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Sample records for academic medical centres

  1. The academic medical centre: an idea whose time has come.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, D G

    1993-05-01

    Interdependence of faculties of medicine or health sciences and teaching hospitals is central to the academic medical centre's three "products": education, research and clinical service. Whether a voluntary association, partnership, joint venture or single entity, the strength of the association of member institutions must lie in mutual dependency. With the potential of reducing costs and increasing effectiveness through administrative efficiency and rationalization, especially of planning and setting priorities, the academic medical centre can outstrip its individual member institutions in contributing to the solution of Canada's present and future challenges in health care. PMID:8477377

  2. Social contract of academic medical centres to the community: Dr Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943), a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Academic medical centres have traditionally been bastions of teaching and research. Outreach to the community at large and involvement in community affairs have sometimes been lacking in the overall mission and activities of academic medical centres. This paper provides an historical perspective first on the numerous achievements of a physician and surgeon and then on the topic of involvement in community affairs by reviewing the many contributions of America's pioneer gynaecological surgeon and one of the four physician founders of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine in 1889 - Dr Howard Atwood Kelly. PMID:24906403

  3. Nurse-physician collaboration in an academic medical centre: The influence of organisational and individual factors.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Darci; McIntosh, Georgia; Hemrajani, Reena; Yen, Miao-Shan; Phillips, Allison; Schwartz, Nathan; Tu, Shin-Ping; Dow, Alan W

    2016-09-01

    Ineffective physician-nurse collaboration has been recognised to adversely impact patient and organisational outcomes, and some studies suggest an underlying factor may be that nurses and physicians have different perceptions of interprofessional collaboration (IPC). The objectives of this study were to evaluate for a difference in the perception of IPC between physicians and nurses and to explore potential contributing factors at the individual and organisational levels to any observed difference. Data including measures of perceptions of IPC were collected from a convenience sample of resident physicians (n = 47), attending physicians (n = 18), and nurses (n = 54) providing care for internal medicine patients in a large tertiary care academic medical centre. Regression analysis revealed significantly lower perceptions of IPC scores for nurses in comparison to the scores of both the resident and attending physician groups (p = .0001 for both). Although demographic and workload factors also differed by profession, only profession and workload remained significant in regression analysis. Given the known relationships between effective physician-nurse collaboration and superior patient and organisational outcomes, better defining the individual and organisational predictors of IPC scores may support development of more effective interventions targeting improvements in IPC. PMID:27388560

  4. STAAR: improving the reliability of care coordination and reducing hospital readmissions in an academic medical centre

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jocelyn Alexandria; Carr, Laura S; Collins, Jacqueline; Doyle Petrongolo, Joanne; Hall, Kathryn; Murray, Jane; Smith, Jessica; Tata, Lee Ann

    2015-01-01

    Setting Massachusetts General Hospital embarked on a 4-year project to reduce readmissions in a high volume general medicine unit (November 2009 to September 2013). Objective To reduce 30-day readmissions to 10% through improved care coordination. Design As a before–after study, a total of 7586 patients admitted to the medicine unit during the intervention period included 2620 inpatients meeting high risk for readmission criteria. Of those, 2620 patients received nursing interventions and 539 patients received pharmacy interventions. Intervention The introduction of a Discharge Nurse (D/C RN) for patient/family coaching and a Transitional Care Pharmacist (TC PharmD) for predischarge medication reconciliation and postdischarge patient phone calls. Other interventions included modifications to multidisciplinary care rounds and electronic medication reconciliation. Main outcome measure All-cause 30-day readmission rates. Results Readmission rates decreased by 30% (21% preintervention to 14.5% postintervention) (p<0.05). From July 2010 to December 2011, rates of readmission among high-risk patients who received the D/C RN intervention with or without the TC PharmD medication reconciliation/education intervention decreased to 15.9% (p=0.59). From January to June 2010, rates of readmission among high-risk patients who received the TC PharmD postdischarge calls decreased to 12.9% (p=0.55). From June 2010 to December 2011, readmission rates for patients on the medical unit that did not receive the designated D/C RN or TC PharmD interventions decreased to 15.8% (p=0.61) and 16.2% (0.31), respectively. Conclusions A multidisciplinary approach to improving care coordination reduced avoidable readmissions both among those who received interventions and those who did not. This further demonstrated the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:26246901

  5. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems. PMID:26642175

  6. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  7. Establishment of a Medical Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…

  8. Identifying challenges for academic leadership in medical universities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Masiello, Italo

    2010-05-01

    CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance. PMID:20518985

  9. Standards for the academic veterinary medical library

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sarah Anne; Bedard, Martha A.; Crawley-Low, Jill; Fagen, Diane; Jette, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Standards Committee of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section was appointed in May 2000 and charged to create standards for the ideal academic veterinary medical library, written from the perspective of veterinary medical librarians. The resulting Standards for the Academic Veterinary Medical Library were approved by members of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section during MLA '03 in San Diego, California. The standards were approved by Section Council in April 2005 and received final approval from the Board of Directors of the Medical Library Association during MLA '04 in Washington, DC. PMID:15685288

  10. Improving accountability through alignment: the role of academic health science centres and networks in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As in many countries around the world, there are high expectations on academic health science centres and networks in England to provide high-quality care, innovative research, and world-class education, while also supporting wealth creation and economic growth. Meeting these expectations increasingly depends on partnership working between university medical schools and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers. However, academic-clinical relationships in England are still characterised by the “unlinked partners” model, whereby universities and their partner teaching hospitals are neither fiscally nor structurally linked, creating bifurcating accountabilities to various government and public agencies. Discussion This article focuses on accountability relationships in universities and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of academic health science centres and networks. The authors analyse accountability for the tripartite mission of patient care, research, and education, using a four-fold typology of accountability relationships, which distinguishes between hierarchical (bureaucratic) accountability, legal accountability, professional accountability, and political accountability. Examples from North West London suggest that a number of mechanisms can be used to improve accountability for the tripartite mission through alignment, but that the simple creation of academic health science centres and networks is probably not sufficient. Summary At the heart of the challenge for academic health science centres and networks is the separation of accountabilities for patient care, research, and education in different government departments. Given that a fundamental top-down system redesign is now extremely unlikely, local academic and clinical leaders face the challenge of aligning their institutions as a matter of priority in order to improve accountability for the tripartite mission from

  11. Burnout among faculty physicians in an academic health science centre

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James Gardner; Khetani, Nicole; Stephens, Derek

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout experienced by physicians is concerning because it may affect quality of care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of burnout among physicians at an academic health science centre and to test the hypothesis that work hours are related to burnout. METHODS: All 300 staff physicians, contacted through their personal e-mail, were provided an encrypted link to an anonymous questionnaire. The primary outcome measure, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, has three subscales: personal, work related and patient related. RESULTS: The response rate for the questionnaire was 70%. Quantitative demands, insecurity at work and job satisfaction affected all three components of burnout. Of 210 staff physicians, 22% (n=46) had scores indicating personal burnout, 14% (n=30) had scores indicating work-related burnout and 8% (n=16) had scores indicating patient-related burnout. The correlation between total hours worked and total burnout was only 0.10 (P=0.14) DISCUSSION: Up to 22% of academic paediatric physicians had scores consistent with mild to severe burnout. A simple reduction in work hours is unlikely to be successful in reducing burnout and, therefore, quantitative demands, job satisfaction and work insecurity may require attention to address burnout among academic physicians. PMID:22851895

  12. Home as a hybrid centre of medication practice.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin; Chamberlain, Kerry; Hodgetts, Darrin; Norris, Pauline; Radley, Alan; Gabe, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research that explores how medications are understood and used by people in everyday life. An intensive process of data collection from 55 households was used in this research, which included photo-elicitation and diary-elicitation interviews. It is argued that households are at the very centre of complex networks of therapeutic advice and practice and can usefully be seen as hybrid centres of medication practice, where a plethora of available medications is assimilated and different forms of knowledge and expertise are made sense of. Dominant therapeutic frameworks are tactically manipulated in households in order for medication practices to align with the understandings, resources and practicalities of households. Understanding the home as a centre of medication practice decentralises the role of health advisors (whether mainstream or alternative) in wellness practices. PMID:23909467

  13. Developing physician leaders in academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, D J

    1997-01-01

    While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management; intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development, management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. While part one of this series, which appeared in Volume 43, No. 6 of Medical Group Management Journal addressed, "The changing role of physician leaders at academic medical centers," part 2 will examine as a case study the faculty leadership development program at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. These two articles were prepared by the author from his research into, and the presentation of a thesis entitled. "The importance of leadership training and development for physicians in academic medical centers in an increasingly complex health care environment," prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in this College.* PMID:10164266

  14. Academic Medical Faculty and Their Complex Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Malcolm G.

    2010-01-01

    Academic medical centers serve an integral function in society in the training of physicians as well as the safety net provider for numerous patients that otherwise might not have access to healthcare. As resources continue to tighten and funding continues to be scarce, faculty accountability is under increased scrutiny. More specifically academic…

  15. Better governance in academic health sciences centres: moving beyond the Olivieri/Apotex Affair in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Ferris, L E; Singer, P A; Naylor, C D

    2004-02-01

    The Toronto experience suggests that there may be several general lessons for academic health sciences complexes to learn from the Olivieri/Apotex affair (OAA) regarding the ethics, independence, and integrity of clinical research sponsored by for profit enterprises. From a local perspective, the OAA occurred when there already was a focus on the complex and changing relationships among the University of Toronto, its medical school, the fully affiliated teaching hospitals, and off campus faculty because of intertwined interests and responsibilities. The OAA became a catalyst that accelerated various systemic reforms, particularly concerning academic/industry relations. In this article, the evolving governance framework for the Toronto academic health sciences complex is reviewed and these policy and process reforms discussed. These reforms have created collaborative activity among research ethics boards and contract research offices of the partner institutions, and allowed the joint university/hospital ethics centre to play a role in governance and policy, while respecting the missions and mandates of the involved institutions. Although few of the policies are dramatically innovative, what is arguably novel is the elaboration of an overarching governance framework that aims to move ethics to a central focus in the academic complex. Time alone will tell how sustainable and effective these changes are. PMID:14872067

  16. Academic dishonesty in Indian medical colleges.

    PubMed

    Gitanjali, B

    2004-01-01

    Integrity is a necessary attribute expected in practitioners of medicine. Unfortunately there is evidence on hand that academic dishonesty is widely prevalent in many Indian medical colleges and that a proportion of students seem to think that there is nothing wrong in participating in such acts. This practice needs to be discouraged as those indulging in unethical acts during student days are likely to indulge in similar practices while dealing with their patients. It is, therefore, necessary that teachers in medical colleges show 'zero tolerance' to such acts. There is a need for faculty and administrators to be above board in their actions and be role models for ethical behaviour. Hence, acts of academic misconduct committed by faculty and administrators should also be dealt with quickly, fairly and firmly. A milieu of transparency, fairness and student awareness will go a long way in minimizing this pervasive malady. PMID:15623972

  17. Medical apps: public and academic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krieger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Medical apps have featured in popular websites and mainstream news media in recent months. However, there has been almost no mention of these tools in journals focusing on relevant ethical or social issues, including conflict of interest, the role of politics in science, and technological oversight. This essay examines the role that these philosophical issues might play in answering both public and academic questions about these pieces of emergent technology. PMID:23974506

  18. General practice observed. A do-it-yourself medical centre.

    PubMed Central

    Ganner, A N; Lockie, A C

    1979-01-01

    A group practice commissioned a local building company to build their own medical centre comprising 370 m2 (4000 ft2) of building with an adequate car park at a total cost of 60 000 pounds with design to completion in nine months. A bank loan for 10 years was assigned to the partnership and each partner made his own arrangements for repayment. The updated cost for June 1979 is 80 000-85 000 pounds. Building a centre in this way is professionally and financially rewarding. Images FIG 2 PMID:519410

  19. Career progression of academic medical library directors.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, A P; Pisciotta, R A

    1989-04-01

    While females are still underrepresented as directors overall, the results of our survey indicate that in the past ten years female library directors have been hired in numbers nearly matching their overall percentage of the medical library profession. When the personal characteristics of medical library directors are compared by gender, male directors are more likely to be married, have children, and be somewhat younger upon attaining their first directorship. When the professional characteristics are compared, the only notable difference is that a greater portion of males hold a second master's degree. Despite the changing numbers of female library directors in the past ten years, these differences all held constant before and after 1977. Only the number of internal successions to directorship changed over time. The succession patterns of medical library directors now match more closely those of other academic library directors. PMID:2720221

  20. Medical data transmission system for remote healthcare centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, E. A.; Cagnolo, F. J.; Olmos, C. E.; Centeno, C. A.; Riva, G. G.; Zerbini, C. A.

    2007-11-01

    The main motivation of this project is to improve the healthcare centres equipment and human resources efficiency, enabling those centres for transmission of parameters of medical interest. This system facilitates remote consultation, in particular between specialists and remote healthcare centres. Likewise it contributes to the qualification of professionals. The electrocardiographic (ECG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals are acquired, processed and then sent, fulfilling the effective norms, for application in the hospital network of Córdoba Province, which has nodes interconnected by phone line. As innovative aspects we emphasized the low cost of development and maintenance, great versatility and handling simplicity with a modular design for interconnection with diverse data transmission media (Wi-Fi, GPRS, etc.). Successfully experiences were obtained during the acquisition of the signals and transmissions on wired LAN networks. As improvements, we can mention: energy consumption optimization and mobile communication systems usage, in order to offer more autonomy.

  1. Replacing the academic medical center's teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Reves, J G; Smith, Stuart; Greenberg, Ray; Johnson, Donald

    2005-11-01

    Addressing the need for updated teaching hospital facilities is one of the most significant issues that an academic medical center faces. The authors describe the process they underwent in deciding to build a new facility at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Initial issues included whether or not the teaching hospital would continue to play a role in clinical education and whether to replace or renovate the existing facility. Once the decision to build was reached, MUSC had to choose between an on-campus or distant site for the new hospital and determine what the function of the old hospital would be. The authors examine these questions and discuss the factors involved in different stages of decision making, in order to provide the academic medicine community guidance in negotiating similar situations. Open communication within MUSC and with the greater community was a key component of the success of the enterprise to date. The authors argue that decisions concerning site, size, and focus of the hospital must be made by developing university-wide and community consensus among many different constituencies. The most important elements in the success at MUSC were having unified leadership, incorporating constituent input, engaging an external consultant, remaining unfazed by unanticipated challenges, and adhering to a realistic, aggressive timetable. The authors share their strategies for identifying and successfully managing these complex and potentially divisive aspects of building a new teaching hospital. PMID:16249296

  2. Academic and Family Conditions Associated with Intrinsic Academic Motivation in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…

  3. Medical nanotechnology in the UK: a perspective from the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Horton, Michael A; Khan, Abid

    2006-03-01

    Nanotechnology research is booming worldwide, and the general belief is that medical and biological applications will form the greatest sector of expansion over the next decade, driven by an attempt to bring radical solutions to areas of unmet medical need. What is true in the United States is also being fulfilled in Europe. This, though, is generally at a significantly lower investment level, even if for "large" capital infrastructure and interdisciplinary centers. Against this, the United Kingdom and its European partners are following the maxim "small is beautiful" and are attempting to identify and develop academic research and commercial businesses in areas that traditional nanotechnology developments involving engineering or physics find challenging. Thus in London-University College London (UCL) in a major joint project with Imperial College and linked to other UK and European centers of excellence-we are building upon our internationally competitive medical research (the two universities together form one of the largest centers of biomedical research outside the United States) to focus on and develop medical nanotechnology as a major sector of our research activity. A novel approach to commercialization has been the establishment with government and private equity funds of a "BioNanotechnology Centre" that will act as a portal for UK industry to access specialist skills to solve issues relating to developing nanotechnology-based medical applications, for example, for environmental screening, diagnostics, and therapy. This article reviews our academic and business strategy with examples from our current biomedical research portfolio. PMID:17292115

  4. Seroprevalence of acute dengue in a Malaysian tertiary medical centre

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chuan Hun; Rashid, Zetti Zainol; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Khang, NanFeng; Low, Wan Ngor; Hussin, Nurabrar; Marzuki, Melissa Iqlima; Jaafar, Alyaa Nadhira; Roslan, Nurul Ain’ Nabilla; Chandrasekaran, Terukumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of acute dengue in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre and its correlation with selected haematological and biochemical parameters. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2015. A patient was serologically diagnosed with acute dengue if the dengue virus IgG, IgM or NS-1 antigen was reactive. Results: Out of 1,774 patients suspected to have acute dengue, 1,153 were serologically diagnosed with the infection, resulting in a seroprevalence of 64.9%. Dengue-positive patients had a lower mean platelet count (89 × 109/L) compared to the dengue-negative patients (171 × 109/L) (p<0.0001). The mean total white cell count was also lower in the dengue-positive cases (4.7 × 109/L vs. 7.2 × 109/L; p<0.0001). The mean haematocrit was higher in patients with acute dengue (42.5% vs. 40.0%; p<0.0001). Likewise, the serum alanine transaminase level was also higher in patients with acute dengue (108 U/L vs. 54 U/L; p<0.0001). Conclusions: Dengue is very prevalent in UKM Medical Centre as most patients suspected to have acute dengue had serological evidence of the infection. The platelet count was the single most likely parameter to be abnormal (i.e. low) in patients with acute dengue. PMID:27182269

  5. Assessing the Academic Medical Center as a Supportive Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Sam C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic medical centers are well-known for their emphasis on teaching, research and public service; however, like most large, bureaucratic organizations, they oftentimes suffer from an inability to learn as an organization. The role of the research administrator in the academic medical center has grown over time as the profession itself has…

  6. The Prediction of Academic and Clinical Performance in Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Harrison G.; Hall, Wallace B.

    1975-01-01

    A study of medical student performance showed the clinical performance factor more or less unpredictable from aptitude and premedical academic achievement indices while the academic performance factor was forecast with acceptable accuracy by equations based on the Medical College Admissions Test and premedical grade point average. (JT)

  7. Cognitive training in academically deficient ADDH boys receiving stimulant medication.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, H; Ganeles, D; Reiter, G; Blum, C; Foley, C; Klein, R G

    1988-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 16-week intensive cognitive training program in stimulant-treated, academically deficient ADDH boys. Cognitive training focused exclusively on academic skills and tasks, and included attack strategy training as well as self-monitoring and self-reinforcement of problem-solving behaviors and response accuracy. Control groups included remedial tutoring plus medication, and medication alone. Despite the scope of the program, the results provided no support for the notion that academically based cognitive training ameliorates the performance and achievement of academically deficient ADDH youngsters. Further, this intervention did not enhance self-esteem or attributional perceptions of academic functioning. There was poor agreement between teacher ratings of academic competence and test score changes. The lack of concordance between measures, and the scarcity of academically deficient ADDH children are discussed. PMID:3221031

  8. The Space Between: Pedagogic Collaboration between a Writing Centre and an Academic Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckay, Tracey Morton; Simpson, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    The expectations placed on students with respect to appropriate academic writing may hinder successful participation in Higher Education. Full participation is further complicated by the fact that each discipline within the University constitutes its own community of practice, with its own set of literacy practices. While Writing Centres aim to…

  9. Improving medical SHO weekend handover at a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Olivia; Fisher, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The GMC states that, 'You must be satisfied that, when you are off duty, suitable arrangements have been made for your patients' medical care…including effective hand-over procedures' [1]. The medical weekend handover system at this tertiary referral centre involved multiple pieces of paper with no clear list of tasks, and no way to identify critically unwell patients. Patients could be missed from the ward round or could be difficult to identify under pressure. The authors felt this process could pose a threat to patient safety so decided to improve it. A questionnaire was distributed to all 11 medical SHOs with 100% response rate. Results showed that 72% thought the process was unstructured, 81% did not think the process was always safe, and 100% thought it could be improved. After discussions with senior medical management and with the approval of the trust audit committee, a new weekend handover proforma was designed, taking into consideration the results and comments from the questionnaire. The new proforma is accessible through a shared drive, which can be accessed by all medical SHOs in the hospital. Each team is able to copy their patients onto the combined ward-based list. There are columns for specific weekend jobs and registrar/SHO reviews. Any potentially unwell patients are highlighted in bold and discussed with the on-call SHO on Friday. All medical SHOs were given a post-implementation questionnaire after the new handover process had been in place for two months. Results of this showed that 100% of SHOs felt an improvement had been made, with 100% stating that the new system was more structured (64% always, 36% most of the time). The SHO's perception of patient safety increased from 81% generally unsafe, to 100% generally safe. The new handover has been well received and supported by the current SHO cohort. Improvements in the structure of handover have been made with perceived improvements in patient safety. Due to the success of the system, the

  10. Lessons learned: mobile device encryption in the academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Kusche, Kristopher P

    2009-01-01

    The academic medical center is faced with the unique challenge of meeting the multi-faceted needs of both a modern healthcare organization and an academic institution, The need for security to protect patient information must be balanced by the academic freedoms expected in the college setting. The Albany Medical Center, consisting of the Albany Medical College and the Albany Medical Center Hospital, was challenged with implementing a solution that would preserve the availability, integrity and confidentiality of business, patient and research data stored on mobile devices. To solve this problem, Albany Medical Center implemented a mobile encryption suite across the enterprise. Such an implementation comes with complexities, from performance across multiple generations of computers and operating systems, to diversity of application use mode and end user adoption, all of which requires thoughtful policy and standards creation, understanding of regulations, and a willingness and ability to work through such diverse needs. PMID:19382736

  11. Learning in Academia Is More than Academic Learning: Action Research in Academic Practice for and with Medical Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevitt, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Academic learning traditionally involves research, and the production of journal papers, books, etc. "Learning in academia" refers to academics becoming more skilful in what they do. It is what legal or medical clinicians would refer to as continuing professional education (or development) (CPE/D) which, by analogy, invokes the notion of CPE in…

  12. Academic Deans' Views on Curriculum Content in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, David R.; Bellack, Janis P.; Musham, Catherine; O'Neil, Edward H.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of academic deans (n=100) in universities associated with medical and osteopathy schools found that administrators' attitudes about curriculum content are being influenced by changes in health care delivery and an increasingly generalist orientation. There appears to be support for medical school curricula fostering a broader, more…

  13. Satisfaction from Academic Activities among Medical Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data about the levels of satisfaction among medical students in regards to their academic activities in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fill the gap in the existing knowledge. A cross sectional study was carried out at the International medical school, the Management and Science University of Malaysia,…

  14. The new reality: academic medical centers partner with the community.

    PubMed

    Scott, K

    1996-11-01

    As academic medical centers face a price-sensitive market dominated by managed care, their survival, says Association of American Medical Colleges' Robert Dickler, will depend on the combination of strategies they use in response. HSL looks at three centers' solution--building alliances to secure patient bases, focusing on expanding primary care capabilities, and downsizing and reorganizing for greater cost savings. PMID:10162189

  15. Research support in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Fern M

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the Prior Health Sciences Library (Prior Library) at The Ohio State University (OSU) explored the possibility of providing specialized support to biomedical, nursing, and allied health researchers by adding a research librarian position. The decision came about after the Medical Library Association (MLA) investigated how libraries could provide enhanced support to medical researchers. This article describes how the research librarian position was developed and how it continues to evolve. PMID:20391163

  16. Student Experience and Academic Success: Comparing a Student-Centred and a Lecture-Based Course Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severiens, Sabine; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that, under certain conditions, student-centred and small-scale course programmes result in more academic success. The present study investigates these conditions in further detail. It is examined whether, in comparison to a course programme that is relatively more lecture-based, a student-centred course programme promotes…

  17. Feasibility of physician peer assessment in an academic health sciences centre.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Sharon; Vozzolo, Ben; Daneman, Denis; Macgregor, Daune

    2011-01-01

    Peer assessment has become an important component of physician evaluation. In an academic health sciences centre, in addition to clinical care there is a significant focus on education, training and research. The literature suggests that the use of a 360-degree evaluation can provide physicians with valuable information on many aspects of their practice and can inform both professional and personal development. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of using peer assessment as part of the evaluation of our academic physicians. To maintain anonymity, an outside company was engaged to conduct the study. Participants completed a self-assessment and provided the names of eight physician peers and eight non-physician peers who were then requested to complete an evaluation. In addition, 25 patients were asked to provide their feedback. All questionnaires were forwarded directly to the outside company, which then compiled the data and provided each participant with a final report. Results indicate that it is feasible to carry out peer assessment within an academic health sciences centre. Participants noted the value of the process for career development and quality improvement. PMID:21301240

  18. Medical Informatics in Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisse, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…

  19. A Graduate Academic Program in Medical Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, Marsden S., Jr.; Wasserman, Anthony I.

