The article examines academic leaders' conceptions of research profiling. Global science policies, including the Finnish governmental policy, promote the identification of areas of research excellence and recommend resource concentration on them. However, as active agents, leaders may have competing, even conflicting views on the pros and cons of…
Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Cranston, Neil; Starr, Karen
Internationally universities have been characterised by shrinking government funding, fierce competition for student enrolments, and greater pressures to become commercially viable. It is against this complex background that academic leaders have been required to confront and resolve a multitude of conflicting interests as they seek to balance a…
University of Jones launched a two-year development and training project on academic management and leadership in the beginning of 2002. Open seminars were arranged for heads for departments, deans and administrative managers. In addition, personnel administration started pilot projects with two departments in co-operation with the Finnish…
White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.
Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226
Cauthen, T. W., III
This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.
Roberts, Anne F.
Two paradigms of academic librarians are examined: one, "leader" is closely tied to nineteenth-century ideals; two, "manager" reflects democratization and new technology of twentieth century. Highlights include literature of organization (sociology, psychology, political science), patterns of change, Japanese model, and need to…
Bachrach, D J
While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management; intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development, management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. While part one of this series, which appeared in Volume 43, No. 6 of Medical Group Management Journal addressed, "The changing role of physician leaders at academic medical centers," part 2 will examine as a case study the faculty leadership development program at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. These two articles were prepared by the author from his research into, and the presentation of a thesis entitled. "The importance of leadership training and development for physicians in academic medical centers in an increasingly complex health care environment," prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in this College.*
Scommegna, Paola, Ed.
This pamphlet explores the dynamics of world population, highlighting steps world leaders can take to address population problems and improve the lives of people worldwide. With jet-age transportation and electronic communication, economic and social interdependence of nations is greater than ever before and is likely to increase in the future.…
Gmelch, Walter H., Ed.
This collection of papers addresses the personal challenges academics face in successfully responding to "the call" to academic leadership, focusing on who academic deans are, unique challenges to women deans, stress impacting deans' ability to lead, keys to successful entry into the deanship, organizational strategies for leading successfully,…
Debowski, Shelda; Blake, Vivienne
Academic leaders face particular challenges when they assume formal leadership roles in higher education. For the most part, they have had little prior engagement with the political, economic and strategic context of their institution and limited leadership networks on which to draw. The University of Western Australia has trialled a number of…
O'Connor, Michael; Weber, Robert J
The Director's Forum provides directors of pharmacy practical ways to develop patient-centered pharmacy services. Pharmacy directors must understand the key issues facing their departments and incorporate strategies for these issues as part of their strategic planning process. Health care reform and the Affordable Care Act require that departments operate efficiently and closely monitor their drug expense. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative will serve as a valuable resource during 2013 to enhance the pharmacy practice model. By using their health care workforce, particularly pharmacy technicians, in an innovative way, pharmacy directors will allow the pharmacists to increase their clinical activity. By promoting the role of the hospital pharmacist to patients, directors will help to improve patients' understanding of their medications and increase their satisfaction with their care. Finally by changing the activities of pharmacy students in practice models, the patient care role of the pharmacist can be expanded. Through a greater understanding of the issues facing them and their effect on the operations of the pharmacy, pharmacy directors will learn effective ways to develop patient-centered pharmacy services.
Sharratt, Lyn; Fullan, Michael
Students are people--not data. Assessment data can bury you or give you focused information on how to reach every student. "Putting Faces on the Data" shows how to develop a common language for sharing all students' progress with all teachers and leaders and how to use ongoing assessment to inform instruction. Based on worldwide research from more…
Kleinschmidt, Robert A.
Jazz musicians are unique individuals who seek to perform from a transcendental state in which tacit knowledge, teamwork, and communication blend to produce an effective performance. Academic leaders are also unique individuals who rely on communication to generate a sense of inclusion within a complex organization that at times epitomizes…
Ferrari, Joseph R.; Athey, Robert B.; Moriarty, Meghan O.; Appleby, Drew C.
Academic honor society alumni in two samples reported their undergraduate and post-baccalaureate education and employment experiences. In Study 1 of 108 honor society alumni leaders at an urban, private, faith-based liberal arts college, more men graduated cum laude yet attended top-tier graduate institutions and earned doctoral degrees than women…
Soo Kim, Tatum
This dissertation addresses the phenomenon of how academic leaders conceptualize faculty performance practices. Qualitative research methods were used to explore the experiences of 11 academic leaders from 4-year higher education institutions in the metropolitan area of New York, NY. Each academic leader had direct responsibility for faculty…
Tong, Carl W; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T Jared; Damp, Julie B; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A; Hilliard, Anthony A; Houser, Steven R; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J; Rzeszut, Anne K; Sivaram, Chittur A; Valente, Anne Marie; Freeman, Andrew M
Early career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: 1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists; 2) general challenges to all categories and specific challenges to each category; 3) obstacles as identified by a survey of current early career members of the American College of Cardiology; 4) major reasons for the failure of physician-scientists to receive funding from National Institute of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute career development grants; 5) potential solutions; and 6) a call to action with specific recommendations.
Academics who aspire to become academic leaders experience a number of changes as they move into administration. New academic leaders find themselves immersed in a transition that demands personal development and creates new learning settings. The purpose of this study is to examine initial challenges experienced by women academic leaders in the…
Donald, Janet G.
This book offers ideas or benchmarks about how to improve the postsecondary learning environment, based on interviews with academic leaders at four universities in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 32 academic leaders from four research universities: Northwestern University (Illinois); Pennsylvania State…
Clark, Cynthia M; Springer, Pamela J
Academic incivility is disruptive behavior that substantially or repeatedly interferes with teaching and learning. Incivility on college campuses jeopardizes the welfare of all members of the academy. Academic nurse leaders play a critical role in preventing and addressing academic incivility because these behaviors can negatively affect learning and harm faculty-student relationships. Although studies on student and faculty incivility have been conducted in nursing education, there are no known studies regarding the perceptions of academic nurse leaders about this problem. This is the first known study to investigate the perceptions of 126 academic nurse leaders (deans, directors, and chairpersons) from 128 associate degree in nursing and bachelor of science nursing programs in a large western state. Academic nurse leaders responded to five open-ended questions regarding their perceptions of stressors that affect nursing faculty and students, the uncivil behaviors exhibited by both groups, and the role of leadership in preventing and addressing incivility in nursing education.
Witt, Claudia M; Holmberg, Christine
In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change.
As online instruction continues to evolve, instructors continue to struggle with the perceived growing problem of academic dishonesty. This study will expand the literature regarding academic integrity, particularly in the online learning environment by examining student perceptions of academic integrity related to both online and face-to-face…
Mahasneh, Randa A.; Sowan, Azizeh K.; Nassar, Yahya H.
This article compares actual help-seeking frequencies across online and face-to-face learning environments. It also examines strategies enacted by nursing students when they faced academic difficulties, reasons for help-seeking avoidance, and the relationship between the frequency of asking questions and achievement. Participants were nursing…
Freeman, Abby L.
The purpose of this research was to determine whether academic leaders from a private career college are prepared to lead. The objective was to determine if leaders in a private career college felt they have the skills necessary to fulfill the needs of the students, faculty, employment sector, and public. This research study is a replication of a…
Horne, Andre Leonard; du Plessis, Yvonne; Nkomo, Stella
This article examines the role of leadership in the development of academic talent in higher education from a social exchange and organizational support perspective. Drawing from a sample of academic staff at a large South African university, the study investigates the extent to which a quality leader-member exchange relationship versus a formal…
The purpose of this study is to explore the leadership gap that exists between instructors and academic leadership that prohibits students from being successful in online courses, which is the result of academic leaders who inadequately prepare faculty. This is a leadership gap because programs should be established by the administrators to ensure…
Beam, Andrea P.; Claxton, Russell L.; Smith, Samuel J.
Challenges for novice school leaders evolve as information is managed differently and as societal and regulatory expectations change. This study addresses unique challenges faced by practicing school administrators (n = 159) during their first three years in a school leadership position. It focuses on their perceptions, how perceptions of present…
When "Exchange" surveyed leaders of North America's largest non profit child care organizations about threats facing their organizations, not surprisingly, the "state of the economy" was foremost on their minds. What is surprising is that these organizations have been able to weather the economic storm quite well. One should…
Mahdinezhad, Maryam; Bin Suandi, Turiman; bin Silong, Abu Daud; Omar, Zoharah Binti
In higher learning education, the performance is influenced by many factors. Effective leadership has an imperative role in the better performance and growth of the organization. Yet, several performance efforts were unsuccessful as a result of factors such as satisfactory leadership style of leaders. This study was carried out to identify the…
Epps, Sharon K.
Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…
Evans, Linda; Homer, Matthew; Rayner, Stephen
Most research and scholarship in the field of educational leadership and management seems focused on leaders and managers and their perspectives, while the perspective of an entire constituency--"the led"--is generally overlooked and neglected. This article contributes towards redressing this imbalance. Located within the context of the…
Jones, David; Rudd, Rick
The purpose of this study was to determine if academic program leaders in colleges of agriculture at land-grant institutions use transactional, transformational, and/or laissez-faire leadership styles in performing their duties. Academic program leaders were defined as individuals listed by the National Association of State University and…
Professor Neil Carson, who is to retire as Chairman of Monash University's Department of Community Medicine at the end of this year, has completed a significant and successful term marked by many achievements. His energy, vision and ability to acquire and channel resources have helped develop a vibrant and productive department. His wise counsel and negotiating skills have led to important achievements for the cause of general practice in both the political sphere and in academic institutions. He was the founder and first president of the Australian Association for Academic General Practice. His impact on medical education, especially for general practice in Australia, has been far reaching.
Negroni, Italia A.; Iwanicki, Edward F.
This study focused on how school district leaders in Connecticut are translating educational reform policies into instructional practice. It explored how school improvement initiatives were being implemented to improve student performance on the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT) and examined the ways in which these initiatives were…
Ramirez, Jennifer, Ed.
Volume 9.1.1 [v9 n1 Winter 2002, Commemorative Anniversary issue] of "Academic Leadership" includes the following articles: (1) "Growing our Own Leaders" by Gary Filan; (2) "Facilitating Change: Leadership's Major Challenge" by Paul Elsner and Larry Christiansen; (3) "Servant Leadership: Robert K. Greenleaf's Legacy and the Community College" by…
Barbetta, Patricia; Cramer, Elizabeth; Nevin, Ann; Moores-Abdool, Whitney
The mission for Urban SEALS (Special Education Academic Leaders), a federally funded doctoral preparation program, is to prepare doctoral-level special educators, including those who are culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) to assume leadership roles in the education of urban students with disabilities who are CLD. This paper provides…
Meier, John J.
To determine how academic library leaders make decisions about their organization's future and how they effect changes, the author interviewed 44 university librarians and deans from institutions belonging to the Association of American Universities (AAU). The author analyzed the interviews using content analysis to identify the most frequent…
Naser, Diana D.
In the ever-changing clinical research environment, academic health centers seek leaders who are visionary and innovative. Clinical trials offices across the country are led by individuals who are charged with promoting growth and change in order to maximize performance, develop unique research initiatives, and help institutions achieve a…
Jacques, Paul H.; Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Vracheva, Veselina
This study tested a series of hypotheses linking college support and quality of student-instructor relations with outcomes including student efficacy, social connectedness with peers, expectancies and academic performance. Early quality of exchanges with the instructor using Leader-Member Exchange theory was found to be a key indicator of academic…
This study examines the purposes for which leaders in universities use academic career systems. It focuses on the tenure track system which is new to Finland. Tenure track represents a newly established internal career path in a situation in which Finnish universities' organizational autonomy increased via new legislation from 2010. Drawing…
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Weber, Robert J
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.
DeZure, Deborah; Shaw, Allyn; Rojewski, Julie
With many baby boomers preparing to retire, higher education is facing an anticipated shortage of academic administrators. Compounding this challenge, many mid-career faculty are reluctant to fill these important positions, concerned that academic leadership is incompatible with work-life balance, that it detracts from their commitments to…
Martin, Andrew J.
Academic buoyancy has been defined as a capacity to overcome setbacks, challenges, and difficulties that are part of everyday academic life. Academic resilience has been defined as a capacity to overcome acute and/or chronic adversity that is seen as a major threat to a student's educational development. This study is the first to examine the…
Morahan, Page S.; Kasperbauer, Dwight; McDade, Sharon A.; Aschenbrener, Carol A.; Triolo, Pamela K.; Monteleone, Patricia L.; Counte, Michael; Meyer, Michael J.
Reviews need for internal leadership training programs at academic health centers and describes three programs. Elements common to the programs include small classes, participants from many areas of academic medicine and health care, building on prior experience and training, training conducted away from the institution, short sessions, faculty…
Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…
Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J
In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.
Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna S.
Using a dataset containing nearly 500,000 courses taken by over 40,000 community and technical college students in Washington State, this study examines the performance gap between online and face-to-face courses and how the size of that gap differs across student subgroups and academic subject areas. While all types of students in the study…
Schreier, Alan A.; Wilson, Kenneth; Resnik, David
During the last half of the 20th century, social and technological changes in academic research groups have challenged traditional research record-keeping practices, making them either insufficient or obsolete. New practices have developed but standards (best practices) are still evolving. Based on the authors’ review and analysis of a number of sources, they present a set of systematically compiled best practices for research record-keeping for academic research groups. These best practices were developed as an adjunct to a research project on research ethics aimed at examining the actual research record-keeping practices of active academic scientists and their impact on research misconduct inquiries. The best practices differentiate and provide separate standards for three different levels within the university: the individual researcher, the research group leader, and the department/institution. They were developed using a combination of literature reviews, surveys of university integrity officials, focus groups of active researchers, and inspection of university policies on research record-keeping. The authors believe these best practices constitute a “snapshot” of the current normative standards for research records within the academic research community. They are offered as ethical and practical guidelines subject to continuing evolution and not as absolute rules. They may be especially useful in training the next generation of researchers. PMID:16377817
Bachrach, D J
While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management, intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development; management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. This article article was prepared by the author from research into and presentation of a thesis entitled. "The Importance of Leadership Training And Development For Physicians In Academic Medical Centers In An Increasingly Complex Healthcare Environment, " prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in the College (ACHE). Part 2 will appear in the next issue of the Journal.
Sherman, Rose; Dyess, Susan; Hannah, Ed; Prestia, Angela
A global nursing leadership shortage is projected by the end of this decade. There is an urgent need to begin developing emerging nurse leaders now. This article describes the work of an academic-practice partnership collaborative of nurse leaders. The goal of the partnership is to develop and promote an innovative enhanced nursing administration master's program targeted to young emerging nurse leaders, who have not yet moved into formal leadership roles. An action research design is being used in program development and evaluation. Qualities needed by emerging leaders identified through research included a need to be politically astute, competency with business skills required of nurse leaders today, comfort with ambiguity, use of a caring approach, and leadership from a posture of innovation. The current curriculum was revised to include clinical immersion with a nurse leader from the first semester in the program, a change from all online to online/hybrid courses, innovative assignments, and a strong mentorship component. Eighteen young emerging nurse leaders began the program in January 2012. Early outcomes are positive. The emerging nurse leaders may be uniquely positioned, given the right skills sets, to be nurse leaders in the new age.
Young, Patricia K; Pearsall, Catherine; Stiles, Kim A; Horton-Deutsch, Sara
Academic leaders are one component of a well-prepared faculty that is required to achieve and sustain excellent educational programs. But what is it like to become an academic leader? How does one become a leader? These questions were addressed in an interpretive study in which nurse faculty leaders were interviewed about the experience of becoming a leader. Interview texts were analyzed hermeneutically by a research team to uncover three themes (common, shared experiences): Being Thrust into Leadership, Taking Risks, and Facing Challenges, which are explicated in this article. This study develops the evidence base for leadership preparation at a time when there is a strong need for nursing education leaders in academia.
Churches, Owen; Callahan, Rebecca; Michalski, Dana; Brewer, Nicola; Turner, Emma; Keage, Hannah Amy Diane; Thomas, Nicole Annette; Nicholls, Mike Elmo Richard
It is now standard practice, at Universities around the world, for academics to place pictures of themselves on a personal profile page maintained as part of their University's web-site. Here we investigated what these pictures reveal about the way academics see themselves. Since there is an asymmetry in the degree to which emotional information is conveyed by the face, with the left side being more expressive than the right, we hypothesised that academics in the sciences would seek to pose as non-emotional rationalists and put their right cheek forward, while academics in the arts would express their emotionality and pose with the left cheek forward. We sourced 5829 pictures of academics from their University websites and found that, consistent with the hypotheses, there was a significant difference in the direction of face posing between science academics and English academics with English academics showing a more leftward orientation. Academics in the Fine Arts and Performing Arts however, did not show the expected left cheek forward bias. We also analysed profile pictures of psychology academics and found a greater bias toward presenting the left check compared to science academics which makes psychologists appear more like arts academics than scientists. These findings indicate that the personal website pictures of academics mirror the cultural perceptions of emotional expressiveness across disciplines.
Ahmad, Jamaludin; Ghazali, Mazila; Hassan, Aminuddin
This is a quantitative research using correlational method. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between self concept and ability to handle stress on academic achievement of student leaders in University Putra Malaysia. The sample size consists of 106 respondents who are the Student Supreme Council and Student Representative…
Cooper, Kenneth J.
This article profiles Dr. Norman Francis and describes how his longevity, strategic planning and vision as president of Xavier University bring academic and financial success. Higher education leaders say his 43 years at the Catholic HBCU in New Orleans is an increasingly rare example of the benefits possible from a lengthy presidency. It takes…
Greer, Jennifer L.
The public expects its educational leaders--from instructional leaders and principals to college administrators and deans--to be moral exemplars. Nowhere is moral behavior more central to the central mission of teaching and learning than in the realm of academic integrity, where decisions are made daily about grading, testing, promotion,…
Brooks, Sam; Dorst, Thomas J.
Discusses the role of consortia in academic libraries, specifically the Illinois Digital Academic Library (IDAL), and describes a study conducted by the IDAL that investigated issues surrounding full text database research including stability of content, vendor communication, embargo periods, publisher concerns, quality of content, linking and…
Background Much of the work of teachers and leaders at academic health centers involves engaging learners and faculty members in shared goals. Strategies to do so, however, are seldom informed by empirically-supported theories of human motivation. Discussion This article summarizes a substantial body of motivational research that yields insights and approaches of importance to academic faculty leaders. After identification of key limitations of traditional rewards-based (i.e., incentives, or 'carrots and sticks’) approaches, key findings are summarized from the science of self-determination theory. These findings demonstrate the importance of fostering autonomous motivation by supporting the fundamental human needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In turn, these considerations lead to specific recommendations about approaches to engaging autonomous motivation, using examples in academic health centers. Summary Since supporting autonomous motivation maximizes both functioning and well-being (i.e., people are both happier and more productive), the approaches recommended will help academic health centers recruit, retain, and foster the success of learners and faculty members. Such goals are particularly important to address the multiple challenges confronting these institutions. PMID:24215369
Lieshoff, Sylvia Cobos
This article analyzes a subset of data gathered during a survey of 155 school systems and communities across the nation. The data were obtained from a capability survey as part of the application for a Toyota Family Literacy Program (TFLP) grant. Educators and civic leaders in 38 states responded to questions about their five greatest challenges…
Underwood, Rehema; Mohr, David; Ross, Michelle
The quality of organizational leadership can have a significant impact on organizational success and employee well-being. Some research has shown that leaders with secure attachment styles are more effective leaders, but the connection between different attachment styles and different leadership styles is unclear. Relationships between attachment…
Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali
This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students' presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and…
Hecht, Irene W. D.; Higgerson, Mary Lou; Gmelch, Walter H.; Tucker, Allan
This book provides a comprehensive guide to the role of the academic department chair in a time when the chair's role is rapidly becoming more important and more complex. Part 1 describes the new roles chairs face, followed by a general discussion of their responsibilities. Part 2 is concerned with the department chair's work with people,…
Scanlon, Sheryl Lynne
The purpose of this comparative case study was to determine how one academic institution could address the leadership gap facing organizations today, through a traditional, classroom doctoral program in Organizational Leadership. Data was gathered utilizing mixed methods methodology that included a survey questionnaire, focus group information,…
Support for an end to foreign investment in South Africa and a call to outsiders to sever all ties with institutions that serve the apartheid system was advocated by the leader of the African National Congress. (MLW)
Loh, Alvona Zi Hui; Tan, Julia Shi Yu; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat
Purpose In medical school, students may participate in various community involvement projects (CIP), which serve disadvantaged communities. However, several obstacles may arise during these projects. The authors conducted a qualitative study with the primary aim of understanding the obstacles and corresponding potential solutions when medical students in Singapore participate in local CIP (LCIP) and overseas CIP (OCIP). Design The authors recruited medical students from Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, who were also leaders of a specific community service project done in medical school. Twelve one-to-one interviews were held for the participants from 6 to 8 January 2013. Participants were led in a discussion based on an interview guide. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed into free-flow text. Subsequently, content and thematic analyses of the transcripts were performed independently by three researchers. Results The medical students faced many common obstacles during their community service projects. These obstacles include difficulties in recruiting and managing volunteers, attaining recognition or credibility for the project to acquire funding and resources, adjusting to a different culture or language, setting goals, and facing project-specific obstacles. Potential solutions were offered for some obstacles, such as building a strong executive committee for the project, grooming successive batches of leaders, and improving the project's public image, mentorship, reflections, and sustainability plans. Conclusions Mentorship, reflections, and sustainability are potential solutions that have been proposed to tackle the obstacles faced during community service participation in medical school. However, there may still be difficulty in solving some of the problems even after these measures are put into practice. Future research may focus on evaluating the effectiveness of these suggested solutions.
