilingual Academic Literacy in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses academic literacy in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) secondary education. More precisely, this paper focuses on attempts to meet modern standards for language competences set in areas like Europe, where the notion involves multilingual academic competence. The study centres on new proposals for language…

  10. The effect of in-service English education on medical professionals’ language proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Samad; Ahmadi, Majid; Heidarpour, Maryam; Yakta, Ali Salahi; Khadembashi, Naghmeh; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians’ heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. Materials and Methods: A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the promotion of faculty members’ English proficiency was formulated. Then, following a placement test, 235 applicants from the university colleges and hospitals were classified into 28 homogeneous groups. After four terms of instruction, the participants’ scores on the pre- and post- assessments were analyzed. Results: There was significant improvement in participants’ total scores on different communicative skills (P<0.001). Regarding individual skills also, they achieved meaningful gains on listening (P<0.001), writing (P = 0.038), and grammar (P<0.001), but failed to progress significantly on reading comprehension (P = 0.523). Conclusion: The administration of in-service education for skill-oriented courses, over a long period, can be quite encouraging and should be further strengthened. Regular instructions on each individual skill on the one hand and on their combination on the other are essential for success in such education. PMID:23264797

  11. Challenges Facing Chinese Academic Staff in a UK University in Terms of Language, Relationships and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hui-hua

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…

  12. The Relationship of Language Brokering to Academic Performance, Biculturalism, and Self-Efficacy among Latino Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buriel, Raymond; Perez, William; De Ment, Terri L.; Chavez, David V.; Moran, Virginia R.

    1998-01-01

    Study of 122 9th- and 10th-grade Latino high school students examined the relationship of language brokering (informal interpreting for immigrant parents) to academic performance, biculturalism, academic self-efficacy, and social self-efficacy. Results showed positive relationships, with academic self-efficacy being the strongest predictor of…

  13. Improving the Classroom Language Proficiency of Non-Native Teachers of English: What and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The present paper attempts to examine the possibilities of the Classroom Language Assessment Benchmark (CLAB) as a professional development tool for EFL teachers in Japan. Two questionnaire surveys were carried out several months after the last day of the graduate course (both in 2006 and 2007) where CLAB was used as a self- and peer-assessment…

  14. Transformation in K-12 English Language Proficiency Assessment: Changing Contexts, Changing Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boals, Timothy; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Blair, Alissa; Cranley, M. Elizabeth; Wilmes, Carsten; Wright, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    In conducting this review, we examine literature that explores the merits and shortcomings of ELP test design and testing as they have evolved over time through the current era of CCR standards. In the first section, we situate the role of language testing in its broader historical and policy context. In the second section, we examine the evolving…

  15. The Use of Latent Trait Methods To Examine Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Adult Migrant Education Service (AMES) of Victoria, Australia provides courses in English as a Second Language to non-English speaking migrants. Reviews currently under way are attempting to determine the effectiveness of this program and to find ways that might be used to help teachers assess the development of the students and to diagnose…

  16. Motor Proficiency of 6- to 9-Year-Old Children with Speech and Language Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne; Moolenaar, Ben; Lyons, Jim; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Hartman, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study compared the gross motor skills of school-age children (mean age 7y 8mo, range 6-9y) with developmental speech and language disorders (DSLDs; n = 105; 76 males, 29 females) and typically developing children (n = 105; 76 males, 29 females). The relationship between the performance parameters and the children's age was investigated…

  17. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  18. Testing Second Language Oral Proficiency in Direct and Semidirect Settings: A Social-Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Shiozaki, Shuken; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify differences in the neural processes underlying direct and semidirect interviews. We examined brain activation patterns while 20 native speakers of Japanese participated in direct and semidirect interviews in both Japanese (first language [L1]) and English (second language…

  19. An Evidentiary Framework for Operationalizing Academic Language for Broad Application to K-12 Education: A Design Document. CSE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Butler, Frances A.

    With the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), all states are required to assess English language development (ELD) of English language learners (ELLs) beginning in the 2002-2003 school year. Existing ELD assessments do not, however, capture the necessary prerequisite language proficiency for mainstream classroom participation and for taking…

  20. Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…