    A graduate academic program in medical information science has been established at the University of California, San Francisco, for the education of scientists capable of performing research and development in information technology in the health care setting. This interdisciplinary program, leading to a Doctor of Philosophy degree, consists of an…

  20. Academic Analytics in a Medical Curriculum: Enabling Educational Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Martin; Corrin, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The developing field of academic analytics seeks to turn data from educational systems into actionable intelligence for the improvement of teaching and learning. This paper reports on the implementation of analytics in a new medical school with an integrated curriculum and clinical focus. Analytics addressed two challenges in the curriculum:…

  1. Publications in academic medical centers: technology-facilitated culture clash.

    PubMed

    Berner, Eta S

    2014-05-01

    Academic culture has a set of norms, expectations, and values that are sometimes tacit and sometimes very explicit. In medical school and other health professions educational settings, probably the most common norm includes placing a high value on peer-reviewed research publications, which are seen as the major evidence of scholarly productivity. Other features of academic culture include encouraging junior faculty and graduate students to share their research results at professional conferences and lecturing with slides as a major way to convey information. Major values that faculty share with journal editors include responsible conduct of research and proper attribution of others' words and ideas. Medical school faculty also value technology and are often quick to embrace technological advances that can assist them in their teaching and research. This article addresses the effects of technology on three aspects of academic culture: education, presentations at professional meetings, and research publications.The technologies discussed include online instruction, dissemination of conference proceedings on the Internet, plagiarism-detection software, and new technologies deployed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the home of PubMed. The author describes how the ease of deploying new technologies without faculty changing their norms and behavior in the areas of teaching and research can lead to conflicts of values among key stakeholders in the academic medical community, including faculty, journal editors, and professional associations. The implications of these conflicts and strategies for managing them are discussed. PMID:24667517

  2. Development of a medical academic degree system in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijuan; Wang, Youxin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Song, Manshu; Guo, Xiuhua; Nelson, Hugh; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Context The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. Purpose We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Content Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP). The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. Conclusion The future education reforms might include: 1) a domestic system of ‘credits’ that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2) International – a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to the Bologna Accord

  3. Predicting academic outcomes in an Australian graduate entry medical programme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive validity studies for selection criteria into graduate entry courses in Australia have been inconsistent in their outcomes. One of the reasons for this inconsistency may have been failure to have adequately considered background disciplines of the graduates as well as other potential confounding socio-demographic variables that may influence academic performance. Methods Graduate entrants into the MBBS at The University of Western Australia between 2005 and 2012 were studied (N = 421). They undertook a 6-month bridging course, before joining the undergraduate-entry students for Years 3 through 6 of the medical course. Students were selected using their undergraduate Grade Point Average (GPA), Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test scores (GAMSAT) and a score from a standardised interview. Students could apply from any background discipline and could also be selected through an alternative rural entry pathway again utilising these 3 entry scores. Entry scores, together with age, gender, discipline background, rural entry status and a socioeconomic indicator were entered into linear regression models to determine the relative influence of each predictor on subsequent academic performance in the course. Results Background discipline, age, gender and selection through the rural pathway were variously related to each of the 3 entry criteria. Their subsequent inclusion in linear regression models identified GPA at entry, being from a health/allied health background and total GAMSAT score as consistent independent predictors of stronger academic performance as measured by the weighted average mark for the core units completed throughout the course. The Interview score only weakly predicted performance later in the course and mainly in clinically-based units. The association of total GAMSAT score with academic performance was predominantly dictated by the score in GAMSAT Section 3 (Reasoning in the biological and physical sciences) with

  4. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education

    PubMed Central

    Komenda, Martin; Víta, Martin; Vaitsis, Christos; Schwarz, Daniel; Pokorná, Andrea; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution’s curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. Objective We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations. Methods We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom’s taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets. Results We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent

  5. Academic medicine amenities unit: developing a model to integrate academic medical care with luxury hotel services.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David W; Kagan, Sarah H; Abramson, Kelly Brennen; Boberick, Cheryl; Kaiser, Larry R

    2009-02-01

    The interface between established values of academic medicine and the trend toward inpatient amenities units requires close examination. Opinions of such units can be polarized, reflecting traditional reservations about the ethical dilemma of offering exclusive services only to an elite patient group. An amenities unit was developed at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in 2007, using an approach that integrated academic medicine values with the benefits of philanthropy and service excellence to make amenities unit services available to all patients. Given inherent internal political concerns, a broadly based steering committee of academic and hospital leadership was developed. An academically appropriate model was conceived, anchored by four principles: (1) integration of academic values, (2) interdisciplinary senior leadership, (3) service excellence, and (4) recalibrated occupancy expectations based on multiple revenue streams. Foremost is ensuring the same health care is afforded all patients throughout the hospital, thereby overcoming ethical challenges and optimizing teaching experiences. Service excellence frames the service ethic for all staff, and this, in addition to luxury hotel-style amenities, differentiates the style and feel of the unit from others in the hospital. Recalibrated occupancy creates program viability given revenue streams redefined to encompass gifts and patient revenue, including both reimbursement and self-pay. The medical-surgical amenities patient-care unit has enjoyed a successful first year and a growing stream of returning patients and admitting physicians. Implications for other academic medical centers include opportunities to extrapolate service excellence throughout the hospital and to cultivate philanthropy to benefit services throughout the medical center. PMID:19174661

  6. Disruptive innovation in academic medical centers: balancing accountable and academic care.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Chen, Christopher; Ackerly, D Clay

    2015-05-01

    Numerous academic medicine leaders have argued that academic referral centers must prepare for the growing importance of accountability-driven payment models by adopting population health initiatives. Although this shift has merit, execution of this strategy will prove significantly more problematic than most observers have appreciated. The authors describe how successful implementation of an accountable care health strategy within a referral academic medical center (AMC) requires navigating a critical tension: The academic referral business model, driven by tertiary-level care, is fundamentally in conflict with population health. Referral AMCs that create successful value-driven population health systems within their organizations will in effect disrupt their own existing tertiary care businesses. The theory of disruptive innovation suggests that balancing the push and pull of academic and accountable care within a single organization is achievable. However, it will require significant shifts in resource allocation and changes in management structure to enable AMCs to make the inherent difficult choices and trade-offs that will ensue. On the basis of the theories of disruptive innovation, the authors present recommendations for how academic health systems can successfully navigate these issues as they transition toward accountability-driven care. PMID:25517702

  7. Academic collaborative centres for health promotion in the Netherlands: building bridges between research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Gerard; Fransen, Gerdine

    2012-04-01

    A logical and promising next step for the development of an effective infrastructure for health promotion in the Netherlands are Academic Collaborative Centres (ACCs). Their aims are to bridge the gap between research, policy and practice; make better use of available knowledge and strengthen the evidence base for health promotion practice. To understand their position, they must be seen in light of the strong growth in health promotion in the Netherlands. Since the 1970s, the emphasis in health promotion has shifted from simple unidimensional interventions to much more comprehensive and integrated programmes. Comprehensive research programmes, which explicitly involve actual practice and policy, are also thus called for. These developments are described in this article. There is considerable and widespread enthusiasm about the establishment of ACCs in the Netherlands. Experiences from the first 5 years of collaboration between research, policy and practice within the ACCs, however, shows research to still have the dominant position. The different groups of stakeholders in the public health infrastructure are also shown to perceive and appreciate the current infrastructure rather differently. These findings are similar to results found in the USA. The predominance of research has recently led the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) to impose stricter criteria and guidelines for the funding of such centres. These measures are aimed at eliciting a shift of power from science to practice. They seem to be a promising contribution to bridging the gap between research, policy and practice. PMID:22399547

  8. Understanding and improving inpatient mortality in academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Behal, Raj; Finn, Jeannine

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe factors contributing to potentially preventable mortality in academic medical centers and the organizational characteristics associated with success in reducing mortality. Sixteen U.S. academic medical centers that wished to improve risk-adjusted inpatient mortality rates requested a consultation that included interviews with physicians, nurses, and hospital leaders; review of medical records; and evaluation of systems and processes of care. The assessments took place on-site; they identified key factors contributing to preventable mortality, and each hospital received specific recommendations. Changes in observed mortality and in the ratio of observed to expected mortality were measured from 2002 to final follow-up in 2007. Evaluations determined each hospital's success factors and key barriers to improvement. The key factors contributing to preventable mortality were delays in responding to deteriorating patients, suboptimal critical care, hospital-acquired infections, postoperative complications, medical errors, and community issues such as the availability of hospice care. Of the 16 hospitals, 12 were able to reduce their mortality index. The five hospitals that had the greatest improvement in mortality were the only hospitals with a broad level of engagement among hospital and physician leaders, including the department chairs. In the hospitals whose performance did not improve, the department chairs were not engaged in the process. The academic medical centers that focused on mortality reduction and had engagement of physicians, especially department chairs, were able to achieve meaningful reductions in hospital mortality. The necessary ingredients for achieving meaningful improvement in clinical outcomes included good data, a sound method for change, and physician leadership. PMID:19940569

  9. Academic, social and cultural factors influencing medical school grade performance.

    PubMed

    Alfayez, S F; Strand, D A; Carline, J D

    1990-05-01

    Studies of medical student performance have focused on various factors, including premedical academics, maturity, familial background and support, and personal experiences with illness. Most studies have been conducted in countries with highly developed educational systems and similar cultural and social systems. It is not clear that these findings can be applied to developing countries, where the educational and cultural experiences may be very different, and where medical instruction is carried out in a non-native language. Information was obtained from a survey of 153 fifth- and sixth-year medical students at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. The survey measured premedical educational, social and cultural experiences that might affect medical school performance. Men performed as well as women in the medical school despite heavy familial and social commitments. Women's performance seems to be more influenced by changes in living environment. Achievement in premedical years was correlated positively with grade performance in medical school. Competence in the high-school English courses was related to medical school performance. Interest in the study of medicine prior to medical school was not related to performance. Other motivations, such as social gains, financial benefits or family wish, were related to lower performance. Current interest in clinical medicine correlated negatively with performance. Students motivated by the presence of chronic ill health in their families performed significantly lower. Factors influencing medical school performance in developed countries had similar impact on medical students in a developing country. Social factors, unique to the country, also play a role in medical student performance. PMID:2355866

  10. Is Student-Centred Learning a Western Concept? Lessons from an Academic Development Programme to Support Student-Centred Learning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, L.; Bovill, C.; Othman, S. M.; Saleh, A. M.; Shabila, N. P.; Watters, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that student-centred learning (SCL) is a concept and an approach that is internationally useful and transferable to a range of higher education settings. We present details of a British Council funded collaborative project between Hawler Medical University (HMU), in Erbil in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq and…

  11. Medical Students and Patient-Centred Clinical Practice: The Case for More Critical Work in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donetto, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, undergraduate medical education in the United Kingdom has undergone several important changes. Many of these have revolved around a paradigmatic shift from "paternalistic" to "patient-centred" approaches to healthcare. Adopting a Foucauldian understanding of power and borrowing from Freire's critical pedagogy, in this…

  12. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students. PMID:26838568

  13. Educating for the Internet in an Academic Library: The Scholars' Centre at the University of Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Toby

    1995-01-01

    Describes services offered by the University of Western Australia's Scholars' Centre to academic staff and postgraduate students in the arts and social sciences. Highlights include study facilities; collection development; interlibrary loan and document delivery services; access to electronic resources, including CD-ROMs and the Internet; Internet…

  14. Not a Humbug: the evolution of patient-centred medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Trump, Benjamin D; Linkov, Faina; Edwards, Robert P; Linkov, Igor

    2015-12-01

    This 'Christmas Issue'-type paper uses the framework of 'A Christmas Carol' to tell about the evolution of decision-making in evidence-based medicine (EBM). The Ghost of the Past represents paternalistic medicine, the Ghost of the Present symbolises EBM, while the Ghost of the Future serves as a patient-centred system where research data and tools of decision science are jointly used to make optimal medical decisions for individual patients. We argue that this shift towards a patient-centred approach to EBM and medical care is the next step in the evolution of medical decision-making, which would help to empower patients with the capability to make educated decisions throughout the course of their medical treatment. PMID:26475717

  15. Two Reports of the AAMC Committee on AIDS and the Academic Medical Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Association of American Medical Colleges' reports concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome include "Policy Guidelines for Addressing HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] Infection in the Academic Medical Community" and "The HIV Epidemic and Medical Education." (MSE)

  16. Description of medication errors detected at a drug information centre in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Luciana; Winkler, Natália; Dos Santos, Marlise A.; Martinbiancho, Jacqueline K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe actual or potential medication errors related to drug information inquiries made by staff members of a teaching hospital to a Drug Information Centre from January 2012 to December 2013. Methods: Data were collected from the records of inquiries made by health care professionals to the Drug Information Centre throughout this period. Results: During the study period, the Drug Information Centre received 3,500 inquiries. Of these, 114 inquiries had medication errors. Most errors were related to prescribing, preparation, and administration and were classified according to severity as category B (57%) (potential errors) and categories C (26.3%) and D (15.8%) (actual errors that did not result in harm to the patient). Error causes included overdose (13.2%), wrong route of administration (11.4%), inadequate drug storage (11.4%), and wrong dosage form (8.8%). The drugs most frequently involved in errors were vitamin K (4.4%), vancomycin (3.5%), and meropenem (3.5%). Conclusion: In this study, it was not possible to measure the reduction in error rate involving medication use because of the lack of previous data on this process in the institution. However, our findings indicate that the Drug Information Centre may be used as a strategy to seek improvements in processes involving medication use. PMID:25883691

  17. Case study: a data warehouse for an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Einbinder, J S; Scully, K W; Pates, R D; Schubart, J R; Reynolds, R E

    2001-01-01

    The clinical data repository (CDR) is a frequently updated relational data warehouse that provides users with direct access to detailed, flexible, and rapid retrospective views of clinical, administrative, and financial patient data for the University of Virginia Health System. This article presents a case study of the CDR, detailing its five-year history and focusing on the unique role of data warehousing in an academic medical center. Specifically, the CDR must support multiple missions, including research and education, in addition to administration and management. Users include not only analysts and administrators but clinicians, researchers, and students. PMID:11452578

  18. Forensic neuropsychological evaluations in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lauren; Schrift, Michael; Pliskin, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Within the expanding field of clinical neuropsychology, the subspecialty of forensic neuropsychology has developed. Currently, there is considerable diversity within the discipline as to how practitioners approach test selection, reports, and number of hours billed. How individuals handle these issues is subject to debate, but what is clear is that there are no specific guidelines as to how to conduct these evaluations. The current study provides an introduction to the issues faced by clinical neuropsychologists completing forensic evaluations. In addition, the authors present how the relevant issues are addressed in one neuropsychology service housed within a university-affiliated academic medical center. PMID:19333065

  19. Causes of academic failure of medical and medical sciences students in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Sheida; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Fata, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Academic failure of medical and medical sciences students is one of the major problems of higher education centers in many countries. This study aims to collect and compare relevant researches in this field in Iran. Methods: The appropriate keywords were searched in the national and international databases, and the findings were categorized into related and non-related articles accordingly. Results: Only 22 articles were included in this systematic review. In terms of content analysis, gender, living in a dorm, employment, marital status, age, special rights in the entrance exams, the time lag between diploma and university, diploma average, learning style, being nonnative students, being a transferred student, psychological problems, occupation of the mother, salary level, diploma type, field of study, self-esteem, exam anxiety and interest on the field of study were considered as the influential factors for academic failure of the students. Conclusion: This systematic review shows that there is no definite academic failure criterion. It is also suggested Iranian researchers should pay more attention on the documentation of the higher educational strategies that have been implemented to prevent avoidable academic failure and contain physiological academic failure. PMID:26913265

  20. Pharmaceutical speakers' bureaus, academic freedom, and the management of promotional speaking at academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Boumil, Marcia M; Cutrell, Emily S; Lowney, Kathleen E; Berman, Harris A

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies routinely engage physicians, particularly those with prestigious academic credentials, to deliver "educational" talks to groups of physicians in the community to help market the company's brand-name drugs. Although presented as educational, and even though they provide educational content, these events are intended to influence decisions about drug selection in ways that are not based on the suitability and effectiveness of the product, but on the prestige and persuasiveness of the speaker. A number of state legislatures and most academic medical centers have attempted to restrict physician participation in pharmaceutical marketing activities, though most restrictions are not absolute and have proven difficult to enforce. This article reviews the literature on why Speakers' Bureaus have become a lightning rod for academic/industry conflicts of interest and examines the arguments of those who defend physician participation. It considers whether the restrictions on Speakers' Bureaus are consistent with principles of academic freedom and concludes with the legal and institutional efforts to manage industry speaking. PMID:22789048

  1. Surgical management of stage T1 renal tumours at Canadian academic centres

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Luke T.; Tanguay, Simon; Jewett, Michael A.; Wood, Lori; Kapoor, Anil; Rendon, Ricardo A.; Moore, Ronald B.; Lacombe, Louis; Kawakami, Jun; Pautler, Stephen E.; Drachenberg, Darrel E.; Black, Peter C.; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Morash, Christopher; Cagiannos, Ilias; Liu, Zhihui; Breau, Rodney H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The proportion of patients with stage 1 renal tumours receiving partial nephrectomy is considered a quality of care indicator. The objective of this study was to characterize surgical practice patterns at Canadian academic institutions for the treatment of these tumours. Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) is a multicentre collaboration of 13 academic institutions in Canada. All patients with pathologic stage T1 renal tumours in CKCis were identified. Descriptive statistics were performed to characterize practice patterns over time. Associations between patient, tumour, and treatment factors with the use of partial nephrectomy were determined. Results: From 1988 to April 2014, 1453 patients with pathologic stage 1 renal tumours were entered in the CKCis database. Of these, 977 (67%) patients had pT1a tumours; of these, 765 (78%) received partial nephrectomy. Of the total number of patients (1453), 476 (33%) had pT1b tumours; of these, 204 (43%) received partial nephrectomy. The use of partial nephrectomy increased over time from 60% to 90% for pT1a tumours and 20% to 60% for pT1b tumours. Stage pT1b (relative risk [RR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50–0.63) and minimally invasive surgical approach (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73–0.84 for pT1a and RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.17–0.30 for pT1b) were associated with decreased use of partial nephrectomy. Most patient factors including age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, and renal function were not significantly associated with use of partial nephrectomy (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Almost all pT1a and most pT1b renal tumours managed surgically at academic centres in Canada receive partial nephrectomy. The use of partial versus radical nephrectomy appears to occur independently of patient age and comorbid status, which may indicate that urologists are performing partial nephrectomy whenever technically feasible based on tumour factors. Although the ideal proportion patients receiving

  2. Disaster preparedness of Canadian trauma centres: the perspective of medical directors of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, David; Haas, Barbara; Ahmed, Najma; Tien, Homer; Nathens, Avery

    2011-01-01

    Background Owing to their constant readiness to treat injured patients, trauma centres are essential to regional responses to mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Reviews of recent MCIs suggest that trauma centre preparedness has frequently been limited. We set out to evaluate Canadian trauma centre preparedness and the extent of their integration into a regional response to MCIs. Methods We conducted a survey of Canadian level-1 trauma centres (n = 29) to characterize their existing disaster-response plans and to identify areas where pre-paredness could be improved. The survey was directed to the medical director of trauma at each centre. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Results Twenty-three (79%) trauma centres in 5 provinces responded. Whereas most (83%) reported the presence of a committee dedicated to disaster preparedness, only half of the medical directors of trauma were members of these committees. Almost half (43%) the institutions had not run any disaster drill in the previous 2 years. Only 70% of trauma centres used communications assets designed to function during MCIs. Additionally, more than half of the trauma directors (59%) did not know if their institutions had the ability to sustain operations for at least 72 hours during MCIs. Conclusion The results of this study suggest important opportunities to better prepare Canadian trauma centers to respond to an MCI. The main areas identified for potential improvement include the need for the standardization of MCI planning and response at a regional level and the implementation of strategies such as stockpiling of resources and novel communication strategies to avoid functional collapse during an MCI. PMID:21251427

  3. Longitudinal analysis of the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation in medical school students

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Miran; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Academic failure tolerance (AFT) is one of the important psychological concepts in education, but its applications in medical education are rare. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation among medical school students using a longitudinal research design. Methods: The subjects were 43 medical students who responded to the AFT test. This study analyzed the longitudinal data of achievement scores up to the 2nd academic year (2012–2013) among students who were divided into academic achievement improvement and decline groups. Results: Comparing the improvement and decline groups’ mean academic achievement fluctuation scores demonstrated that behavior and preferred task difficulty showed high scores whereas feeling scores were lower in the improvement group (p<0.05). Conclusion: In the improvement group, despite the higher negative feeling scores during academic failure, the students favored the more difficult subjects and were more assiduous in their studies. This will form an important basis for enhancing academic achievement among medical students. PMID:26838565

  4. How we enhanced medical academics skills and reduced social inequities using an academic teaching program.

    PubMed

    Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Felipe Renê Alves; Delfino, Breno Matos; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; de Moraes, Fabio Henrique Pinto; Barbosa, Guilherme Viana; de Macedo, Lucas Felipe; Domingos, Tayna Da Silva; Da Silva, Dyemisson Pinheiro; Menezes, Charlene Cristine Rodrigues; Oliveira Filho, Edmar Santana; Pereira, Thales Augusto Da Silva; Piccirilli, Elizabeth Souza; Pinto, Wagner De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The training of future physicians should be concurrent with the development of different skills and attitudes. This warrants the need to regularly provide students with opportunities for self-development throughout their academic career. This approach was exemplified in a medical school in the Brazilian Amazon, where students were allowed to play the role of high school teachers. As part of this exercise, they conducted reinforcement classes for high school students to increase the number of university admissions. The medical students were solely responsible for organizing and implementing this project, giving them the opportunity to develop teaching and leadership skills, enhance their understanding of communication and administration and contribute toward the society. PMID:25301145

  5. Evaluation of Intravenous Medication Errors with Smart Infusion Pumps in an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Dykes, Patricia; McIntosh, Kathleen; Buckley, Elizabeth; Wien, Matt; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    While some published research indicates a fairly high frequency of Intravenous (IV) medication errors associated with the use of smart infusion pumps, the generalizability of these results are uncertain. Additionally, the lack of a standardized methodology for measuring these errors is an issue. In this study we iteratively developed a web-based data collection tool to capture IV medication errors using a participatory design approach with interdisciplinary experts. Using the developed tool, a prevalence study was then conducted in an academic medical center. The results showed that the tool was easy to use and effectively captured all IV medication errors. Through the prevalence study, violation errors of hospital policy were found that could potentially place patients at risk, but no critical errors known to contribute to patient harm were noted. PMID:24551395

  6. Changing Perspectives: Teaching and Learning Centres' Strategic Contributions to Academic Development in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Challis, Di

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of Australian teaching and learning centres to identify factors that contribute to their effective strategic leadership. These centres remain in a state of flux, with seemingly endless reconfiguration. The drivers for such change appear to lie in decision makers' search for their centres to add more strategic value…