Loh, Alvona Zi Hui; Tan, Julia Shi Yu; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat
Purpose In medical school, students may participate in various community involvement projects (CIP), which serve disadvantaged communities. However, several obstacles may arise during these projects. The authors conducted a qualitative study with the primary aim of understanding the obstacles and corresponding potential solutions when medical students in Singapore participate in local CIP (LCIP) and overseas CIP (OCIP). Design The authors recruited medical students from Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, who were also leaders of a specific community service project done in medical school. Twelve one-to-one interviews were held for the participants from 6 to 8 January 2013. Participants were led in a discussion based on an interview guide. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed into free-flow text. Subsequently, content and thematic analyses of the transcripts were performed independently by three researchers. Results The medical students faced many common obstacles during their community service projects. These obstacles include difficulties in recruiting and managing volunteers, attaining recognition or credibility for the project to acquire funding and resources, adjusting to a different culture or language, setting goals, and facing project-specific obstacles. Potential solutions were offered for some obstacles, such as building a strong executive committee for the project, grooming successive batches of leaders, and improving the project's public image, mentorship, reflections, and sustainability plans. Conclusions Mentorship, reflections, and sustainability are potential solutions that have been proposed to tackle the obstacles faced during community service participation in medical school. However, there may still be difficulty in solving some of the problems even after these measures are put into practice. Future research may focus on evaluating the effectiveness of these suggested solutions. PMID:26490690
Scherrer, Carol S.
Background: Leaders in the profession encourage academic health sciences librarians to assume new roles as part of the growth process for remaining vital professionals. Have librarians embraced these new roles? Objectives: This research sought to examine from the reference librarians' viewpoints how their roles have changed over the past ten years and what the challenges these changes present as viewed by both the librarians and library directors. Method: A series of eight focus groups was conducted with reference librarians from private and public academic health sciences libraries. Directors of these libraries were interviewed separately. Results: Reference librarians' activities have largely confirmed the role changes anticipated by their leaders. They are teaching more, engaging in outreach through liaison initiatives, and designing Web pages, in addition to providing traditional reference duties. Librarians offer insights into unanticipated issues encountered in each of these areas and offer some creative solutions. Directors discuss the issues from their unique perspective. Conclusion: Librarians have identified areas for focusing efforts in lifelong learning. Adult learning theory, specialized databases and resources needed by researchers, ever-evolving technology, and promotion and evaluation of the library are areas needing attention. Implications for library education and continuing professional development are presented. PMID:15098052
Zulu, C. B.
Research on women in leadership has received growing attention in recent years. But not enough studies have investigated the way women construct leadership and management of the academic department. This article reports on the findings of an inquiry into the experiences of women heads of academic departments (HoDs) at universities in South Africa…
Bagraim, Jeffrey; Goodman, Suki; Pulker, Stephanie
This study applies the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to increase understanding about dishonest academic behaviour amongst undergraduate business students. A total of 579 respondents from three universities in South Africa completed an online survey about their beliefs regarding academic dishonesty, their intentions to engage in dishonest…
To help address enrollment and financial challenges institutions of higher learning may benefit by having a better understanding of entrepreneurial leadership orientations, or skills, of academic deans. This study revealed several significant correlations between the self-reported entrepreneurial orientations of academic deans in upstate New York,…
Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh
The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…
Fallon, Helen; Maxwell, Jane; McCaffrey, Ciara; McMahon, Seamus
Four librarians from Irish university libraries completed the U.K. Future Leaders Programme (FLP) in 2010. In this article they recount their experience and assess the effect of the programme on their professional practice and the value for their institutions. The programme is explored in the context of the Irish higher education environment,…
Fiscal issues in higher education are considered, based on four conferences attended by academic and business leaders. After an initial conference of college and life insurance company presidents at Princeton University in 1978, three regional meetings were held in Greensboro, North Carolina; Kalamazoo, Michigan; and Boston, Massachusetts.…
Huang, Belinda Jung-Lee
The purpose of this study was to understand how women of color who are at the senior level of academe continue to advance while navigating and maneuvering through power and politics encountered in the organizational system. Although we know that there are few women of color at the senior level of administration, this qualitative study provided…
Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.
The essays in this collection establish the case for racial diversity , outline the challenges diversity offers the academic community, presents examples of how some institutions have developed successful models of diversity, and discusses how the history of racial diversity has influenced aspects of diversity today. Following a foreword,…
Wepner, Shelley B.; Henk, William A.; Clark Johnson, Virginia; Lovell, Sharon
Four academic deans investigated when and how they used interpersonal/negotiating skills to function effectively in their positions. For two full weeks, the deans coded their on-the-job interactions during scheduled meetings, informal meetings, spontaneous encounters/meetings, telephone calls, and select email. Analyses revealed that the…
Anderson, Timothy S; Good, Chester B
Objective To identify the prevalence, characteristics, and compensation of members of the boards of directors of healthcare industry companies who hold academic appointments as leaders, professors, or trustees. Design Cross sectional study. Setting US healthcare companies publicly traded on the NASDAQ or New York Stock Exchange in 2013. Participants 3434 directors of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical equipment and supply, and healthcare provider companies. Main outcome measures Prevalence, annual compensation, and beneficial stock ownership of directors with affiliations as leaders, professors, or trustees of academic medical and research institutions. Results 446 healthcare companies met the study search criteria, of which 442 (99%) had publicly accessible disclosures on boards of directors. 180 companies (41%) had one or more academically affiliated directors. Directors were affiliated with 85 geographically diverse non-profit academic institutions, including 19 of the top 20 National Institute of Health funded medical schools and all of the 17 US News honor roll hospitals. Overall, these 279 academically affiliated directors included 73 leaders, 121 professors, and 85 trustees. Leaders included 17 chief executive officers and 11 vice presidents or executive officers of health systems and hospitals; 15 university presidents, provosts, and chancellors; and eight medical school deans or presidents. The total annual compensation to academically affiliated directors for their services to companies was $54 995 786 (£35 836 000; €49 185 900) (median individual compensation $193 000) and directors beneficially owned 59 831 477 shares of company stock (median 50 699 shares). Conclusions A substantial number and diversity of academic leaders, professors, and trustees hold directorships at US healthcare companies, with compensation often approaching or surpassing common academic clinical salaries. Dual obligations to for profit company
Public dialogue and debate about the health care overhaul in the United States is centered on one contentious question: Is there a moral obligation to ensure that all people (including undocumented immigrants) within its borders have access to affordable health care? For academic health centers (AHCs), which often provide safety-net care to the uninsured, this question has moral and social implications. An estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants living in the United States (80% of whom are Latino) are uninsured and currently prohibited from purchasing exchange coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, even at full cost. The authors attempt to dispel the many misconceptions and distorted assumptions surrounding the use of health services by this vulnerable population. The authors also suggest that AHCs need to recalibrate their mission to focus on social accountability as well as the ethical and humanistic practice of medicine for all people, recognizing the significance of inclusion over exclusion in making progress on population health and health care. AHCs play a crucial role, both in educational policy and as a safety-net provider, in reducing health disparities that negatively impact vulnerable populations. Better health for all is possible through better alignment, collaboration, and partnering with other AHCs and safety-net providers. Through servant leadership, AHCs can be the leaders that this change imperative demands. PMID:24556781
Culatto, A; Summerton, C B
Whole person care is deemed important within UK medical practice and is therefore fundamental in education. However, spirituality is an aspect of this often neglected. Confusion and discomfort exists regarding how care relating to issues of spirituality and health (S&H) should be delivered. Different interpretations have even led to disciplinary action with professionals seeking to address these needs [ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/4409168/Nurse-suspended-for-offering-to-prayfor-patients-recovery.html ]. Previous research shows 45% of patients want spiritual needs to be addressed within their care (Jackson and Summerton 2008). Two-thirds of healthcare professionals want to do this. However, lack of knowledge is a significant barrier (Moynihan 2008). Little is known regarding how Medical schools address S&H, only one limited study exists in the literature (Koenig et al. in Int J Psychiat Med 40: 391-8, 2010). Thirty-two UK educational institutions were surveyed. The chosen survey was compiled by Koenig and Meador (Spirituality and Health in Education and Researc. Duke University, Durham, 2008). Fifty-nine academics were contacted across UK medical schools, and the response rate was 57.6%. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. 5.6% institutions provide required and dedicated S&H teaching, 63.4% provided it as an integrated component. Nearly 40% felt staff were not adequately trained to teach S&H but welcomed opportunities for training. S&H is given value in undergraduate education but with little evidence of formal teaching. Institutions feel that this area is addressed within other topic delivery, although previous studies have shown integrating S&H with PBL leads to poor clinical performance (Musick et al. in Acad Psychiatry 27(2):67-73, 2003). Seminars or lectures are students' preferred methods of learning (Guck and Kavan in Med Teach 28(8):702-707, 2006). Further consideration should be given towards S&H delivery and training for
Background Based on the self-efficacy theory, an online and a face-to-face self-management programs ‘Challenge your Arthritis’ for young adults with a rheumatic disease have recently been developed. These two courses are led by young peer leaders. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of the online and face-to-face self-management program. Methods Feasibility was evaluated on items of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, user-acceptance, and adherence to both programs in young adults and peer leaders. Additional analyses of interactions on the e-Health applications, discussion board and chat board, were conducted. Results Twenty-two young adults with a diagnosed rheumatic disease participated in the study: 12 young adults followed the online program and 10 followed the face-to-face program. Both programs appeared to be feasible, especially in dealing with problems in daily life, and the participants indicated the time investment as ‘worthwhile’. In using the online program, no technical problems occurred. Participants found the program easy to use, user friendly, and liked the ‘look and feel’ of the program. Conclusions Both the online and the face-to-face versions of a self-management program. ‘Challenge your arthritis’ were found to be feasible and well appreciated by young adults with a rheumatic disease. Because these programs are likely to be a practical aid to health practices, a randomized controlled study to investigate the effects on patient outcomes is planned. PMID:24666817
The effectiveness of an academic leader in higher education may depend less on getting the community to follow the leader's vision and more on his/her influencing the community to face its problems. Effective leadership is informed more by judgment and experience than by science; if higher education persists in using business techniques, it will…
School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…
Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Azaiki, Steve; Nworgu, Queen Chioma
This paper aims to present the role, values, and legal policy issues facing public Library resources in supporting students to achieve academic success. Research indicates that majority of people that own or work in the Library tend to ignore some of the vital roles, values and legal policy issues paramount to libraries. Some of these issues are…
Chan, Annie Cheuk-ying; Au, Terry Kit-fong
In this study we explored whether compliance-without-pressure techniques, known to encourage adults to behave more altruistically, can be used to encourage children to do more academic work. Using three different approaches--Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face, and Single-Request--we asked 60 6- to 8-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children to complete…
In this article I deal with the Polish discourse generated by academics facing a reform of higher education. My primary interest is to what extent their statement enables or disables emancipatory practice. I point out that the structure of academics' prevalent discourse in the face of education-factory reform makes liberation impossible.…
The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…
Preer, Jean, Comp.
Issues for the future that face higher education and the development of academic leadership are summarized, based on a December 1984 meeting of the Project on Continuing Higher Education Leadership featuring leaders from academe, business, industry, and government. Major concerns of the meeting were: how higher education can accelerate American…
Minguet, Luc; Caride, Eduardo; Yamaguchi, Takeo; Tedjarati, Shane
Executives on the front lines of managing across borders share their insights: Luc Minguet, of France's Michelin, talks about the importance of cultural training not just for managers taking on assignments abroad but also for local employees who work with colleagues from around the world. He describes how his own experience learning to communicate across cultures reflects the tire-maker's broader practices. Eduardo Caride, of Madrid-based Telefónica, explains how the relatively young multinational is investing in a diverse talent mix as it strives to become a truly global company. Whereas early on, leaders relied on exporting Spanish managers abroad, he notes, the street now runs both ways. Takeo Yamaguchi, of Japan's Hitachi, details his efforts to create standardized global HR systems and processes across the conglomerate's 948 separate companies. "Three years ago, we had no systematic way of tracking employees, evaluating performance, or identifying future leaders," Yamaguchi says. "Today we do." And Shane Tedjarati, from the United States' Honeywell, talks about how the industrial powerhouse is shifting its strategy toward new regions, such as China, India, vietnam, and Indonesia. "We call these markets 'high-growth regions' instead of emerging markets," says Tedjarati, "because they now account for more than half of Honeywell's total growth."
Sanders, Mark E.
Leaders new to academic departments that possess dysfunctional histories due to ineffective "management" face many difficulties in the transformation of department dynamics. Indeed, the challenge for transformational department leaders is fostering positive and proactive attitudes among faculty where previous management was hostile,…
Alrajih, Shuaa; Ward, Jamie
The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men).
Wilson, M Roy; Krugman, Richard D
This article describes a decade of major changes at an academic health center (AHC) and university. The authors describe two major changes undertaken at the University of Colorado and its AHC during the past 10 years and the effects of these changes on the organization as a whole. First, the AHC's four health professional schools and two partner hospitals were completely relocated from a space-limited urban campus to a closed Army base. The impact of that change and the management of its potential disruption of academic programs are discussed in detail. In the middle of this total relocation, the AHC campus was consolidated with a general academic campus within the University of Colorado system, compounding the challenge. The authors describe the strategies employed to implement this major consolidation, including changing the organizational structure and selecting the new name of the university--the University of Colorado Denver.
Allen, George P; Moore, W Mark; Moser, Lynette R; Neill, Kathryn K; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Bell, Hershey S
A variety of changes are facing leaders in academic pharmacy. Servant and transformational leadership have attributes that provide guidance and inspiration through these changes. Servant leadership focuses on supporting and developing the individuals within an institution, while transformational leadership focuses on inspiring followers to work towards a common goal. This article discusses these leadership styles and how they may both be ideal for leaders in academic pharmacy.
Allen, George P.; Moore, W. Mark; Neill, Kathryn K.; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Bell, Hershey S.
A variety of changes are facing leaders in academic pharmacy. Servant and transformational leadership have attributes that provide guidance and inspiration through these changes. Servant leadership focuses on supporting and developing the individuals within an institution, while transformational leadership focuses on inspiring followers to work towards a common goal. This article discusses these leadership styles and how they may both be ideal for leaders in academic pharmacy. PMID:27756921
CAUSE, Boulder, CO.
Eight papers making up Track VI of the 1989 conference of the Professional Association for the Management of Information Technology in Higher Education (known as CAUSE, an acronym of the association's former name) are presented in this document. The focus of Track VI is on academic computing issues, and the papers include: "Loan-a-Mac: A…
Evans, Linda; Cosnefroy, Laurent
Using as an analytical framework Evans's conceptualisation of professionalism, this article examines the implications for academic professionalism in the French higher education sector of reforms and significant changes that have evolved over the last few decades, including: the "Investissements d'Avenir" programme, the "Loi de…
Matteucci, Maria Cristina; Gosling, Patrick
115 Italian and French teachers of high school and junior high school participated in a study aimed at investigating the impact of causal attribution on judgments of responsibility in case of academic failure of their pupils. Results support the attribution theory as conceptualized by Weiner (1986, 1995) and confirm the predictive utility of the…
Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda
Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county.…
Dang, Ngoc Lan Thi
Academic women in the Mekong Delta (MD) in southern Viet Nam remain underrepresented in key leadership positions and other positions of power and influence in their institutions. This situation exists regardless of various local, national, and international policies on gender equality and the implementation of numerous action plans, strategies,…
Goos, Merrilyn; Gannaway, Deanne; Hughes, Clair
Assessment practices that aim to promote both quality and equity may be compromised in a higher education market where students are consumers and grades the currency exchanged for measures of success. In such a climate, academics report feeling pressured to make course content and assessment less challenging in order to obtain positive student…
Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin
The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in…
Devaux, Christian A
Highly pathogenic microorganisms and toxins are manipulated in academic laboratories for fundamental research purposes, diagnostics, drugs and vaccines development. Obviously, these infectious pathogens represent a potential risk for human and/or animal health and their accidental or intentional release (biosafety and biosecurity, respectively) is a major concern of governments. In the past decade, several incidents have occurred in laboratories and reported by media causing fear and raising a sense of suspicion against biologists. Some scientists have been ordered by US government to leave their laboratory for long periods of time following the occurrence of an incident involving infectious pathogens; in other cases laboratories have been shut down and universities have been forced to pay fines and incur a long-term ban on funding after gross negligence of biosafety/biosecurity procedures. Measures of criminal sanctions have also been taken to minimize the risk that such incidents can reoccur. As United States and many other countries, France has recently strengthened its legal measures for laboratories' protection. During the past two decades, France has adopted a series of specific restriction measures to better protect scientific discoveries with a potential economic/social impact and prevent their misuse by ill-intentioned people without affecting the progress of science through fundamental research. French legal regulations concerning scientific discoveries have progressively strengthened since 2001, until the publication in November 2011 of a decree concerning the "PPST" (for "Protection du Potentiel Scientifique et Technique de la nation", the protection of sensitive scientific data). Following the same logic of protection of sensitive scientific researches, regulations were also adopted in an order published in April 2012 concerning the biology and health field. The aim was to define the legal framework that precise the conditions for authorizing
Casual academics form the backbone of learning and teaching practice in higher education in many developed countries and in many respects can be considered the norm around which academic policy and practice might be formed. Yet a narrative inquiry into the lived experience of women casual academics within Australian universities reveals that…
Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…
When Worlds Collide--Examining the Challenges Faced by Teacher Education Programmes Combining Professional Vocational Competence with Academic Study, Lessons from Further Education to Higher Education
This paper examines the challenges faced by higher education institutions in designing, teaching and quality assuring programmes of study which, of necessity, must combine the gaining of professional vocational competence with academic study. The paper gives recognition to the policy framework in which these programmes fit--with particular…
At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…
Elsner, Paul A., Ed.; Boggs, George R., Ed.
The contributors relate examples of situations in which leaders encountered unexpected and sometimes unprecedented incivility in their role as community college leaders. The chapters present their experiences, observations, lessons, and recommendations for handling crises that may befall leaders in an academic setting. This book contains the…
Background Most low and middle income countries (LMICs) are currently not on track to reach the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). One way to accelerate progress would be through the large-scale implementation of evidence-based health tools and interventions. This study aimed to: (a) explore the barriers that have impeded such scale-up in LMICs, and (b) lay out an “implementation research agenda”—a series of key research questions that need to be addressed in order to help overcome such barriers. Methods Interviews were conducted with fourteen key informants, all of whom are academic leaders in the field of implementation science, who were purposively selected for their expertise in scaling up in LMICs. Interviews were transcribed by hand and manually coded to look for emerging themes related to the two study aims. Barriers to scaling up, and unanswered research questions, were organized into six categories, representing different components of the scaling up process: attributes of the intervention; attributes of the implementers; scale-up approach; attributes of the adopting community; socio-political, fiscal, and cultural context; and research context. Results Factors impeding the success of scale-up that emerged from the key informant interviews, and which are areas for future investigation, include: complexity of the intervention and lack of technical consensus; limited human resource, leadership, management, and health systems capacity; poor application of proven diffusion techniques; lack of engagement of local implementers and of the adopting community; and inadequate integration of research into scale-up efforts. Conclusions Key steps in expanding the evidence base on implementation in LMICs include studying how to: simplify interventions; train “scale-up leaders” and health workers dedicated to scale-up; reach and engage communities; match the best delivery strategy to the specific health problem and context; and raise the low
Weigel, Kathleen; Jones, Richard
Leadership is essential to successful schools. One of the ways to support effective school leadership is to share ideas and best practices to address the common challenges faced by school leaders. This question and response format addresses common challenges and questions from practicing school leaders in the manner that a mentor might respond to…
DeCosta, James William
The researcher examined the effects of online (OL) and face-to-face (FTF) course modality choice, as a motivational component, on students. self-selection of courses. A naturally occurring control and treatment group comparison design was employed. The participants were 435 college students (200 OL and 235 FTF) who attended an accredited private…
Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen
A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.
Russell, Felice Atesoglu
Content teachers responsible for the instruction of English learner students will perceive myriad challenges when it comes to English learner students in the mainstream. School leaders can play a pivotal role in supporting and mitigating some of these challenges by recognizing what some of the pitfalls and issues might be for content teachers…
Patterson, Jerry; Kelleher, Paul
School leaders remember the good old days when resources were adequate, school boards were stable, superintendents stayed a while, and forces outside the school district trusted those inside the school district to do the best job possible educating students. It used to be such smooth sailing! Whether this version of history is fact, illusion or…
Giddens, Jean Foret; Lauzon-Clabo, Laurie; Morton, Patricia Gonce; Jeffries, Pamela; McQuade-Jones, Bambi; Ryan, Sandra
As the need for primary care providers increases, nursing education programs face significant challenges to meet future workforce needs. A more resource-efficient approach for the clinical education of nurse practitioner students is needed. A think tank involving 20 thought leaders representing multiple disciplines was convened to discuss this issue. This article presents seven themes that emerged from this national leaders' dialog: academic practice co-design, standardized preclinical preparation, standardized student assessment, entrustable professional activities, immersive clinical experiences, interprofessional education for team-based care, and innovative education practices.