  7. Succession planning in an academic medical center nursing service.

    PubMed

    Barginere, Cynthia; Franco, Samantha; Wallace, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Succession planning is of strategic importance in any industry. It ensures the smooth transition from leader to leader and the ability of the organization to maintain the forward momentum as well as meet its operational and financial goals. Health care and nursing are no exception. In the complex and challenging world of health care today, leadership is critical to an organization's success and leadership succession is a key strategy used to ensure continuity of leadership and development of talent from within the organization. At Rush University Medical Center, a 667-bed academic medical center providing tertiary care to adults and children, the need for a focus on succession planning for the nursing leadership team is apparent as key leaders come to the end of their careers and consider retirement. It has become apparent that to secure the legacy and continue the extraordinary history of nursing excellence, care must be taken to grow talent from within and take the opportunity to leverage the mentoring opportunities before the retirement of many key leaders. To ensure a smooth leadership transition, nursing leadership and human resources partner at Rush University Medical Center to implement a systematic approach to leadership succession planning. PMID:23222756

  8. An academic medical center's response to widespread computer failure.

    PubMed

    Genes, Nicholas; Chary, Michael; Chason, Kevin W

    2013-01-01

    As hospitals incorporate information technology (IT), their operations become increasingly vulnerable to technological breakdowns and attacks. Proper emergency management and business continuity planning require an approach to identify, mitigate, and work through IT downtime. Hospitals can prepare for these disasters by reviewing case studies. This case study details the disruption of computer operations at Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC), an urban academic teaching hospital. The events, and MSMC's response, are narrated and the impact on hospital operations is analyzed. MSMC's disaster management strategy prevented computer failure from compromising patient care, although walkouts and time-to-disposition in the emergency department (ED) notably increased. This incident highlights the importance of disaster preparedness and mitigation. It also demonstrates the value of using operational data to evaluate hospital responses to disasters. Quantifying normal hospital functions, just as with a patient's vital signs, may help quantitatively evaluate and improve disaster management and business continuity planning. PMID:24352930

  9. Predictors of early faculty attrition at one Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Faculty turnover threatens the research, teaching and clinical missions of medical schools. We measured early attrition among newly-hired medical school faculty and identified personal and institutional factors associated with early attrition. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified faculty hired during the 2005–2006 academic year at one school. Three-year attrition rates were measured. A 40-question electronic survey measured demographics, career satisfaction, faculty responsibilities, institutional/departmental support, and reasons for resignation. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CI) identified variables associated with early attrition. Results Of 139 faculty, 34% (95% CI = 26-42%) resigned within three years of hire. Attrition was associated with: perceived failure of the Department Chair to foster a climate of teaching, research, and service (OR = 6.03; 95% CI: 1.84, 19.69), inclusiveness, respect, and open communication (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 9.98). Lack of professional development of the faculty member (OR = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.25, 11.81); institutional recognition and support for excellence in teaching (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 0.78, 11.19) and clinical care (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.04, 14.41); and >50% of professional time devoted to patient care (OR = 3.93; 95% CI: 1.29, 11.93) predicted attrition. Gender, race, ethnicity, academic degree, department type and tenure status did not predict early attrition. Of still-active faculty, an additional 27 (48.2%, 95% CI: 35.8, 61.0) reported considering resignation within the 5 years. Conclusions In this pilot study, one-third of new faculty resigned within 3 years of hire. Greater awareness of predictors of early attrition may help schools identify threats to faculty career satisfaction and retention. PMID:24512629

  10. Incidence and predictors of surgical site infections following caesarean sections at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical site infection (SSI) is the second most common infectious complication after urinary tract infection following a delivery by caesarean section (CS). At Bugando Medical Centre there has no study documenting the epidemiology of SSI after CS despite the large number of CSs performed and the relatively common occurrence of SSIs. Methods This was a prospective cohort study involving pregnant women who underwent a CS between October 2011 and February 2012 at Bugando Medical Centre. A total of 345 pregnant women were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Wound specimens were collected and processed as per standard operative procedures; and susceptibility testing was carried out using a disc diffusion technique. Data was analyzed using STATA version 11. Results The overall cumulative incidence of SSI was 10.9% with an incidence rate of 37.5 per 10,000 people/day (95% CI, 26.8-52.4). The median time from CS to the development of SSI was 7 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 6–9 days). Six independent risk factors for post caesarean SSI as identified in this study by multivariate analysis are: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HR: 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.6; P = 0.021), severe anaemia (HR: 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2-12.4, P = 0.028), surgical wound class III (HR: 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.0; P = 0.021), multiple vaginal examinations (HR: 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; P = 0.011), prolonged duration of operation (HR: 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.5; P = 0.015) and an operation performed by an intern or junior doctor (HR: 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.2; P = 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism (27.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.7%). Patients with a SSI had a longer average hospital stay than those without a SSI (12.7 ± 6.9 vs. 4 ± 1.7; P < 0.0001) and the case fatality rate among patients with a SSI was 2.9%. Conclusion SSIs are common among women undergoing CSs at Bugando Medical Centre. SSIs

  11. The joint cardiovascular research profile of the university medical centres in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Welie, S D; van Leeuwen, T N; Bouma, C J; Klaassen, A B M

    2016-05-01

    Biomedical scientific research in the Netherlands has a good reputation worldwide. Quantitatively, the university medical centres (UMCs) deliver about 40 % of the total number of scientific publications of this research. Analysis of the bibliometric output data of the UMCs shows that their research is highly cited. These output-based analyses also indicate the high impact of cardiovascular scientific research in these centres, illustrating the strength of this research in the Netherlands. A set of six joint national cardiovascular research topics selected by the UMCs can be recognised. At the top are heart failure, rhythm disorder research and atherosclerosis. National collaboration of top scientists in consortia in these three areas is successful in acquiring funding of large-scale programs. Our observations suggest that funding national consortia of experts focused on a few selected research topics may increase the international competitiveness of cardiovascular research in the Netherlands. PMID:27043238

  12. Spectrum of tablet computer use by medical students and residents at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The value of tablet computer use in medical education is an area of considerable interest, with preliminary investigations showing that the majority of medical trainees feel that tablet computers added value to the curriculum. This study investigated potential differences in tablet computer use between medical students and resident physicians. Materials & Methods. Data collection for this survey was accomplished with an anonymous online questionnaire shared with the medical students and residents at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIU-SOM) in July and August of 2012. Results. There were 76 medical student responses (26% response rate) and 66 resident/fellow responses to this survey (21% response rate). Residents/fellows were more likely to use tablet computers several times daily than medical students (32% vs. 20%, p = 0.035). The most common reported uses were for accessing medical reference applications (46%), e-Books (45%), and board study (32%). Residents were more likely than students to use a tablet computer to access an electronic medical record (41% vs. 21%, p = 0.010), review radiology images (27% vs. 12%, p = 0.019), and enter patient care orders (26% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). Discussion. This study shows a high prevalence and frequency of tablet computer use among physicians in training at this academic medical center. Most residents and students use tablet computers to access medical references, e-Books, and to study for board exams. Residents were more likely to use tablet computers to complete clinical tasks. Conclusions. Tablet computer use among medical students and resident physicians was common in this survey. All learners used tablet computers for point of care references and board study. Resident physicians were more likely to use tablet computers to access the EMR, enter patient care orders, and review radiology studies. This difference is likely due to the differing educational and professional demands placed on

  13. ICT Implementation Challenges and Strategies for ODL Institutions: The ZOU's National Centre Academic Staff Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenge, Richard Tafara; Chimbadzwa, Zvinaiye; Mapolisa, Tichaona

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted some of the major challenges that Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) academic staff experiences in connection with Information Communication Technology (ICT) implementation. It employed a qualitative paradigm rooted in a case study research design focusing on ZOU Academic Staff at the selected Faculties. It purposively sampled…

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency Treatment Patterns in Academic Urban Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Paulette D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Williams, Michelle A.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Bates, David W.; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assess racial/ethnic and sex differences in treatment of vitamin D deficiency with high dose ergocalciferol (‘vitamin D2’) or other forms of vitamin D in a northeastern U.S. ambulatory clinic of an academic urban medical center. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional observational review of electronic medication prescribing records of patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency (25OHD < 20 ng/ml) from 2004–2008. METHODS Using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patients’ demographics, and Elixhauser comorbidity score, we examined the association of sex and race/ethnicity with prescription for at least one dose of vitamin D. RESULTS Among 2,140 patients without renal disease and tested for 25OHD deficiency (25OHD < 20 ng/ml), 66.2% received no vitamin D prescription for vitamin D deficiency. Blacks and Hispanics received vitamin D prescriptions at a higher frequency than whites, 37.8% 38.4% and 30.9%, respectively, p=0.003. The vitamin D prescription rate for women versus men was 26.3% and 7.5%, respectively, p=0.04. In a fully adjusted model, no difference in prescription likelihood for blacks and whites [OR=1.18 95% CI, 0.88–1.58; p=0.29] or Hispanics and whites was noted [OR=1.01 95% CI, 0.70–1.45;p=0.73]. Similarly, fully adjusted model showed no difference in prescription likelihood for females and males [OR=1.23 95% CI, 0.93–1.63; p=0.12]. CONCLUSIONS Among primary care patients with vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation was low and white patients were less likely to receive vitamin D treatment than blacks or Hispanics. Interventions to correct the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency should address the markedly low rate of vitamin D prescribing when 25OHD levels are measured. PMID:25328637

  15. Top 10 Lessons Learned from Electronic Medical Record Implementation in a Large Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Rizer, Milisa K.; Kaufman, Beth; Sieck, Cynthia J.; Hefner, Jennifer L.; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) implementation efforts face many challenges, including individual and organizational barriers and concerns about loss of productivity during the process. These issues may be particularly complex in large and diverse settings with multiple specialties providing inpatient and outpatient care. This case report provides an example of a successful EMR implementation that emphasizes the importance of flexibility and adaptability on the part of the implementation team. It also presents the top 10 lessons learned from this EMR implementation in a large midwestern academic medical center. Included are five overarching lessons related to leadership, initial approach, training, support, and optimization as well as five lessons related to the EMR system itself that are particularly important elements of a successful implementation. PMID:26396558

  16. Top 10 Lessons Learned from Electronic Medical Record Implementation in a Large Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Rizer, Milisa K; Kaufman, Beth; Sieck, Cynthia J; Hefner, Jennifer L; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) implementation efforts face many challenges, including individual and organizational barriers and concerns about loss of productivity during the process. These issues may be particularly complex in large and diverse settings with multiple specialties providing inpatient and outpatient care. This case report provides an example of a successful EMR implementation that emphasizes the importance of flexibility and adaptability on the part of the implementation team. It also presents the top 10 lessons learned from this EMR implementation in a large midwestern academic medical center. Included are five overarching lessons related to leadership, initial approach, training, support, and optimization as well as five lessons related to the EMR system itself that are particularly important elements of a successful implementation. PMID:26396558

  17. Redesigning care at the Flinders Medical Centre: clinical process redesign using "lean thinking".

    PubMed

    Ben-Tovim, David I; Bassham, Jane E; Bennett, Denise M; Dougherty, Melissa L; Martin, Margaret A; O'Neill, Susan J; Sincock, Jackie L; Szwarcbord, Michael G

    2008-03-17

    *The Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) Redesigning Care program began in November 2003; it is a hospital-wide process improvement program applying an approach called "lean thinking" (developed in the manufacturing sector) to health care. *To date, the FMC has involved hundreds of staff from all areas of the hospital in a wide variety of process redesign activities. *The initial focus of the program was on improving the flow of patients through the emergency department, but the program quickly spread to involve the redesign of managing medical and surgical patients throughout the hospital, and to improving major support services. *The program has fallen into three main phases, each of which is described in this article: "getting the knowledge"; "stabilising high-volume flows"; and "standardising and sustaining". *Results to date show that the Redesigning Care program has enabled the hospital to provide safer and more accessible care during a period of growth in demand. PMID:18341473

  18. An academic medical center under prolonged rocket attack--organizational, medical, and financial considerations.

    PubMed

    Bar-El, Yaron; Michaelson, Moshe; Hyames, Gila; Skorecki, Karl; Reisner, Shimon A; Beyar, Rafael

    2009-09-01

    The Rambam Medical Center, the major academic health center in northern Israel, serving a population of two million and providing specialized tertiary care, was exposed to an unprecedented experience during the Second Lebanon War in the summer of 2006. For more than one month, it was subjected to continuous rocket attacks, but it continued to provide emergency and routine medical services to the civilian population and also served the military personnel who were evacuated from the battlefront. To accomplish the goals of serving the population while itself being under fire, the Rambam Medical Center had to undertake major organizational decisions, which included maximizing safety within the hospital by shifting patients and departments, ensuring that the hospital was properly fortified, managing the health professional teams' work schedules, and providing needed services for the families of employees. The Rambam Medical Center's Level I trauma center expertise included multidisciplinary teams and extensive collaborations; modern imaging modalities usually reserved for peacetime medical practice were frequently used. The function of the hospital teams during the war was efficient and smooth, based on the long-term actions taken to prepare for disasters and wartime conditions. Routine hospital services continued, although at 60% of normal occupancy. Financial losses incurred were primarily due to the decrease in revenue-generating activity. The two most important components of managing the hospital under these conditions are (1) the ability to arrive at prompt and meaningful decisions with respect to the organizational and medical hospital operations and (2) the leadership and management of the professional staff and teams. PMID:19707058

  19. Ways of Coping as Predictors of Satisfaction with Curriculum and Academic Success in Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Gurpinar, Erol; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the coping strategies of medical students and to investigate the effects of coping strategies on student satisfaction and academic achievement with different instruction methods. A total of 152 medical students was followed throughout the first 2 yr of medical education between 2008 and 2010.…

  20. Intraocular straylight screening in medical testing centres for driver licence holders in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Ralph; Barraquer, Rafael I.; Rodríguez, Judith; Tuñi i Picado, Josep; Jubal, Joan Serra; González Luque, Juan Carlos; van den Berg, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the performance of the C-quant straylight meter during the daily routine work in medical testing centres for driver license applicants and driver license holders in Spain. Methods Altogether 914 subjects, of which 376 younger than 35 years, 428 between 35 and 60 years and 110 over 60 years were measured with the C-quant in three medical testing centres (Barcelona, Zaragoza and Palma de Mallorca) in 2006. Technicians were instructed once and the measurements were done during the daily routine work. We recorded: age, BCVA, self-reported subjective blinding at night; and from the C-quant: straylight parameter (log s), measurement quality parameters (ESD, Q) and test duration. Results Total C-quant test duration increases slightly with age from a mean of 7 min (< 35 years) to a mean of 9 min (> 60). At first attempt, 82 % of all subjects produced reliable results (ESD < 0.12). The straylight parameter for this group was independent of ESD and ESD was independent of total test duration. The known age dependence of the straylight parameter and the weak correlation with BCVA was confirmed. The distribution of subjective blinding at night was very different between test centres. Subjects with “very strong” subjective blinding had significantly higher straylight values than subjects with “no” subjective blinding. Subjects avoiding night driving had significant higher straylight values than subjects driving at night. Conclusion The C-quant measure is reasonable fast. Good subject instruction is important to get first attempt reliable results. Self-reported subjective blinding results depend strongly on the interviewer.

  1. Differences in medical students’ academic interest and performance across career choice motivations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Hwang, Jee Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate medical students’ career choice motivation and its relationship with their academic interest and performance. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample (n=207) of medical students at a private medical school in Korea, stratified by year of medical course. Data about participant demographics, career choice motivation and academic interest were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The item on career choice motivation enquired about the respondents’ main reason for applying for medical school among 8 possible response options, which comprised two components of career choice motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. The participants’ levels of academic interest were measured in a Likert-type question. Participants’ academic interest and Grade Point Averages (GPAs) were compared across the groups of different career motivations along with analyses of their admission scores for baseline comparisons. Results A total of 195 students completed the questionnaire (94%response rate). Seventy-four percent, (n=145; the intrinsic group) of the participants chose reasons related to intrinsic motivation, 22% (n=42; the extrinsic group) chose reasons pertaining to extrinsic motivation, and 4% (n = 8) chose other reasons for applying to medical school. The intrinsic group outperformed the extrinsic group in their GPAs, although their prior academic achievements did not differ significantly. The intrinsic group showed significantly higher levels of academic interest and also performed better in the admission interviews. Conclusions Our study illustrates differences in medical students’ academic interest and performance across career choice motivations. Further research is warranted to establish the predictive power of medical students’ career choice motivation and academic interest on their academic performance. PMID:26878567

  2. Accountable care organization readiness and academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Scott A; Pahira, Jennifer J

    2014-09-01

    As academic medical centers (AMCs) consider becoming accountable care organizations (ACOs) under Medicare, they must assess their readiness for this transition. Of the 253 Medicare ACOs prior to 2014, 51 (20%) are AMCs. Three critical components of ACO readiness are institutional and ACO structure, leadership, and governance; robust information technology and analytic systems; and care coordination and management to improve care delivery and health at the population level. All of these must be viewed through the lens of unique AMC mission-driven goals.There is clear benefit to developing and maintaining a centralized internal leadership when it comes to driving change within an ACO, yet there is also the need for broad stakeholder involvement. Other important structural features are an extensive primary care foundation; concomitant operation of a managed care plan or risk-bearing entity; or maintaining a close relationship with post-acute-care or skilled nursing facilities, which provide valuable expertise in coordinating care across the continuum. ACOs also require comprehensive and integrated data and analytic systems that provide meaningful population data to inform care teams in real time, promote quality improvement, and monitor spending trends. AMCs will require proven care coordination and management strategies within a population health framework and deployment of an innovative workforce.AMC core functions of providing high-quality subspecialty and primary care, generating new knowledge, and training future health care leaders can be well aligned with a transition to an ACO model. Further study of results from Medicare-related ACO programs and commercial ACOs will help define best practices. PMID:24979282

  3. Bacterial Contamination of Medical Doctors and Students White Coats at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Qaday, Josephat; Sariko, Margaretha; Mwakyoma, Adam; Kifaro, Emmanuel; Mosha, Dominick; Tarimo, Richard; Nyombi, Balthazar; Shao, Elichilia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Microbial transmission from patient to patient has been linked to transient colonization of health care workers attires. Contamination of health care workers' clothing including white coats may play a big role in transmission of microbes. Study Objective. This study was conducted to determine the type of bacterial contamination on the white coats of medical doctors and students and associated factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling of the bacterial contamination of white coats was undertaken. Demographic variables and white coats usage details were captured: when the coat was last washed, frequency of washing, washing agents used, and storage of the white coats. Swabs were collected from the mouth of left and right lower pockets, sleeves, and lapels of white coat in sterile techniques. Results. Out of 180 participants involved in the current study, 65.6% were males. Most of the coats were contaminated by staphylococci species and other bacteria such as Gram negative rods. Conclusion and Recommendations. White coats are potential source of cross infection which harbour bacterial agents and may play a big role in the transmission of nosocomial infection in health care settings. Effort should be made to discourage usage of white coats outside clinical areas. PMID:26904746

  4. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…

  5. The Challenges for New Academics in Adopting Student-Centred Approaches to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The current article provides a perspective on the day-to-day challenges that a group of new teachers experienced as they adopted more student-centred approaches to teaching. Three semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 11 new teachers from a range of higher education institutions and subject disciplines. The analysis used…

  6. Academic mentorship: an effective professional development strategy for medical reference librarians.

    PubMed

    Wang, H

    2001-01-01

    Academic mentorship is a professional development strategy that enables fledgling professionals to take advantage of the skills and expertise of the senior members for professional growth. Although widely practiced in many other professions, academic mentorship has not been widely reported in medical librarianship. Drawing upon personal experience, the author reports the success story of an academic mentorship program implemented in an academic medical library and argues for academic mentorship to be widely adopted in academic medical libraries. This paper first reviews the literature on the concept of mentoring in an academic setting, and then describes the background, rationale, methods, and results of the mentorship programs the author has experienced. Lastly, based upon an analysis of several surveys and studies on coping skills for quality job performance of health sciences reference librarians, the paper discusses mentorship as one effective means to ease a new medical reference librarian's transition from his/her pre-service experience to the professional world of medical librarianship. It calls on other health sciences librarians to consider developing their own mentorship programs to promote their professional development and personal growth. PMID:11398541

  7. Differences between first and fourth year medical students’ interest in pursuing careers in academic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the differences in the attitudes of first and fourth-year medical students regarding careers in academics. We also sought to identify any factors associated with an increased interest in academic medicine. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2013 at the University of Louisville.  All first and fourth year medical students were invited to complete an online survey utilizing a survey instrument developed through literature review.  Demographic data and information about background experiences were collected in addition to participants' perceptions regarding careers in academia using a 5-point Likert scale. Participants were also queried about their current interest in a career in academics and the likelihood they would pursue academic medicine. Results Of the 330 potential participants, 140 (42.4%) agreed to participate. Overall, fourth-years reported a higher likelihood of pursuing an academic career than first-years. Research experience, publications, distinction track interest or involvement, and belief that a career in academics would reduce salary potential were positively correlated with reported likelihood of pursuing academic medicine. Conclusions Findings from this pilot study demonstrate differences in interest in academic medicine between junior and senior medical students. Additionally, several factors were associated with a high likelihood of self-reported interest in academic. Based on these findings, efforts to increase medical students’ interest in academic medicine careers could be supported by providing more research and teaching opportunities or distinction track options as a structured part of the medical school curriculum. PMID:27219295

  8. Developing Blended Learning Resources and Strategies to Support Academic Reading: A Student-Centred Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roger; Dickerson, Claire; Teague, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a blended learning curriculum development project, in which a student was "prospectively" engaged with teacher educators in developing resources designed to increase support for academic reading. Curriculum development took place at the University of Hertfordshire School of Education through the Change Academy for Blended…

  9. The Value of Nonmedical Academic Libraries to Medical Libraries: A Case in Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    While the National Library of Medicine created the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) as a network to provide medical and health information, historically few nonmedical academic libraries have participated. University medical libraries and hospital libraries have been the major focus of the Network. Recently, the NNLM has…

  10. Managing Information in the Academic Medical Center: Building an Integrated Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sherrilynne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A program designed by the National Library of Medicine and the Association of American Medical Colleges to help academic medical centers develop appropriate information systems is described. The characteristics of such an integrated information environment, technical and organizational structures necessary for creating it, and the librarian's role…

  11. Publication and reporting of clinical trial results: cross sectional analysis across academic medical centers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijun; Desai, Nihar R; Ross, Joseph S; Zhang, Weiwei; Chau, Katherine H; Wayda, Brian; Murugiah, Karthik; Lu, Daniel Y; Mittal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine rates of publication and reporting of results within two years for all completed clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov across leading academic medical centers in the United States. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Academic medical centers in the United States. Participants Academic medical centers with 40 or more completed interventional trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods Using the Aggregate Analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov database and manual review, we identified all interventional clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with a primary completion date between October 2007 and September 2010 and with a lead investigator affiliated with an academic medical center. Main outcome measures The proportion of trials that disseminated results, defined as publication or reporting of results on ClinicalTrials.gov, overall and within 24 months of study completion. Results We identified 4347 interventional clinical trials across 51 academic medical centers. Among the trials, 1005 (23%) enrolled more than 100 patients, 1216 (28%) were double blind, and 2169 (50%) were phase II through IV. Overall, academic medical centers disseminated results for 2892 (66%) trials, with 1560 (35.9%) achieving this within 24 months of study completion. The proportion of clinical trials with results disseminated within 24 months of study completion ranged from 16.2% (6/37) to 55.3% (57/103) across academic medical centers. The proportion of clinical trials published within 24 months of study completion ranged from 10.8% (4/37) to 40.3% (31/77) across academic medical centers, whereas results reporting on ClinicalTrials.gov ranged from 1.6% (2/122) to 40.7% (72/177). Conclusions Despite the ethical mandate and expressed values and mission of academic institutions, there is poor performance and noticeable variation in the dissemination of clinical trial results across leading academic medical centers. PMID:26888209

  12. Warning Letters to Sponsor-Investigators at Academic Health Centres – The Regulatory “Canaries in a Coal Mine”

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Erin K; Blair Holbein, M. E.; Berglund, Jelena P.; Parrish, Amanda B.; Roth, Mary-Tara; Burnett, Bruce K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study highlights Warning Letters (WL) findings issued to sponsor-investigators (S-Is) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods The online index of WLs issued from October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2012 was reviewed [1]. Through a manual screening process, letters were evaluated if specifically issued to ‘clinical investigators’, ‘sponsors’ or ‘sponsor-investigators’. A particular focus was given to S-Is at Academic Health Centres (AHCs). Each letter was scored for the presence of violations in 40 general regulatory categories. Results A review of FDA WLs issued over a five year period (FDA Fiscal Years 2008–2012) revealed that WLs to S-Is represent half of the WLs issued to all sponsors (16 of 32 letters). A review of these letters indicates that S-Is are not aware, or simply do not meet, their regulatory responsibilities as either investigators or sponsors. In comparing total sponsor letters to those of S-Is, the most cited violation was the same: a lack of monitoring. A review of publicly available inspection data indicates that these 16 letters merely represent the tip of the iceberg. Conclusion This review of the WL database reveals the potential for serious regulatory violations among S-Is at AHCs. Recent translational funding initiatives may serve to increase the number of S-Is, especially among Academic Health Centres (AHCs) [2]. Thus, AHCs must become aware of this S-I role and work to support investigators who assume both roles in the course of their research. PMID:24309225

  13. A Structural Model of Stress, Motivation, and Academic Performance in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jangho; An, Hoyoung; Park, Seungjin; Lee, Chul; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Dam; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was 1) to identify factors that may influence academic stress in medical students and 2) to investigate the causal relationships among these variables with path analysis. Methods One hundred sixty medical students participated in the present study. Psychological parameters were assessed with the Medical Stress Scale, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Academic Motivation Scale. Linear regression and path analysis were used to examine the relationships among variables. Results Significant correlations were noted between several factors and Medical Stress scores. Specifically, Hamilton Depression Scale scores (β=0.26, p=0.03) and amotivation (β=0.20, p=0.01) and extrinsically identified regulation (β=0.27, p<0.01) response categories on the Academic Motivation Scale had independent and significant influences on Medical Stress Scale scores. A path analysis model indicated that stress, motivation, and academic performance formed a triangular feedback loop. Moreover, depression was associated with both stress and motivation, and personality was associated with motivation. Conclusion The triangular feedback-loop structure in the present study indicated that actions that promote motivation benefit from interventions against stress and depression. Moreover, stress management increases motivation in students. Therefore, strategies designed to reduce academic pressures in medical students should consider these factors. Additional studies should focus on the relationship between motivation and depression. PMID:22707964

  14. The Center for Healthy Weight: an academic medical center response to childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T N; Kemby, K M

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity represents a worldwide medical and public health challenge. Academic medical centers cannot avoid the effects of the obesity epidemic, and must adopt strategies for their academic, clinical and public policy responses to childhood obesity. The Center for Healthy Weight at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford provides an example and model of one such strategy. The design provides both breadth and depth through six cores: Research, Patient Care, Community Programs, Advocating for Public Policy Change, Training and Professional Education, and the Healthy Hospital Initiative. The Center and its cores are designed to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration across the university, medical school, children's hospital and surrounding community. The foci of these cores are likely to be relevant to almost any academic medical center's mission and functions. PMID:25089192

  15. Managing Information Technology in Academic Medical Centers: A "Multicultural" Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Charles P.; Corn, Milton; Krumrey, Arthur; Perry, David R.; Stevens, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how beliefs and concerns of academic medicine's diverse professional cultures affect management of information technology. Two scenarios, one dealing with standardization of desktop personal computers and the other with publication of syllabi on an institutional intranet, form the basis for an exercise in which four prototypical members…

  16. Changing Economics of Health Care Are Devastating Academic Medical Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Once a financially healthy part of American universities, many academic health centers are struggling to survive. Many are merging with for-profit chains or declaring bankruptcy. The advance of managed care and insurance companies focusing on reducing costs appears to be affecting teaching hospitals more than community hospitals. (MSE)

  17. Executive Impairment Determines ADHD Medication Response: Implications for Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Reddy, Linda A.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A.; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to "indirect" informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes "direct" neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment efficacy. Documenting…

  18. A Review of Non-Medication Interventions to Improve the Academic Performance of Children and Youth with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for academic failure. Although studies have evaluated the effects of medication on academic outcomes, the literature on non-medication interventions has not received equal attention. This review examined 41 studies that evaluated the impact of non-medication interventions on…

  19. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students’ work-life balance. Methods A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Results Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p< 0.0001), more hours academic study during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, p< 0.01), and involvement in teaching or research. Increased hours of study was associated with lower QoL (rho = -0.13, p<0.01). Conclusions Study skills may be more important than duration spent studying, for academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study. PMID:26385285

  20. The Clinical Librarian and the Patient: Report of a Project at McMaster University Medical Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne G.; Hamilton, John D.

    In June 1975 a clinical librarian project was initiated in the Gastroenterology Programme of McMaster University Medical Centre (MUMC). The objectives of the project were to assist patients in participating more knowledgeably in their own health care and to assist health professionals in applying the latest information from the biomedical…

  1. Assessing the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and academic performance of medical students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasingam, Uma; Suat-Cheng, Peh; Aung, Thidar; Dipolog-Ubanan, Genevieve; Wei, Wee Kok

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the association between emotional intelligence and its influence on academic performance on medical students to see if emotional intelligence emerges as a significant influencer of academic achievement. The instrument used is the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure an individual's perceived emotional intelligence (PEI). Participants are required to rate the extent to which they agree with each item on a 5-point Likert scale. The TMMS consists of three subscales - Attention to Feelings (which measures the extent to which individuals notice and think about their feelings, Clarity (which measures the extent to which an individual is able to discriminate among different moods) and Mood Repair (related to an individual's ability to repair/terminate negative moods or maintain pleasant ones). Of special interest is whether high scores in the Clarity and Repair subscales correlate positively with academic performance, and whether high scores on the Attention subscale, without correspondingly high scores in the Clarity and Mood Repair subscales, correlates negatively with academic performance. Sample population includes all medical students (Years 1-5) of the MD program in UCSI University, Malaysia. Preliminary analysis indicates no significant relationship between overall TMMS scores and academic performance; however, the Attention subscale is significantly correlated to academic performance. Therefore even though PEI has to be ruled out as an influencer on academic performance for this particular sample, the fact that Attention has a significant relationship with academic performance may give some insight into the factors that possibly influence medical students' academic performance.

  2. The relationship between the social management of emotional intelligence and academic performance among medical students.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon-How; Md Zain, Azhar; Hassan, Faezah

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p < .0001), and was a predictor of poor result in the overall CA (adjusted OR 1.06 95% CI 1.011-1.105). Negative relationships might exist between emotional social intelligence and academic success in undergraduate medical students. A different collection of social skills and SM EI could be constructive towards academic achievement in medical schools. PMID:24773524

  3. Balancing Two Cultures: American Indian/Alaska Native Medical Students' Perceptions of Academic Medicine Careers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas. PMID:26896055

  4. Managing information in the academic medical center: building an integrated information environment.

    PubMed

    Fuller, S; Braude, R M; Florance, V; Frisse, M E

    1995-10-01

    The strategic importance of integrated information systems and resources for academic medical centers should not be underestimated. Ten years ago, the National Library of Medicine in collaboration with the Association of Academic Medical Centers initiated the Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) program to assist academic medical centers in defining a process for addressing deficiencies in their information environments. The authors give a brief history of the IAIMS program, and they describe both the characteristics of an integrated information environment and the technical and organizational structures necessary to create such an environment. Strategies some institutions have used to implement integrated information systems are also outlined. Finally, the authors discuss the role of librarians in integrated information system design. PMID:7575920

  5. Key factors in work engagement and job motivation of teaching faculty at a university medical centre.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, B A M; Bakker, Arnold B; Ten Cate, Th J

    2013-11-01

    This study reports about teacher motivation and work engagement in a Dutch University Medical Centre (UMC). We examined factors affecting the motivation for teaching in a UMC, the engagement of UMC Utrecht teaching faculty in their work, and their engagement in teaching compared with engagement in patient care and research. Based on a pilot study within various departments at the UMCU, a survey on teaching motivation and work engagement was developed and sent to over 600 UMCU teachers. About 50 % responded. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, included in this survey. From a list of 22 pre-defined items, 5 were marked as most motivating: teaching about my own speciality, noticeable appreciation for teaching by my direct superior, teaching small groups, feedback on my teaching performance, and freedom to determine what I teach. Feedback on my teaching performance showed the strongest predictive value for teaching engagement. Engagement scores were relatively favourable, but engagement with patient care was higher than with research and teaching. Task combinations appear to decrease teaching engagement. Our results match with self-determination theory and the job demands-resources model, and challenge the policy to combine teaching with research and patient care. PMID:24037742

  6. Comparison of communication skills between medical students admitted after interviews or on academic merits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selection of the best medical students among applicants is debated and many different methods are used. Academic merits predict good academic performance, but students admitted by other pathways need not be less successful. The aim of this study, was to compare communication skills between students admitted to medical school through interviews or on academic merits, respectively. Methods A retrospective cohort study. Communication skills at a surgical OSCE in 2008 were assessed independently by two observers using an evaluative rating scale. Correlations, t-tests and multivariate analyses by logistic regressions were employed. Academic merits were defined as upper secondary school grade point average (GPA) or scores from the Swedish Scholastic Assessment Test (SweSAT). Results The risk of showing unsatisfactory communicative performance was significantly lower among the students selected by interviews (OR 0.32, CI95 0.12-0.83), compared to those selected on the basis of academic merits. However, there was no significant difference in communication skills scores between the different admission groups; neither did the proportion of high performers differ. No difference in the result of the written examination was seen between groups. Conclusions Our results confirm previous experience from many medical schools that students selected in different ways achieve comparable results during the clinical semesters. However, selection through interview seems to reduce the number of students who demonstrate inferior communication skills at 4th year of medical school. PMID:22726308

  7. An examination of inpatient medical record keeping in the Orthopaedic Department of Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Alexander Conor; Ebbs, Samuel Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of published evidence examining the quality of patient notes in African healthcare settings. We aim to examine the completeness of the orthopaedic inpatient notes and begin development of a formal audit framework in a large Tanzanian Hospital. Methods A retrospective review of 155 orthopaedic inpatient notes at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) was conducted spanning 3 months. Notes were reviewed using an agreed data collection pro forma considering 3 main outcomes; i) quantity of complete entries, ii) percentage completeness of individual sections, iii) documentation of follow-up. Results: Primary outcome 8% (n = 13) of the inpatient documents were complete (10/10 sections). 11% (n = 17) of the inpatient documents had 9 of 10 sections completed. 30% (n = 46) of the inpatient documents had 8 of 10 sections completed. Therefore, 51% (n = 79) of inpatient entries had 7 or fewer sections filled in. Secondary outcome Admission information and Demographics were both completed 88% (n = 137) of the time. History and the Examination sections were complete in 96% (n = 149) of cases. Investigations were complete in 77% (n = 119) and Diagnosis in 88% (n = 137). The Treatment section was complete 85% (n = 132) of the time and the Attending doctor 50% (n = 78). Procedures were 27% (n = 42) filled in while Summary of a day and Follow-up were 32% (n = 49) and 0% (n = 0) respectively. Tertiary outcome Follow-up was not completed in any entries. Conclusion There are a number of sections of the inpatient pro forma that remain inadequately completed. Regular auditing is essential for the continued progress in patient care. PMID:27347296

  8. The Medical Academic Advancement Program at the University of Virginia School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fang, W L; Woode, M K; Carey, R M; Apprey, M; Schuyler, J M; Atkins-Brady, T L

    1999-04-01

    Since 1984 the University of Virginia School of Medicine has conducted the Medical Academic Advancement Program for minority and disadvantaged students interested in careers in medicine. The program is a six-week residential program for approximately 130 undergraduate and post-baccalaureate students per year. It emphasizes academic course work--biology, chemistry, physics, and essay writing--to prepare the participants for the Medical College Admission Test. Non-graded activities, such as a clinical medicine lecture series, clinical experiences, and a special lecture series, and special workshops are also offered. The participants take two simulated MCAT exams. Between 1984 and 1998, 1,497 students have participated in the program, with complete follow-up information available for 690 (46%). Of the 1,487 participants, 80 (5%) have graduated from the University of Virginia School of Medicine and 174 (12%) from other medical schools; 44 (3%) are attending the medical school now, and 237 (16%) are at other medical schools; 44 (3%) have graduated from other health professions schools, and 54 (3%) are attending such schools. The retention rate for participants at the University of Virginia School of Medicine is 91% (that is, all but seven of the 80 who matriculated have been retained past the first year). The Medical Academic Advancement Program has been successful in increasing the number of underrepresented minority students matriculating into and continuing in medical education. Such programs warrant continued support and encouragement. PMID:10219212

  9. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Academic Career in Geriatrics: Medical Students’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Maureen A.; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A.; Iglewicz, Alana; Reichstadt, Jennifer; Palinkas, Lawrence; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is a growing concern about a shortage of physician scientists. This problem is particularly severe in certain subspecialties such as geriatrics in general and geriatric psychiatry in particular. This study sought to obtain medical students’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators toward pursuing a career in academics and/or in geriatric psychiatry or medicine. Methods The study surveyed 27 first-year medical students from six US medical schools, who had demonstrated a clear interest in academic geriatrics by completing a mentored summer research training program in geriatric medicine or geriatric psychiatry, funded by the National Institute on Aging. The survey included open-ended and close-ended questions about likely career choice and factors affecting it. Results Sixty percent of students reported they were likely to pursue an academic career, 44% a career in geriatric psychiatry or medicine, and only 36% a career in academic geriatrics. The most frequently perceived barriers were a lack of knowledge about academic careers and lack of exposure to geriatrics, financial concerns due to loan debts and low compensation, and negative impressions of research and of working with older adults. Facilitators included positive experiences with or positive impressions of research and research mentors and of older adults, and the growing demand for geriatric care. Conclusions Attracting capable and motivated medical students to academic careers in fields such as geriatric psychiatry or medicine should be a priority in seeking to expand the numbers of physician scientists and to add to the healthcare workforce in underserved subspecialty areas. Necessary approaches should include opportunities to work in academic settings, availability of sustained and dedicated mentorship, early, consistent, and positive exposure to older adults, and financial incentives. PMID:25080223

  10. Medical expertise as a historical phenomenon and academic discipline.

    PubMed

    Gnjidić, Zivko; Fatović-Ferencić, Stella

    2010-03-01

    Based on secondary literature, a survey of particular forms of medical expertise over history is presented. The state-to-individual interaction in terms of personality and physical integrity protection, health care, etc., was observed. It was only after the 16th century that the development of anatomy was found to have become a decisive argument for convincing expertise in various trials. In Croatia, the course of medical expertise development was comparable to the close settings in the neighboring European countries. Major advances at the legislative, educational and professional levels took place in the second half of the 19th century. The subject of Forensic Medicine was introduced at Royal Academy of Jurisprudence as early as 1861; the book entitled Lecnicka izvesća (visa reperta) za prakticnu porabu lecnikov by Ivan Dezman (1841-1873) from 1868 offered the first systematic form of autopsy reports, whereas Kratka sudska medicina, a handbook in forensic medicine by Niko Selak (1861-1891) from 1889 denoted the beginnings of forensic medicine literature in Croatian language. It has been noted that medical expertise approach perceives man as a social being at the crossing of manifold impacts and influences, thus being always observed by physicians of various specialties. During centuries, medical expertise has been formed in conjunction with advances in medicine and science, and with the development of civil society. Medical expertise had gradually grown into a multidisciplinary field requiring high professionalism, ethical approach, continuous training and collaboration with various professions. This resulted in a compact and polyvalent discipline, in Croatia gradually formed as a special course in medical curriculum. PMID:20635591

  11. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

  12. Uterine artery embolisation for symptomatic fibroids: the University of Malaya Medical Centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, RN; Vijayananthan, A; Omar, SZ; Nawawi, O; Abdullah, BJJ

    2010-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids has been performed in several centres in the United States, Western Europe and Asia with promising results. This study reports the authors' experience with UAE at the University Malaya Medical Centre. Method: Fifty women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who declined surgery were treated by transcatheter UAE. The uterine arteries were selectively catheterised and embolised with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Post-procedure analgesia was administered via patient-controlled analgesic pump. The patients were followed up at an interval of 6/12 clinically and with MRI. Results: Transcatheter UAE was performed on all 50 patients with no major complications. 49 patients had both uterine arteries embolised while 1 patient had only the right uterine artery embolised on account of hypoplasia of the left uterine artery due to previous myomectomy. The mean hospital stay was 3.5 days (range, 2 to 7). At a mean follow-up of 24/52, all patients reported improvements in their presenting symptoms. Objective improvement in terms of reduction of uterine and fibroid sizes was determined on MRI. One patient, who initially responded with a decrease in uterine and dominant fibroid size, became symptomatic (menorrhagia) after 6 months and subsequent endometrial sampling revealed cystic glandular hyperplasia for which total abdominal hysterectomy was performed. Two other patients had no change in symptoms and after hysterectomy, the pathology revealed concurrent adenomyosis. Another 2 patients with cervical fibroids were treated with hysterectomy as there was no gross reduction in the size of fibroid following UAE. Overall, 90% of the patients had dramatic improvement of anaemia and symptoms at 1 year follow-up. Conclusion: Out of the 50 patients, 17 patients had total disappearance of their fibroids and 28 patients had more than 50% reduction in the size of fibroids after 1 year. 5 patients

  13. Association of academic stress with sleeping difficulties in medical students of a Pakistani medical school: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student's background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P < 0.05). Conclusion. We found a very high prevalence of academic stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students. PMID:25802809

  14. Association of academic stress with sleeping difficulties in medical students of a Pakistani medical school: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student’s background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P < 0.05). Conclusion. We found a very high prevalence of academic stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students. PMID:25802809

  15. Smartphones in medicine: emerging practices in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Angela C; El Hajj, Stephanie C; Perret, J Nelson; Caffery, Terrell S; Jones, Glenn N; Musso, Mandi W

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mobile phone technology now provide a myriad of resources to physicians' fingertips. However, the medical profession continues to struggle with potential for misuse of these devices. There is a need for better understanding of physicians' uses of smartphones in order to establish guidelines for appropriate and professional behavior. The purpose of the current study was to survey physicians' and medical students' practices concerning smartphone use in the healthcare setting. Physicians and medical students were asked to complete anonymous surveys regarding uses of smartphones within the past month in various healthcare settings. Overall, the participants reported distinctly different patterns in the uses they made of their phones in different settings (P<.001), with most individuals engaging in most behaviors while on break but few using their smartphones while with patients or during procedures. It appears that physicians and medical students make decisions about using their smartphones according to some combination of three considerations: degree of relevance to patient care, the appropriateness of the behavior in front of patients, and the issue of how disruptive that behavior may be. PMID:25526706

  16. [Medical history as an academic subject at the Bamberg University].

    PubMed

    Locher, W

    2000-01-01

    A full program of medicine was taught at the Catholic University of Bamberg (founded 1648 as the Academia Ottonia) from 1773 through 1803. Within this period of time, the History of Medicine was taught from 1790 through 1795 by Johann Baptist Dominicus Fin(c)k. This paper elucidates how in this instance protestant universities served as models for catholic universities. Interestingly, it was not the medical faculty itself which developed an interest in teaching medical history. Rather, it was Adalbert Friedrich Marcus (1753-1816), physician-in-waiting of the Prince-Bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal and medical officer in the principality of Bamberg since June 22, 1790, who was charged by the Prince-Bishop with developing guidelines for medical education. The start of the History of Medicine lectures brought with it a heated dispute about an appropriate textbook. The discussion is evidence of a transition from historiography understood as an account of learned doctors of the past to a study of history in a modern sense. PMID:11068514

  17. Academic Behavioural Confidence: A Comparison of Medical and Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Lalage; Sander, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. Sander, Stevenson, King and Coates (2000) identified differences between medical students in a conventional university and psychology students in a post-1992 university in their responses to different styles of learning and teaching. Method. It had been hypothesised that differing levels of confidence explained why the former felt…

  18. A Successful US Academic Collaborative Supporting Medical Education in a Postconflict Setting

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Roseda E.; Niescierenko, Michelle; Tubman, Venée N.; Olson, Bradley G.; Staton, Donna; Williams, Jackson H.; Graham, Elinor A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a model employed by the Academic Collaborative to Support Medical Education in Liberia to augment medical education in a postconflict setting where the health and educational structures and funding are very limited. We effectively utilized a cohort of visiting US pediatric faculty and trainees for short-term but recurrent clinical work and teaching. This model allows US academic medical centers, especially those with smaller residency programs, to provide global health experiences for faculty and trainees while contributing to the strengthening of medical education in the host country. Those involved can work toward a goal of sustainable training with a strengthened host country specialty education system. Partnerships such as ours evolve over time and succeed by meeting the needs of the host country, even during unanticipated challenges, such as the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. PMID:27335926

  19. Traditional, complementary and alternative medical systems and their contribution to personalisation, prediction and prevention in medicine—person-centred medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) systems contribute to the foundation of person-centred medicine (PCM), an epistemological orientation for medical science which places the person as a physical, psychological and spiritual entity at the centre of health care and of the therapeutic process. PCM wishes to broaden the bio-molecular reductionistic approach of medical science towards an integration that allows people, doctors, nurses, health-care professionals and patients to become the real protagonists of the health-care scene. The doctor or caregiver needs to act out of empathy to meet the unique value of each human being, which unfolds over the course of a lifetime from conception to natural death. Knowledge of the human being should not be instrumental to economic or political interests, ideology, theories or religious dogma. Research needs to be broadened with methodological tools to investigate person-centred medical interventions. Salutogenesis is a fundamental principle of PCM, promoting health and preventing illness by strengthening the individual's self-healing abilities. TCAM systems also give tools to predict the insurgence of illness and treat it before the appearance of overt organic disease. A task of PCM is to educate people to take better care of their physical, psychological and spiritual health. Health-care education needs to be broadened to give doctors and health-care workers of the future the tools to act in innovative and highly differentiated ways, always guided by deep respect for individual autonomy, personal culture, religion and beliefs. PMID:23126628

  20. Traditional, complementary and alternative medical systems and their contribution to personalisation, prediction and prevention in medicine-person-centred medicine.

    PubMed

    Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo; Alivia, Mauro; Guadagni, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) systems contribute to the foundation of person-centred medicine (PCM), an epistemological orientation for medical science which places the person as a physical, psychological and spiritual entity at the centre of health care and of the therapeutic process. PCM wishes to broaden the bio-molecular reductionistic approach of medical science towards an integration that allows people, doctors, nurses, health-care professionals and patients to become the real protagonists of the health-care scene. The doctor or caregiver needs to act out of empathy to meet the unique value of each human being, which unfolds over the course of a lifetime from conception to natural death. Knowledge of the human being should not be instrumental to economic or political interests, ideology, theories or religious dogma. Research needs to be broadened with methodological tools to investigate person-centred medical interventions. Salutogenesis is a fundamental principle of PCM, promoting health and preventing illness by strengthening the individual's self-healing abilities. TCAM systems also give tools to predict the insurgence of illness and treat it before the appearance of overt organic disease. A task of PCM is to educate people to take better care of their physical, psychological and spiritual health. Health-care education needs to be broadened to give doctors and health-care workers of the future the tools to act in innovative and highly differentiated ways, always guided by deep respect for individual autonomy, personal culture, religion and beliefs. PMID:23126628

  1. Integrative cancer care in a US academic cancer centre: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Experience.

    PubMed

    Deng, G

    2008-08-01

    Various surveys show that interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among cancer patients. Patients want to explore all options that may help their treatment. Many CAM modalities offer patients an active role in their self-care, and the resulting sense of empowerment is very appealing. On the other hand, many unscrupulous marketeers promote alternative cancer "cures," targeting cancer patients who are particularly vulnerable. Some alternative therapies can hurt patients by delaying effective treatment or by causing adverse effects or detrimental interactions with other medications. It is not in the best interest of cancer patients if they cannot get appropriate guidance on the use of CAM from the health care professionals who are part of their cancer care team. The Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York was established in 1999 to address patient interest in cam, to incorporate helpful complementary therapies into each patient's overall treatment management, to guide patients in avoiding harmful alternative therapies, and to develop prospective research to evaluate the efficacy of CAM modalities. PMID:18769574

  2. Integrative Cancer Care in a US Academic Cancer Centre: The Memorial Sloan–Kettering Experience

    PubMed Central

    Deng, G.