Billot, Jennie; King, Virginia
Metaphors used by higher education teachers in their narratives of academic life provide insight into aspects of academic identity. Drawing on an international study of leader/follower dynamics, the teachers' narratives reveal how academics interpret their interactions with leaders; the perceived distance between expectations and experience, and…
Confronted with the processes of massification, commercialisation, internationalisation and reduced funding, universities also face an ageing academic workforce, with implications of a shrinking pool from which to recruit managerial and research leaders. A feminist analysis suggests that the policy problematic has been wrongly conceptualised as…
Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative-reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research.
Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative–reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research. PMID:26297629
Amabile, Teresa M; Khaire, Mukti
In today's innovation-driven economy, understanding how to generate great ideas has become an urgent managerial priority. Suddenly, the spotlight has turned on the academics who've studied creativity for decades. How relevant is their research to the practical challenges leaders face? To connect theory and practice, Harvard Business School professors Amabile and Khaire convened a two-day colloquium of leading creativity scholars and executives from companies such as Google, IDEO, Novartis, Intuit, and E Ink. In this article, the authors present highlights of the research presented and the discussion of its implications. At the event, a new leadership agenda began to take shape, one rooted in the awareness that you can't manage creativity--you can only manage for creativity. A number of themes emerged: The leader's job is not to be the source of ideas but to encourage and champion ideas. Leaders must tap the imagination of employees at all ranks and ask inspiring questions. They also need to help their organizations incorporate diverse perspectives, which spur creative insights, and facilitate creative collaboration by, for instance, harnessing new technologies. The participants shared tactics for enabling discoveries, as well as thoughts on how to bring process to bear on creativity without straitjacketing it. They pointed out that process management isn't appropriate in all stages of creative work; leaders should apply it thoughtfully and manage the handoff from idea generators to commercializers deftly. The discussion also examined the need to clear paths through bureaucracy, weed out weak ideas, and maximize the organization's learning from failure. Though points of view varied, the theories and frameworks explored advance the understanding of creativity in business and offer executives a playbook for increasing innovation.
As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…
Riggs, Henry E.
This paper discusses the similarities of issues faced by academic and corporate leaders. Both types of institutions must adapt to the same societal, economic, and political pressures. These include rapidly changing markets, heightened competition, new technologies, and demands for accountability by multiple constituencies. Both industrial and…
Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Masiello, Italo
CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance.
Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…
Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D
Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives.
Drawing on data gathered from British Council seminars in Hong Kong, Tokyo and Dubai on "Absent Talent: Women in Research and Academic Leadership" (2012-2013), this paper discusses academic women's experiences and explanations for women's under-representation as knowledge leaders and producers in the global academy. Participants from…
Black, Peter M
Traditionally, the ideal academic neurosurgeon has been a "quadruple threat," with excellence in clinical work, teaching, research, and administration. This tradition was best exemplified in Harvey Cushing, who developed the field of neurosurgery 90 years ago. This paradigm will probably have to change as academic neurosurgeons face major challenges. In patient care, these include increasing regulatory control, increasing malpractice costs, consolidation of expensive care in academic centers, and decreasing reimbursement; in resident teaching, work hour limitations and a changing resident culture; in research, the increasing dominance of basic scientists in governmental funding decisions and decreased involvement of neurosurgeons in scientific review committees; and in administration, problems of relationships in the workplace, patient safety, and employment compliance in an increasingly bureaucratic system. To meet these challenges, the new academic neurosurgeon will probably not be a quadruple threat personally but will be part of a quadruple threat in a department and institution. Neurosurgeons in such a setting will have to work with hospital, medical school, and national and international groups to address malpractice, reimbursement, subspecialization, and training problems; find supplemental sources of income through grants, development funds, and hospital support; lead in the development of multidisciplinary centers for neuroscience, brain tumor, spine, and other initiatives; and focus on training leaders for hospital, regional, and national groups to reconfigure neurosurgery. Collaboration, flexibility, and leadership will be characteristic of the academic neurosurgeon in this new era.
Mexico faces numerous social, economic, and political challenges. Higher education institutions provide opportunity for change by educating socially responsible leaders to become civically engaged citizens.
Borja, Rhea R.
This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…
This article presents the author's response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex." Henry Giroux has written a provocative assessment of the contemporary challenges facing the United States as a society, which over the course of the 20th century had assumed the role of leader and exemplar…
Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)
Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…
Travis, Elizabeth L; Doty, Leilani; Helitzer, Deborah L
Despite increases in the percentages of women medical school graduates and faculty over the past decade, women physicians and scientists remain underrepresented in academic medicine's highest-level executive positions, known as the "C-suite." The challenges of today and the future require novel approaches and solutions that depend on having diverse leaders. Such diversity has been widely shown to be critical to creating initiatives and solving complex problems such as those facing academic medicine and science. However, neither formal mentoring programs focused on individual career development nor executive coaching programs focused on individual job performance have led to substantial increases in the proportion of women in academic medicine's top leadership positions.Faced with a similar dilemma, the corporate world has initiated sponsorship programs designed to accelerate the careers of women as leaders. Sponsors differ from mentors and coaches in one key area: They have the position and power to advocate publicly for the advancement of nascent talent, including women, in the organization. Although academic medicine differs from the corporate world, the strong sponsorship programs that have advanced women into corporations' upper levels of leadership can serve as models for sponsorship programs to launch new leaders in academic medicine.
Kennedy, Betty M; Prewitt, T Elaine; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Strickland, Earline; Yadrick, Kathy; Threadgill, Paula; Champagne, Catherine M; McGee, Bernestine B; Bogle, Margaret L
Collaboratively, the nutritional health problems of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region were examined and opportunities identified for conducting research interventions. To combat the nutritional health problems in the LMD, community residents yielded to a more comprehensive and participatory approach known as community-based participatory research (CBPR). Community residents partnered with academic researchers and other organizational entities to improve the overall quality of diet and health in their respective communities using CBPR. The collaborative work in the LMD focused on interventions conducted in each of three specific communities across three states: Marvell, Arkansas (Marvell NIRI), and its surrounding public school district; Franklin Parish in Louisiana (Franklin NIRI); and the city of Hollandale, Mississippi (Hollandale NIRI). This paper examined some of the research interventions conducted in Franklin, Hollandale, and Marvell NIRI respectively, how leadership emerged from each of these communities, and lessons learned as a result of the CBPR model.
version: 1) warmth of maternal relationship; 2) social leadership; 3) academic achievement; 4) parental control vs. freedom; 5) cultural-literary...and problem-solving styles . Finally, the output deals with the effectiveness of various leader actions as indexed by such things as evaluations of...covers leader behaviors such as their interaction, communication, and problem-solving styles . Finally, the output section deals with the
Rosinski, Alexander Anthony; Narine, Steven; Yamey, Gavin
Background In 2010, diarrhea caused 0.75 million child deaths, accounting for nearly 12% of all under-five mortality worldwide. Many evidence-based interventions can reduce diarrhea mortality, including oral rehydration solution (ORS), zinc, and improved sanitation. Yet global coverage levels of such interventions remain low. A new scorecard of diarrhea control, showing how different countries are performing in their control efforts, could draw greater attention to the low coverage levels of proven interventions. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 21 experts, purposively sampled for their relevant academic or implementation expertise, to explore their views on (a) the value of a scorecard of global diarrhea control and (b) which indicators should be included in such a scorecard. We then conducted a ranking exercise in which we compiled a list of all 49 indicators suggested by the experts, sent the list to the 21 experts, and asked them to choose 10 indicators that they would include and 10 that they would exclude from such a scorecard. Finally, we created a “prototype” scorecard based on the 9 highest-ranked indicators. Results Key themes that emerged from coding the interview transcripts were: a scorecard could facilitate country comparisons; it could help to identify best practices, set priorities, and spur donor action; and it could help with goal-setting and accountability in diarrhea control. The nine highest ranking indicators, in descending order, were ORS coverage, rotavirus vaccine coverage, zinc coverage, diarrhea-specific mortality rate, diarrhea prevalence, proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, proportion with access to improved drinking water, exclusive breastfeeding coverage, and measles vaccine coverage. Conclusion A new scorecard of global diarrhea control could help track progress, focus prevention and treatment efforts on the most effective interventions, establish transparency and accountability
MacDonald, Elisa B.
This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team…
Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B
Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium.
Michelau, Demaree K.; Poulin, Russell
To leverage expertise and efficiencies in implementing educational technologies, higher education leaders often create centralized service organizations or inter-institutional partnerships. Defined as "academic collaborations," these organizations foster inter-institutional partnerships that share resources to increase institutional…
Lawson, Hal A.
Investments in the select few who already are or will become academic leaders are essential but insufficient. Investments also need to be made in collective leadership because leadership is an activity or function, not merely a person. Both good leaders and collective leadership are needed in the never-ending journey toward selective excellence. A…
Marcy, Mary B.
In this article, the author notes that an academic institution is essentially a political, not a corporate, system, and that its leader is more akin to the president of the United States than to a corporate chief executive. This is in spite of the argument, particularly when defending the compensation of college presidents, that leading an…
Weaver, Anthony; Simet, Kathleen
The chapter explores student-athlete campus engagement and challenges faced by athletes that may impede leadership development. The roles of athletic academic advisors, team coaches, and teammates in leadership development are outlined. Current campus initiatives directly related to intercollegiate athlete leadership development are also shared.
Elford, Elsie; Hemstreet, Brad
In the context of educational institutions, intrapreneurs are proactive and innovative educational leaders who work as entrepreneurs inside the institution. In order to successfully carry out intrapreneurial activities, community colleges must have a structural and administrative framework that supports a market orientation and a reduced…
Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 2007
The annual K. Patricia Cross Future Leaders Award--bestowed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities--recognizes graduate students who show exemplary promise as future leaders of higher education, with strong commitments to teaching and learning; to academic and civic responsibility; and to the development of others as leaders,…
Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.
Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic year…
This study provides an understanding of how administrative leaders make decisions regarding enrollment management within academic units at a major research university in the southwestern United States. Key enrollment management functions of recruiting, admissions, marketing, orientation, financial aid/scholarships, academic advising, student…
In today's political and global world, it's not enough to remain a solid educational leader; leaders must become advocates for education--on Capitol Hill, in state legislatures, and within communities. In this book, Sandra Whitaker examines key issues facing education, demonstrates methods for unpacking the issues, and discusses strategies to…
Farmer, Tod Allen
School leadership has never been easy. However, some experts like Garcia (2005) wrote that current school leaders are facing a variety of difficulties that make sustaining school reform efforts exceedingly difficult. Collectively, these modern day challenges have the capacity to form the perfect storm. School leaders need effective strategies to…
Hoff, David J.
State and local officials are slowly untangling complicated webs of accountability, testing, and graduation policies, hoping to give thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina a better handle on their academic standing. While officials in Texas, Tennessee, and Alabama offered some guidance to such students, school leaders in…
Bolman, Lee G.; Gallos, Joan V.
In "Reframing Academic Leadership," the authors offer higher education leaders a provocative and pragmatic guide for: (1) Crafting dynamic institutions where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts; (2) Creating campus environments that facilitate creativity and commitment; (3) Forging alliances and partnerships in service of the mission;…
Tonn, Jessica L.
In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…
Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta
Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…
Maxwell, Lesli A.; Klein, Alyson; Samuels, Christina A.; Casey, Diette Courrege; Shah, Nirvi; Sawchuk, Stephen; Molnar, Michele; Zubrzycki, Jaclyn; Adams, Caralee; Davis, Michelle R.; Sparks, Sarah D.; Robelen, Erik W.
In an environment of tight resources, tough academic challenges, and increasingly stiff competition from new education providers, smart leadership may matter more than ever for the success of America's school districts. Against this backdrop, "Education Week" introduces the first of what will be an annual "Leaders To Learn…
Clancy, Gerard P
Academic medical centers (AMCs) and universities are experiencing increasing pressure to enhance the value they offer at the same time that they are facing challenges related to outcomes, controlling costs, new competition, and government mandates. Yet, rarely do the leaders of these academic neighbors work cooperatively to enhance value. In this Perspective the author, a former university regional campus president with duties in an AMC as an academic physician, shares his insights into the shared challenges these academic neighbors face in improving the value of their services in complex environments. He describes the successes some AMCs have had in generating revenues from new clinical programs that reduce the overall cost of care for larger populations. He also describes how several universities have taken a comprehensive approach to reduce overhead and administrative costs. The author identifies six themes related to successful value improvement efforts and provides examples of successful strategies used by AMCs and their university neighbors to improve the overall value of their programs. He concludes by encouraging leaders of AMCs and universities to share information about their successes in value improvements with each other, to seek additional joint value enhancement efforts, and to market their value improvements to the public.
Henderson, David; Carjuzaa, Jioanna; Ruff, William G.
This phenomenological study examined the complexity American Indian K-12 school leaders face on reservations in Montana, USA The study described how these leaders have to reconcile their Westernized educational leadership training with their traditional ways of knowing, living, and leading. Three major themes emerged that enabled these leaders to…
Williams, Ann K; Parker, Vicki T; Milson-Hawke, Sally; Cairney, Karen; Peek, Carmel
The need to develop nurses as managers and leaders is crucial to the retention of registered nurses at a time of work force shortages and an increasingly aging work force in most Western industrialized countries. This article describes a creative and collaborative educational initiative developed at a large regional teaching hospital in New South Wales, Australia, designed to address this need. Based on a competency assessment process designed around face-to-face education, resource materials, and individualized mentoring from nurse unit managers, the aim of this multifaceted educational program is to develop effective team leaders in the clinical setting as well as a new generation of nursing leaders.
Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…
Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.; Leveille, John
In the last year, three respected leaders in academic advising, Wes Habley, Terry Kuhn, and Gary Padak, published articles suggesting that academic advising has not met the standards of scholarship to be considered a field of inquiry, an academic discipline, or a profession. In this article, we examine academic advising history from the…
Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…
Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Grundy, Thomas
Chapter 1 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter examines several kinds of leader characteristics: inherited traits and those springing from early childhood experience; attitudes toward relationships with other people; and qualities differentiating effective from ineffective leaders. Modern researchers tend to stress nurture over…
Healthcare leaders can strengthen their leadership skills by: Gaining a deeper understanding of their personal convictions. Requesting regular feedback regarding their leadership skills. Defining the key competencies needed to help their organizations succeed and building on key skill sets. Reflecting on department-specific results from employee opinion surveys and making behavioral changes, when appropriate. Reading biographies of great leaders.
Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A
Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…
Lemlech, Johanna K., Ed.
This book is about teacher-leaders who work in schools, universities, district and county offices, and other educational institutions and who serve as consultants, mentors, principals, project leaders, and teacher educators. The professional model of teaching emphasizes the role of teachers as informed, responsible decision makers, grounded in the…
and centralized system. If this system does not adapt, flex, and evolve in parallel with the demands of Junior Leaders from the Millennial Generation ...TERMS Junior Leaders: Millennial Generation , Senior Leaders: Generation X, Very Senior Leaders: Baby Boomer Generation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Research Project DATE: 10 March 2009 WORD COUNT: 6,506 PAGES: 32 KEY TERMS: Junior Leaders: Millennial Generation , Senior Leaders: Generation X, Very
State Univ. of New York, Albany.
Designed as a means of communicating creative ideas in community college education, this second edition of Colleague contains 11 articles on instructional and administrative issues facing the community colleges of the State University of New York. The collection includes: (1) "Professional Growth and Development: An In-House Effort," by Alvin J.…
State Univ. of New York, Albany.
Designed as a means of communicating creative ideas in community college education, this journal contains 12 articles on instructional and administrative issues facing the community colleges of the State University of New York. This collection includes the following: (1) "Egalitarian Education in an Elitist Environment," by Eduardo J.…
DeVillers, Kristal L.
California is facing a critical need for trained school leaders in the coming years. As current leaders retire, schools could be faced with teachers stepping out of the classroom and into the increasingly demanding job of the principalship with little or no preparation. With few leadership development opportunities available in entry-level…
Binder, Renée; Friedli, Amy; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena
Faculty members are expected to abide by codes of conduct that are delineated in institutional policies and to behave ethically when engaging in scientific pursuits. As federal funds for research decrease, faculty members face increasing pressure to sustain their research activities, and many have developed new collaborations and pursued new entrepreneurial opportunities. As research collaborations increase, however, there may be competition to get credit as the first person to develop ideas, make new discoveries, and/or publish new findings. This increasingly competitive academic environment may contribute to intentional or unintentional faculty misconduct. The authors, who work in the Dean's Office at a large U.S. medical school (University of California, San Francisco), investigate one to two cases of alleged misconduct each month. These investigations, which are stressful and unpleasant, may culminate in serious disciplinary action for the faculty member. Further, these allegations sometimes result in lengthy and acrimonious civil litigation. This Perspective provides three examples of academic misconduct: violations of institutional conflict-of-interest policies, disputes about intellectual property, and authorship conflicts.The authors also describe prevention and mitigation strategies that their medical school employs, which may be helpful to other institutions. Prevention strategies include training campus leaders, using attestations to reduce violations of institutional policies, encouraging open discussion and written agreements about individuals' roles and responsibilities, and defining expectations regarding authorship and intellectual property at the outset. Mitigation strategies include using mediation by third parties who do not have a vested academic, personal, or financial interest in the outcome.
Rakovski, Carter C.; Levy, Elliott S.
Dishonest behavior at the college level, particularly by business students, is an ethical issue of concern to the academic and business communities. Corporate scandals and federal legislation have brought additional attention to the ethical behavior of business leaders and the role of higher education in training the leaders of tomorrow. If…
Libster, Martha Mathews
Nurse leaders today are faced with a pressing concern to reevaluate established community resources and models for academic-practice partnerships that have been used in the preparation of new and advanced practice nurses. Nursing reform in education and practice is not achieved as a simple series of decisions in the present moment with future direction as its object. It is a process in which the outcome is ultimately evaluated within the context of history. Academic-practice partnerships are part of a nursing heritage that has persevered for hundreds of years. This article is a brief synopsis of examples from the historical records that evidence the lessons learned from the experiences of nurses who have formed innovative academic-practice partnerships with religious communities, medical colleges and physicians, government, hospitals, institutions of higher learning, and nursing organizations.
Haynor, Patricia M
This article examines common communication factors that have an impact on leader effectiveness (language, listening, mode of delivery, and feedback) and the role of the organization, organizational culture, and group dynamics in the development of the leader as a communicator. Communication, like any skill, is a learned behavior that is honed over time. Communication is a two-way process with stimulus-response shaping future behavior. But, it is even more complex when used in an organizational setting because there are multilevel communications, multiple message, senders and receivers, and competing agendas. Leaders in today's complex health care organizations must be skilled communicators to earn trust and respect. Once trust and respect have been earned, others are willing to listen to the leader's vision and to help make it a reality because, done well, it demonstrates expertise, critical thinking, achievement, and mentoring abilities.
This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.
Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric
Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader.
Walker, Verne W.
Academic advising administrators, academic advising professional organization leaders, and academic advising scholars have not had access to information about how academic advising is organized in their states. The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the organization of academic advising in Ohio's two-year public colleges; (b) to explore…
Hoffman, Rebecca L; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R
The past two decades have been witness to some of the most dynamic changes that have occurred in surgical education in all of its history. Political policies, social revolution, and the competing priorities of a new generation of surgical trainees are defining the needs of modern training paradigms. Although the university-based academic program's tripartite mission of clinical service, research, and education has remained steadfast, the mechanisms for achieving success in this mission necessitate adaptation and innovation. The resource-rich learning environment and the unique challenges that face university-based programs contribute to its ability to generate the future leaders of the surgical workforce.
Morahan, Page S; Yamagata, Hisashi; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn; Francis, Ray; Odhner, Victoria C
Since the mid-1990s, the protection of human subjects through institutional review boards (IRBs) has progressively broadened in scope. In this case study, the authors describe their challenges in effectively handling IRB processes to conduct educational and social sciences research within academic health centers, particularly (1) complications in conducting longitudinal interinstitutional research that involves multiple IRBs, each with different procedures that changed over ten years; and (2) factors affecting consent form and survey response rates when applying the biomedical IRB process to obtain the consent of human subjects for participation in social and educational research. The authors had a unique opportunity to follow the effect of changes in consent forms (from no form to a one-page form to a three-page form requiring signature of a witness), ways of administration (in person or by mail), and time of administration (at the time of the program or years later) on consent form and survey response rates among medical and dental school faculty members. The authors explore the extended timelines required for data collection and increased costs in dealing with these issues, as well as the effects on response rates of consent form language and administration procedures. The authors recommend strategies to lessen adverse effects of dealing with multiple IRBs at different institutions for social science and educational research, and discuss policy implications for funders, institutions and investigators.
Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter
Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.