    2008-01-01

    Various surveys show that interest in complementary and alternative medicine (cam) is high among cancer patients. Patients want to explore all options that may help their treatment. Many cam modalities offer patients an active role in their self-care, and the resulting sense of empowerment is very appealing. On the other hand, many unscrupulous marketeers promote alternative cancer “cures,” targeting cancer patients who are particularly vulnerable. Some alternative therapies can hurt patients by delaying effective treatment or by causing adverse effects or detrimental interactions with other medications. It is not in the best interest of cancer patients if they cannot get appropriate guidance on the use of cam from the health care professionals who are part of their cancer care team. The Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center in New York was established in 1999 to address patient interest in cam, to incorporate helpful complementary therapies into each patient’s overall treatment management, to guide patients in avoiding harmful alternative therapies, and to develop prospective research to evaluate the efficacy of cam modalities. PMID:18769574

  3. Academic standards and changing patterns of medical school admissions: a Malaysian study.

    PubMed

    Tan, C M

    1990-07-01

    Changing social demands made it necessary for the Medical Faculty of the University of Malaya to accommodate students with a wider range of academic experience than before. However, teachers sought to achieve comparable academic standards to those in the West by striving to maintain a close resemblance to the Western model of medical education in other respects. As a result teachers failed to adapt their teaching methods, assessment techniques and curriculum design to meet the educational needs of the students, thus compromising academic standards. Many students lack basic academic skills and do not know how to learn effectively. In order to help students overcome their learning difficulties innovative teaching was required during the first year at university, designed to foster the joint development of knowledge and basic skills. In the case of less well-prepared students who lack self-confidence, a caring and supportive learning environment is crucial to the achievement of meaningful learning. Lecturers needed to become facilitators of learning rather than transmitters of knowledge. However, teachers' objective to retain international recognition of the degree, which presumably reflected the importance of teaching, was not operationalized in terms of its incentive structure such that teachers were constrained not to try to fill the new roles demanded of them. It was assumed that academic distinction accrued through scientific research was essential for the achievement of academic excellence. However, under the prevailing circumstances the two aims were mutually exclusive and incompatible and teaching quality deteriorated. PMID:2395423

  4. Learning styles and academic achievement among undergraduate medical students in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Euathrongchit, Juntima

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3%) participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles. PMID:26165948

  5. How one teaching hospital system and one medical school are jointly affirming their academic mission.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, M; Rabkin, M T; Tosteson, D C

    1997-06-01

    The economic forces that are reshaping the practice of medicine and the funding of medical research will have great impact on clinical education and research in teaching hospitals and their associated medical schools. Changes in the setting of and approach to medical education will need to be made in order to continue to train physicians at the same high level as in the past and to maintain the productivity of our national biomedical research enterprise and its contributions to health. Academic leaders, such as department chiefs who have clinical service responsibilities, are finding it more and more difficult to manage simultaneously the demands of the clinical business, education, and research. In an effort to organize a teaching hospital and a medical school in a manner that would position them to maintain more effectively their common academic mission front and center with the clinical business, Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Hospital created a joint venture in 1996. The new nonprofit Institute for Education and Research has education and research as its top (and only) mission. It is designed to provide additional and specific academic leadership and to enable the joint venture to undertake strategic planning for the academic mission. In addition to the challenges it faces from changes in the external environment, the Institute for Education and Research will need to establish a new pattern of interactions internally within the parent institutions. Collaborations with department chairs and faculty are an essential ingredient for its success. It is hoped that this structure will prove to be a useful template for organizing other medical school-hospital collaborations on behalf of the academic mission. PMID:9200578

  6. Research and development in haematology. A report on international congresses and visit to academic centres in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wood, L

    1990-01-01

    Haematology is one of the most rapidly expanding disciplines in medicine and nursing. As occurs in other highly specialised areas, optimum care is now largely of a multidisciplinary nature. In this context there are literally unlimited opportunities for the involvement of professional nurses and, as I have attempted to illustrate in this report, integration in all aspects of research and development and active participation in presentation of research data and discussion at international meetings is one direction in which fulfillment of academic aspirations can be achieved. It is my viewpoint, based on more than a decade of direct involvement in all the activities of our department in Cape Town that these are entirely attainable goals. There is currently, in our country, a concerted move afoot to develop an improved career structure for the professional nurse along the lines of the American clinical nurse specialist. Much of this experience overseas would strongly support that commitment. It was my privilege to enjoy the confidence of the department, university and medical school sufficient for me to present research data at international meetings and to be a welcome visitor at some of the world's premier academic and research institutions. That this was possible reflects the uncompromising commitment in Haematology to the position of the professional nurse as an integral and equal part of the multidisciplinary health care team. PMID:1977529

  7. Gamma irradiation and red cell haemolysis: a study at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Rabeya; Mobin, Mohd Herman; Leong, Chooi Fun

    2015-08-01

    Gamma-irradiation of blood components is regarded a safe procedure used for prevention of transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease. However, reports showed that irradiation can cause erythrocyte haemolysis and damage to the RBC membrane. In University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), a number of suspected transfusion reactions (TR) featured unusual isolated episodes of red-coloured-urine or haemoglobinuria among paediatric patients without clinical features of acute haemolytic TR. Haemolysis of irradiated red cells was suspected as a cause. This study was conducted to evaluate haemolytic changes of RBC components following irradiation. A prospective, pre- and post- irradiation comparative study was conducted on 36 paired RBC-components in the blood-bank, UKMMC in the year 2013. Samples were tested for plasma-Hb, percent-haemolysis, plasma-potassium (K⁺) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level. Post-irradiation mean plasma-Hb and percent-haemolysis were significantly higher than pre-irradiation values at 0.09 ±0.06g/dl VS 0.10 ± 0.06g/dl and 0.19 ± 0.13% VS 0.22 ± .13% respectively, while plasma-K⁺ and LDH values did not show significant difference. However, the mean percent-haemolysis level was still within recommended acceptable levels for clinical use, supporting that irradiated RBC units were safe and of acceptable quality for transfusion. There was no conclusive reason for isolated haemoglobinuria following transfusion of irradiated red-cell products. Further research is suggested to investigate the other possible causes. PMID:26277664

  8. Incidence and outcome of bone metastatic disease at University Malaya Medical Centre

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek Ajit; Haseeb, Amber; Alkubaisi, Alla Allden H Ali

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Morbidity and mortality from malignant diseases are usually the result of metastasis. The bone is the third most common site of metastasis. METHODS This is a retrospective study of patients with metastatic bone disease who were referred to the Orthopaedic Department of University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, between January 2004 and October 2009. RESULTS A total of 151 patients (51.0% men, 49.0% women) had metastatic bone disease, with the highest incidence at the age range of 50–59 years. The commonest primary cancer was breast (23.3%), followed by lung (21.2%), prostate (9.3%), thyroid (7.3%) and renal cell carcinoma (5.3%); unknown primary cancer was 6.6%. There was long bone involvement in 52.7% of cases, axial bone in 44.5%, and both long and axial bones in 2.8%. The majority (90.1%) were symptomatic, with pain as the commonest symptom. 106 (70.2%) patients had pathological fractures. Neurological deficit was reported in 90.7% of patients, with 41.1% having extraskeletal metastases. 67.8% of the lesions were osteolytic, 24.3% were sclerotic, and 7.9%, mixed. Palliative and therapeutic interventions were undertaken for 62.0% of patients. The mean survival times were breast 21.0; thyroid 20.7; prostate 20.3; lung 16.0; and unknown primary cancer 32.6 months. CONCLUSION In our study, breast and lung cancers were the commonest primary cancers in metastatic bone disease. Most patients had more than one site of involvement, pain at presentation and pathological fractures. Surgery is beneficial to relieve pain and improve function and neurology. Duration of survival depends on the type of primary cancer and whether systemic metastasis is present. PMID:25631896

  9. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson’s bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.25–3.02) and less likely to be delayed, have to re-sit an examination, or be warned (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.77). Conclusion Only 32.8% of the variation in self-reported academic performance was explained by the studied

  10. Predictive Modeling of Student Performances for Retention and Academic Support in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi

    2014-01-01

    As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…

  11. Collaborative Academic Training of Psychiatrists and Psychologists in VA and Medical School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; Huszonek, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors review the background and contemporary strengths of Dean's Committee Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the collaborative academic training of psychiatrists and psychologists. Methods: The authors discuss the problems and prospects of the current health care environment as it impacts the behavioral health treatment of…

  12. Impact of Institution of a Stroke Program upon Referral Bias at a Rural Academic Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Jack E.; Libell, David P.; Brooks, Claudette E.; Hobbs, Gerald R.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Referral bias reflecting the preferential hospital transfer of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been demonstrated as the major contributing factor for an observed high nonrisk-adjusted in-hospital crude acute stroke mortality rate at a rural academic medical center. Purpose: This study was done to assess the impact of a…

  13. The History of SHSAAMc: Student Health Services at Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Hembree, Wylie; Bonner, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an historical review of the organization known as Student Health Services at Academic Medical Centers (SHSAAMc). The authors discuss characteristics of health service directors as well as the history of meetings, discussion, and leadership. The focus of the group is the healthcare needs of health professions students at…

  14. Crossing the Great Divide: Adoption of New Technologies, Therapeutics and Diagnostics at Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMonaco, Harold J.; Koski, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The role of new technology in healthcare continues to expand from both the clinical and financial perspectives. Despite the importance of innovation, most academic medical centers do not have a clearly defined process for technology assessment. Recognizing the importance of new drugs, diagnostics and procedures in the care of patients and in the…

  15. Graduate-Entry Medical Student Variables that Predict Academic and Clinical Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Ian; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah

    2004-01-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for graduate-entry medical students completing their third year of university studies. Nine latent variables were considered including the students' background, previous successes with their undergraduate and postgraduate studies and their…

  16. An Academic Career in a Basic Medical Science Department of Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Thomas M.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of opportunities and the development of an academic career in a physiology department within a medical school or basic science department by graduates and postgraduates who intend to participate in physiology on a full-time basis are discussed, emphasizing typical background and job responsibilities. (Author/DC)

  17. Veterans Affairs and Academic Medical Center Affiliations: The North Texas Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Paul Cecil; Hendrickse, William; Orsak, Catherine; Vermette, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors review the more than 30-year history of the academic affiliation between the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and the Mental Health Service at the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System. Methods: The authors interviewed individuals involved at various stages…

  18. Developing an Academic Administration Clerkship for Upper-Division Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejna, William F.; Lerner, Wayne M.

    1978-01-01

    A course at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago provides students with an understanding of the administrative responsibilities inherent in academic management positions. A practicum, thesis project, and seminars cover such topics as legislative trends and effects of health care institutions, manpower planning and recruitment,…

  19. Developing physician leaders in academic medical centers. Part 1: Their changing role.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, D J

    1996-01-01

    While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management, intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development; management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. This article article was prepared by the author from research into and presentation of a thesis entitled. "The Importance of Leadership Training And Development For Physicians In Academic Medical Centers In An Increasingly Complex Healthcare Environment, " prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in the College (ACHE). Part 2 will appear in the next issue of the Journal. PMID:10162876

  20. Upgrading a ColdFusion-Based Academic Medical Library Staff Intranet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Hart, Robert; Ingrassia, Barbara; Mayotte, Kerry; Palmer, Lisa A.; Powell, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article details the process of upgrading and expanding an existing academic medical library intranet to include a wiki, blog, discussion forum, and photo collection manager. The first version of the library's intranet from early 2002 was powered by ColdFusion software and existed primarily to allow staff members to author and store minutes of…

  1. Impact of Institution of a Stroke Program Upon Referral Bias at a Rural Academic Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Jack E.; Libell, David P.; Brooks, Claudette E.; Hobbs, Gerald R.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Referral bias reflecting the preferential hospital transfer of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been demonstrated as the major contributing factor for an observed high nonrisk-adjusted in-hospital crude acute stroke mortality rate at a rural academic medical center. Purpose: This study was done to assess the impact of a…

  2. Appearance(s) before Academic Review and Promotions: Any Personality Differences in Medical Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, R. Stephen; Borges, Nicole J.; Atwood, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Despite medical schools having some system in place to review student progress and promote students (referred to hereafter as academic review and promotions; ARP), little research has been done with the purpose of understanding personality characteristics of the students who appear before an ARP committee or governing body. A recent study…

  3. Developing a Sustainable Research Culture in an Independent Academic Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Independent academic medical centers (IAMC) are challenged to develop and support a research enterprise and maintain primary goals of healthcare delivery and financial solvency. Strategies for promoting translational research have been shown to be effective at institutions in the top level of federal funding, but not for smaller IAMCs. The…

  4. Enrollees' Perceptions of Participating in the Education of Medical Students at an Academically Affiliated HMO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Sarah; Plasso, Ann; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.; Fletcher, Robert H.; Christiansen, Cindy L.; Inui, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the views of enrollees in an academically affiliated health maintenance organization (HMO) about participating in the education of medical students. Responses from 210 adults and 125 parents or guardians replying about children show that enrollees thought the HMO should be involved in teaching but they had specific concerns about the…

  5. College Students with and without ADHD: Comparison of Self-Report of Medication Usage, Study Habits, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…

  6. Academic and Professional Career Outcomes of Medical School Graduates Who Failed USMLE Step 1 on the First Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…

  7. The Effects of Corporatization on Academic Medical Centers. How Will the Corporatization of Health Care Influence Health Professions Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Marvin R.

    Areas of agreement/conflict between academic medical centers and investor owned corporations are considered. Academic medical centers are part of the university system, which is responsible for education, research, and the related public good (e.g., nurturing of professions). Major areas for a potential confluence of interest between the academic…

  8. A suicide prevention advisory group at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Hough, D; Lewis, P

    2000-02-01

    During a 15-month period, there were seven suicides among patients who were in active treatment or who had been seen recently by providers in the Department of Psychiatry of Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. As a result, a Suicide Prevention Advisory Group was formed to identify possible causes and make recommendations aimed at improving the identification and treatment of suicidal patients. The group made 11 specific recommendations. No known suicides occurred during the 22 months after the implementation of the Suicide Prevention Advisory Group's recommendations. PMID:10709368

  9. A suicide prevention advisory group at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Hough, David; Lewis, Philip

    2010-05-01

    During a 15-month period, there were seven suicides among patients who were in active treatment or who had been seen recently by providers in the Department of Psychiatry of Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. As a result, a Suicide Prevention Advisory Group (SPAG) was formed to identify possible causes and make recommendations aimed at improving the identification and treatment of suicidal patients. The group made 11 specific recommendations. No known suicides occurred during the 22 months after the implementation of the Suicide Prevention Advisory Group's recommendations. PMID:20486507

  10. TOWARDS LEARNER-CENTRED MEDICAL CURRICULUM: QUALITATIVE FOCUS GROUP STUDY OF INDIVIDUAL PREFERENCES DEPENDING ON VERBAL ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Bukeyeva, A; Riklefs, V; Riklefs, I; Tashkenbayeva, V; Kassatova, A

    2016-05-01

    There is a strong evidence in medical education literature that the learner-centred curriculum favouring the use of metacognition and self-learning is very proficient. However, ethnocultural and verbal environment may undermine learners' ability to utilise the learning strategies, leading to inefficient learning. This study aimed to investigate the personal preferences of learners in multilingual educational environment prompting the most efficient learning. The study uses qualitative focus group methodology to understand students' opinion on how educational environment influences the efficiency of medical school curriculum. PMID:27348171

  11. Partnerships between Medical Centres and General Hospitals Providing Normal Care Standards in Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schütz, F; Maleika, A; Poeschl, J; Domschke, C; Seitz, H; Beuter-Winkler, P; Sohn, C

    2012-10-01

    Hospital managers and the heads of medical departments are nowadays being faced with ever increasing demands. It is becoming difficult for some small hospitals to find highly experienced or even experienced medical staff, to provide specific health-care services at break-even prices and to maintain their position in competition with other hospitals. On the other hand, large hospitals are facing enormous pressure in the investment and costs fields. Cooperation could provide a solution for these problems. For an optimal strategic exploitation of the hospitals, their direction could be placed in the hands of a joint medical director. However, the directorship of two hospitals is associated both with opportunities and with risks. The present article illustrates the widely differing aspects of the cooperation between a medical centre and a general hospital providing standard care from both a theoretical point of view and on the basis of practical experience with an actual cooperation of this type in Heidelberg. PMID:25308978

  12. Is there a role for academic medical centers in emerging markets?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Charles M; Thompson, Steven J; Wu, Sandford; Chellappa, Mohan; Hasham, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Governments in emerging markets face mounting challenges in managing health spending, building capability and capacity, modernizing ageing infrastructure, and investing in skills and resources. One path to overcoming these challenges is to establish new public-private models of health care development and delivery based on United States academic medical centers, whose missions are to advance medical education and clinical delivery. Johns Hopkins Medicine is a participant in the collaboration developing between the Perdana University Hospital and the Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Malaysia. These two organizations comprise an academic health science center based on the United States model. The Perdana project provides constructive insights into the opportunities and challenges that governments, universities, and the private sector face when introducing new models of patient care that are integrated with medical education, clinical training, and biomedical research. PMID:23484425

  13. Academic Institutionalization of Community Health Services: Way Ahead in Medical Education Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Policy on medical education has a major bearing on the outcome of health care delivery system. Countries plan and execute development of human resource in health, based on the realistic assessments of health system needs. A closer observation of medical education and its impact on the delivery system in India reveals disturbing trends. Primary care forms backbone of any system for health care delivery. One of the major challenges in India has been chronic deficiency of trained human resource eager to work in primary care setting. Attracting talent and employing skilled workforce seems a distant dream. Talking specifically of the medical education, there are large regional variations, urban - rural divide and issues with financing of the infrastructure. The existing design of medical education is not compatible with the health care delivery system of India. Impact is visible at both qualitative as well as quantitative levels. Medical education and the delivery system are working independent of each other, leading outcomes which are inequitable and unjust. Decades of negligence of medical education regulatory mechanism has allowed cropping of multiple monopolies governed by complex set of conflict of interest. Primary care physicians, supposed to be the community based team leaders stand disfranchised academically and professionally. To undo the distorted trajectory, a paradigm shift is required. In this paper, we propose expansion of ownership in medical education with academic institutionalization of community health services. PMID:24478994

  14. Maternal Mortality at Federal Medical Centre Yola, Adamawa State: A Five-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Bukar, M; Kunmanda, V; Moruppa, JY; Ehalaiye, B; Takai, UI; Ndonya, DN

    2013-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern region of Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) in the world, and most of these deaths are preventable. Culture, religion and customs that prevent access to care contribute immensely to these deaths. Aim: To review and document the MMR. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all maternal deaths recorded at the Federal Medical Centre Yola (FMCY). The case notes of all cases of maternal deaths from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrieved and relevant data obtained and analyzed. The age, parity, literacy level, booking status, causes of maternal deaths, were analysed. Data were presented in tables and percentages, using SPSS version 16(Chicago, USA 2006). Results: There were 54 maternal deaths among the 8497 deliveries, giving an overall MMR of 636 per 100,000 deliveries. Thirty three folders (33) folders were retrieved and 28 had complete information for analysis. The mean (SD) age and parity were 28.2 (6.2) and 3.4 (2.0), respectively. Most deaths (9/28; 32.1%) were in the age group of 20-24 years. Multiparae (14/28; 50%) constituted the largest parity group. Majority (16/28; 57.1) were non-literates, 16/28 (57.1%) were of Hausa/Fulani extraction and 12/28 (42.9%) were unbooked. The leading causes of maternal mortality were preeclampsia/eclampsia (9/28; 32.1%), obstetric hemorrhage (8/28; 28.6%) and severe anemia (3/28; 10.7%). All those who died of preeclampsia/eclampsia were Hausa/Fulani. Most (14/28; 50%) deaths occurred within 24 h of admission. Majority of the deaths were Muslims (χ2 = 15.108, P = <0.001). Ethnicity had no significant influence on maternal death (χ2 = 15.550, P = 0.21). Conclusion: In conclusion, the MMR in FMCY is higher than the national average. The fact that most deaths occurred within 24 h of admission suggests that many of the patients delayed reaching the referring center for a variety of reasons. Preventive measures should focus on this delay, which is

  15. Does academic assessment system type affect levels of academic stress in medical students? A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniyal; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives. PMID:26112353

  16. Accelerating change: Fostering innovation in healthcare delivery at academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrey; Barnett, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) have the potential to be leaders in the era of healthcare delivery reform, but most have yet to display a commitment to delivery innovation on par with their commitment to basic research. Several institutional factors impede delivery innovation including the paucity of adequate training in design and implementation of new delivery models and the lack of established pathways for academic career advancement outside of research. This paper proposes two initiatives to jumpstart disruptive innovation at AMCs: an institutional "innovation incubator" program and a clinician-innovator career track coupled with innovation training programs. PMID:26250082

  17. Preparing Academic Medical Centers for the Clinical Learning Environment Review: Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative IV Outcomes and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Markova, Tsveti; Polis, Rachael L.; Peters, Marguerite; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Driven by changes to improve quality in patient care and population health while reducing costs, evolvement of the health system calls for restructuring health professionals' education and aligning it with the healthcare delivery system. In response to these changes, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) encourages the integration of health system leadership, faculty, and residents in restructuring graduate medical education (GME). Innovative approaches to achieving this restructuring and the CLER objectives are essential. Methods: The Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative (NI) IV provided a multiinstitutional learning collaborative focused on supporting GME redesign. From October 2013 through March 2015, participants conducted relevant projects, attended onsite meetings, and participated in teleconferences and webinars addressing the CLER areas. Participants shared best practices, resources, and experiences. We designed a pre/post descriptive study to examine outcomes. Results: Thirty-three institutions completed NI IV, and at its conclusion, the majority reported greater CLER readiness compared with baseline. Twenty-two (88.0%) institutions reported that NI IV had a great impact on advancing their efforts in the CLER area of their project focus, and 15 (62.5%) reported a great impact in other CLER focus areas. Opportunities to share progress with other teams and the national group meetings were reported to contribute to teams' success. Conclusion: The NI IV learning collaborative prepared institutions for CLER, suggesting successful integration of the clinical and educational enterprises. We propose that national learning collaboratives of GME-sponsoring health systems enable advancement of their education mission, leading ultimately to better healthcare outcomes. This learning model may be generalizable to newfound programs for academic medical centers

  18. Education in medical billing benefits both neurology trainees and academic departments.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Jeff L

    2014-11-11

    The objective of residency training is to produce physicians who can function independently within their chosen subspecialty and practice environment. Skills in the business of medicine, such as clinical billing, are widely applicable in academic and private practices but are not commonly addressed during formal medical education. Residency and fellowship training include limited exposure to medical billing, but our academic department's performance of these skills was inadequate: in 56% of trainee-generated outpatient notes, documentation was insufficient to sustain the chosen billing level. We developed a curriculum to improve the accuracy of documentation and coding and introduced practice changes to address our largest sources of error. In parallel, we developed tools that increased the speed and efficiency of documentation. Over 15 months, we progressively eliminated note devaluation, increased the mean level billed by trainees to nearly match that of attending physicians, and increased outpatient revenue by $34,313/trainee/year. Our experience suggests that inclusion of billing education topics into the formal medical curriculum benefits both academic medical centers and trainees. PMID:25298311

  19. Academic and personality correlates of career indecision in medical students entering training.

    PubMed

    Walters, G D

    1982-11-01

    The academic and personality correlates of medical career indecision were investigated in two separate studies. In the first, the effect of career indecision on academic performance was examined in a group of ninety-eight (eighty male, eighteen female) medical students entering Texas Tech University School of Medicine over a 2-year period. These medical students voluntarily completed the Medical Specialty Preference Inventory (MSPI) as part of a routine preadmission test battery. Subjects were assigned to one of three conditions-decided, high-interest undecided and low-interest undecided--based on results from the MSPI. As predicted, 'low-interest undecided' students achieved significantly lower initial medical school grades relative to 'decided' students, whereas 'high-interest undecided' students did not differ from the 'decided' students. The second study investigated the influence of career indecision upon personality. Subjects for this study were eighty-eight (sixty-six male, twenty-two female) medical students entering Texas Tech University School of Medicine over a 1-year period. These students voluntarily completed the MSPI and several personality measures as part of a pre-admission test battery. The results only partially supported the stated hypotheses. Although 'low-interest undecided' students demonstrated less personal integration compared with 'decided' students, they were no more anxious. PMID:7176977