Swick, H M
Academic medicine faces unprecedented challenges, especially the impact of the changing and more business-oriented health care system on medical education. There is an inherent clash of values between business and medicine: among key business values are profit and competition, while among the traditional values of the medical profession are service, advocacy, and altruism. Business interests have already gained a central place in medicine, so the challenge has become how to utilize the positive elements of the entrepreneurial spirit to enhance professional values and advance academic medicine's central enterprise. The author maintains that to achieve that synthesis, the leaders of academic medicine must continue to engage in a dialogue with the broader academic community, the government, the public, and the health care industry. The dialogue must emphasize (1) managing change rather than resisting it (such as focusing on the positive aspects of change, keeping sight of the fundamental professional values of medicine and medical education, and maintaining cool, rational judgment in the face of challenges); (2) making academic medicine's case with many constituencies, such as the health care industry, government, and the public; and (3) fostering professionalism by increasing medical schools' emphasis on this task, by ensuring that schools keep an appropriate balance between the science and the art of medicine, and by having faculty model appropriate professional values for their students. The author concludes that while change inevitably brings challenge and a sense of loss, it also brings the opportunity to help reshape medical education to meet the needs of society.
Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh
Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.
Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.
Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355
Elizondo, Sandra Gray
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the role of "la familia" for women of Mexican descent as it relates to their development as leaders and their leadership in academia. Purposeful sampling was utilized to reach the goal of 18 participants who were female academic leaders of Mexican descent teaching full time in…
Johnston, Mike; Walker, R. K.; Levine, Andy
Since its inception, New Leaders for New Schools has been driven by the fundamental belief that every child can succeed academically at high levels. New Leaders for New Schools also believes that an effective principal is a crucial lever for school improvement and transforming student achievement at scale. Thus, a focus on the selection, training,…
Waldman, David A
People who administer organizations of various types, including medical practices, are finding it increasingly necessary to demonstrate leadership. The challenge is to understand the meaning of effective leadership and to have guiding principles with regard to its implementation. It is argued here that responsibility represents a key guiding theme that doctors and practice managers can use to chart their day-to-day actions as leaders. Responsibility implies accountability to a broad array of groups and individuals who increasingly expect that leaders act in a manner that is aligned with their interests. This new era of leader accountability raises the question, to whom and what are organizational leaders responsible? In an attempt to answer this question, The author elaborates a broad perspective of responsible leadership and address both internal and external stakeholders to which a leader is responsible. Recommendations and principles are provided for how to balance the needs and interests of various stakeholders when leading one's practice. The article ends with a consideration of important caveats with regard to responsible leadership.
Dean Fink draws upon his own leadership practice to reflect upon and illuminate the realities of leading schools and schools systems. His forty years as a practicing school and school district leader in Ontario plus his ten years as a consultant and academic provides a unique and powerful backdrop for a contemporary tour around leadership theory…
Sternberg, Robert J.; Coffin, Lee A.
In the fall of 2005, the Academic Council of Tufts University proposed a new slogan to characterize its mission in educating students: "New Leaders for a Changing World." Many colleges, of course, have slogans of various kinds. The challenge is how each translates its words into action in an authentic manner. Sternberg's theory of…
Jones, D. Gareth
Leadership of academic units, in the guise of headship of departments, is crucial for the ongoing well-being of academic life and yet it remains a contested role. This paper argues for the role of heads of department (HODs) as academic leaders, with the managerial side of the role occupying an important but subsidiary place in its overall focus.…
Kutz, Mary N. Hill
Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal
According to Warren Bennis, professor at the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business and a recognized authority on organizational development, leadership and change, becoming a leader is synonymous with becoming oneself. It is precisely that simple, and it is also that difficult. In career and technical student…
Dominici, Francesca; Fried, Linda P.; Zeger, Scott L.
The authors present sobering findings of a study about women and leadership in higher education. The findings of the authors' study are based on the experiences of a small group of women faculty at Johns Hopkins University. The study found that, despite good intentions and occasional interventions by leaders in higher education, women are still …
Kenney, Jane L.; Roberts, Jane M. E.
This study examined the roles, functions, and effectiveness of a group of teachers who became Instructional Leaders (ILs), assuming major responsibility for assuring the implementation of a voluntary school improvement program within their respective schools. The program, called SITIP (School Improvement Through Instructional Process), and…
Worth, Michael J.; Asp, James W., II
This article examines four roles of the college or university development officer: salesperson (when direct solicitation is seen as the officer's primary role); catalyst (or sales manager, adviser, expert, facilitator); manager (stressing the importance of the overall office functioning); and leader (who exerts a leadership role in the…
Among the current crop of business leadership manuals, the six reviewed are applicable for school leaders as well. Themes of effective employee management and motivation, personal responsibility, and having the ability to initiate and implement constructive change are among the common threads running through the books. Information on ordering the…
not self-aware and does not practice self- regulation. As noted by emotional intelligence scholar Daniel Goleman , “Truly effective leaders are...11. Travis Bradberry and Jean Greaves, Emotional Intelligence 2.0 (San Francisco: Publishers Group West, 2009). 12. Daniel Goleman , “What makes a
Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…
This issue reviews five publications that provide a sampling of current perspectives on the preparation of school leaders. Joseph Murphy's "Preparation for the School Principalship: The United States' Story" traces the history of leadership preparation programs in the United States from the 19th century to the present. David L. Clark's "Searching…
Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others
This manual, which is designed to assist potential users of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) and individuals studying leadership and its measurement, presents the rationale and psychometric characteristics of the LAI and guidelines for using it. Described in chapter 1 are the context in which the LAI was developed and the conceptualization of…
The relationship between leaders and followers is crucial and often misunderstood. Ninety percent of leadership can be taught, and the remainder consists of energy, stamina, and ingredients of undetermined origin. Those who study leadership come from many disciplines, but what is learned should be shared. (MSE)
Miranda, Wilma; Yerkes, Rita
Questionnaire responses of 130 women outdoor leaders representing Outward Bound, all-women groups, university recreation instructors, and primary/secondary school teachers were compared as to background, income, motivations, and leadership perceptions. Essential leadership qualities were identified: effective communication skills and knowledge of…
This qualitative research study across three large consumer products organizations explored career management of senior leaders to gain an understanding of what is important to senior leaders in their careers and what strategies they are using for career management. It also investigated senior leaders' expectations of organizations for career…
In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…
Academic development recognizes the strengths of communities, such as communities of practice or learning communities, in providing academics with supportive environments for the development of teaching. The problem academic development faces is that not enough academics are involved in these communities. Instead of trying to interest academics in…
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
Lorenz, Gregory F.
The projections for higher education indicate a large number of senior academic leadership posts being vacated in the future due to retirement of existing leaders. The gap in leadership positions lends itself to an increased importance for developing a pipeline of talent to fill these positions. The leadership lifestyle lived by academic leaders…
During the latter decades new perspectives on academic leadership have emerged along with new ways of organizing the decision making structure. The image of academic leader as manager has slowly but steadily been diffused internationally. In addition to the structural changes in the system of higher education the idea of new public management has…
Attempts to improve poor academic performance in South African public schools resulted in the Schooling 2025 mandate, which stipulated the academic standards that learners needed to achieve by 2014. As school leaders must do this through their teachers the emotional tensions associated with such changes are likely to increase. This paper…
Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.
Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…
The complexity and cost of health care, along with a greater need for accountability calls for a new style of clinical leadership. The new clinical leader will lead reform by putting the needs of the patient first and foremost, looking at current and planned services from the patient's point of view as well as the clinician's. Excellent clinical skills will remain essential but will be supplemented by a focus on team work and mentoring, patient safety, clear communication and reduction in waste and inefficiency, leading to better financial outcomes. The new clinical leaders will understand the importance of consulting widely and engaging colleagues in creating change to improve patient care. They will develop trusting and mutually respectful relationships with health service management and be able to negotiate the delicate balance between clinical judgement, resource constraints and personal loyalties by keeping the best outcome for the patient at the forefront of their thinking.
Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S
There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.
Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.
Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.
Rhee, Kenneth S.; Sigler, Tracey Honeycutt
What does it take to develop enlightened leaders who can transform their organizations and communities? The quest to develop enlightened leaders who are self-aware, learning centered, adaptable, interpersonally competent, and team oriented is a challenge faced by many management programs. The Master of Science program in Executive Leadership and…
Miller, Ryan A.; Vaccaro, Annemarie
A phenomenological study yielded rich data about the essence of being a queer student leader of Color. Six participants described a desire to be authentic, culturally competent, and collaborative leaders, but they faced challenges enacting these forms of leadership as they navigated oppression (e.g., disrespect, stereotyping, tokenization,…
Drago-Severson, Ellie; Blum-DeStefano, Jessica
Effectively supporting adult development on the front lines of schools is no easy task. In this article, the authors report on talks with education leaders about the most pressing challenges they face in supporting adult development in their schools and organizations. The leaders participated in a graduate course about supporting adult development…
Kerry, Trevor; Murdoch, Anne
Educational leadership is a management function that provides progress toward new goals in a time of change. Leadership must be shared; the lone leader is increasingly being recognized as ineffective and deadening to the spirit. Effective leaders are visible, communicate honestly, accept others, are open and genuine, face problems confidently, and…
Richards, Rebecca T.; Brod, Rodney L.
Previous studies have established that community residents and leaders differ in their support for hazardous waste facility siting in rural areas (Spies et al. 1998). We examine whether these same differences exist in rural communities that face other high-risk development decisions by analyzing resident and leader support for a proposed gold…
Howard, Jody K.
In January 2012, a group of four school library professors attending the ALA Midwinter Meeting were having lunch and discussing various issues related to the school library field. These school library professors agreed that one challenge facing the profession is preparing future leaders. As current school library leaders retire, it is difficult to…
Lingam, Govinda Ishwar; Lingam, Narsamma
The study explored challenges faced by school leaders in the Pacific nation of Solomon Islands in school-based assessment, and the adequacy of an assessment course to prepare them. A questionnaire including both open and closed-ended questions elicited relevant data from the school leaders. Modelling best practices in school-based assessment was…
Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka
In an era of increasing discontinuity, wise leadership has nearly vanished. Many leaders find it difficult to reinvent their corporations rapidly enough to cope with new technologies, demographic shifts, and consumption trends. They can't develop truly global organizations that operate effortlessly across borders. And they find it tough to ensure that their people adhere to values and ethics. The authors assert that leaders must acquire practical wisdom, or what Aristotle called phronesis: experiential knowledge that enables people to make ethically sound judgments. Wise leaders demonstrate six abilities: (i) They make decisions on the basis of what is good for the organization and for society. (2) They quickly grasp the essence of a situation and fathom the nature and meaning of people, things, and events. (3) They provide contexts in which executives and employees can interact to create new meaning. (4) They employ metaphors and stories to convert their experience into tacit knowledge that others can use. (5) They exert political power to bring people together and spur them to act. (6) They use apprenticeship and mentoring to cultivate practical wisdom in orders.
Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…
Clancy, Thomas Roy; Gelinas, Lillee
As systems evolve, their tendency is to become more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on the application of management strategies in health systems. This is the 2nd in a series of articles addressing the mounting challenges faced by nursing leaders demanding insights from the vast amounts of information collected and stored by their organizations.
West, Cathie E.
In this book, award-winning educator Cathie West teaches readers how to confidently prepare for and respond to the challenges that come with being a school leader. Derived from professional experience and extensive research, the strategies can be put to work exactly as described or adapted to fit the unique situations that educators face in their…
An analysis of the problems facing leaders in higher education or other organizational settings as well as insights on effective leadership is presented. The 23 chapters are organized in four parts. Part 1, "The Unconscious Conspiracy and How to Confound It," suggests the presence of such a conspiracy involving the entrenched bureaucracy and…
Eddy, Pamela L.
Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…
Stoker, Janka I; Garretsen, Harry; Spreeuwers, Luuk J
Research overwhelmingly shows that facial appearance predicts leader selection. However, the evidence on the relevance of faces for actual leader ability and consequently performance is inconclusive. By using a state-of-the-art, objective measure for face recognition, we test the predictive value of CEOs' faces for firm performance in a large sample of faces. We first compare the faces of Fortune500 CEOs with those of US citizens and professors. We find clear confirmation that CEOs do look different when compared to citizens or professors, replicating the finding that faces matter for selection. More importantly, we also find that faces of CEOs of top performing firms do not differ from other CEOs. Based on our advanced face recognition method, our results suggest that facial appearance matters for leader selection but that it does not do so for leader performance.
Garretsen, Harry; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.
Research overwhelmingly shows that facial appearance predicts leader selection. However, the evidence on the relevance of faces for actual leader ability and consequently performance is inconclusive. By using a state-of-the-art, objective measure for face recognition, we test the predictive value of CEOs’ faces for firm performance in a large sample of faces. We first compare the faces of Fortune500 CEOs with those of US citizens and professors. We find clear confirmation that CEOs do look different when compared to citizens or professors, replicating the finding that faces matter for selection. More importantly, we also find that faces of CEOs of top performing firms do not differ from other CEOs. Based on our advanced face recognition method, our results suggest that facial appearance matters for leader selection but that it does not do so for leader performance. PMID:27462986
Hensley, Lauren; Shaulskiy, Stephanie; Zircher, Andrew; Sanders, Megan
Underprepared college students face transition issues that prevent full academic engagement. The written responses of 176 students in a learning-strategies course were used to develop a grounded model of overcoming barriers to academic engagement. Findings revealed contexts in which academic engagement involved high costs (i.e., effort, trade-off,…
This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…
Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…
Louis, Karen Seashore
A central problem for school leadership in the United States is to create settings in which success for students motivates teachers. Meeting this objective is becoming more difficult as teachers, except the most brilliant, struggle to cope with the diversity of students in a changing socio-economic climate and a context in which there is a…
Gates, Susan M.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Martorell, Paco; Burkhauser, Susan; Heaton, Paul; Pierson, Ashley; Baird, Matthew; Vuollo, Mirka; Li, Jennifer J.; Lavery, Diana Catherine; Harvey, Melody; Gu, Kun
New Leaders is a nonprofit organization with a mission to ensure high academic achievement for all students by developing outstanding school leaders to serve in urban schools. Its premise is that a combination of preparation and improved working conditions for principals, especially greater autonomy, would lead to improved student outcomes. Its…
Nichols, Joe D.
In today's political environment with the emphasis on testing, standards, and accountability, teachers can easily feel frustrated by the amount of time and resources left over for teaching--for guiding students not only in academics but also in character education. Educators can find themselves losing focus of what initially inspired them to…
and our focus on tactical level lessons learned has 12 skewed our emphasis in PME to a very narrow band of excellence. As such our current...A partnership between senior logistics leaders, PME developers, and personnel managers is essential to constructing and maintaining strategic...short term and inconsistent PME system that does not produce strategic logistic leaders. The Logistics Corps, sustainment branches, LOO lead for leader
This document is considered to be perfect. The Koran, when coupled with the Sunna ( Sira and Haddith) create the doctrinal foundation of Islam. It...and control on a regular basis, how leaders react to critical incidents and organizational crises, observed criteria by which leaders allocate scarce...resources, deliberate role modeling, teaching, and coaching, observed criteria by which leaders allocate rewards and status, observed criteria by
Wehner, Mackenzie R; Nead, Kevin T
Objectives To draw attention to sex related disparities in academic medical leadership by investigating the representation of female leaders compared with leaders with moustaches. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Academic medical departments in the United States. Participants Clinical department leaders (n=1018) at the top 50 US medical schools funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Main outcome measures The proportions of female leaders and moustachioed leaders across institutions and specialties (n=20). Additionally, the moustache index: the proportion of women compared with the proportion of moustaches, analyzed with multinomial logistic regression models. Results Women accounted for 13% (137/1018) of department leaders at the top 50 NIH funded medical schools in the US. Moustachioed leaders accounted for 19% (190/1018). The proportion of female department leaders ranged from 0% (0/20) to 26% (5/19) across institutions and 0% (0/53) to 36% (19/53) across specialties. Only seven institutions and five specialties had more than 20% of female department leaders. The overall moustache index of all academic medical departments studied was 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.90; P=0.004). Only six of 20 specialties had more women than moustaches (moustache index >1). Conclusions Moustachioed individuals significantly outnumber women as leaders of medical departments in the US. We believe that every department and institution should strive for a moustache index ≥1. Known, effective, and evidence based policies to increase the number of women in leadership positions should be prioritized. PMID:26673637
Ahumada, Luis; Galdames, Sergio; Clarke, Simon
During the last 10 years, research into schools facing challenging circumstances has attracted the attention of researchers around the world. The aim of this study was to understand the challenges that school leaders face as they per form their work, the nature of the context in which these challenges arise, the strategies school leaders adopt to…
A group of n individuals A1,ldots An who do not trust each other and are located far away from each other, want to select a leader. This is the leader election problem, a natural extension of the coin flipping problem to n players. We want a protocol which will guarantee that an honest player will have at least 1/n-ɛ chance of winning (forall ɛ >0), regardless of what the other players do (whether they are honest, cheating alone or in groups). It is known to be impossible classically. This work gives a simple algorithm that does it, based on the weak coin flipping protocol with arbitrarily small bias derived by Mochon (Quantum weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias, arXiv:0711.4114, 2000) in 2007, and recently published and simplified in Aharonov et al. (SIAM J Comput, 2016). A protocol with linear number of coin flipping rounds is quite simple to achieve; we further provide an improvement to logarithmic number of coin flipping rounds. This is a much improved journal version of a preprint posted in 2009; the first protocol with linear number of rounds was achieved independently also by Aharon and Silman (New J Phys 12:033027, 2010) around the same time.
Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole
The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…
Sanford, K D
The challenges of leadership have never been greater, as health care continually faces unprecedented change. Today's nursing managers are confronted with demands from a variety of organizational stakeholders whose needs may sometimes seem dramatically opposite. Successful leaders of the next century will be those who understand these various needs and the importance of balancing them. These are the value-added managers who will make choices that lead to long-term success for their organizations, customers, employees, and leaders. They can only accomplish this by leading with a genuine concern for the well-being of all, defined in this article as love.
Pearsall, Catherine; Pardue, Karen T; Horton-Deutsch, Sara; Young, Patricia K; Halstead, Judith; Nelson, Kristine A; Morales, Mary Lou; Zungolo, Eileen
Risk taking is an important aspect of academic leadership; yet, how does taking risks shape leadership development, and what are the practices of risk taking in nurse faculty leaders? This interpretative phenomenological study examines the meaning and experience of risk taking among formal and informal nurse faculty leaders. The theme of doing your homework is generated through in-depth hermeneutic analysis of 14 interview texts and 2 focus group narratives. The practice of doing one's homework is captured in weighing costs and benefits, learning the context, and cultivating relationships. This study develops an evidence base for incorporating ways of doing one's homework into leadership development activities at a time when there is a tremendous need for nurse leaders in academic settings. Examining the practices of doing one's homework to minimize risk as a part of leadership development provides a foundation for cultivating nurse leaders who, in turn, are able to support and build leadership capacity in others.
In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…
Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen
Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…
Freeley, Mary Ellen; Scricca, Diane
Two district leaders developed a set of processes for their district's principals, assistant principals, and curriculum directors. The professional development model they created included summer workshops, monthly seminars, observations, and workshops on effective hiring. The results affirmed that developing effective educational leaders is a…
Earley, Peter; Weindling, Dick; Bubb, Sara; Glenn, Meli
The recruitment and retention of senior school leaders is high on the UK Government's agenda with much attention currently being given to succession planning. Future Leaders and other fast track leadership development programmes are, in part, a response to this "crisis" brought about by demographic change--many headteachers are due to…
Hale, Wayne N.
Even though working on a problem has been your primary effort for the past year, your leadership may have heard about this once in a briefing a decade ago. Now they are basically clueless. Pretend that you are talking to your daughter's fifth-grade class. Explain how your complicated gizmo works. If possible, do not use acronyms. Define your terms. Put your work in context. Assume your leader has no idea what you do, who you work for, or what your gizmo does. That is a good place to start. Remember, taking the next century to study the problem or spending the Gross National Product to invent a new solution are probably not going to be acceptable solutions. Real engineers and technicians build real hardware that works in the real world in a reasonable manner within a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. True, skimping on time or money can cause mistakes, but folks whose gizmos are delayed unreasonably or cost more than is practical get their programs canceled, force the business into bankruptcy, or give the market over to the competition. Real engineers and technicians always consider cost and schedule in their work. Raising questions is important. However, we are in the business of doing things. Engineers and technicians are paid to get things done. Yes, you have to identify the problem, frame the design, identify the tests, perform the analysis, and assemble the hardware. But the goal is to solve the problem. Nobody ever said flying in space was easy. We make it look easy the same way that an Olympic champion makes her sport look easy: by working hard at improving performance every day. Better are the results of a well-defined test. Remember that a test on a laboratory bench is always an approximation of reality, and rules similar to those for good analysis also apply. One should always be mindful of Mechelay's rule: "It is better to be stupid than to run a stupid test." Often we try to overtest. If a piece of hardware passes an unbelievably difficult test, then
Evans, B.J.; Lundeen, T.F.; Moon, B.D.