  20. A holistic review of the medical school admission process: examining correlates of academic underperformance

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Terry D.; Elam, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite medical school admission committees’ best efforts, a handful of seemingly capable students invariably struggle during their first year of study. Yet, even as entrance criteria continue to broaden beyond cognitive qualifications, attention inevitably reverts back to such factors when seeking to understand these phenomena. Using a host of applicant, admission, and post-admission variables, the purpose of this inductive study, then, was to identify a constellation of student characteristics that, taken collectively, would be predictive of students at-risk of underperforming during the first year of medical school. In it, we hypothesize that a wider range of factors than previously recognized could conceivably play roles in understanding why students experience academic problems early in the medical educational continuum. Methods The study sample consisted of the five most recent matriculant cohorts from a large, southeastern medical school (n=537). Independent variables reflected: 1) the personal demographics of applicants (e.g., age, gender); 2) academic criteria (e.g., undergraduate grade point averages [GPA], medical college admission test); 3) selection processes (e.g., entrance track, interview scores, committee votes); and 4) other indicators of personality and professionalism (e.g., Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test™ emotional intelligence scores, NEO PI-R™ personality profiles, and appearances before the Professional Code Committee [PCC]). The dependent variable, first-year underperformance, was defined as ANY action (repeat, conditionally advance, or dismiss) by the college's Student Progress and Promotions Committee (SPPC) in response to predefined academic criteria. This study protocol was approved by the local medical institutional review board (IRB). Results Of the 537 students comprising the study sample, 61 (11.4%) met the specified criterion for academic underperformance. Significantly increased academic risks

  1. Three-Year Experience of an Academic Medical Center Ombuds Office

    PubMed Central

    Layde, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues. PMID:26675192

  2. Three-Year Experience of an Academic Medical Center Ombuds Office.

    PubMed

    Raymond, John R; Layde, Peter M

    2016-03-01

    An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues. PMID:26675192

  3. An Unsuccessful Experience with Computerized Medical Records in an Academic Medical Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambro, Mark R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the Computer Stored Ambulatory Record (COSTAR), a computerized medical records system, installed at a large primary care clinic at a university medical center is reported. Use of the system was terminated because clinic revenues could not cover operating costs. (Author/MLW)

  4. Rethinking the provision of reference services in academic medical school libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, G T

    1996-01-01

    New roles for librarians are emerging as a result of rapid changes in information technology. The literature is replete with controversy about nonprofessionals staffing the reference desk, yet such changes in staffing may provide the time librarians need to do other tasks. This paper describes a research project that examined reference desk staffing in academic medical school libraries and its effect on questions received and the provision of a consultation service. A questionnaire was sent to all academic medical school libraries in North America and a 70% return rate was achieved. Results indicated a significant relationship between nonprofessional staffing and both the questions received and the provision of research consultation by appointment. The author suggests that services be reconfigured to make more effective use of both professional and nonprofessional staff. PMID:8938326

  5. Role of students’ context in predicting academic performance at a medical school: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) registered on the full-time Medicine and Surgery programme, who successfully completed their medical degree. Main outcome measures Final average at year 4 of the medical programme (represented as a percentage). Results Entry grades were positively associated with final attainment (p<0.001). Students from high-performing schools entered university with higher qualifications than students from low-performing schools (p<0.001), though these differences did not persist at university. Comprehensive school students entered university with higher grades than independent school students (p<0.01), and attained higher averages at university, though differences were not significant after controlling for multiple effects. Associations between school type and achievement differed between sexes. Females attained higher averages than males at university. Significant academic differences were observed between ethnic groups at entry level and university. Neither of the postcode-based measures of disadvantage predicted significant differences in attainment at school or university. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that educational attainment at school is a good, albeit imperfect, predictor of academic attainment at medical school. Most attainment differences observed between students either decreased or disappeared during university. Unlike previous studies, independent school students did not enter university with the highest grades, but achieved the lowest attainment at university

  6. [Lódź--centre of medical sciences development at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Social and economical changes in Lódź transforming the town into a strong textile industry centre at the turn of 19th and 20th century stimulated the development of medical sciences and professional activity. Between 1800 and 1914 a 600-fold increase in the number of inhabitants occured - a demographic phenomenon unknown in Europe at that time. This led to specific sanitary and hygiene conditions, negatively affecting the population's health. In these social and economic conditions, with Russian occupant unwillingness to act, medical professionals and other social groups, in particular founders ot the textile industry--K. Scheibler, I. Poznanski, I. Heinzel, I. Kunitzer and others spontaneously acted to solve urgent medical problems. In this period a number of modern private and public hospitals such as neuro-psychiatric " Kochanówka" hospital, paediatric "Anna-Maria" hospital, factory-owned hospitals and other social aid centres were organised. These institutions, apart clinical activities for the society, held scientific research. A number of scientists were active in Lódź at that time: Stanisław Bartoszewicz, Józef Brudzinski, Józef Kollnski, Jan Mazurkiewicz, Witold Chodźko, Tadeusz Mogielnicki, Józef Maybaum-Marzynski, Stanislaw Serkowski, Stanislaw Skalski, Emanuel Sonnenberg and others. They were involed in new fields of medical research, such as paediatric diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, neoplastic diseases, infectious diseases and occupational medicine. All these activities were co-ordinated by: Lódź Medical Association, Lódź Division of the Warsaw Society of Hygiene, Industrial Medicine Assocation and Tuberculosis League. At the turn of the 19th and 20th century Lódź was listed among well known centres of modern diagnostic and therapeutic methods in the menagement of tuberculosis, childhood diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Professional skills and scientific activity of physicians form Lódź, their efforts in

  7. Positioning academic medical centers and teaching hospitals to thrive in the next decade.

    PubMed

    Morris, D E

    1985-06-01

    Market share for academic medical centers and teaching hospitals will decline over the next five years necessitating new strategies to ensure growth and profitability. These types of institutions are, however, in a strong position to compete and gain market share locally by building a defensible competitive advantage. This article offers three avenues for increasing market share: networking, brand name product differentiation, and business diversification. PMID:10271804

  8. Information Technology Support for Clinical Genetic Testing within an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Samuel; Mahanta, Lisa; Ros, Lei Lei; Clark, Eugene; Babb, Lawrence; Oates, Michael; Rehm, Heidi; Lebo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Academic medical centers require many interconnected systems to fully support genetic testing processes. We provide an overview of the end-to-end support that has been established surrounding a genetic testing laboratory within our environment, including both laboratory and clinician facing infrastructure. We explain key functions that we have found useful in the supporting systems. We also consider ways that this infrastructure could be enhanced to enable deeper assessment of genetic test results in both the laboratory and clinic. PMID:26805890

  9. Information Technology Support for Clinical Genetic Testing within an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Samuel; Mahanta, Lisa; Ros, Lei Lei; Clark, Eugene; Babb, Lawrence; Oates, Michael; Rehm, Heidi; Lebo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Academic medical centers require many interconnected systems to fully support genetic testing processes. We provide an overview of the end-to-end support that has been established surrounding a genetic testing laboratory within our environment, including both laboratory and clinician facing infrastructure. We explain key functions that we have found useful in the supporting systems. We also consider ways that this infrastructure could be enhanced to enable deeper assessment of genetic test results in both the laboratory and clinic. PMID:26805890

  10. Results of an Institutional LGBT Climate Survey at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Chester, Sean D; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Eckstrand, Kristen L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the climate and culture experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees and students at one large academic medical center. An anonymous, online institutional climate survey was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of LGBT employees and students. There were 42 LGBT and 14 non-LGBT survey participants. Results revealed that a surprisingly large percentage of LGBT individuals experienced pressure to remain "closeted" and were harassed despite medical center policies of non-discrimination. Continuing training, inclusive policies and practices, and the development of mechanisms to address LGBT-specific harassment are necessary for improving institutional climate. PMID:26789861

  11. What do clinicians want? Interest in integrative health services at a North Carolina academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Dirkse, Deborah; Eadie, Dee; Pennington, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Background Use of complementary medicine is common, consumer driven and usually outpatient focused. We wished to determine interest among the medical staff at a North Carolina academic medical center in integrating diverse therapies and services into comprehensive care. Methods We conducted a cross sectional on-line survey of physicians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants at a tertiary care medical center in 2006. The survey contained questions on referrals and recommendations in the past year and interest in therapies or services if they were to be provided at the medical center in the future. Results Responses were received from 173 clinicians in 26 different departments, programs and centers. There was strong interest in offering several specific therapies: therapeutic exercise (77%), expert consultation about herbs and dietary supplements (69%), and massage (66%); there was even stronger interest in offering comprehensive treatment programs such as multidisciplinary pain management (84%), comprehensive nutritional assessment and advice (84%), obesity/healthy lifestyle promotion (80%), fit for life (exercise and lifestyle program, 76%), diabetes healthy lifestyle promotion (73%); and comprehensive psychological services for stress management, including hypnosis and biofeedback (73%). Conclusion There is strong interest among medical staff at an academic health center in comprehensive, integrated services for pain, obesity, and diabetes and in specific services in fitness, nutrition and stress management. Future studies will need to assess the cost-effectiveness of such services, as well as their financial sustainability and impact on patient satisfaction, health and quality of life. PMID:17291340

  12. United States academic medical centers: priorities and challenges amid market transformation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Irene M; Anason, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    United States academic medical centers (AMCs) have upheld their long-standing reputation for excellence by teaching and training the next generation of physicians, supporting medical research, providing world-class medical care, and offering breakthrough treatments for highly complex medical cases. In recent years, the pace and direction of change reshaping the American health care industry has created a set of new and profound challenges that AMC leaders must address in order to sustain their institutions. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is an alliance of 116 leading nonprofit academic medical centers and 276 of their affiliated hospitals, all of which are focused on delivering world-class patient care. Formed in 1984, UHC fosters collaboration with and among its members through its renowned programs and services in the areas of comparative data and analytics, performance improvement, supply chain management, strategic research, and public policy. Each year, UHC surveys the executives of its member institutions to understand the issues they view as most critical to sustaining the viability and success of their organizations. The results of UHC's most recent 2011 member survey, coupled with a 2012 Strategic Health Perspectives Harris Interactive presentation, based in parton surveys of major health care industry stakeholders reveal the most important and relevant issues and opportunities that hospital leaders face today, as the United States health care delivery system undergoes a period of unprecedented transformation. PMID:23484431

  13. Unintentional Pharmaceutical-Related Medication Errors Caused by Laypersons Reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists. PMID:26990237

  14. Psychologists in medical schools and academic medical centers: over 100 years of growth, influence, and partnership.

    PubMed

    Robiner, William N; Dixon, Kim E; Miner, Jacob L; Hong, Barry A

    2014-04-01

    Psychologists have served on the faculties of medical schools for over 100 years. Psychologists serve in a number of different roles and make substantive contributions to medical schools' tripartite mission of research, education, and clinical service. This article provides an overview of the history of psychologists' involvement in medical schools, including their growing presence in and integration with diverse departments over time. We also report findings from a survey of medical school psychologists that explored their efforts in nonclinical areas (i.e., research, education, administration) as well as clinical endeavors (i.e., assessment, psychotherapy, consultation). As understanding of the linkage between behavioral and psychological factors and health status and treatment outcomes increases, the roles of psychologists in health care are likely to expand beyond mental health. An increasing focus on accountability-related to treatment outcomes and interprofessional research, education, and models of care delivery-will likely provide additional opportunities for psychologists within health care and professional education. The well-established alignment of psychologists' expertise and skills with the mission and complex organizational needs of medical schools augurs a partnership on course to grow stronger. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24588315

  15. English for the Workplace: Doing Patient-Centred Care in Medical Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Maria R.; Yates, Lynda

    2013-01-01

    Canada, like other first-world countries, relies in large part on professional immigrants trained in other cultures and languages to complement its workforce in a wide range of professions, including medicine. International medical graduates (IMGs) who are nonnative English-speaking (NNES) and who have trained in different medical contexts are…

  16. Key Elements of Clinical Physician Leadership at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Dine, C. Jessica; Kahn, Jeremy M; Abella, Benjamin S; Asch, David A; Shea, Judy A

    2011-01-01

    Background A considerable body of literature in the management sciences has defined leadership and how leadership skills can be attained. There is considerably less literature about leadership within medical settings. Physicians-in-training are frequently placed in leadership positions ranging from running a clinical team or overseeing a resuscitation effort. However, physicians-in-training rarely receive such training. The objective of this study was to discover characteristics associated with effective physician leadership at an academic medical center for future development of such training. Methods We conducted focus groups with medical professionals (attending physicians, residents, and nurses) at an academic medical center. The focus group discussion script was designed to elicit participants' perceptions of qualities necessary for physician leadership. The lead question asked participants to imagine a scenario in which they either acted as or observed a physician leader. Two independent reviewers reviewed transcripts to identify key domains of physician leadership. Results Although the context was not specified, the focus group participants discussed leadership in the context of a clinical team. They identified 4 important themes: management of the team, establishing a vision, communication, and personal attributes. Conclusions Physician leadership exists in clinical settings. This study highlights the elements essential to that leadership. Understanding the physician attributes and behaviors that result in effective leadership and teamwork can lay the groundwork for more formal leadership education for physicians-in-training. PMID:22379520

  17. Assessment of the Need to Integrate Academic Electronic Medical Records Into the Undergraduate Clinical Practicum: A Focus Group Interview.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mona; Park, Joon Ho; Lee, Hyeong Suk

    2016-06-01

    As healthcare systems demand that nurses be competent in using electronic medical records for patient care, the integration of electronic medical records into nursing curricula has become necessary. The purpose of this study was to explore how students, new nurses, clinical instructors, and faculty perceive the integration of academic electronic medical records into the undergraduate clinical practicum. From January to February 2014, four focus group interviews with 18 participants were conducted based on purposive sampling. Content analysis was used on the unabridged transcripts to extract themes and develop meaningful categories. Three major themes and eight subthemes were revealed from the focus group interviews. The major themes were "electronic medical record as a learning tool for clinical practicum," "essential functions of academic electronic medical records," and "expected outcomes of academic electronic medical record." Participants expected academic electronic medical records to enhance students' nursing informatics competencies. The findings of this study can inform the process of developing academic electronic medical records for clinical practicum, which will then augment students' informatics competencies. PMID:27081757

  18. Information technology leadership in academic medical centers: a tale of four cultures.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C P

    1999-07-01

    Persons and groups within academic medical centers bring consistent and predictable viewpoints to planning and decision making. The varied professional and academic cultures of these individuals appear to account primarily for the diversity of their viewpoints. Understanding these professional cultures can help leaders achieve some predictability in the complex environments for which they are responsible. Leaders in information technology in particular, in order to be successful, must become part-time anthropologists, immersing themselves in the varied workplaces of their constituents to understand the work they do and the cultures that have grown up around this work. Only in this way will they be able to manage the challenges that arise continuously as the technology and the needs it can address change over time. In this article, the author briefly describes the concept of culture, portrays four specific professional cultures that typically coexist in academic medical centers, and argues that understanding these cultures is absolutely critical to effective management and use of information resources. PMID:10429588

  19. [Factors associated with academic success of medical students at Buenos Aires University].

    PubMed

    Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Álvarez Rodríguez, Juan E; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B; Poveda Camargo, Ricardo L; Couto, Juan L; Provenzano, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common factors relating to the academic success of medical students who were distinguished with honors at the Buenos Aires University. In 2011, 142 graduates were surveyed; the questionnaire included 59 questions on their sociodemographic environment, living conditions and social integration, motivation to study, learning capacity and health quality during their career. Compared to other students, these distinguished students more often lived in the city, far from their families; had been educated at private or universitary high schools, their economic needs were financed by their parents, who were on the whole professionals. Most of them were single and childless. The possibility of future employment oportunities (work) did not influence their choice of a medical career, academic success was important to them and they believed that success depended largely on personal effort; they knew how to handle anxiety, were sociable but independent and preferred solid experience to abstract conceptuality in order to obtain information. Our conclusion, within the current system of candidate selection, these results serve to calculate the covert self-selection mechanisms during the career, or in a more restrictive regime, to select those likely to reach academic success due to their privileged ambience. The analysis of demographic factors indicates some degree of inequality for socially disadvantaged students. Perhaps, a selection system based only on intellectual abilities would help identify and support the best candidates regardless of their social context. PMID:25555005

  20. Good Neighbors: Shared Challenges and Solutions Toward Increasing Value at Academic Medical Centers and Universities.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Gerard P

    2015-12-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) and universities are experiencing increasing pressure to enhance the value they offer at the same time that they are facing challenges related to outcomes, controlling costs, new competition, and government mandates. Yet, rarely do the leaders of these academic neighbors work cooperatively to enhance value. In this Perspective the author, a former university regional campus president with duties in an AMC as an academic physician, shares his insights into the shared challenges these academic neighbors face in improving the value of their services in complex environments. He describes the successes some AMCs have had in generating revenues from new clinical programs that reduce the overall cost of care for larger populations. He also describes how several universities have taken a comprehensive approach to reduce overhead and administrative costs. The author identifies six themes related to successful value improvement efforts and provides examples of successful strategies used by AMCs and their university neighbors to improve the overall value of their programs. He concludes by encouraging leaders of AMCs and universities to share information about their successes in value improvements with each other, to seek additional joint value enhancement efforts, and to market their value improvements to the public. PMID:26266460

  1. The medical information needs of internists and pediatricians at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Woolf, S H; Benson, D A

    1989-10-01

    Medical information needs were examined in a survey of sixty-seven physicians selected from the faculty and housestaff at Johns Hopkins Hospital. A standardized questionnaire was administered personally by a medical informatics physician to collect data on information needs, attitudes, and previous experience with computers. The types of information most frequently required by both faculty and housestaff were treatment recommendations and differential diagnosis. The sources of reference information most commonly used were textbooks and colleagues. The information needs of housestaff differed significantly in several categories from those of faculty physicians. Housestaff more frequently needed information for patient care (P less than 0.05), and preferred the use of textbooks (P less than 0.01) and handbooks (P less than 0.001) as information sources. Faculty more frequently needed information for activities unrelated to patient care (P less than 0.01) and placed greater importance on basic science information (P less than 0.01). When asked to suggest references for online access, the respondents named 143 journals and textbooks, with journals overwhelmingly preferred over textbooks. Only one reference, the New England Journal of Medicine, was requested by a majority of the respondents. The importance of a broad understanding of physician information needs through improved data-collection techniques is discussed as a means of increasing the use of medical information systems. PMID:2790344

  2. Great expectations: stress and the medical family. 1987 Committee on Issues, Association for Academic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabri, P J; McDaniel, M D; Gaskill, H V; Garrison, R N; Hanks, J B; Maier, R V; Telford, G L

    1989-11-01

    The high divorce rate and significant stress experienced by families of academic surgeons stimulated the Committee on Issues of the Association of Academic Surgery to choose medical family stress as the topic for the 1987 Committee presentation at the annual meeting. The Committee hoped to provide insight into the cause of this stress and new strategies for coping with this pervasive problem. Forty-three percent of the 505 surgeons who entered the Association from 1981 through 1984 and 38% of their spouses responded to a questionnaire covering issues of time management, response to stress, child rearing, financial security, and spouse career. A panel consisting of Shirley P. Levine, M.D., Hiram C. Polk, Jr., M.D., and Lane A. Gerber, Ph.D., after discussing the questionnaire results, recommended realistic goal setting, specific prioritization of activities, recognition of the considerable contributions of the spouse, and insight into personal limitations as mechanisms for improving family function. PMID:2811353

  3. Selection of medical students on the basis of non-academic skills: is it worth the trouble?

    PubMed

    Niessen, A Susan M; Meijer, Rob R

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we discuss the practical usefulness of selecting future medical students on the basis of increasingly popular non-academic tests (eg multiple mini-interviews, situational judgment tests) in addition to academic tests. Non-academic tests assess skills such as ethical decision making, communication and collaboration skills, or traits such as conscientiousness. Although other studies showed that performance on non-academic tests could have a positive relationship with future professional performance, we argue that this relationship should be interpreted in the context of the base rate (the proportion of suitable candidates in the applicant pool) and the selection ratio (the proportion of selected applicants from the applicant pool). We provide some numerical examples in the context of medical student selection. Finally, we suggest that optimising training in non-academic skills may be a more successful alternative than selecting students on the basis of these skills. PMID:27481377

  4. How big should an integrated health care delivery system be at an academic medical center?

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1995-07-01

    The author defines integrated health care delivery systems and comments that there are few such systems now but many in various stages of development. The size of such a system can be described in terms of the number of patients it serves, including their health status and utilization of care, the geographic configuration of the served area, the number of physicians, and the scope and extent of the facilities network. There are a variety of factors that influence a system's size; the author concentrates on the factors that an academic medical center must consider when formulating system-size goals. He discusses (1) the influence of how the institution structures itself to survive; (2) the effects of technology, innovation, and health care costs on the size and organization of these systems; and (3) the effects of the specific characteristics of the institutions' missions of education, research, and patient care. Real numbers describing integrated systems are presented as they relate to three possible institutional goals: economic viability, academic viability, and academic leadership. The author explains why academic medical centers should not try to be only tertiary or quaternary care providers for other integrated health care delivery systems, but at the same time emphasizes that there is no easy or inexpensive way for centers to develop their own systems. Alternative structures for integrated systems are discussed, such as "disease management systems" being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, an "end-to-end linkage" approach, and various ideas to include "captive markets," such as prisoners, university students, and members of communities for the elderly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7612122

  5. Evaluation of the admission procedure and academic performance on the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Susec-Michieli, M; Kalisnik, M

    1983-07-01

    The data about the applicants and medical students who matriculated at the Medical Faculty of Ljubljana during the period from 1962-63 to 1969-70 by admission procedure were reviewed. A higher proportion of women than men was accepted, but men went on from year to year more regularly (P less than 0.05). Women graduated significantly later (P less than 0.05). More than half the students came from Ljubljana and its surrounding area. Academic success was correlated with general success in secondary school and with the raw scores at the admission examinations. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated and their values varied greatly between men and women, as well as among single cohorts. The multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor for academic performance was the average success in secondary school (gymnasium) and in addition, the raw scores in biology and foreign language obtained at the admission examination. The results also showed the standardized regression coefficients beta and these variables should therefore be retained in the admission procedure in future. The cumulated coefficient of determination could explain about 11% to 15% of the variability of dependent variables--i.e., average academic success (mean mark of all examinations) and average academic success standardized to the duration of study. The psychological test was of the least importance and could be omitted in future admission procedures. The mean mark in mathematics in secondary school and the mean mark in somatology (the study of the anatomy and physiology of the body) at the admission examination correlated highly with other admission criteria and could also be omitted in future. PMID:6877106

  6. Commentary: Interim leadership of academic departments at U.S. medical schools.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, R Kevin; Aber, Robert C; Quillen, David A

    2009-10-01

    Medical schools and teaching hospitals are experiencing more frequent turnover of department chairs. Loss of a department chair creates instability in the department and may have a negative effect on the organization at large. Interim leadership of academic departments is common, and interim chairs are expected to immediately demonstrate skills and leadership abilities. However, little is known about how persons are prepared to assume the interim chair role. Newer competencies for effective leadership include an understanding of the business of medicine, interpersonal and communication skills, the ability to deal with conflict and solve adaptive challenges, and the ability to build and work on teams. Medical schools and teaching hospitals need assistance to meet the unique training and support needs of persons serving as interim leaders. For example, the Association of American Medical Colleges and individual chair societies can develop programs to allow current chairs to reflect on their present positions and plan for the future. Formal leadership training, mentorship opportunities, and conscientious succession planning are good first steps in preparing to meet the needs of academic departments during transitions in leadership. Also, interim leadership experience may be useful as a means for "opening the door" to underrepresented persons, including women, and increasing the diversity of the leadership team. PMID:19881413

  7. Aprepitant and Fosaprepitant Use in Children and Adolescents at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Biondo, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of aprepitant and fosaprepitant, a neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor inhibitor, in children and adolescents at a large academic medical center, for the prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted using an electronic medical record system to evaluate the use of aprepitant and fosaprepitant in all pediatric patients that were discharged from a single academic medical center between February 25, 2009 and May 25, 2012. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included in this review and received a total of 287 doses over the span of 114 cycles. Mean age was 10.1 years, with a range of 11 months to 17 years old. In 16 of 26 patients, aprepitant was used as the primary prophylaxis. Of those patients who received primary prophylaxis, 6 of 16 received it for highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and 10 of 16 received it for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Intravenous fosaprepitant was used in 7 of 26 patients, ages 13 to 17 (median 14) years old. No adverse effects attributable to aprepitant were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Use of aprepitant and fosaprepitant in pediatric patients appeared to be well tolerated. No currently published reports data using aprepitant in a patient younger than 32 months old, whereas we reported its use in patients as young as 11 months old. PMID:25024673

  8. Introduction: Centre and periphery in the eighteenth-century Habsburg 'medical empire'.

    PubMed

    Spary, E C

    2012-09-01

    This paper introduces a collection of essays exploring different aspects of the relationship between medical knowledge and administration in the Habsburg Monarchy. The collection brings together a range of perspectives upon the confrontation between programmes for centralised medical bureaucracy emanating from Vienna, and their implementation in a variety of different cultural, linguistic, social and practical circumstances. Such confrontations raise issues about the nature and limits of enlightened universalism, the relationship between knowledge and government in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the similarities between the processes of centralisation and the issues addressed by historians of empire. The case of Gerard van Swieten, Catholic Dutch medical practitioner appointed as the chief physician to the Habsburg Imperial family, is used to illustrate some of the main issues involved. PMID:22578379

  9. Medical school faculty discontent: prevalence and predictors of intent to leave academic careers

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Steven R; Fernandez, Genaro; Crane, Lori A

    2007-01-01

    Background Medical school faculty are less enthusiastic about their academic careers than ever before. In this study, we measured the prevalence and determinants of intent to leave academic medicine. Methods A 75-question survey was administered to faculty at a School of Medicine. Questions addressed quality of life, faculty responsibilities, support for teaching, clinical work and scholarship, mentoring and participation in governance. Results Of 1,408 eligible faculty members, 532 (38%) participated. Among respondents, 224 (40%; CI95: 0.35, 0.44) reported that their careers were not progressing satisfactorily; 236 (42%; CI95: 0.38, 0.46) were "seriously considering leaving academic medicine in the next five years." Members of clinical departments (OR = 1.71; CI95: 1.01, 2.91) were more likely to consider leaving; members of inter-disciplinary centers were less likely (OR = 0.68; CI95: 0.47, 0.98). The predictors of "serious intent to leave" included: Difficulties balancing work and family (OR = 3.52; CI95: 2.34, 5.30); inability to comment on performance of institutional leaders (OR = 3.08; CI95: 2.07, 4.72); absence of faculty development programs (OR = 3.03; CI95: 2.00, 4.60); lack of recognition of clinical work (OR = 2.73; CI95: 1.60, 4.68) and teaching (OR = 2.47; CI95: 1.59, 3.83) in promotion evaluations; absence of "academic community" (OR = 2.67; CI95: 1.86, 3.83); and failure of chairs to evaluate academic progress regularly (OR = 2.60; CI95: 1.80, 3.74). Conclusion Faculty are a medical school's key resource, but 42 percent are seriously considering leaving. Medical schools should refocus faculty retention efforts on professional development programs, regular performance feedback, balancing career and family, tangible recognition of teaching and clinical service and meaningful faculty participation in institutional governance. PMID:17935631

  10. Comprehension through cooperation: Medical students and physiotherapy apprentices learn in teams – Introducing interprofessional learning at the University Medical Centre Mannheim, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Mira; Dölken, Mechthild; Hinrichs, Jutta; Narciß, Elisabeth; Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin; Weihrauch, Ute; Fritz, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In order to better prepare future health care professionals for interprofessional cooperation, interprofessional learning sessions for medical students and physiotherapy apprentices were developed at the University Medical Centre Mannheim, Germany. The experience gained from designing, implementing and evaluating these learning sessions is presented and discussed. Method: A total of 265 medical students and 43 physiotherapy apprentices attended five interprofessional learning sessions. Of these, 87-100% responded to closed and open-ended questions on a self-developed questionnaire (24 items). The responses regarding self-reported learning gains, benefit, motivation and satisfaction with the sessions were analyzed separately by professions. Results: The learning sessions were well received by both groups. More than 75% of all participants were of the opinion that they could not have learned the new material in a better way. Significant differences between the medical students and the physiotherapy apprentices were mainly found with regard to perceived learning gains, which physiotherapy apprentices reported as being lower. Positive aspects of interprofessionalism were most often emphasized in the responses to the open-ended questions. Most frequently criticized were organizational aspects and a lack of perceived learning gains. Conclusion: The introduction of interprofessional learning entails great effort in terms of organizational and administrative challenges. However, the project is considered worthwhile because the interprofessional aspects of the learning sessions were indeed valued by the participants. Permanently including and expanding interprofessional learning in the curricula of both professions longitudinally is therefore something to strive for. PMID:27280142

  11. Students’ perceptions of the academic learning environment in seven medical sciences courses based on DREEM

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshialiabad, Hamid; Bakhshi, Mohammadhosien; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Learning environment has a significant role in determining students’ academic achievement and learning. The aim of this study is to investigate the viewpoints of undergraduate medical sciences students on the learning environment using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) at Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences (RUMS). Methods The descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 493 medical sciences students in the following majors: nursing, midwifery, radiology, operating room nursing, laboratory sciences, medical emergency, and anesthesia. The DREEM questionnaire was used as a standard tool. Data were analyzed using SPSS (v17) software. Student’s t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests were used. Results The mean of the achieved scores in the five domains was 113.5 out of 200 (56.74%), which was considered to be more positive than negative. The total mean scores for perception of learning, teaching, and atmosphere were 27.4/48 (57.24%), 24.60/44 (55.91%), and 26.8/48 (55.89%), respectively. Academic and social self-perceptions were 20.5/32 (64.11%) and 15.7/28 (56.36%), respectively. The total DREEM scores varied significantly between courses (P<0.01). The total scores of the students of operating room nursing, anesthesia, and laboratory sciences, first year students, and females were significantly higher than the other students (P<0.01). Conclusion The results have suggested that the students of medical sciences courses at RUMS generally hold positive perceptions toward their course environment. The differences between courses and their study pathway should be further investigated by analysis of specific items. Our results showed that it is essential for faculty members and course managers to make more efforts toward observing principles of instructional designs, to create an appropriate educational environment, and to reduce deficits in order to provide a better learning environment with more facilities

  12. Less equal than others? Experiences of AYUSH medical officers in primary health centres in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, J K

    2012-01-01

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) includes, inter alia, the establishment of an AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) component (practitioner, trained assistants, drugs and equipment) in every primary health centre (PHC). However, five years following the launch of the NRHM, the AYUSH mainstreaming scenario is below expectations, riddled with ethical and governance issues. Accounts from AYUSH practitioners at PHCs in various regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh reveal enormous lacunae in implementation: unfilled positions, inequitable emoluments, inadequate or absent infrastructure, assistance and supplies, unethical interpersonal arrangements, and limited support from non-AYUSH personnel. The widespread negative impact of these conditions undermines the value of AYUSH, demotivating both practitioners and patients, and failing to provide the intended support to the public health system. PMID:22319847

  13. Nursing Students' Satisfaction with Mobile Academic Electronic Medical Records for Undergraduate Clinical Practicum.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mona; Park, Joon Ho; Lee, Hyeong Suk

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of study was to evaluate satisfaction with and usability of mobile academic electronic medical records (AEMR) for undergraduate nursing students' clinical practicum. After an AEMR application on mobile devices was applied to the experimental group while a PC-based EMR system was used for the control group as usual in the fall semester, 2014. Two items of practicum satisfaction such as preparation of lab test and understanding of the results, and nursing intervention and documentation were significantly higher in the experiment group. The findings of usability survey showed that students in the experiment group consider the use of mobile AEMR in their job would increase their productivity. PMID:27332454

  14. Linking Learning and Health: A Pilot Study of Medical Students' Perceptions of the Academic Impact of Various Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, William D.; Wheat, Mary E.; Lerner, Burton A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess medical students' experience with a wide variety of health concerns and their perceptions of the impact of these health concerns on their academic performance. Methods: The National College Health Assessment (NCHA) was administered to all students enrolled at a single medical school during the spring term of 2005. Results:…

  15. Does Long-Term Medication Use Improve the Academic Outcomes of Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Becker, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently experience academic impairment, including lower grades than their peers and elevated risk for grade retention and school dropout. Medication is the most commonly used treatment for youth with ADHD, and it is therefore essential to understand the extent to which medication use…

  16. Health Maintenance Organizations and Academic Medical Centers. Proceedings of a National Conference (Colorado Springs, Colorado, October 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, James I., Ed.; Nevins, Madeline M., Ed.

    In October 1980 a national conference on health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) was held by the Association of American Medical Colleges and supported by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, in response to inquiries about the advantages and disadvantages of AMC affiliation with or sponsorship of HMOs.…

  17. The Effect of Instructing Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies on the Academic Progress of Ilam Medical University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdolhosseini, Amir; Keikhavani, Sattar; Hasel, Kourosh Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the effect of instructing cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the academic progress of Medical Sciences of Ilam University students. The research is quasi-experimental including a pre-test and a post-test. The population of the research includes the students of Medical Sciences of Ilam University. The sample includes 120…

  18. Training Tomorrow's Doctors: The Medical Education Mission of Academic Health Centers. A Report of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report, fifth of a series on Academic Health Centers (AHCs), addresses the fundamental rationale of such centers: the education of the health care workforce. None of the missions of the 125 AHCs in the United States, medical schools and their closely affiliated hospitals and physician groups, is more important than the education of…

  19. Policies pertaining to complementary and alternative medical therapies in a random sample of 39 academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael H; Sandler, Lynne; Hrbek, Andrea; Davis, Roger B; Eisenberg, David M

    2005-01-01

    This research documents policies in 39 randomly selected academic medical centers integrating complementary and alternative medical (CAM) services into conventional care. Twenty-three offered CAM services-most commonly, acupuncture, massage, dietary supplements, mind-body therapies, and music therapy. None had written policies concerning credentialing practices or malpractice liability. Only 10 reported a written policy governing use of dietary supplements, although three sold supplements in inpatient formularies, one in the psychiatry department, and five in outpatient pharmacies. Thus, few academic medical centers have sufficiently integrated CAM services into conventional care by developing consensus-written policies governing credentialing, malpractice liability, and dietary supplement use. PMID:15712764

  20. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education. PMID:17006584

  1. Changing environment and the academic medical center: the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    PubMed

    Heyssel, R M

    1989-01-01

    Academic medical centers need strong patient bases and strong financial bases to educate and to support research. After careful delineation of its mission with regard to patient care, research, and education, the Johns Hopkins Hospital expanded its health care delivery capabilities and strengthened its position in the health care marketplace by acquisitions of and mergers with other hospitals and a health maintenance organization in the Baltimore area. The resulting conglomerate, operating under the direction of a holding company, the Johns Hopkins Health System, has achieved its goals of expanding patient care capabilities, broadening the patient base, and enlarging the asset base and cash flow. Half the medical residents at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine receive training at nontraditional sites, and further expansion of teaching activities is being explored. Potential roles of traditional and nontraditional teachers in these activities are discussed. PMID:2914070

  2. Competency-based medical education and scholarship: Creating an active academic culture during residency.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, James A; Hategan, Ana; Azzam, Amin

    2015-10-01

    The competency-based medical education movement has been adopted in several medical education systems across the world. This has the potential to result in a more active involvement of residents in the educational process, inasmuch as scholarship is regarded as a major area of competency. Substantial scholarly activities are well within the reach of motivated residents, especially when faculty members provide sufficient mentoring. These academically empowered residents have the advantage of early experience in the areas of scholarly discovery, integration, application, and teaching. Herein, the authors review the importance of instituting the germinal stages of scholarly productivity in the creation of an active scholarly culture during residency. Clear and consistent institutional and departmental strategies to promote scholarly development during residency are highly encouraged. PMID:26449362

  3. Antibiogram of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from clinical specimens at King Hussein Medical Centre, Jordan: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Batarseh, A; Al-Sarhan, A; Maayteh, M; Al-Khatirei, S; Alarmouti, M

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the local antibiogram of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Al-Hussein Hospital at King Hussein Medical Centre in Amman, Jordan. In a retrospective study from January to December 2013, data on 116 non-repetitive positive clinical samples were retrieved from patients' laboratory records. The resistance rates of A. baumannii isolates were high for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ticarcillin (100%), ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin (98.3%), imipenem (97.4%), piperacillin/tazobactam (96.6%), quinolones (94.8%), ampicillin/sulbactam (89.7%), gentamicin, (87.9%), tobramycin and tetracycline (76.7%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (75.9%), but lower for minocycline (26.7%) and colistin (1.7%). A. baumannii in our hospital were highly resistant to all antibiotics, including tigecycline, except for minocycline and colistin which are considered the last resort treatment for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:26857720

  4. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. PMID:27354836

  5. Student diversity at Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam: does it make any difference?

    PubMed

    Selleger, Veronica J; Bonke, Benno; Leeman, Yvonne A M

    2006-08-01

    In an ethnically diverse society cultural competence is indispensable for medical doctors. At present 10% of the Dutch population are first- or second-generation non-Western immigrants. With 8% Western and 18% non-Western immigrants, originating from 30 different countries, the 2001 Rotterdam first-year students highly out-rated the national average of immigrant medical students. Diverse student populations may enhance students' cultural competence but can also generate conflicts or even racism. This was the first Dutch study on expectations and experiences of medical students related to their ethnic and religious background. In December 2001 all first-year students were approached with an anonymous questionnaire, including statements on the expected influence of their culture and religion on their medical education (rated on a 1-5 Likert scale). In spring 2003 17 students from the same cohort, 8 immigrants and 9 ethnic Dutch, were interviewed extensively on their study experiences in a diverse student population. In 2001 the response rate was 90% (277/308), female-male ratio 63% (175/102). Non-Western immigrants expected for their medical education more benefits from their culture but also more obstacles than ethnic Dutch (p < or = 0.005). Protestants and Muslims expected more obstacles than the non-religious and Catholics (p < or = 0.05). In the interviews three main issues emerged: peer training in physical examination in mixed-gender groups, lack of attention to student diversity during education, and demand for education in cross-cultural medicine. Three incidents of perceived discrimination were reported. The ethnic Dutch students interviewed did not socialize much with immigrants, nor did students of both groups learn much from one another. Most students favoured mixed study groups. The diversity of the population does not seem to have caused serious problems, nor has it offered educational benefits. The challenge for educators is to provide systematic

  6. The Relationship between Sleep Quality and Social Intimacy, and Academic Burn-Out in Students of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Mehdi, Hashemi Seyed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh, Kobra Haji; Yarmohammadzadeh, Peyman; Feyzollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Academic burnout leads to creation of a series of negative and scattered thoughts, loss of hope and emotional and physical exhaustion in carrying out activities. Two factors that affect academic burnout are sleep quality and social intimacy. This study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and social intimacy, and academic burn-out in the students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Materials & Methods: This study was descriptive and correlational. The population of this study consisted of the students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and 196 medical students were selected. They completed Berso et al. Academic Burnout Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS). The validity of the questionnaires confirmed by experts’ views. Their reliability were obtained as 77%, 64% and 85% for academic burnout, sleep quality and social intimacy questionnaires respectively by calculating the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha). For data analysis, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test, Regression, cluster analysis and t-test were used. Results: The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between sleep quality and academic burnout at the level p<0.05 (r=0.38). There was a negative and significant relationship between social intimacy and academic burnout at the level p<0.05 (r=-0.40). Also, the regression results showed that sleep quality and social intimacy were able to predict 37% and 39% of academic burnout respectively. Moreover, the students were divided into two clusters of individuals with high social intimacy and individuals with low social intimacy. No significant difference was found between the two types in terms of the variable of academic burn-out. Conclusion: Based on the research results, it can be stated that the variables of sleep quality and social intimacy are the predictor factors of academic burn

  7. Adi Quala: application of solar photovoltaic generation in rural medical centres.

    PubMed

    Allen, P; Welstead, J

    1994-01-01

    Adi Quala is an Eritrean agricultural town of 14,000 people, and is situated about 70 km south of the capital, Asmara and 30 km from the border with Tigray, Ethiopia. On good days electricity was received from Asmara between 0600 h and 2300 h with nothing available outside these hours. These conditions meant the electricity supply had been a constant problem for the Adi Quala hospital which caters for about 50,000 people with 21 staff. It was for this reason that it was chosen for the first solar system, which provides all essential requirements completely independently from the grid connection. This will in turn enable the hospital to increase the range and reliability of services on offer. Three weeks after the arrival of the equipment the elders were able to have a guided tour of their new local facilities. This included 2kW of photovoltaic panels (installed on the roof), batteries and control equipment powering a range of hospital equipment used in the Mother and Child Health Centre, delivery room, wards, dispensary, clinic and laboratory. Their enormous appreciation was very moving and well articulated in an afternoon of music, speeches and feasting. Eritrea's first solar powered hospital was welcomed into capable hands. The pilot project was successfully installed and commissioned in February 1992, and has performed well to date. PMID:8134930

  8. Towards Sustainable Research Capacity Development and Research Ownership for Academic Institutes in Developing Countries: The Malawian Research Support Centre Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomo, Exnevia; Kalilani, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; Trigu, Chifundo; Phiri, Kamija; Schmidt, Joann; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2011-01-01

    In lesser-developed African countries, the lack of institutionalised support for research, combined with limited career opportunities and poor remuneration, have contributed to weak research infrastructure and capacity, and a continuing brain drain to developed countries. Malawi's Research Support Centre (RSC) model is novel in that it provides a…

  9. Facilities Offered by the University of Ibadan (Nigeria) Distance Learning Centre towards Learners' Academic Goal--An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbile, J. A.; Oyekanmi, J. O.

    2011-01-01

    Distance learners in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria unlike other distance learners of different parts of the world are faced with various educational, social and psychological problems associated with the code of distance learning. The facilities offered by the University of Ibadan distance learning centre towards the users' multifarious needs…

  10. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance. Conclusion: There was a

  11. Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Geskin, Albert; Legowski, Elizabeth; Chakka, Anish; Chandran, Uma R; Barmada, M Michael; LaFramboise, William A; Berg, Jeremy; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1) how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2) research objectives and goals for NGS, (3) workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4) storage capacity and unmet needs, (5) available and anticipated funding resources, and (6) future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs. PMID:26115441

  12. The role of the academic medical center library in training public librarians*†

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Charles B.; Wozar, Jody A.; Epstein, Barbara A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This project enhanced access to and awareness of health information resources on the part of public libraries in western Pennsylvania. Setting/Participants/Resources: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS), University of Pittsburgh, conducted a needs assessment and offered a series of workshops to 298 public librarians. Brief Description: The National Library of Medicine–funded project “Access to Electronic Health Information” at the HSLS, University of Pittsburgh, provided Internet health information training to public libraries and librarians in sixteen counties in western Pennsylvania. Through this project, this academic medical center library identified the challenges for public librarians in providing health-related reference service, developed a training program to address those challenges, and evaluated the impact of this training on public librarians' ability to provide health information. Results/Outcome: The HSLS experience indicates academic medical center libraries can have a positive impact on their communities by providing health information instruction to public librarians. The success of this project—demonstrated by the number of participants, positive course evaluations, increased comfort level with health-related reference questions, and increased use of MEDLINEplus and other quality information resources—has been a catalyst for continuation of this programming, not only for public librarians but also for the public in general. Evaluation Method: A training needs assessment, course evaluation, and impact training survey were used in developing the curriculum and evaluating the impact of this training on public librarians' professional activities. PMID:12883558

  13. Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Geskin, Albert; Legowski, Elizabeth; Chakka, Anish; Chandran, Uma R; Barmada, M. Michael; LaFramboise, William A.; Berg, Jeremy; Jacobson, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1) how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2) research objectives and goals for NGS, (3) workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4) storage capacity and unmet needs, (5) available and anticipated funding resources, and (6) future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs. PMID:26115441

  14. Population Health and the Academic Medical Center: The Time Is Right

    PubMed Central

    Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing the health of populations, whether defined as persons receiving care from a healthcare delivery system or more broadly as persons in a region, is emerging as a core focus in the era of healthcare reform. To achieve this goal requires an approach in which preventive care is valued and “non-medical” determinants of patients’ health are engaged. For large multi-mission systems such as academic medical centers, navigating the evolution to a population-oriented paradigm across the domains of patient care, education, and research poses real challenges but also offers tremendous opportunities, as important objectives across each mission begin to align with external trends and incentives. In clinical care, opportunities exist to improve capacity for assuming risk, optimize community benefit, and make innovative use of advances in health information technology. Education must equip the next generation of leaders to understand and address population-level goals in addition to patient-level needs. And the prospects for research to define strategies for measuring and optimizing the health of populations have never been stronger. A remarkable convergence of trends has created compelling opportunities for academic medical centers to advance their core goals by endorsing and committing to advancing the health of populations. PMID:24556766

  15. Acinetobacter Infections and Outcomes at an Academic Medical Center: A Disease of Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Jennifer; Park, An Na; Gander, Rita; Orr, Kathleen; Arocha, Doramarie; Zhang, Song; Greenberg, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Our study aims to describe the epidemiology, microbial resistance patterns, and clinical outcomes of Acinetobacter infections at an academic university hospital. This retrospective study analyzed all inpatient clinical isolates of Acinetobacter collected at an academic medical center over 4 years. The data were obtained from an Academic tertiary referral center between January 2008 and December 2011. All consecutive inpatients during the study period who had a clinical culture positive for Acinetobacter were included in the study. Patients without medical records available for review or less than 18 years of age were excluded. Methods. Records were reviewed to determine source of isolation, risk factors for acquisition, drug resistance patterns, and clinical outcomes. Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction of selected banked isolates was used to determine patterns of clonal spread in and among institutions during periods of higher infection rates. Results. Four hundred eighty-seven clinical isolates of Acinetobacter were found in 212 patients (in 252 admissions). Patients with Acinetobacter infections were frequently admitted from healthcare facilities (HCFs) (59%). One hundred eighty-three of 248 (76%) initial isolates tested were resistant to meropenem. One hundred ninety-eight of 249 (79.5%) initial isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Factors associated with mortality included bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.93, P = .024), concomitant steroid use (OR = 2.87, P < .001), admission from a HCF (OR = 6.34, P = .004), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 3.17, P < .001). Conclusions. Acinetobacter isolates at our institution are frequently MDR and are more common among those who reside in HCFs. Our findings underline the need for new strategies to prevent and treat this pathogen, including stewardship efforts in long-term care settings. PMID:26034772

  16. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients. PMID:26703412

  17. Motivational profiles of medical students: Association with study effort, academic performance and exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Students enter the medical study with internally generated motives like genuine interest (intrinsic motivation) and/or externally generated motives like parental pressure or desire for status or prestige (controlled motivation). According to Self-determination theory (SDT), students could differ in their study effort, academic performance and adjustment to the study depending on the endorsement of intrinsic motivation versus controlled motivation. The objectives of this study were to generate motivational profiles of medical students using combinations of high or low intrinsic and controlled motivation and test whether different motivational profiles are associated with different study outcomes. Methods Participating students (N = 844) from University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, were classified to different subgroups through K-means cluster analysis using intrinsic and controlled motivation scores. Cluster membership was used as an independent variable to assess differences in study strategies, self-study hours, academic performance and exhaustion from study. Results Four clusters were obtained: High Intrinsic High Controlled (HIHC), Low Intrinsic High Controlled (LIHC), High Intrinsic Low Controlled (HILC), and Low Intrinsic Low Controlled (LILC). HIHC profile, including the students who are interest + status motivated, constituted 25.2% of the population (N = 213). HILC profile, including interest-motivated students, constituted 26.1% of the population (N = 220). LIHC profile, including status-motivated students, constituted 31.8% of the population (N = 268). LILC profile, including students who have a low-motivation and are neither interest nor status motivated, constituted 16.9% of the population (N = 143). Interest-motivated students (HILC) had significantly more deep study strategy (p < 0.001) and self-study hours (p < 0.05), higher GPAs (p < 0.001) and lower exhaustion (p < 0.001) than status