Purpose of the project is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced, prototype computer system to support on-site inspections. The system is a highly portable field computer with on-line access to facilities information, real-time communications, positioning information, and an electronic notebook for data capture. The Team Leader System provides an inspection team with a suite of advanced communication, data gathering, and data analysis tools and can be implemented on many PC-based hardware platforms. The suitcase unit is a transportable system for on-site support in a vehicle or at a stationary location at an inspection site; the personal unit is a wearable computer for in-facility or on-foot inspections.
de Vries, Manfred F R Kets
In his work as an executive coach, psychotherapist Kets de Vries sometimes comes across bosses with mental demons. The four kinds he encounters most frequently are pathological narcissists, who are selfish and entitled, have grandiose fantasies, and pursue power at all costs; manic-depressives, who can leave a trail of emotional blazes behind them; passive-aggressives, who shy away from confrontation but are obstructive and under-handed; and the emotionally disconnected--literal-minded people who cannot describe or even recognize their feelings. Left unchecked, these personalities can warp the interactions, plans, and systems of entire organizations. But with appropriate coaching, toxic bosses can learn to manage their conditions and become effective mentors and leaders. This article describes how to recognize each pathology and, step by step, guide people who suffer from it toward healthier and more-productive interactions.
Eisenstat, Russell A; Beer, Michael; Foote, Nathaniel; Fredberg, Tobias; Norrgren, Flemming
Managing the tension between performance and people is at the heart of the CEO's job. But CEOs under fierce pressure from capital markets often focus solely on the shareholder, which can lead to employee disenchantment. Others put so much stock in their firms' heritage that they don't notice as their organizations slide into complacency. Some leaders, though, manage to avoid those traps and create high-commitment, high-performance (HCHP) companies. The authors' in-depth research of HCHP CEOs reveals several shared traits: These CEOs earn the trust of their organizations through their openness to the unvarnished truth. They are deeply engaged with their people, and their exchanges are direct and personal. They mobilize employees around a focused agenda, concentrating on only one or two initiatives. And they work to build collective leadership capabilities. These leaders also forge an emotionally resonant shared purpose across their companies. That consists of a three-part promise: The company will help employees build a better world and deliver performance they can be proud of, and will provide an environment in which they can grow. HCHP CEOs approach finding a firm's moral and strategic center in a competitive market as a calling, not an engineering problem. They drive their firms to be strongly market focused while at the same time reinforcing their firms' core values. They are committed to short-term performance while also investing in long-term leadership and organizational capabilities. By refusing to compromise on any of these terms, they build great companies.
Heifetz, Ronald A; Linsky, Marty
Let's face it, to lead is to live dangerously. While leadership is often viewed as an exciting and glamorous endeavor, one in which you inspire others to follow you through good times and bad, such a portrayal ignores leadership's dark side: the inevitable attempts to take you out of the game. This is particularly true when a leader must steer an organization through difficult change. When the status quo is upset, people feel a sense of profound loss and dashed expectations. They may need to undergo a period of feeling incompetent or disloyal. It's no wonder they resist the change and often try to eliminate its visible agent. This "survival guide" offers a number of techniques--relatively straightforward in concept but difficult to execute--for protecting yourself as you lead such a change initiative. Adapted from the book Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Through the Dangers of Leading (Harvard Business School Press, 2002), the article has two main parts. The first looks outward, offering tactical advice about relating to your organization and the people in it. It is designed to protect you from those who would push you aside before you complete your initiatives. The second looks inward, focusing on your own needs and vulnerabilities. It is designed to keep you from bringing yourself down. The hard truth is that it is not possible to experience the rewards and joys of leadership without experiencing the pain as well. But staying in the game and bearing that pain is worth it, not only for the positive changes you can make in the lives of others but also for the meaning it gives your own.
Szaflarski, Magdalena; Vaughn, Lisa M.; Chambers, Camisha; Harris, Mamie; Ruffner, Andrew; Wess, Yolanda; Mosley, LaSharon; Smith, Chandra
African Americans face the most severe burden of HIV among all racial and ethnic groups. Direct involvement of faith leaders and faith communities is increasingly suggested as a primary strategy to reduce HIV-related disparities, and Black churches are uniquely positioned to address HIV stigma, prevention, and care in African American communities. The authors describe an academic-community partnership to engage Black churches to address HIV in a predominantly African American, urban, southern Midwest location. The opportunities, process, and challenges in forming this academic-community partnership with Black churches can be used to guide future efforts toward engaging faith institutions, academia, and other community partners in the fight against HIV. PMID:28239643
Kunstman, John W.; Longo, Walter E.
Ashley W. Oughterson, MD, (1895-1956) was a longtime faculty surgeon at Yale University. He performed some of the earliest pancreatic resections in the United States. During World War II, Colonel Oughterson was the primary “Surgical Consultant” in the South Pacific and present at nearly every major battle. His meticulously kept diary is regarded as the foremost source detailing wartime surgical care. Colonel Oughterson led the initial Army team to survey Hiroshima and Nagasaki following the nuclear attacks. Thoughout his academic career at Yale, Oughterson was a key leader in several medical and surgical societies. As scientific director of the American Cancer Society, Oughterson lectured widely and guided research priorities in oncology following World War II. Oughterson also authored numerous benchmark papers in surgical oncology that continue to be cited today. These extensive contributions are examined here and demonstrate the wide-ranging impact Oughterson exerted during a formative period of American surgery. PMID:26029018
Gerard, Sally; Grossman, Sheila; Godfrey, Marjorie
The scope of the clinical nurse leader (CNL) is evolving in practice across the country. The preparation of this pivotal role in a complex healthcare environment has prompted the collaboration of nurse academics, nurse administrators, and clinicians to design unique educational experiences to maximize best practice. Knowledge attained regarding healthcare improvement and patient safety must not only be theoretical, but personal and application focused. Utilizing the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's CNL white paper and published resources faculty developed a clinical leadership course focused on active learning and reflection. Students explore concepts of improvement and quality related to business models of high functioning organizations including healthcare. Three key components of the course are described in detail; "quality is personal", executive interviews and the "5P" clinical microsystems assessment. Evaluation outcomes are discussed. Course content and innovative teaching/learning strategies for CNL are shared which may support the growth of CNL program development nationally.
House, Collette R.
School leaders commonly face issues of loneliness, isolation, burnout, and depression. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore self-initiated peer support group participation for professional impact and personal impact on school leaders facing issues of loneliness, isolation, stress, and burnout. This study provides an…
Eremina, Svetlana V.
The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.
Adams, Jerome; Hicks, Jack M.
The relationship between male and female leaders' descriptions of their own behavior and the followers' descriptions of the leader's behavior in traditionally male-oriented leadership positions was examined. The data were collected as part of a research project to assess the assimilation of females at West Point and to determine how females were…
Ellis, Viv; McNicholl, Jane; Pendry, Anna
Through an analysis of job recruitment texts, and interviews with academic leaders, this article shows how the university-based teacher educator is produced as a category of academic worker in England. Focussing on the discursive processes of categorisation provides insights into how English universities conceptualise teacher education. Variations…
Dee, Jay R.; Heineman, William A.
This chapter provides a conceptual model that academic leaders can use to navigate the complex, and often contentious, organizational terrain of academic program development. The model includes concepts related to the institution's external environment, as well as internal organizational structures, cultures, and politics. Drawing from the…
This qualitative study relies on document analysis and in-depth, open-ended interviews with university leaders and government officials in a post-socialist and a recent European Union entrant country, Croatia. The study seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the Croatian academic sector, as well as to unpack the top academic officials'…
Gidman, Lori Kathleen
The leadership style of academic leaders was studied through the eyes of faculty members. This empirical study looked at faculty perceptions of academic leadership with the use of a numerical survey as the basis for observation. Faculty members at six private liberal arts institutions completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in…
As higher education confronts shortages in hungry times, will officials who previously viewed the library as a sacred cow think it's time for a barbecue? Don't light the charcoal yet. Interviews with chief academic officers and an online survey taken by over 130 leaders in academic affairs yield surprising results. It's no secret that academic…
Corrigan, Laurie; Robertson, Lorayne
This study examines the roles of Canadian school leaders in response to the rising phenomenon of student use of social media which impacts school climate and safety. The use of social media has resulted in more online text and image-based communication to multiple users and less face-to-face communication with single users. Adolescent…
Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)
Hadash, Dre Ann
Eighth graders made prints of their own faces, using photographic papers and chemicals. Describes the supplies needed and the printing process involved. Because junior high school students are so concerned with self, this was a very meaningful activity for them. (CS)
Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…
This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…
Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter
University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…
Thompson, Irene M; Anason, Barbara
United States academic medical centers (AMCs) have upheld their long-standing reputation for excellence by teaching and training the next generation of physicians, supporting medical research, providing world-class medical care, and offering breakthrough treatments for highly complex medical cases. In recent years, the pace and direction of change reshaping the American health care industry has created a set of new and profound challenges that AMC leaders must address in order to sustain their institutions. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is an alliance of 116 leading nonprofit academic medical centers and 276 of their affiliated hospitals, all of which are focused on delivering world-class patient care. Formed in 1984, UHC fosters collaboration with and among its members through its renowned programs and services in the areas of comparative data and analytics, performance improvement, supply chain management, strategic research, and public policy. Each year, UHC surveys the executives of its member institutions to understand the issues they view as most critical to sustaining the viability and success of their organizations. The results of UHC's most recent 2011 member survey, coupled with a 2012 Strategic Health Perspectives Harris Interactive presentation, based in parton surveys of major health care industry stakeholders reveal the most important and relevant issues and opportunities that hospital leaders face today, as the United States health care delivery system undergoes a period of unprecedented transformation.
Tooey, Mary Joan M J; Arnold, Gretchen N
Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative.
Since 2006, the APPA (Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers) Thought Leaders Series has brought together experts in higher education for two days of discussion about the challenges facing colleges and universities in North America. Energy and the environment were the focal points for the 2009 Thought Leaders Symposium, and the result…
Sexton, Matt; Downton, Ann
The mathematics curriculum leader plays an important role in leading the mathematics curriculum in primary schools. They experience successes and face challenges associated with this leadership role. The perceptions that 25 mathematics leaders held about the successes and challenges they experienced whilst participating in a school mathematics…
Van Cleave, Janet H; Szanton, Sarah L; Shillam, Casey; Rose, Karen; Rao, Aditi D; Perez, Adriana; O'Connor, Melissa; Walker, Rachel; Buron, Bill; Boltz, Marie; Bellot, Jennifer; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa
In 2000, the John A. Hartford Foundation established the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program initiative, acknowledging nursing's key role in the care of the growing population of older adults. This program has supported 249 nurse scientists with pre- and postdoctoral awards. As a result of the program's success, several Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program awardees formed an alumni organization to continue to advance the quality care of older adults. This group of Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program awardees joined others receiving support from the John A. Hartford Foundation nursing initiatives to grow a formal organization, the Hartford Gerontological Nursing Leaders (HGNL). The purpose of this article is to present the development, accomplishments, and challenges of the HGNL, informing other professional nursing organizations that are experiencing similar accomplishments and challenges. This article also demonstrates the power of a funding initiative to grow an organization dedicated to impact gerontological health and health care through research, practice, education, and policy.
Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold
This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.
organization, leaders should gather information about the political, cultural, economic , and security situations. Ideally, leaders can obtain much of the...Consider External Conditions and Contextual Influences (e.g., social, political, cultural, economic , historical and environmental) Program Results...Evaluation Work Shop Briefing, December 5, 2001, Slide 25 and adapted from McLaughlin, J. A., & Jordon, G. B. (1999) and Rossi, Lipsey , and Freeman (2004
Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K. Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei
In two studies, we examined Chinese students’ memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China’s history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory. PMID:27065899
Marron, Joseph M.; Cunniff, Dan
This paper outlined the traits of an innovative educational leader in our changing society. It discussed the difference in a manager and leader, as well as the specific dispositions that differentiate the innovative educational leader from what many consider the average leader. The authors used the acronym "HELPSS" to highlight the…
Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J
Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.
Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel
As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion.
Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel
As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276
Edwards, Clayton; Rule, Audrey
Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes…
Winter, Carmen Susanne
The purpose of this study was to examine non-native English speaking students' activity in face-to-face versus online learning environments. The amount of foreign students in the United States increased by 3% in the academic year 2009-2010 (Open Doors, 2010). Adding close to $20 billion to the USA economy, "higher education is among the…
Service Before Self ,” and “Excellence In All We Do” can be easily distorted by pseudo-transformational leaders. In his article, “The Core Values...moral dilemmas leaders face every day and in times of great crisis? Answering these questions promotes a philosophical approach which cannot be self ...is not worth living” and “we should set the highest value, not on living, but on living well” illustrate this self - discovery.14 They also indicate
Horton-Deutsch, Sara; Pardue, Karen; Young, Patricia K; Morales, Mary Lou; Halstead, Judith; Pearsall, Catherine
Risk taking is a key aspect of academic leadership essential to meeting the challenges and opportunities in higher education. What are the practices of risk taking in nurse faculty leaders? This interpretive phenomenological study examines the experience and meaning of risk taking among nurse leaders. The theme of doing the right thing is brought forth through in-depth hermeneutic analysis of 14 individual interviews and two focus group narratives. The practice of doing the right thing is propelled and captured by leaders through a sense professional responsibility, visioning the future, and being true to self and follow one's core values. This study develops an evidence base for incorporating ways of doing the right thing in leadership development activities at a time when there is tremendous need for highly effective leaders in academic settings. Examining the practices of doing the right thing as a part of leadership development lays a foundation for building the next generation of nursing leaders prepared to navigate the ever-changing and complex academic and health care environments.
Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…
Diamond, Robert M., Ed.
This "Field Guide" is designed to help academic leaders in the current climate of change. It provides information and suggestions for action and administrative practice around a range of issues. The first section, "Basis," contains these chapters: (1) "Pressures for Fundamental Reform: Creating a Viable Academic…
Shifts in attitudes regarding academic program accessibility to provide the most rigorous academic opportunities to all students will not occur smoothly without departmental level leaders who believe in the potential benefits of accelerating larger numbers of students. Without the support and the belief of the department level leadership, practices such as open enrollment and universal acceleration that target school equity will be doomed to failure. This study was conducted using a questionnaire developed by the researcher called the Perceptions of Acceleration and Leadership Survey. The survey was distributed to all math and science department leaders within a suburban region of New York. The survey sought to determine how the perceptions of acceleration, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and role longevity for the department level leaders are impacted by their personal demographics, professional characteristics, and community characteristics. The study did not reveal any statistically significant differences among department level leaders' personal, professional, and community characteristics with respect to perceptions of acceleration. There were significant differences for job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and role longevity for several intervening and independent variables within the study. Statistically significant correlations were found between beliefs in college preparation and perceptions of acceleration as well as relationships with the community and perceptions of acceleration. The results indicate the importance of hiring department leaders who recognize the potential for accelerating more students, hiring more ethnically diverse candidates for these leadership positions, affording department level leaders with significant professional development, and evaluation of administrative structures to maximize student success.
While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.
Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. (AD A198 873) Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987a...for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. (AD A192 049) Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987b). Combat leaders’ guide: Rifle platoon and...References Evensen, E. B ., Winn, R. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987). Evaluation of a job aid system for combat leaders: Rifle platoon and squad (ARI Research
Freudenberg, Brett; Samarkovski, Lisa
Academics today face an array of challenges to their enthusiasm, including teaching students from diverse backgrounds with wavering levels of engagement with their studies. Furthermore, reform to the tertiary education sector has seen the corporatisation of universities with management increasingly measuring academic outcomes in respect of both…
...The Office of Citizen Exchanges, Youth Programs Division, of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs announces an open competition to conduct the Spring Civic Education Workshop for students participating in the academic year Future Leaders Exchange (FLEX) program. The goal of the Spring Workshop is to broaden the participants' knowledge and understanding of the democratic concepts that......
Chang, Heewon; Longman, Karen A.; Franco, Marla A.
In this collaborative autoethnography, we explored how 14 academic and administrative leaders of color working in faith-based higher education have experienced personal and professional mentoring, and how mentoring experiences have influenced their leadership development. All participants identified a wide array of developmental relationships that…
Wilkens, Coral L.
Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) stated, "Leaders are made, not born" (p. 100). The quote is indicative of the shift in skills necessary to be a successful 21st-century learner. Instead of mere academic competencies, the 21st Century learner will need a different type of intelligence to be successful. Emotional intelligence may be…
Story, Julie A.
The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore academic leaders' experiences with the organizational elements of their own high school-college writing center collaborations. Conjoining theories framed this study: collaborative leadership theory, Kenneth Bruffee's notion of social constructionism and collaborative learning…
Riva, Maria T.; Korinek, Lauri
Training in group counseling typically includes an academic component, although little has been written about how to teach a group course except for what specific content should be included. This article suggests that while teaching group counseling courses, instructors can intentionally model effective group leader behaviors and use these…
Finch, Christopher Leigh
The term rebel is virtually nonexistent in academic literature within the field of educational leadership and maintains a generally negative connotation. This research is intended to cast the term in a new light and allow for conceptualization of the word as a positive descriptor for educational leaders. This study explored the impact and efficacy…
Hemmer, Lynn M.; Madsen, Jean; Torres, Mario S.
Purpose: The expansion of alternative education, globally, has coincided with a shift towards greater accountability for ensuring educational access and opportunity, high academic standards and increased graduation rates. While studies suggest the pervasive influence of accountability may be redefining how school leaders provide meaningful…
Public Education Network, Washington, DC.
This report presents data from a January 2003 national public opinion poll that examined what voting-age Americans valued about public education and wanted their elected leaders to do to raise academic achievement for all children. It analyzes data on 800 voters with an oversample of 125 registered African Americans and 125 registered Latino…
De George, Richard T.
Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)
Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…
Chemical and Engineering News, 1982
The president of Stanford University discusses his views on problems facing research universities, including research secrecy, ethics, and economics of proprietary knowledge generated in the university, faculty conflict of interest, place of humanities in a society driven by technology, and decline of government support for academic research.…
Discusses activism among college and university trustees, characterized by assertion of authority in administrative matters, often in direct conflict with academic leaders. Suggests a parallel with investor capitalism, in which corporate owners may become active in organizational governance, and warns that constituent passivity in these…
De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey
Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/. PMID:27346987
Neequaye, Barbara Burris
The number of academic institutions offering courses online has increased with courses being offered across almost all academic disciplines. Faculty members are often confronted with the responsibility of converting a face-to-face course to an online course while simultaneously dealing with new technologies and the interrelationship between the…
Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi
It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.
Weaver, Megan D.
Chief Academic Officers (CAO) are leaders in institutions of higher education and have wide decision-making scope. Previous research has clearly demonstrated the need for leaders to engage in ethical decision-making. Moral judgments are an aspect of ethical decision-making, so it is important for CAOs to make moral judgments. This study examined…
Shaw, Learty Letroy
Leaders at faith-based institutions struggle to provide equitable attention to academics, religious heritage, and the secular mission of the institution; as a result, leaders find themselves mitigating conflict that arises from this imbalance (Brackney, 2004; Ecklund, Park, & Veliz, 2008; Witek, 2009). The purposes of this study were: (a) to…
Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)
Library Journal, 1970
Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)
Fenouillet, Fabien; Kaplan, Jonathan
This study is based on the analysis of academic results of 692 undergraduate and graduate students in two disciplines in a French university who attended their courses using one out of four possible learning modalities. Within the two disciplines, Art History and Educational Sciences, students chose between face-to-face learning (on campus),…
During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of full-time…
Hall, Timothy L.
Founded on the principle of religious pluralism, the United States comprises scores of religious traditions. Although the spiritual lives of most people throughout the nation's history are private and undocumented, an examination of the lives and influence of U.S. religious leaders offers insights into the religious heritage of the United States.…
Gunther, Vicki; McGowan, James; Donegan, Kate
Gunther, McGowan and Donegan draw on their own experiences and those of others in the field, to explain the importance of communication in school leadership. In focusing on the communication process--why it's critical for schools, and how it can be executed well--they make the case that communication must be a primary emphasis for leaders, not an…
The author writes her experience in leading. She points out that a good leader should know when and how to let go than trying to do all the work by herself. It changed her focus on looking at details, implementation, dealing with the contractors, to leading leading people.
Kinzer, Cathy J.; Rincón, Mari; Ward, Jana; Rincón, Ricardo; Gomez, Lesli
Four elementary school instructors offer insights into their classrooms, their unique professional roles, and their leadership approaches as they reflect on their journey to advance teacher and student mathematics learning. They note a "teacher leader" serves as an example to other educators and strives to impact student learning;…
Within the sponsored research support offices in departments at research institutions, non-profits, and undergraduate institutions, research administrators are often perceived as servant leaders by their own membership organizations and those who work with them. This perception is influenced by survey results focusing on character. Parolini (2004)…
Salvation Army. New York, NY.
This guide is one of a series of Education for Parenthood manuals developed by the Salvation Army for use in programs to prepare teenagers for parenthood or for child care careers. This volume presents one of two programs for training future leaders of the Salvation Army Corps Cadets (ages 12 to 18). The program aims at increasing participants'…
Ellis, Thomas I.
Effective schools research has verified that schools are rarely effective unless the principal is a proficient instructional leader. This article summarizes five recent studies examining the practices and qualities comprising good instructional leadership. A Seattle study by Richard L. Andrews disclosed a statistical correlation between student…
following teambuilding lessons learned. In their book, The Wisdom of Teams, Jon Katzenbach and Douglas, provide a set of guidelines that leaders can follow...Leadership Quarterly, (1995): 219. 12 Northouse, 152. 13 Palmer, 139. 14 Northouse, 153. 15 Palmer, 140. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Jon R. Katzenbach & Douglas K
Martin, Stephen; Jucker, Rolf
The World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg made it clear that political leadership the world over is incapable of rising to the challenges of sustainability. Yet, most of the hundred or so world leaders who attended have a higher education degree from some of the world's most prestigious universities. This paper tries to…
Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth
Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…
Rushton, Vivian E; Horner, Keith
Since 1988, thirteen dental schools have provided dental undergraduate programmes within the United Kingdom (UK). In 2006, two new dental schools were created supporting dental education in the community. A further new dental school in Scotland will be accepting students in autumn 2008. In the past 25 years, extensive reorganisation of the NHS has resulted in long-term implications for the training of medical and dental academic staff. The number of academic clinicians is below the minimum viable level and external constraints, combined with a lack of suitable applicants, have led to a moratorium on academic recruitment within some Dental Schools. A detailed review of the historical and associated factors which have led to the problems presently besetting academic dentistry are discussed along with the initiatives introduced in the last 10 years to revitalise the speciality. Also, the present and future outlook for academic dentistry in other countries are discussed. Opinion is divided as to the appropriate setting for the training of undergraduate students between those who support community-based dental education and those who believe dental education should remain within research led dental establishments. External factors are moulding an unsatisfactory situation that is proving increasingly unattractive to the potential dental academic and the case for reform is obvious.
Schick Makaroff, Kara; Storch, Janet; Newton, Lorelei; Fulton, Tom; Stevenson, Lynne
There is increasing emphasis on the need for collaboration between practice and academic leaders in health care research. However, many problems can arise owing to differences between academic and clinical goals and timelines. In order for research to move forward it is important to name and address these issues early in a project. In this article we use an example of a participatory action research study of ethical practice in nursing to highlight some of the issues that are not frequently discussed and we identify the impact of things not-named. Further, we offer our insights to others who wish to be partners in research between academic and practice settings. These findings have wide implications for ameliorating misunderstandings that may develop between nurse leaders in light of collaborative research, as well as for participatory action research.
Background As in many countries around the world, there are high expectations on academic health science centres and networks in England to provide high-quality care, innovative research, and world-class education, while also supporting wealth creation and economic growth. Meeting these expectations increasingly depends on partnership working between university medical schools and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers. However, academic-clinical relationships in England are still characterised by the “unlinked partners” model, whereby universities and their partner teaching hospitals are neither fiscally nor structurally linked, creating bifurcating accountabilities to various government and public agencies. Discussion This article focuses on accountability relationships in universities and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of academic health science centres and networks. The authors analyse accountability for the tripartite mission of patient care, research, and education, using a four-fold typology of accountability relationships, which distinguishes between hierarchical (bureaucratic) accountability, legal accountability, professional accountability, and political accountability. Examples from North West London suggest that a number of mechanisms can be used to improve accountability for the tripartite mission through alignment, but that the simple creation of academic health science centres and networks is probably not sufficient. Summary At the heart of the challenge for academic health science centres and networks is the separation of accountabilities for patient care, research, and education in different government departments. Given that a fundamental top-down system redesign is now extremely unlikely, local academic and clinical leaders face the challenge of aligning their institutions as a matter of priority in order to improve accountability for the tripartite mission from
In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.
In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.
Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph
"The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation.
Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta
In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…
Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Adhikari, Anamika Barman; Milburn, Norweeta G.
The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth. Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F…
Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.
Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…
Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)
Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya
This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…
Kussrow, Paul G.; Purland, John
A lack of congruency on the part of many leaders results in diminished effectiveness, if not outright failure. The soundness of a person in authority is an essential characteristic for potency as a leader. Irrespective of what system of ethical thought is proposed, effectiveness for leaders only comes from a stream of thought that demonstrates a…
Henderson, James E.; Brookhart, Susan M.
This paper describes the development of a revised Organizational Leader Authenticity Scale (OLAS) for use in determining the authenticity of both educational leaders and noneducational leaders. "Authenticity" refers to the degree to which the leader's action matches his or her words. A Staff Authenticity Scale was also developed and tested. The…
14). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987a...Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987b). Combat leaders’ guide: Rifle platoon and squad...Behavioral and Social Sciences A Directorate of the U.S. Army Total Personnel Command EDGAR M . JOHNSON Director Technical Review by MAJ James P
Hansen, Michele Joann; Trujillo, Daniel J.; Boland, Donna L.; MacKinnon, Joyce L.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the underlying non-cognitive processes and institutional factors that allowed first-year students to enact effective strategies for attaining academic success and persisting despite obstacles. The varying levels of academic preparation and unique obstacles faced by the student participants…
Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.
"Academic resilience" refers to a student's capacity to overcome acute or chronic adversities that are seen as major assaults on educational processes. Although intersecting with highly vulnerable and important populations, academic resilience does not map onto the many students who are faced with setbacks, challenges and pressures that are part…
Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen
Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate.
Moradi, Farshad; Koch, Christof; Shimojo, Shinsuke
Retinal input that is suppressed from visual awareness can nevertheless produce measurable aftereffects, revealing neural processes that do not directly result in a conscious percept. We here report that the face identity-specific aftereffect requires a visible face; it is effectively cancelled by binocular suppression or by inattentional blindness of the inducing face. Conversely, the same suppression does not interfere with the orientation-specific aftereffect. Thus, the competition between incompatible or interfering visual inputs to reach awareness is resolved before those aspects of information that are exploited in face identification are processed. We also found that the face aftereffect remained intact when the visual distracters in the inattention experiment were replaced with auditory distracters. Thus, cross-modal or cognitive interference that does not affect the visibility of the face does not interfere with the face aftereffect. We conclude that adaptation to face identity depends on seeing the face.
Lu, Fletcher; Lemonde, Manon
The objective of this study was to assess if online teaching delivery produces comparable student test performance as the traditional face-to-face approach irrespective of academic aptitude. This study involves a quasi-experimental comparison of student performance in an undergraduate health science statistics course partitioned in two ways. The first partition involves one group of students taught with a traditional face-to-face classroom approach and the other through a completely online instructional approach. The second partition of the subjects categorized the academic aptitude of the students into groups of higher and lower academically performing based on their assignment grades during the course. Controls that were placed on the study to reduce the possibility of confounding variables were: the same instructor taught both groups covering the same subject information, using the same assessment methods and delivered over the same period of time. The results of this study indicate that online teaching delivery is as effective as a traditional face-to-face approach in terms of producing comparable student test performance but only if the student is academically higher performing. For academically lower performing students, the online delivery method produced significantly poorer student test results compared to those lower performing students taught in a traditional face-to-face environment.
Ashauer, Shirley A; Macan, Therese
Learning and adapting to change are imperative as teams today face unprecedented change. Yet, an important part of learning involves challenging assumptions and addressing differences of opinion openly within a group--the kind of behaviors that pose the potential for embarrassment or threat. How can leaders foster an environment in which team members feel it is safe to take interpersonal risks in order to learn? In a study of 71 teams, we found that psychological safety and learning behavior were higher for teams with mastery than performance goal instructions or no goal instructions. Team psychological safety mediated the relationship between mastery and performance goal instructions and learning behavior. Findings contribute to our understanding of how leader-assigned goals are related to psychological safety and learning behavior in a team context, and suggest approaches to foster such processes.
Medina-Walpole, Annette; Fonzi, Judith; Katz, Paul R
Career development is rarely formalized in the curricula of geriatric fellowship programs, and the training of new generations of academic leaders is challenging in the 1 year of fellowship training. To effectively prepare fellows for academic leadership, the University of Rochester's Division of Geriatrics, in collaboration with the Warner School of Graduate Education, created a yearlong course to achieve excellence in teaching and career development during the 1-year geriatric fellowship. Nine interdisciplinary geriatric medicine, dentistry, and psychiatry fellows completed the course in its initial year (2005/06). As participants, fellows gained the knowledge and experience to successfully develop and implement educational initiatives in various formats. Fellows acquired teaching and leadership skills necessary to succeed as clinician-educators in an academic setting and to communicate effectively with patients, families, and colleagues. Fellows completed a series of individual and group education projects, including academic portfolio development, curriculum vitae revision, abstract submission and poster presentation at national meetings, lay lecture series development, and geriatric grand rounds presentation. One hundred percent of fellows reported that the course positively affected their career development, with six of nine fellows choosing academic careers. The course provided opportunities to teach and assess all six of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education core competencies. This academic career development course was intended to prepare geriatric fellows as the next generation of academic leaders as clinician-teacher-scholars. It could set a new standard for academic development during fellowship training and provide a model for national dissemination in other geriatric and subspecialty fellowship programs.
Sauer, Stephen J
New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions.
Ready, Douglas A
Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work
strategic vision, and prepare their commands as a whole for their future roles .”7 Transiting from an environment of relative clarity in missions...in war, their role is to dominate and win. Social Intelligence Daniel Goleman defines social intelligence as a combination of two inseparable...therefore has two crucial roles : first to develop the right people, with the right strategic competencies, as its strategic leaders; and second, to
Benton Foundation, Washington, DC.
This report is about libraries and the challenges they face in the digital world, and where the public supports, or fails to support, libraries in this time of change. Library leaders' visions for the future are compared with the public's prescriptions for libraries, derived from public opinion research. Informing the study were library leaders'…
Hannigan, B; Burnard, P; Edwards, D; Turnbull, J
Surveys of the leaders of the UK's post-qualifying education courses for community mental health nurses have taken place, on an annual basis, for over 10 years. In this paper, findings from the survey undertaken in the 1998--99 academic year are reported. These findings include: that most course leaders do not personally engage in clinical practice; that interprofessional education takes place at a minority of course centres, and that course philosophies and aims are characterised by an emphasis on both outcomes (in terms of, for example, skills acquisition, knowledge development and the ability to engage in reflective practice), and process (adult learning).
Winter, Richard P.; O'Donohue, Wayne
Our study explores the relationship between values and academic identity in the public university. Framing the study is the proposition public universities face academic identity tensions arising from pressures to combine and sustain competing and contradictory managerial (economic) and academic (professional) values systems. Academic responses to…
Doctor candidates get the academic identity and academic capital in his field by the thesis writing. The dissertation proposal defence hold on the public field promotes the state of academic and legalizes the discipline of the academic community. During the dissertation proposal defence, doctor candidates may face three conflicts. The first is…
Vaughan, George B.; And Others
Developed to aid community college leaders in considering what changes in governance, curriculum and student services are needed to keep their institutions vital and responsive to contemporary needs, this book suggests ways of responding to major issues facing community colleges. George Vaughan's introductory essay, "Community Colleges in…
Ligeikis, Kelli H.
Explored in the qualitative phenomenological study were the potential executive leadership capabilities and attributes for a new fourth generation of emergent female leaders in the 21st century and the organizational and cultural obstacles female executives faced in upward mobility. Sixteen female community college vice presidents in New York…
The American Hospital Association's Commission on Workforce for Hospitals and Health Systems identified the workforce development related challenges facing health care institutions and issued a series of recommendations regarding how hospital leaders can build a thriving workforce. The change strategies identified by the commission were as…
Ward, Anne W., Ed.
Designed for education leaders who seek to apply multimedia technology in schools, this guide addresses not only hardware and software matters, but also a wide range of related issues that schools face. Various facets of the topic are addressed in 12 papers presented under 8 broad headings: (1) Multimedia Technology (Racquel Skolnik and R. G.…
The myriad challenges facing school principals in the United States have been well documented, including limited opportunities for distributed leadership, inadequate training, and a lackluster pipeline for new leaders. Recently, the Fordham Institute teamed up with the London-based Education Foundation to seek a better understanding of England's…
The purpose of this position paper was to explore the challenges faced by principals in creating equitable opportunities for English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. We questioned "To what extent are educational leaders encouraged to create environments that value cultural diversity and the promotion of English language…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of professional development experiences on the career competencies of continuing higher education unit leaders (CHEULs). In the American system of higher education, a CHEUL manages an administrative unit that offers educational programs to adult learners (Cranton, 1996). To face the challenges…
Vaughan, George B.
No institution is better positioned to address the problems facing today's communities than the community college. The colleges are community-based and, through community-based programming (CBP), can place themselves at the center of the organizations and institutions, and collaborate with formal or informal leaders devoted to resolving community…
Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Al-Awiwe, Azhar
Previous research related to this study explored early career female leaders' experiences in rural school settings, and probed the personal and professional challenges they faced and their motivations to accept formal and informal leadership roles ahead of the usual timeframes (e.g., Graham, Miller & Paterson, 2009). This study set out to…
Clifton, Connie J.
Helping students complete developmental course sequences and graduate from college is one of the biggest challenges facing community college leaders and educators. The majority of entering students need one or more developmental courses yet most of these students never finish the developmental sequence. Colleges are continuously developing new…
Helsing, Deborah; Howell, Annie; Kegan, Robert; Lahey, Lisa
In this article, authors Deborah Helsing, Annie Howell, Robert Kegan, and Lisa Lahey argue that today's educational leaders face a host of complex demands as they strive to implement lasting, meaningful change in their school environments. As these demands often require a level of personal development many adults may not yet have, there is a need…
Short, Emily Carter
As colleges and universities face the challenge of transitioning to a scheme of funding based on student retention and graduation rates, it is imperative that all variables that can effect enrollment be considered. This study focused on the relationships between clan culture, leader-member exchange, and affective organizational commitment.…
Wright, Tarah; Horst, Naomi
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a cohort of university faculty leaders in Canadian universities conceptualize sustainable development, sustainable universities, the role universities play in achieving a sustainable future, key issues facing the university, and the barriers to implementing sustainability initiatives on campus.…
Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John G.; O'Sullivan, Kerry-Ann; Howe, Cathie
In contemporary school settings, leaders seeking to support professional development are faced with many challenges. These challenges call for educators who can undertake professional learning that is continuous and adaptive to change. As a term, continuous professional development (CPD) reflects many different forms of professional development in…
This book aims to increase the level of interest and understanding of leadership within the academic context and to demonstrate the relevance of leadership for contemporary United Kingdom universities. The book considers the concept of leadership and its appropriateness and usefulness for nonprofit professional organizations such as universities,…
Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.
The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…
Gibson, Will; Hall, Andy; Callery, Peter
This article examines the structure of topic movement within face-to-face postgraduate university seminar discussion forums through a conversation analytic approach. The analysis of 12 audio recordings of seminars showed that in spite of clear differences in the management style of sessions by seminar leaders there were important consistencies in…
Moye, Janet P; Swan, Beth Ann
Ambulatory care faces challenges in sustaining a nursing workforce in the future as newly licensed nurses are heavily recruited to inpatient settings and retirements will impact ambulatory care sooner than other areas. Building a diverse team by recruiting nurses of different ages (generations) and skills may result in a more successful and robust organization. Knowledge about generational characteristics and preferences will aid nurse leaders and recruiters in attracting high-quality, talented nurses. Nurses of Generations X and Y can increase their likelihood of success in ambulatory care by better understanding intergenerational issues.
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.
Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…
Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian
This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…
Teal, Randall; Enga, Zoe; Diehl, Sandra J.; Rohweder, Catherine L.; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Durr, April; Wynn, Mysha; Isler, Malika Roman; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Weiner, Bryan J.
Background Partnerships between academic and community-based organizations can richly inform the research process and speed translation of findings. While immense potential exists to co-conduct research, a better understanding of how to create and sustain equitable relationships between entities with different organizational goals, structures, resources, and expectations is needed. Objective To engage community leaders in the development of an instrument to assess community-based organizations' interest and capacity to engage with academia in translational research partnerships. Methods Leaders from community-based organizations partnered with our research team in the design of a 50-item instrument to assess organizational experience with applying for federal funding and conducting research studies. Respondents completed a self-administered, paper/pencil survey and a follow-up structured cognitive interview (n=11). A community advisory board (n=8) provided further feedback on the survey through guided discussion. Thematic analysis of the cognitive interviews and a summary of the community advisory board discussion informed survey revisions. Results Cognitive interviews and discussion with community leaders identified language and measurement issues for revision. Importantly, they also revealed an unconscious bias on the part of researchers and offered an opportunity, at an early research stage, to address imbalances in the survey perspective and to develop a more collaborative, equitable approach. Conclusions Engaging community leaders enhanced face and content validity and served as a means to form relationships with potential community co-investigators in the future. Cognitive interviewing can enable a bi-directional approach to partnerships, starting with instrument development. PMID:26639377
As students around the country begin the 2011-2012 school year, many of them will be returning to districts that have been forced to restructure their operations in the face of budget cuts. Leaders of those school systems have sought to avoid cuts that they believe would weaken instruction. But they also believe the reductions will put a strain on…
Macfarlane, Bruce; Chan, Roy Y.
The literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on senior academic leaders with managerial roles. It largely excludes informal and distributed forms of intellectual leadership offered by full professors among others. This article explores the concept of intellectual leadership using academic obituaries. A total of 63 obituaries…
Land, Patricia C.
Evolutionary paths for faculty are no longer sacred routes to chief academic officer (CAO) roles. Instead, CAOs are being drawn from a variety of other arenas. This being the case, college and university officials must address the following areas: (1) alternative career paths to academic affairs; (2) how to identify future leaders from other…
Franklin, Kathy K.; Hart, Jan K.
The purpose of this study was to examine academic department chair perceptions about the future influence of web-based distance education on departmental operations and their changing role as academic leader. Using a rating, modified-policy Delphi method, the researcher worked with 22 department chairs employed at public, urban universities in the…
Plowfield, Lisa Ann; Wheeler, Erlinda C; Raymond, Jean E
Building strong partnerships between academic institutions and community health agencies requires a commitment to time, tactful communications, talented leaders, and trust. The essential elements of partnership building are discussed based on experiences of a mid-Atlantic nursing center, an academic health center established to provide care to underserved and vulnerable populations.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.
Hernández Baeza, Ana; Araya Lao, Cristina; García Meneses, Juliana; González Romá, Vicente
In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on team tension. In addition, the leader's influence and the frequency of leader-team interaction moderate the relationship between charisma and affective climate. However, whereas the leader's influence enhances the relationship between leader charisma and positive affective climate, the frequency of interaction has counterproductive effects.
This article describes the evolution of an academic professional development program, related to the use of WebCT in teaching programs, and discusses the challenges that have arisen for the members of the staff development team since the original implementation of the program. The training program begins with face-to-face workshops, covering…
Housley Gaffney, Amy L.
Receiving public feedback on academic work may threaten students' face, particularly when such feedback is critical. One way that feedback may be cushioned is through face-threat mitigation techniques. I analyzed the use of such techniques in the feedback given by faculty and professionals to landscape architecture students as preparation for…
Fulop, Liz; Day, Gary E
Individual clinician leadership is at the forefront of health reforms in Australia as well as overseas with many programs run by health departments (and hospitals) generally focus on the development of individual leaders. This paper argues, along with others, that leadership in the clinician management context cannot be understood from an individualistic approach alone. Clinician managers, especially in the ranks of doctors, are usually described as 'hybrid-professional managers' as well as reluctant leaders for whom most leadership theories do not easily apply. Their experiences of leadership development programs run by health departments both in Australia and internationally are likely to be based on an individual leader-focussed approach that is driving health care reforms. These approaches work from three key assumptions: (1) study and fix the person; (2) give them a position or title; and (3) make them responsible for results. Some would argue that the combination of these three approaches equates to heroic and transformational leadership. Several alternative approaches to leadership development are presented to illustrate how reforms in healthcare, and notably in hospitals, must incorporate alternative approaches, such as those based on collective and relational forms of leadership. This does not mean eschewing individual approaches to leadership but rather, thinking of them differently and making them more relevant to the daily experiences of clinician managers. We conclude by highlighting several significant challenges facing leadership development for clinician managers that arise from these considerations.
Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.
In the current higher education environment, the need to develop and support good leaders and managers could hardly be more pressing. Yet, research on how academic middle managers are supported in their roles is surprisingly sparse. The purpose of this paper is to address this perceived gap in the literature by reporting on the findings from two…
Anderson, Philip Wayne
This study utilized Mintzberg's taxonomy of managerial roles to examine the roles performed by community college chief academic officers (CAOs). Mintzberg's taxonomy defines managerial roles as a set of behaviors and identifies 10 distinct roles: (1) figurehead; (2) leader; (3) liaison; (4) monitor; (5) disseminator; (6) spokesperson; (7)…
Littana, P. Paul
The purpose of this study was to determine how factors such as demographics, leadership skills, intrinsic motivation and attitudes, and life experiences contribute to the success of minority academic leaders in the American higher education system. A qualitative research method, using the phenomenological approach was selected for this research.…
Wang, Ying; Yang, Wen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofan
This paper considers a leader-follower system with the aim to select an optimal leader so as to drive the remaining nodes to reach the desired consensus with the fastest convergence speed. An index called consensus centrality (CC) is proposed to quantify how fast a leader could guide the network to achieve the desired consensus. The experiment results explored the big similarities between the distributions of CC and degree in the network, which suggest that the suboptimal leader selected by the maximum degree can approximately approach the optimal leader in heterogeneous networks. Combining the degree-based k-shell decomposition with consensus centrality, a leader selection algorithm is proposed to reduce the computational complexity in large-scale networks. Finally, the convergence time of an equivalent discrete-time model is given to illustrate the properties of the suboptimal solutions.
well organized and a goal- setter . By teach- ing, leaders can inspire, motivate, and influence subordinates at various levels. 3. A Leader Should Rarehl...unit softball leagues, basketball pro- grams, tennis matches, or volleyball competitions serve the same purpose. A leader often can find out more...round robin tennis tourna- ments, volleyball , or softball work well as sports mixers). Spouses should not be included. Room- mates should be paired so
provide a definition and list of competencies that outlines what a strategic leader should possess. With that definition and list of competencies, the...researcher will examine three military leaders, showing linkage to doctrine, which will illustrate examples of this doctrinal definition . Once this is...Army currently developing strategic leaders? The US Army doctrine and the Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) provide a definition and list of
Dugan, John P; Turman, Natasha T; Torrez, Mark A
This chapter addresses the overemphasis on individual-leader development in leadership education, offering insights and pragmatic approaches for advancing collective leadership focused on social and political change.