  18. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries. PMID:12883582

  19. Does Emotional Intelligence at Medical School Admission Predict Future Academic Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, John J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. Method The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. Results The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12–0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. Conclusions EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions. PMID:24556771

  20. Aligning academic continuing medical education with quality improvement: a model for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nancy L; Davis, David A; Johnson, Nathan M; Grichnik, Katherine L; Headrick, Linda A; Pingleton, Susan K; Bower, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    The recent health care quality improvement (QI) movement has called for significant changes to the way that health care is delivered and taught in academic medical centers (AMCs). This movement also has affected academic continuing medical education (CME). In January 2011, to better align the CME and QI efforts of AMCs, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) launched a pilot initiative called Aligning and Educating for Quality (ae4Q). The goal of this pilot was to assist 11 AMCs as they moved to a more integrated model of continuous performance improvement by aligning their quality measurement and improvement with their continuing education endeavors. In this article, the authors describe the development of the ae4Q pilot and the resulting outcomes that have led to ongoing improvements.During the 18-month pilot, AAMC consultants conducted readiness assessments and on-site visits and provided consultation services and Web-based resources based on the AMC's needs. Following these interventions at each site, they then conducted both interviews with participants and postintervention assessment surveys to measure the impact of the pilot. Findings included demonstrated increases in the alignment of CME and QI, a greater use of quality data in CME design and delivery, and a greater use of CME as an intervention for clinical improvement. Two sites also attributed measureable improved clinical outcomes to their participation in the ae4Q pilot. The AAMC has used these findings to create resources and ongoing services to support AMCs as they pursue efforts to align QI and CME. PMID:23969360

  1. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses. Results A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R2 = 0.43). Conclusions Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students’ academic performance. PMID:23537129

  2. Perceptions of academic vulnerability associated with personal illness: a study of 1,027 students at nine medical schools. Collaborative Research Group on Medical Student Health.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L W; Warner, T D; Lyketsos, C; Frank, E; Ganzini, L; Carter, D

    2001-01-01

    About one quarter of the more than 69,000 medical students in this country suffer symptoms of mental illness, including 7% to 18% with substance use disorders. Subjective distress and physical health needs of medical students are also common and have been linked to training stresses. This first large-scale study of medical student health care examined students' physical and mental health concerns and their perceptions of academic vulnerability associated with personal illness. A 7-page, confidential written survey was given to 1,964 students at nine US medical schools in 1996 and 1997. A total of 1,027 students participated (52% response rate). Nearly all (90%) reported needing care for various health concerns, including 47% having at least one mental health or substance-related health issue. A majority of students expressed a preference for health care outside their training institution, largely due to confidentiality concerns, and 90% preferred health insurance allowing off-site care. Students expressed varying levels of concern about academic jeopardy in association with personal illness, with physical health problems such as arthritis causing the least concern and alcohol and drug abuse triggering the most concern. Consistent differences were detected in these views based on respondent's gender, training level, and institution. Most medical students perceive the need for personal health care. Nevertheless, fear of academic reprisal may prevent medical students from seeking necessary care for their health problems during training. This phenomenon may be linked in important but poorly recognized ways to emerging illness and to impairment among medical students and physicians. Women, minority, and clinical students appear more sensitive to the connection between health and academic vulnerability. Constructive implications for medical school curricula, policies, and health care services are discussed. PMID:11154710

  3. Academic medical product development: an emerging alliance of technology transfer organizations and the CTSA.

    PubMed

    Rose, Lynn M; Everts, Maaike; Heller, Caren; Burke, Christine; Hafer, Nathaniel; Steele, Scott

    2014-12-01

    To bring the benefits of science more quickly to patient care, the NIH National Center Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) supports programs that enhance the development, testing, and implementation of new medical products and procedures. The NCATS clinical and translational science award (CTSA) program is central to that mission; creating an academic home for clinical and translational science and supporting those involved in the discovery and development of new health-related inventions. The technology transfer Offices (TTO) of CTSA-funded universities can be important partners in the development process; facilitating the transfer of medical research to the commercial sector for further development and ultimately, distribution to patients. The Aggregating Intellectual Property (IP) Working Group (AWG) of the CTSA public private partnerships key function committee (PPP-KFC) developed a survey to explore how CTSA-funded institutions currently interface with their respective TTOs to support medical product development. The results suggest a range of relationships across institutions; approximately half have formal collaborative programs, but only a few have well-connected programs. Models of collaborations are described and provided as examples of successful CTSA/TTO partnerships that have increased the value of health-related inventions as measured by follow-on funding and industry involvement; either as a consulting partner or licensee. PMID:24945893

  4. Academic Medical Product Development: An Emerging Alliance of Technology Transfer Organizations and the CTSA

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lynn M.; Everts, Maaike; Heller, Caren; Burke, Christine; Hafer, Nathaniel; Steele, Scott

    2014-01-01

    To bring the benefits of science more quickly to patient care, the NIH National Center Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) supports programs that enhance the development, testing, and implementation of new medical products and procedures. The NCATS Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program is central to that mission; creating an academic home for clinical and translational science and supporting those involved in the discovery and development of new health-related inventions. The Technology Transfer Offices (TTO) of CTSA-funded universities can be important partners in the development process; facilitating the transfer of medical research to the commercial sector for further development and ultimately, distribution to patients. The Aggregating Intellectual Property working group (AWG) of the CTSA Public Private Partnerships Key Function Committee (PPP KFC) developed a survey to explore how CTSA-funded institutions currently interface with their respective TTOs to support medical product development. The results suggest a range of relationships across institutions; approximately half have formal collaborative programs, but only a few have well-connected programs. Models of collaborations are described and provided as examples of successful CTSA/TTO partnerships that have increased the value of health-related inventions as measured by follow-on funding and industry involvement; either as a consulting partner or licensee. PMID:24945893

  5. How psoriasis patients perceive, obtain, and use biologic agents: Survey from an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Faranak; Isip, Leah; Bhutani, Tina; Dennis, Madison; Heller, Misha M; Lee, Eric S; Nie, Hong; Liao, Wilson

    2013-02-01

    The availability of new biologic agents for the treatment of psoriasis provides hope for improved quality of life outcomes. However, the way patients come to use biologics, the potential barriers they encounter, and their attitudes towards using these medications are still not well studied. Here, we conducted a survey of 106 psoriasis patients at an academic medical center to discern patient attitudes towards biologics. We found that most patients learn of biologics through their physician and perform follow-up research using the Internet. Most patients did not find it difficult to make the decision to start a biologic. Difficulty in obtaining biologics was associated with age less than 55 (p = 0.01), lower income level (p = 0.007), and lack of insurance (p = 0.04). Patients were found to have high satisfaction and compliance rates on biologics. Of patients who missed a dose of their biologic, this was mainly due to logistical reasons such as not having the medication or forgetting to take it, rather than being depressed or overwhelmed. Patients with lower income levels had increased cut backs in personal expenses due to co-payments (p = 0.001). Among respondents, the mean annual out-of-pocket expense for a biologic was $557.12 per year, with a range of $0-7000. PMID:22007699

  6. Staff eye doses in a large medical centre in Saudi Arabia: are they meeting the new ICRP recommendations?

    PubMed

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al-Gain, Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    A 5-y retrospective analysis of the cardiology staff eye doses was performed on 34 staff from different categories (cardiologists, nurses and technologists) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSHRC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. KFSHRC is a tertiary medical centre with 800-bed capacity having more than 5000 cardiac catheterisation procedures performed annually. The aim of the study is to derive staff doses to the lens of the eyes using the personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07) values from the annual TLD dose report for the years 2008-2012 and determine the category of staff with high estimated eye doses. The study also aims to investigate the causes for high doses and recommend dose-reduction techniques. The dose to the lens of the eye was estimated by using the ratio Hp(0.07)slab/Hlens of 1.1 where Hp(0.07) values are the reported doses read from TLD badge worn at the collar level. The average annual eye dose of each category for the 5-y monitoring period was determined. Cardiologists tend to receive higher doses than the nurses by a factor of 2-4 and can exceed 5 mSv y(-1). No correlation exists between the eye doses of nurses and the cardiologists. There is a need to use a conversion coefficient in terms of eye lens dose per dose-area product for faster estimation of eye lens doses. However, there is a limitation on the use of the conversion coefficient because it will depend on the clinical procedure and the X-ray tube angulation. Further investigation on this limitation is needed. PMID:25848104

  7. Cognitive, Academic and Behavioral Correlates of Medication Adherence in Children and Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Montepiedra, Grace; Farley, John J.; Sirois, Patricia A; Malee, Kathleen; Kammerer, Betsy; Garvie, Patricia A.; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Medication adherence is critical to the success of antiretroviral therapies for children and youth with perinatally acquired HIV. Factors that influence successful transition of medication responsibility from caregivers to youth are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of medication adherence with demographic, cognitive, academic, and behavioral characteristics. Method Randomly selected youth, N = 151, age 8-18, completed cognitive and academic measures, and they and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing behavior and emotional well-being. An announced pill count and questionnaires completed by youth and their caregivers were used to evaluate adherence. Results Of 151 participants, 100 completed all adherence measures. Adherence rates varied by assessment method. Non-adherence (<90%) by pill count was associated with older child age, greater youth responsibility for medications, and other demographic and medication regimen variables. Verbal impairment predicted better self-reported adherence and reading problems predicted better self- and caregiver-reported adherence. Youth-reported locus of control was associated with pill count non-adherence, and poor relationships with parents were associated with youth-reported non-adherence. Conclusion Consideration of youth cognitive or academic status may be helpful in evaluating medication adherence in patients with perinatally acquired HIV infection, particularly when using self- or caregiver reports to assess adherence. Vigilance for adherence problems is indicated when youth are older, responsible for medications, report poor caregiver relationships, and/or sense a lack of control over their lives. PMID:22366661

  8. Searching for Excellence & Diversity: Increasing the Hiring of Women Faculty at One Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400

  9. Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education Intervention Guideline Series: Guideline 2, Practice Facilitation.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Thomas J; Grant, Rachel E; Campbell, Craig; Colburn, Lois; Davis, David; Dorman, Todd; Fischer, Michael; Horsley, Tanya; Jacobs-Halsey, Virginia; Kane, Gabrielle; LeBlanc, Constance; Moore, Donald E; Morrow, Robert; Olson, Curtis A; Silver, Ivan; Thomas, David C; Turco, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education commissioned a study to clarify and, if possible, standardize the terminology for a set of important educational interventions. In the form of a guideline, this article describes one such intervention, practice facilitation, which is a common strategy in primary care to help practices develop capacity and infrastructure to support their ability to improve patient care. Based on a review of recent evidence and a facilitated discussion with US and Canadian experts, we describe practice facilitation, its terminology, and other important information about the intervention. We encourage leaders and researchers to consider and build on this guideline as they plan, implement, evaluate, and report practice facilitation efforts. Clear and consistent use of terminology is imperative, along with complete and accurate descriptions of interventions, to improve the use and study of practice facilitation. PMID:26954003

  10. Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education Intervention Guideline Series: Guideline 3, Educational Meetings.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Thomas J; Grant, Rachel E; Sajdlowska, Joanna; Bell, Mary; Campbell, Craig; Colburn, Lois; Dorman, Todd; Fischer, Michael; Horsley, Tanya; LeBlanc, Constance; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Moore, Donald E; Morrow, Robert; Olson, Curtis A; Silver, Ivan; Thomas, David C; Turco, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education commissioned a study to clarify and, if possible, to standardize the terminology for a set of important educational interventions. In the form of a guideline, this article describes one such intervention, educational meetings, which is a common intervention in health professions' education. An educational meeting is an opportunity for clinicians to assemble to discuss and apply important information relevant to patient care. Based on a review of recent evidence and a facilitated discussion with US and Canadian experts, we describe proper educational meeting terminology and other important information about the intervention. We encourage leaders and researchers to consider and to build on this guideline as they plan, implement, evaluate, and report educational meeting efforts. Clear and consistent use of terminology is imperative, along with complete and accurate descriptions of interventions, to improve the use and study of educational meetings. PMID:26954004

  11. Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education Intervention Guideline Series: Guideline 4, Interprofessional Education.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Thomas J; Grant, Rachel E; Sajdlowska, Joanna; Bell, Mary; Campbell, Craig; Colburn, Lois; Davis, David; Dorman, Todd; Fischer, Michael; Horsley, Tanya; Jacobs-Halsey, Virginia; Kane, Gabrielle; LeBlanc, Constance; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Moore, Donald E; Morrow, Robert; Olson, Curtis A; Reeves, Scott; Sargeant, Joan; Silver, Ivan; Thomas, David C; Turco, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education commissioned a study to clarify and, if possible, to standardize the terminology for a set of important educational interventions. In the form of a guideline, this article describes one such intervention, interprofessional education (IPE), which is a common intervention in health professions education. IPE is an opportunity for individuals of multiple professions to interact to learn together, to break down professional silos, and to achieve interprofessional learning outcomes in the service of high-value patient care. Based on a review of recent evidence and a facilitated discussion with US and Canadian experts, we describe IPE, its terminology, and other important information about the intervention. We encourage leaders and researchers to consider and to build on this guideline as they plan, implement, evaluate, and report IPE efforts. Clear and consistent use of terminology is imperative, along with complete and accurate descriptions of interventions, to improve the use and study of IPE. PMID:26954005

  12. Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Wilford, Joseph D.; Howard, Wanita; Dane, Susan K.; Davis, Scott R.; Karandikar, Nitin J.; Blau, John L.; Ford, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology (CP) is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS) operating within the Epic suite of software applications. To date, there have not been any publications describing implementation of Beaker CP. In this report, we describe our experience in implementing Beaker CP version 2012 at a state academic medical center with a go-live of August 2014 and a subsequent upgrade to Beaker version 2014 in May 2015. The implementation of Beaker CP was concurrent with implementations of Epic modules for revenue cycle, patient scheduling, and patient registration. Methods: Our analysis covers approximately 3 years of time (2 years preimplementation of Beaker CP and roughly 1 year after) using data summarized from pre- and post-implementation meetings, debriefings, and the closure document for the project. Results: We summarize positive aspects of, and key factors leading to, a successful implementation of Beaker CP. The early inclusion of subject matter experts in the design and validation of Beaker workflows was very helpful. Since Beaker CP does not directly interface with laboratory instrumentation, the clinical laboratories spent extensive preimplementation effort establishing middleware interfaces. Immediate challenges postimplementation included bar code scanning and nursing adaptation to Beaker CP specimen collection. The most substantial changes in laboratory workflow occurred with microbiology orders. This posed a considerable challenge with microbiology orders from the operating rooms and required intensive interventions in the weeks following go-live. In postimplementation surveys, pathology staff, informatics staff, and end-users expressed satisfaction with the new LIS. Conclusions: Beaker CP can serve as an effective LIS for an academic medical center. Careful planning and preparation aid the transition to this LIS. PMID:26955505

  13. The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic stress in students of medical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Mohammad Reza; Kermani, Tayyebe; Khoshbakht, Hoda; Moodi, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a view about predicting effective factors in people's lives whether in education or profession. According to earlier studies, people who have higher emotional skills are more successful in many of life aspects :e.g., reaction to stress and controlling stress situations. Since students are the future of society, this study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between EI and education stress in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 260 students were selected by proportional sampling in four faculties: Medicine, Nursing and Midwifery, Paramedical Sciences, and Health. Data were collected using two questionnaires: The standardized EI Shering's (33 questions, five domains) and the Student-Life Stress Inventory (57 questions, nine domains). The obtained data were analyzed by independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear regression at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: Totally, 65.8% of participants were females and 31.1% were males. The educational level of the participants included Associate's degree (44.6%) Bachelor's degree in science (31.2%), and medical science (23.1%). There was no significant correlation between EI scores and educational stress in students. But there was a significant relationship between EI with sex (P = 0.02) and mean of EI scores with three domains of academic stress: Personal favorites (P = 0.004), reaction to stressors (P = 0.002), and performance in stressful situations (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Although EI growth in different individuals can promote their success, it cannot decrease academic stress by itself which was particularly significant in females. Therefore, other causes of stress such as individual differences must be taken into consideration. PMID:24083290

  14. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades. Methods Data from five cohort studies were available: the Westminster Study (began clinical studies from 1975 to 1982), the 1980, 1985, and 1990 cohort studies (entered medical school in 1981, 1986, and 1991), and the University College London Medical School (UCLMS) Cohort Study (entered clinical studies in 2005 and 2006). Different studies had different outcome measures, but most had performance on basic medical sciences and clinical examinations at medical school, performance in Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations, and being on the General Medical Council Specialist Register. Results Correlation matrices and path analyses are presented. There were robust correlations across different years at medical school, and medical school performance also predicted MRCP(UK) performance and being on the GMC Specialist Register. A-levels correlated somewhat less with undergraduate and post-graduate performance, but there was restriction of range in entrants. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level results also predicted undergraduate and post-graduate outcomes, but less so than did A-level results, but there may be incremental validity for clinical and post-graduate performance. The AH5 had some significant correlations with outcome, but they were inconsistent. Sex and ethnicity also had predictive effects on

  15. Enhancing the Voice of Faculty in the Association of American Medical Colleges: The Evolution of Faculty in U.S. Medical Schools and the Transformation of the Council of Academic Societies Into the Council of Faculty and Academic Societies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kathleen G; Crawford, James M; Fisher, Rosemarie L L

    2015-10-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the Council of Academic Societies (CAS) represented academic faculty in the governance structure of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). As the role of faculty in the academic health center of the 21st century has evolved (e.g., the number of faculty members has increased, contact hours with trainees per individual faculty member have decreased, the faculty has aged), new models for representation have become necessary. Because of the structure and requirements for organizational membership, CAS was not representing faculty as broadly as possible, so a redesign was necessary. In November 2012, the AAMC Assembly adopted changes to its bylaws creating the new Council of Faculty and Academic Societies. The new design increases the opportunity for all schools to be represented by both junior and senior faculty members while retaining society membership and, therefore, representation of the breadth of specialties in academic medicine. The new council's structure better facilitates meeting its charge: to identify critical issues facing academic medicine faculty members; to provide faculty with a voice as the AAMC addresses those issues through the creation and implementation of AAMC programs, services, and policies; and to serve as a communications conduit between the AAMC and faculty regarding matters related to the core missions of academic medicine. PMID:26200571

  16. Physician user satisfaction with an electronic medical records system in primary healthcare centres in Al Ain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Shamma; Al Dhaheri, Aysha; Al Baloushi, Durra; Al Dhaheri, Mouza; Prinsloo, Engela A M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore physician satisfaction with an electronic medical records (EMR) system, to identify and explore the main limitations of the system and finally to submit recommendations to address these limitations. Design A descriptive qualitative study that entailed three focus group interviews was performed among physicians using open-ended questions. The interviews were audiotaped, documented and transcribed verbatim. The themes were explored and analysed in different categories. Setting The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres (PHC) in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Participants A total of 23 physicians, all using the same EMR system, attended one of three focus groups held in PHC in Al Ain Medical District. Each focus group consisted of 7–9 physicians working in PHC as family medicine specialists, residents or general practitioners. Primary outcome measure Physician satisfaction with the EMR system. Results Key themes emerged and were categorised as physician-dependent, patient-related and system-related factors. In general, physicians were satisfied with the EMR system in spite of initial difficulties with implementation. Most participants identified that the long time required to do the documentation affected their practice and patient communication. Many physicians expressed satisfaction with the orders and results of laboratory and radiology functions and they emphasised that this was the strongest point in the EMR. They were also satisfied with the electronic prescription function, stating that it reduced errors and saved time. Conclusions Physicians are satisfied with the EMR and have a positive perception regarding the application of the system. Several themes emerged during this study that need to be considered to enhance the EMR system. Further studies need to be conducted among other healthcare practitioners and patients to explore their attitude and perception about the EMR. PMID:25377010

  17. Reversible Severe Pulmonary Hypertension after Adenotonsillectomy: A Case Report of a Child Treated at Bugando Medical Centre, Northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Neema; Kayange, Neema; Bakalemwa, Respicius; Zuechner, Antke; Mhada, Tumaini; Kataraihya, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction (UAO) due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy represents one of the rare causes of pulmonary hypertension in children. We report a case of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, managed at pediatric and otorhinolaryngology departments in Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), northwestern Tanzania, with complete remission of symptoms of pulmonary hypertension following adenotonsillectomy. A 17-month-old boy presented with difficulty breathing, dry cough, and noisy breathing since 1 year. He had facial and lower limb oedema with a pan systolic murmur at the tricuspid area, fine crepitations, and tender hepatomegaly. A grade II tonsillar hypertrophy and hypertrophied adenoids were seen on nasal and throat evaluation. A 2D-echocardiography showed grossly distended right atrium and ventricle, dilated pulmonary artery, and grade III tricuspid regurgitation. His final diagnosis was severe pulmonary hypertension with right-sided heart failure due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy. He had complete remission of cardiopulmonary symptoms after adenotonsillectomy and had normal control echocardiography six and twelve months after surgery. Children with symptoms of upper airway obstruction and cardiopulmonary involvement could benefit from routine screening for pulmonary hypertension. Adenotonsillectomy should be considered for possible complete remission of both UAO and cardiopulmonary symptoms.

  18. An Analysis of Information Technology Adoption by IRBs of Large Academic Medical Centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Hurdle, John F

    2015-02-01

    The clinical research landscape has changed dramatically in recent years in terms of both volume and complexity. This poses new challenges for Institutional Review Boards' (IRBs) review efficiency and quality, especially at large academic medical centers. This article discusses the technical facets of IRB modernization. We analyzed the information technology used by IRBs in large academic institutions across the United States. We found that large academic medical centers have a high electronic IRB adoption rate; however, the capabilities of electronic IRB systems vary greatly. We discuss potential use-cases of a fully exploited electronic IRB system that promise to streamline the clinical research work flow. The key to that approach utilizes a structured and standardized information model for the IRB application. PMID:25742664

  19. The Effect of Mastery Learning Model with Reflective Thinking Activities on Medical Students' Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…

  20. Impact factor of medical education journals and recently developed indices: Can any of them support academic promotion criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Azer, SA; Holen, A; Wilson, I; Skokauskas, N

    2016-01-01

    Journal Impact Factor (JIF) has been used in assessing scientific journals. Other indices, h- and g-indices and Article Influence Score (AIS), have been developed to overcome some limitations of JIF. The aims of this study were, first, to critically assess the use of JIF and other parameters related to medical education research, and second, to discuss the capacity of these indices in assessing research productivity as well as their utility in academic promotion. The JIF of 16 medical education journals from 2000 to 2011 was examined together with the research evidence about JIF in assessing research outcomes of medical educators. The findings were discussed in light of the nonnumerical criteria often used in academic promotion. In conclusion, JIF was not designed for assessing individual or group research performance, and it seems unsuitable for such purposes. Although the g- and h-indices have demonstrated promising outcomes, further developments are needed for their use as academic promotion criteria. For top academic positions, additional criteria could include leadership, evidence of international impact, and contributions to the advancement of knowledge with regard to medical education. PMID:26732194

  1. Circulation Policies in Academic Medical Libraries: A Comparative Study of Allocation Strategies, Demographic Analysis, Service Offerings, and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Michele L.; Gutierrez, Laura; Miller, Melody

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of current academic medical library circulation polices and examine methods libraries utilize to meet patron