Considering the constructs of teacher leadership, the author provides a practical starting point for systematically encouraging and developing teacher leaders using Danielson's framework for teaching.
Galinsky, Adam D; Kilduff, Gavin J
When a new work group forms, people often make snap judgments about who is qualified to lead. If the players don't already know one another, they tend to afford status to teammates on the basis of factors such as age, gender, race, attractiveness, and rank. These are characteristics beyond your control, but they don't necessarily predetermine the influence you can have on a group. Anyone, the authors say, can achieve higher status and more influence by getting in the right mind-set before engaging with new teammates. There are three psychological states that can increase the optimism, confidence, and proactive behavior that people associate with leaders: promotion focus (defined as a focus on goals and positive outcomes), happiness, and a feeling of power. And all it takes to help you enter one of these states is a simple five-minute exercise before starting a group task: Write about your ambitions or a time when you felt happy or powerful. The authors report that study subjects who did exactly that were more likely than others to speak up, steer decision making, and be viewed by their teammates as leaders--both in initial group meetings and in follow-up meetings two days later.
...The Future Leaders Exchange (FLEX) program seeks to promote mutual understanding between the United States and the countries of Eurasia by providing secondary school students from the region the opportunity to live in American society for an academic year. In turn, these students will expose U.S. citizens to the culture, traditions, and lifestyles of people in Eurasia. Organizations are......
Murphy, Mark; Curtis, Will
This study is based on interviews with 25 programme leaders at two universities in England. Programme leadership is ubiquitous and essential to effective university operations, yet there is surprisingly little research on the role. It is an ambiguous and complex form of leadership, existing as it does in the space between standard academic and…
Palmer, James C., Ed.; Katsinas, Stephen G., Ed.
Focusing on the field of community college education as an academic specialty in graduate and continuing education programs, the 10 essays in this volume explore the role of these programs in training community college leaders. The following articles are provided: (1) "Legacy of the Post-WWII Growth Years for Community College Leadership…
of the leader’s navigation system and corrects those errors. Keywords: Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), robot, leader - follower , dead-reckoning, gyro...drift, error correction 1 INTRODUCTION Leader - follower constellations have been subject of research for many years now. Most of the work in this...pair of small mobile robots (both were PackBots from iRobot ) made up the leader - follower team. Both the leader and the follower were equipped with
A dean at a private school of nursing implemented a leadership development program for early- to mid-career nursing faculty consisting of one 4-hour evening session per academic quarter for 7 quarters. Eight faculty members who had expressed interest in assuming a leadership role or been recommended by their supervisors as having strong leadership potential were invited to join. Program topics included leadership pathways, legal issues, budgeting and governance, diversity, the political arena, human resources, and student issues. Interviews with participants revealed 6 themes: the support a peer cohort provided, a desire for real-life application, a lack of previous exposure to related content or experiences, new perceptions of themselves as academic nurse leaders, the value of the program as preparation for academic nursing leadership roles, and broad program applicability.
Beal, Judy A; Alt-White, Anna; Erickson, Judith; Everett, Linda Q; Fleshner, Irene; Karshmer, Judith; Swider, Susan; Gale, Sharon
Academic-practice partnerships are an important mechanism to strengthen nursing practice and help nurses become well positioned to lead change and advance health. Through implementing such partnerships, both academic institutions and practice settings will formally address the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing Committee. Effective partnerships will create systems for nurses to achieve educational and career advancement, prepare nurses of the future to practice and lead, provide mechanisms for lifelong learning, and provide a structure for nurse residency programs. This paper details the work of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing-American Organization of Nurse Executives Task Force on Academic-Practice Partnerships that has identified hallmarks of successful partnership and produced tools and shared exemplars to assist nursing leaders in developing and sustaining partnerships for the future.
Dekowska, Monika; Kuniecki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Piotr
The face is one of the most important stimuli carrying social meaning. Thanks to the fast analysis of faces, we are able to judge physical attractiveness and features of their owners' personality, intentions, and mood. From one's facial expression we can gain information about danger present in the environment. It is obvious that the ability to process efficiently one's face is crucial for survival. Therefore, it seems natural that in the human brain there exist structures specialized for face processing. In this article, we present recent findings from studies on the neuronal mechanisms of face perception and recognition in the light of current theoretical models. Results from brain imaging (fMRI, PET) and electrophysiology (ERP, MEG) show that in face perception particular regions (i.e. FFA, STS, IOA, AMTG, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex) are involved. These results are confirmed by behavioral data and clinical observations as well as by animal studies. The developmental findings reviewed in this article lead us to suppose that the ability to analyze face-like stimuli is hard-wired and improves during development. Still, experience with faces is not sufficient for an individual to become an expert in face perception. This thesis is supported by the investigation of individuals with developmental disabilities, especially with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).
Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…
Quiroz, Julia Teresa
This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…
alongside counterinsurgency as well as defense support of civil authorities. CGSC has also reintroduced the training management skills that were once...exchange students and instructors with the Brazilian Escola Superior de Guerra , German Fuhrungs Akadamie, French Ecole de Guerre, and the Australian...become out of synch with the reality of the field. The College’s most senior military leaders are supported by a civil - ian dean of academics (a
Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming
The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.
Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…
The Information technology (IT) leader within higher education can be viewed from three scenarios: (1) the IT leader as plumber; (2) the IT leader as gardener; and (3) the IT leader as alchemist. In the first scenario, the college or university network consists of pipes, and the role of the IT leader resembles that of a plumber, who keeps the…
The purpose of this research was to explore middle school leaders' perceptions of the reasons girls' enrollment levels in science courses during high school declines and if the advice given to middle school girls may be perpetuating the diminished enrollment of girls in science courses as they move from middle school to high school. The study explored the contributions of expectancy and role theory using a qualitative method. Data analysis found that cultural influences on middle school girls' career goals emerged as a significant influence on school leaders' perceptions. Instructional methodology and cultural, gendered assumptions of women in science were found as themes in middle school leaders' perceptions that further shaped the advice to girls to enroll in high school science courses. The study provided information that clarified how middle school leaders can maintain the academic pathway for girls in science as well as recommendations for further study.
Tsugawa, Sho; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki
Research on link prediction for social networks has been actively pursued. In link prediction for a given social network obtained from time-windowed observation, new link formation in the network is predicted from the topology of the obtained network. In contrast, recent advances in sensing technology have made it possible to obtain face-to-face behavioral networks, which are social networks representing face-to-face interactions among people. However, the effectiveness of link prediction techniques for face-to-face behavioral networks has not yet been explored in depth. To clarify this point, here we investigate the accuracy of conventional link prediction techniques for networks obtained from the history of face-to-face interactions among participants at an academic conference. Our findings were (1) that conventional link prediction techniques predict new link formation with a precision of 0.30–0.45 and a recall of 0.10–0.20, (2) that prolonged observation of social networks often degrades the prediction accuracy, (3) that the proposed decaying weight method leads to higher prediction accuracy than can be achieved by observing all records of communication and simply using them unmodified, and (4) that the prediction accuracy for face-to-face behavioral networks is relatively high compared to that for non-social networks, but not as high as for other types of social networks. PMID:24339956
Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275
Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.
A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)
Stinson, John Kevin
It has become standard practice for teachers to step into the role of "teacher leaders" and perform a variety of curriculum, instruction and assessment tasks for schools and school districts. The literature regarding these Ohio K-12 teacher leaders, who may perform these tasks in addition to or in lieu of regular teaching assignments,…
Better Leaders: Developing Air Force Squadron Leadership for the Next Century. National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 03-001. Cambridge, Mass...Building Better Leaders: Developing Air Force Squadron Leadership for the Next Century. National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 03‐001
Lumpkin, Angela; Claxton, Heather; Wilson, Amanda
Teacher leaders who share their specialized knowledge, expertise, and experience with other teachers broaden and sustain school and classroom improvement efforts. Teacher leaders can transform classrooms into learning laboratories where every student is engaged in relevant and well-designed curricular content, every teacher embraces the use of…
Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard
Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…
Hart, Ann Weaver
Leader-succession research is refocused on its interactive roots whereas the advances of recent succession inquiry are explored in this synthesis of the literature. The approach capitalizes on efforts to understand leader-succession research from a multidimensional and social viewpoint. Organizational socialization is used to frame the discussion.…
Luther, Vicki; Wall, Milan
This booklet presents ideas based on actions taken by community leaders to recruit new and emerging leaders to join in the improvement of a community. The discussion includes: (1) asking the question "who's not here?" to make sure the community organization is representative; (2) looking for skills, not names to discover leadership…
Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.
Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…
Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher
This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…
Since PreK-12 student achievement is the primary focus of schools, all teachers are called to serve as teachers leaders and improve learning on their campuses. Rather than waiting until they have gained experience, teachers can begin acquiring the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teacher leaders during their preservice programs. Drawing upon…
School superintendents and school leaders can be most effective if they understand their personality traits and the traits of those they learn and work with. A school leader can maximize their effectiveness by examining their own behaviors, thinking and habits as well as recognizing the behaviors of others. The DISC Pure Behavioral styles and the…
This article describes the current lives of the Chinese leaders of 1989. Wang Dan, an active organizer year before the demonstrations and quickly became a leader in the square, has completed a Ph.D. in Chinese history at Harvard University last year and is now on a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Oxford. Wu'er Kaixi, who took a…
Persell, Caroline Hodges; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M.; Syed, Ali
This paper arose from a larger study designed to explore what leaders in the field of sociology think are the most important goals and principles for students to understand after taking a college-level introductory course and how they teach those principles. A population of scholarly leaders in sociology was defined by various forms of peer…
Richardson, Agnes M.
The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…
Marshall, Catherine; Ward, Michael
This article presents answers to the question: What do powerful educational leaders think about training practitioners for social justice? The data are drawn from interviews with a former governor and leaders from the American Association of School Administration (AASA), National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), National…
Davis, Hartwell T. Paul
Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…
Moss, Jerome, Jr.; Johansen, Barry-Craig
Leadership may be defined as both a process and a property. Research shows that some attributes common to successful leaders (characteristics, knowledge, and skills) can be significantly influenced by planned education or training. In the process of developing a leadership assessment instrument, a study specified four broad tasks that leaders are…
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
Developed to aid school-level administrators of the School Volunteer Program (SVP), this handbook is organized into five sections as follows: (1) what the responsibilities of SVP leaders are, including SVP resource person and volunteer chairman job description; (2) with whom SVP leaders work, including communication network, division of…
Washburn, E R
Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.
Wirtz, Nina; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen; Loeb, Carina
Although a growing body of research links leadership behavior to follower health, comparatively little is known about the health effects of being in the lead. This longitudinal study of 315 team members and 67 leaders examined the crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders. Leader emotional self-efficacy was tested as a moderator in the crossover process. Multiple regression analyses revealed that followers' work engagement was positively related to leaders' work engagement eight months later, controlling for followers' tenure with the leader, leader gender, autonomy, workload, and work engagement at Time 1. Leaders' emotional self-efficacy did not moderate the crossover of work engagement. Followers' emotional exhaustion was not directly related to leaders' emotional exhaustion over time. We did find a significant interaction effect for follower emotional exhaustion and leader emotional self-efficacy. This study is the first to show that crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement can unfold over time from team members to leaders. Main theoretical implications lie in the finding that-in line with job demands-resources theory-followers' psychological states can pose a demand or resource for leaders, and influence their well-being. For practitioners, our results offer valuable insights regarding the design of organizational health interventions as well as leadership development measures. (PsycINFO Database Record
Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.
This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.
... SECURITY Communications Unit Leader Prerequisite and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation. DHS previously published this information collection request... III Communications Unit Leader (COML) training course for state, regional, local, and tribal...
Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn
Background. Implementing simulation requires a substantial commitment of human and financial resources. Despite this, little is known about the strategies used by academic nursing leaders to facilitate the implementation of a simulation program in nursing curricula. Methods. A constructivist grounded theory study was conducted within 13 nursing programs in Ontario, Canada. Perspectives of key stakeholders (n = 27) including nursing administrators (n = 6), simulation leaders (n = 9), and nursing faculty (n = 12) were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Results. Nursing leaders, specifically nursing administrators and simulation leaders who successfully led the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula, worked together and utilized negotiating, navigating, and networking strategies that impacted the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Conclusions. Strategies that were found to be useful when planning and executing the adoption and incorporation of an innovation, specifically simulation, into nursing curricula provide practical approaches that may be helpful to nurse leaders when embarking upon an organizational change.
Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.
Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…
Plagiarism is viewed by many academics as a kind of Pandora's box--the elements contained inside are too frightening to allow escape for fear of the havoc that may result. Reluctance by academic members of staff to discuss student plagiarism openly may contribute to the often untenable situations we, as teachers, face when dealing with student…
Teague-Rector, Susan; Ghaphery, Jimmy
Academic libraries customize, support, and provide access to myriad information systems, each with complex graphical user interfaces. The number of possible information entry points on an academic library Web site is both daunting to the end-user and consistently challenging to library Web site designers. Faced with the challenges inherent in…
A major challenge for higher education academics is to research and publish when faced with substantial teaching responsibilities, higher student numbers, and higher output expectations. The focus of this piece is to encourage publication more generally by educators, and to build publication capacity, which academic developers can facilitate. The…
Dankoski, Mary E.; Palmer, Megan M.; Laird, Thomas F. Nelson; Ribera, Amy K.; Bogdewic, Stephen P.
Many faculty in today's academic medical centers face high levels of stress and low career satisfaction. Understanding faculty vitality is critically important for the health of our academic medical centers, yet the concept is ill-defined and lacking a comprehensive model. Expanding on previous research that examines vital faculty in higher…
Wakefield, Kelly; Dismore, Harriet
Amidst rapid socio-economic change, higher education (HE) academics across the world face major challenges to its organisation, finance and management. This paper discusses the role of transnational networking in higher education. Data from 40 interviews with geographically distributed academics engaged in learning and teaching transnational…
Pajares, Frank, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.
Academically motivated students engage their schoolwork with confidence and interest, are less likely to drop out of school, suffer fewer disciplinary problems, and are more resilient in the face of setbacks than less motivated students. This book presents the work of numerous scholars of adolescent academic motivation and represents the varied…
Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque
This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…
vanDuinkerken, Wyoma; Coker, Catherine; Anderson, Margaret
The academic librarian faces a unique range of changing duties and responsibilities that are often inappropriately documented. The development of an academic portfolio that creates a record of librarianship, scholarship, and service can solve this issue for librarians on the tenure-track or on a job hunt. This paper describes how academic…
Mansfield, Phylis M.; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Wortman, Thomas I.
College students face a myriad of pressures and challenges in the academic environment as they seek to maintain optimal performance or even to remain in the academic program. In 2002, it was reported that more than 30% of first-year students did not return for their second year of college (Smith), and only 40% are reported to actually compete…
Mansfield, Phylis M.; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Wortman, Thomas I.
College students face a myriad of pressures and challenges in the academic environment as they seek to maintain optimal performance or even to remain in the academic program. In 2002, it was reported that more than 30% of first-year students did not return for their second year of college (Smith), and only 40% are reported to actually compete…
This article discusses the development of academic research in the archives and records management field. It is argued that the field has faced a dilemma between educating graduates for work in a professional domain and developing robust research methods and frameworks for the emerging academic discipline. The article reports on some projects…
Billow, Richard M
The group therapist wears two faces: spokesperson of the Establishment and spokesperson of significant truth. To run vital groups, these two roles of group leadership must stand in dialectic relationship to each other. The therapist introduces principles and practices that normalize group relations and provide a sense of cohesion, continuity, and regularity. However, to be constructive and promote significant truth, the group therapist must also be deconstructive, and encourage and support the group's questioning and challenging the very principles and practices that he or she asserts. A case example illustrates how the group leader is also two-faced in another sense of the term, since he or she may be false and insincere--or perceived as such--when being either the conservator or challenger of group process and culture.
Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.
For the first time since Coal Age began its annual Longwall Census the number of faces has dropped below 50. A total of five mines operate two longwall faces. CONSOL Energy remains the leader with 12 faces. Arch Coal operates five longwall mines; Robert E. Murray owns five longwall mines. West Virginia has 13 longwalls, followed by Pennsylvania (8), Utah (6) and Alabama (6). A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). 2 tabs., 1 photo.
Matthews, Kelly E.; Lodge, Jason M.; Bosanquet, Agnes
Early career academia is a challenging time, particularly as academics are facing increasing pressures to excel across a range of areas. Boyer argued for the "true scholar" versed in the overlapping areas of scholarship in research, teaching, integration and engagement. Academic developers have an important role to play in assisting the…
Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael
In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes.
Nijhuis, Gerard Gervedink; Collis, Betty
As universities transform into enterprises, academics are facing new challenges, especially in their teaching. This is because of the demands for student-centred programmes that offer more flexibility, the use of Course Management Systems such as "Blackboard," and the expectation that instructors will perform (more) efficiently and effectively. In…
Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar
This article focuses on the challenges faced by non-native English speaking international graduate students in their academic writing practices while they studied at a university in Malaysia as well as the solutions they employed when faced with the challenges. Academic Literacies Questionnaire was used to collect data. Based on 131 participants,…
Cekerol, Kamil; Bozkaya, Mujgan
Academic counseling courses, in which learner support is provided in a face-to-face environment, maintain their importance and continuity since the beginning of the distance education system in Anadolu University. Academic counseling courses, which are carried out by getting support from various universities, are conducted by bringing the…
Tierney, William G., Ed.
Today, institutional leaders face numerous struggles: intervention from boards of trustees, alumni, and state legislators; decline in financial support from the states; and competition in an increasingly global marketplace. While it is agreed that effective governance structures allow institutions to respond creatively to these challenges, how…
Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.
Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.
McGuire, Elaine; Kennerly, Susan M
Nurse managers demonstrating transformational leadership are more likely than transactional leaders to have committed staff nurse followers. Committed followers exert extra effort, thus improving unit performance and enhancing the organization's competitive advantage.
Kaini, B K
Interprofessional care is an essential part of the health service delivery system. It helps to achieve improved care and to deliver the optimal and desired health outcomes by working together, sharing and learning skills. Health care organisation is a collective sum of many leaders and followers. Successful delivery of interprofessional care relies on the contribution of interprofessional care team leaders and health care professionals from all groups. The role of the interprofessional care team leader is vital to ensuring continuity and consistency of care and to mobilise and motivate health care professionals for the effective delivery of health services. Medical professionals usually lead interprofessional care teams. Interprofessional care leaders require various skills and competencies for the successful delivery of interprofessional care.
Leyffer, S.; Munson, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science
Multi-leader-common-follower games arise when modelling two or more competitive firms, the leaders, that commit to their decisions prior to another group of competitive firms, the followers, that react to the decisions made by the leaders. These problems lead in a natural way to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints (EPECs). We develop a characterization of the solution sets for these problems and examine a variety of nonlinear optimization and nonlinear complementarity formulations of EPECs. We distinguish two broad cases: problems where the leaders can cost-differentiate and problems with price-consistent followers. We demonstrate the practical viability of our approach by solving a range of medium-sized test problems.
Christensen, Jeannine M.
Academic dishonesty is a problem that educators face at all levels of education. Many studies have focused on researching academic dishonesty at four year colleges and universities, ignoring the community college. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported attitudes and behaviors of generational students towards academic integrity…
Llosa, Lorena; Beck, Sarah W.; Zhao, Cecilia Guanfang
Despite the high stakes attached to students' performance on assessments of academic writing, we still know little about the challenges students face when composing in academic contexts. To begin to address this problem, two studies were designed with the following aims: to identify and describe the most prevalent types of academic writing at the…
and Alvares, K. M. Cnntingency model ofleadership effectiveness : Some methodological issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1971, 55, 205-10. Graen, G...potential of identifying the important variables producing effective unit and leader performance. When the important variables are identified, a training...producing effects of weapons found on the modern battlefield. Experience with ES indicates that leader behavior and leader-subordinate interaction
Fargason, C A; Fargason, R E
Organizational change is required if academic health centers (AHCs) are to survive the decreased societal commitment to them. The changes will generate significant emotional responses in the physicians employed by such institutions. This article presents an analogy between the reactions of academic physicians to the changes they are experiencing, and the stages of grief that Dr. Kübler Ross described in terminally ill patients. By placing physician responses in this context, emotional responses to organizational changes can be more easily understood and managed, allowing academic physicians to devote more energy to facing the threats to AHCs in an innovative and constructive manner.
To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile leader must be prepared to operate within and the...senior leadership identified their need over eight years ago? To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile...to the reader. BARRIERS TO ACHIEVING MENTALLY AGILE JUNIOR LEADERS Persistent conflict and change characterize the strategic environment . We have
Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.
About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.
Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.
Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.
Stein, Daniel; Chen, Christopher; Ackerly, D Clay
Numerous academic medicine leaders have argued that academic referral centers must prepare for the growing importance of accountability-driven payment models by adopting population health initiatives. Although this shift has merit, execution of this strategy will prove significantly more problematic than most observers have appreciated. The authors describe how successful implementation of an accountable care health strategy within a referral academic medical center (AMC) requires navigating a critical tension: The academic referral business model, driven by tertiary-level care, is fundamentally in conflict with population health. Referral AMCs that create successful value-driven population health systems within their organizations will in effect disrupt their own existing tertiary care businesses. The theory of disruptive innovation suggests that balancing the push and pull of academic and accountable care within a single organization is achievable. However, it will require significant shifts in resource allocation and changes in management structure to enable AMCs to make the inherent difficult choices and trade-offs that will ensue. On the basis of the theories of disruptive innovation, the authors present recommendations for how academic health systems can successfully navigate these issues as they transition toward accountability-driven care.
Yim, Yoon-kyung Kecia
This article reports an investigation of second language (L2) students' class participation in English-language university courses in two different modes: face-to-face off-line and asynchronous online. The study addressed (1) what characteristics of academic online discourse were created in graduate courses; (2) how students reported their…
Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility.
Green, Stephen; Hassan, Fred; Immelt, Jeffrey; Marks, Michael; Meiland, Daniel
For all the talk about global organizations and executives, there's no definitive answer to the question of what we really mean by "global." A presence in multiple countries? Cultural adaptability? A multilingual top team? We asked four CEOs and the head of an international recruiting agency--HSBC's Stephen Green, Schering-Plough's Fred Hassan, GE's Jeffrey-lmmelt, Flextronics's Michael Marks, and Egon Zehnder's Daniel Meiland--to tell us what they think. They share some common ground. They all agree, for example, that the shift from a local to a global marketplace is irreversible and gaining momentum. "We're losing sight of the reality of globalization. But we should pay attention, because national barriers are quickly coming down", Daniel Meiland says. "If you look ahead five or ten years, the people with the top jobs in large corporations ... will be those who have lived in several cultures and who can converse in at least two languages." But the CEOs also disagree on many issues--on the importance of overseas assignments, for instance, and on the degree to which you need to adhere to local cultural norms. Some believe strongly that the global leader should, as a prerequisite to the job, live and work in other countries. As Stephen Green put it, "If you look at the executives currently running [HSBC's] largest businesses, all of them have worked in more than one, and nearly all in more than two, major country markets." Others downplay the importance of overseas assignments. "Putting people in foreign settings doesn't automatically imbue new attitudes, and it is attitudes rather than experiences that make a culture global," says Fred Hassan. The executives' essays capture views that are as diverse and multidimensional as the companies they lead.
Martí, Margarita; Gil, Francisco; Barrasa, Angel
Organizational leadership is fundamental for the working and development of current organizations. It helps members of an organization to face transcendental challenges. One of the fundamental aspects of leaders is their personal characteristics and behaviour as perceived by their co-workers. Although research has established a relationship between these components, findings have failed to come up with any congruent evidence and further to this the organizations and contexts used are from several decades ago. This article, which forms part of the international GLOBE project, analyses the relationship between motives and behaviour as perceived by co-workers in organizations, using quantitative and qualitative methods and including technological innovations. Using samples from 40 corporate directors and 84 of their co-workers, from different companies, it confirms how the main motives of leaders (power, affiliation and achievement) are related to different behavioral patterns (power to authoritarian, non-dependent and non-social-skill behaviours; affiliation to relationship and dependent behaviors, and achievement to proactive behaviors). It discusses the results with relation to traditional research and suggests practical measures and proposals for future investigations in this area.
Gilman, P.A.; Howard, R.
We have measured the rotation rates of leader and follower sunspots found on Mount Wilson white light plates, for the years 1917--1983. We find that at all latitudes, leader spots rotate faster than follower spots by approx.0/sup 0/.1 per day, or 14 m s/sup -1/. We also find that, when examined separately, leaders and followers show the same variations in rotation with cycle phase as do all spots taken together, as reported earlier in Gilman and Howard. Leaders and followers show similar variations in rotation rate even on an annual basis. Thus, while leaders and followers in each group diverge in longitude from each other at an average rate of approx.0/sup 0/.1 per day, each is separately speeding up or slowing down its rotation according to the phase in the cycle, and by a similar amount. Leaders and followers also give about the same covariance of longitude and latitude motions, indicating that whole sunspot groups participate in tracing the apparent angular momentum transport toward the equator, as previously reported for all spots in Gilman and Howard.
Ogbolu, Yolanda; Scrandis, Debra A; Fitzpatrick, Grace; Newhouse, Robin
Chief nurse executives (CNEs) face challenges in providing high-quality, patient-centered care for diverse populations. Although the implementation of culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) may improve patient satisfaction, the cost of initiatives and education coupled with shortened episodes of care pose obstacles. The article describes themes from a qualitative study with CNEs, describes resources and best practices, and highlights nurse leader rounds as a vehicle for implementing CLAS.
Morse, Suzanne W.; And Others
This document is devoted to the topic of citizen leaders. The first article, "Defining a Citizen Leader" (Richard A. Couto), provides a pragmatic definition of citizenship by describing citizen leaders with whom Couto has worked. "The Making of the Citizen Leader" (Cheryl Mabey) describes ways to educate for leadership while showing that…
Brown, Kathleen M.
The major priorities that should guide leadership education in preparing leaders for their work of leading schools in a democratic society are: (1) Teaching leaders to understand the inequities of society; (2) Teaching leaders to serve as agents for social transformation; and (3) Teaching leaders to help each and every student learn and succeed.…
... COMMISSION Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application November 23, 2010 Take notice that on November 15, 2010, Leader One Energy, LLC (Leader One), 4643 South Ulster Street, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80237...) seeking authorization to construct and operate the Leader One Gas Storage Project in Adams...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew leaders and labor contractors. 780.331 Section 780.331... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.331 Crew leaders and labor contractors. (a) Whether a crew leader... contractor. A crew leader who merely assembles a crew and brings them to the farm to be supervised and...
O'Neil, Robert M.
Most professors will never experience a serious threat to their independence or free expression. They may even resent the expectation that they join or support organizations that defend such freedoms when the risks seem so remote to their own careers and fields. Yet for the small fraction of faculty members who do encounter such pressures,…
Segrest, Valerie; James, Rosalina; Madrid, Teresa; Fernandes, Roger
Background Ancient teaching styles such as storytelling can help Native students to navigate the educational pipeline, and become forces for shaping health and research landscapes. Many experience isolation on campuses where these worldviews are marginalized. Objective Launching Native Health Leaders (LNHL) reduces academic isolation by creating an environment where students identify with Native values while exposing them to health and research career opportunities and interdisciplinary professional and community networks. Student experiences and the LNHL mentoring approach are described through phases of the Hero’s Journey, a universal mythic story of human struggle and transformation. Methods Undergraduates were recruited to attend health and research conferences through college and university student service programs. Tribal community representatives led group discussions focused on tribal health issues, and students explored intersections of indigenous knowledge with community-based participatory research (CBPR) and their educational journeys. Results LNHL supported more than sixty students to attend eight professional conferences since 2006 that included themes of cancer control, tribal wellness, and indigenous knowledge systems for health. Students pursuing higher degrees and community service careers participated in conference sessions, small group discussions, and reflection activities with professional and tribal community mentors. Conclusion Mainstream academic systems must include indigenous voices at all levels of leadership to shift the direction of health trends. LNHL builds capacity for community-based efforts by balancing Indigenous and academic mentoring and empowering Native students to navigate their personal journeys and create pathways to serve the needs of Indigenous peoples. Students from other marginalized groups may benefit from an LNHL mentoring approach. PMID:20364081
With each tick of the clock, healthcare leaders are coming face to face with a pressing quandary: How can they best guide their organizations to success and sustainability in a rocky and ever-changing healthcare environment? A new "model of sustainability," developed with input from nine CEOs of top medical institutions, may provide some guidance. The model includes six leadership imperatives that underscore critical approaches to supporting the hospital of the future: Build strong organization-wide leadership, become the employer of choice, generate financial strength, redesign structures and processes, develop productive physician relationships, and engage consumers.
Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Tykocinski, Mark L
Abstract Background: Previous research has paid little to no attention towards exploring methods of identifying existing medical student leaders. Aim: Focusing on the role of influence and employing the tenets of the engaging leadership model, this study examines demographic and academic performance-related differences of positive influencers and if students who have been peer-identified as positive influencers also demonstrate high levels of genuine concern for others. Methods: Three separate fourth-year classes were asked to designate classmates that had significant positive influences on their professional and personal development. The top 10% of those students receiving positive influence nominations were compared with the other students on demographics, academic performance, and genuine concern for others. Results: Besides age, no demographic differences were found between positive influencers and other students. High positive influencers were not found to have higher standardized exam scores but did receive significantly higher clinical clerkship ratings. High positive influencers were found to possess a higher degree of genuine concern for others. Conclusion: The findings lend support to (a) utilizing the engaging model to explore leaders and leadership within medical education, (b) this particular method of identifying existing medical student leaders, and (c) return the focus of leadership research to the power of influence.
Senior Leader Perspective July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 4 The Air Advisor The Face of US Air Force Engagement Maj Gen Timothy M...The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute,Air & Space Power Journal
Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly
Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.
Hesselbein, Frances, Ed.; Cohen, Paul M., Ed.
Amid unprecedented social, demographic, and economic changes, leaders must enhance performance and deliver desired results. The growing importance of managing the explosion in information requires attention to defining organizational missions and visions. The 37 chapters in this work are divided into 7 parts. Part 1, "On Leaders and…
Razzaq, Jamila; Forde, Christine
The Pakistani education system, like many other countries across the world, is going through a phase of concerted change in the first decade of the 21st century and school leaders are expected to play a crucial role in the management of this change programme. This article considers the impact of educational change on a group of school leaders who…
Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.
The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)
Quiroz, Julia Teresa
This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…
Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-Dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian
The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.
Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products. A silicon face mask created from the facial impression is used to reconstruct the face and preserve the donor’s dignity. The recipient airway management most commonly used is primary intubation of an existing tracheostoma with a flexometallic endotracheal tube. The recipient surgery usually averages to 19-20 h. Since the face is a very vascular organ, there is usually massive bleeding, both in the dissection phase as well as in the reperfusion phase. Prior to reperfusion, often, after one sided anastomosis of the graft, the contralateral side is allowed to bleed to get rid of the preservation solution and other additives. Intraoperative product replacement should be guided by laboratory values and point of care testing for coagulation and hemostasis. In face transplantation, bolus doses of pressors or pressor infusions have been used intraoperatively in several patients to manage hypotension. This article reviews the anesthetic considerations for management for face transplantation, and some of the perioperative challenges faced. PMID:28058213
del Pino, Homero E.; Jones, Loretta; Forge, Nell; Martins, David; Morris, D’Ann; Wolf, Kenneth; Baker, Richard; Lucas-Wright, Anna Aziza; Jones, Andrea; Richlin, Laurie; Norris, Keith C.
The Problem Charles R. Drew University (CDU) and community partners wanted to create a structure to transcend traditional community–academic partnerships. They wanted community leaders integrated into CDU’s research goals and education of medical professionals. Purpose of Article To explain the establishment of the Community Faculty Program, a new model of community–academic partnership that integrates community and academic knowledge. Key Points Using CBPR principles, CDU and community partners re-conceptualized the faculty appointment process and established the Division of Community Engagement (DCE). CDU initially offered academic appointments to nine community leaders. Community Faculty contributes to CDU’s governance, education, research, and publication goals. This model engaged communities in translational research and transformed the education of future healthcare professionals. Conclusion The Community Faculty Program is a new vision of partnership. Using a CBPR approach with committed partners, a Community Faculty Program can be created that embodies the values of both the community and the academy. PMID:27346780
Carter, Christina Michelle
Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…
While much of the debate in K-12 education reform today focuses on students' academic performance and college and workplace readiness, an examination of the mission or vision statements of most school districts reveals another key priority, often overlooked in the debate: cultivating active, involved community members, citizens and future leaders.…
Reynolds, John C.
Academic leaders in the 21st century are required to be both organizationally competent and intentionally collaborative with those they lead to be effective in a world of disruption, change, and complexity. Two current leadership constructs particularly relevant for meeting these needs are the focus of this study: "Authentic Leadership,"…
Shapiro, Debra L; Boss, Alan D; Salas, Silvia; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Von Glinow, Mary Ann
Using Hollander's (1958) idiosyncrasy credit theory of leadership as the theoretical backdrop, we examined when and why organizational leaders escape punitive evaluation for their organizational transgressions. In a sample of 162 full-time employees, we found that leaders who were perceived to be more able and inspirationally motivating were less punitively evaluated by employees for leader transgressions. These effects were mediated by the leaders' LMX (leader-member exchange) with their employees. Moreover, the tendency of leaders with higher LMX to escape punitive evaluations for their transgressions was stronger when those leaders were more valued within the organization. Finally, employees who punitively evaluated their leaders were more likely to have turnover intentions and to psychologically withdraw from their organization. Theoretical and practical implications associated with relatively understudied leader-transgression dynamics are discussed.
In February 2009, the National Association of College and University Business Officers, with generous support from Aetna, Inc., brought together business officers from a wide range of academic institutions to identify practical solutions to the challenges facing their campuses. The specific objective of the group: to develop an understanding of…
Petrov, N. I.; Petrova, G. N.
The dependences between the different parameters of a leader in lightning are obtained theoretically. The physical mechanism of the instability leading to the formation of the streamer zone is proposed. The instability has the wave nature and is caused by the self-influence effects of the space charge. Using a stability condition of the leader propagation, a dependence is obtained between the current across the leader head and its velocity of motion. The dependence of the streamer zone length on the gap length is also obtained. It is shown that the streamer zone length is saturated with the increasing of the gap length. A comparison between the obtained dependences and the experimental data is presented.
Ibuki, Tatsuya; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Fujita, Masayuki
In this paper we investigate visual feedback attitude synchronization in leader-follower type visibility structures on the Special Euclidean group SE(3). We first define visual robotic networks consisting of the dynamics describing rigid body motion, visibility structures among bodies and visual measurements. We then propose a visual feedback attitude synchronization law combining a vision-based observer with the attitude synchronization law presented in our previous works. We then prove that when the leader does not rotate, the visual robotic network with the control law achieves visual feedback attitude synchronization. Moreover, for a rotating leader, we evaluate the tracking performance of the other bodies. In analysis, we employ the notion of input-to-state stability and L2-gain performance regarding the leader’s angular velocity as an external disturbance. Finally, the validity of the proposed control law and the analysis is demonstrated through simulations.
Kilpatrick, Anne Osborne
This paper discusses the nature of humanism in healthcare management and leadership. Humanism in healthcare management should entail serving 1) patients and their families, 2) organizational members, and 3) the community. The article describes how humanism is largely absent from healthcare organizations as a critical and important value. In the twentieth century, a number of models of healthcare leadership were developed that were humanistic in focus. These models primarily stressed the value of attention by leaders on the needs and values of people working in the organization. However, humanistic, healthcare leadership involves not only motivating and empowering employees, but a primary, essential focus is for leaders to create environments that support and uplift patients and their families. Humanistic care in healthcare organizations can be facilitated by leaders establishing positive, supportive, and empowering environments for clinicians and other employees. Secondly, managers can establish programs to develop and train employees to provide humanistic care.
Orlando, Bruno; Giacomelli, Luca; Ricci, Massimiliano; Barone, Antonio; Covani, Ugo
Little is still known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of osteogenesis. In this paper, the leader genes approach, a new bioinformatics method which has already been experimentally validated, is adopted in order to identify the genes involved in human osteogenesis. Interactions among genes are then calculated and genes are ranked according to their relative importance in this process. In total, 167 genes were identified as being involved in osteogenesis. Genes were divided into 4 groups, according to their main function in the osteogenic processes: skeletal development; cell adhesion and proliferation; ossification; and calcium ion binding. Seven genes were consistently identified as leader genes (i.e. the genes with the greatest importance in osteogenesis), while 14 were found to have slightly less importance (class B genes). It was interesting to notice that the larger part of leader and class B genes belonged to the cell adhesion and proliferation or to the ossification sub-groups. This finding suggested that these two particular sub-processes could play a more important role in osteogenesis. Moreover, among the 7 leader genes, it is interesting to notice that RUNX2, BMP2, SPARC, PTH play a direct role in bone formation, while the 3 other leader genes (VEGF, IL6, FGF2) seem to be more connected with an angiogenetic process. Twenty-nine genes have no known interactions (orphan genes). From these results, it may be possible to plan an ad hoc experimentation, for instance by microarray analyses, focused on leader, class B and orphan genes, with the aim to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenesis.
If you want to know why so many organizations sink into chaos, look no further than their leaders' mouths. Over and over, leaders present grand, overarching-yet fuzzy-notions of where they think the company is going. They assume everyone shares their definitions of"vision;" "accountability," and "results". The result is often sloppy behavior and misalignment that can cost a company dearly. Effective communication is a leader's most critical tool for doing the essential job of leadership: inspiring the organization to take responsibility for creating a better future. Five topics wield extraordinary influence within a company: organizational structure and hierarchy, financial results, the leader's sense of his or her job, time management, and corporate culture. Properly defined, disseminated, and controlled, these topics give the leader opportunities for increased accountability and substantially better performance. For example, one CEO always keeps communications about hierarchy admirably brief and to the point. When he realized he needed to realign internal resources, he told the staff: "I'm changing the structure of resources so that we can execute more effectively." After unveiling a new organization chart, he said, "It's 10:45. You have until noon to be annoyed, should that be your reaction. At noon, pizza will be served. At one o'clock, we go to work in our new positions." The most effective leaders ask themselves, "What needs to happen today to get where we want to go? What vague belief or notion can I clarify or debunk?" A CEO who communicates precisely to ten direct reports, each of whom communicates with equal precision to 40 other employees, aligns the organization's commitment and energy with a well-understood vision of the firm's real goals and opportunities.
Preuss, Michael; Switalski, Rachael
Retaining and aiding students on academic probation is a concern for all institutions of higher education. Students placed on academic probation by Rockingham Community College (RCC) have been encouraged to participate in an intervention program since the summer of 2006. When treated as an aggregate, the data regarding the program indicates that…
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Mahy, Heidi A.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Stein, Steven L.; Toomey, Christopher
It is generally accepted that the international security community faces an impending challenge in its changing leadership demographics. The workforce that currently addresses nonproliferation, arms control, and verification is moving toward retirement and there is a perceived need for programs to train a new set of experts for both technical- and policy-related functions to replace the retiring generation. Despite the perceived need, there are also indicators that there are not sufficient jobs for individuals we are currently training. If we had “right-sized” the training programs, there would not be a shortage of jobs. The extent and scope of the human resource crisis is unclear, and information about training programs and how they meet existing needs is minimal. This paper seeks to achieve two objectives: 1) Clarify the major human resource problem and potential consequences; and 2) Propose how to characterize the requirement with sufficient granularity to enable key stakeholders to link programs aimed at developing the next generations of experts with employment needs. In order to accomplish both these goals, this paper recommends establishing a forum comprised of key stakeholders of this issue (including universities, public and private sectors), and conducting a study of the human resources and resource needs of the global security community. If there is indeed a human resource crisis in the global security field, we cannot address the problem if we are uninformed. The solution may lie in training more (or fewer) young professions to work in this community – or it may lie in more effectively using our existing resources and training programs.
Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K
rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7
Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)
A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.
Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi
Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process. PMID:25165505
National and global events are rapidly and irrevocably driving transformation in both academia and health care. One result is an increase in the pace of institutional restructuring, consolidations, and mergers, including the melding of academic medical centers (AMCs; i.e., medical schools and their clinical enterprises) with nonmedical universities. Georgia Regents University (GRU) resulted from one such recent consolidation, and the experience at the institution has highlighted the need to answer the question "What is the value and role of academic medicine and an AMC in the life and transformation of its university?" In attempting to answer this question, the author first contrasts the cultural features of academic medicine and nonmedical faculty and leaders, as observed from the GRU experience, which might be useful for leaders of other institutions of higher education. His analysis suggests that academic medicine is currently significantly insulated from the larger university, and that this segregation or siloing represents a lost opportunity for both the AMC and the university at large. The author's experience suggests that fostering greater synergy between the university and its AMC adds significant value, and that such synergy better ensures the ability of those universities with an AMC to undertake and meet future transformative challenges. Strategies should be proactively developed both to enhance academic medicine leaders' engagement with, exposure to, and education regarding the operations and challenges of higher education and the broader university, and, likewise, to increase nonmedical faculty's understanding of and experience with the value and unique challenges of academic medicine.
Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean
Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings.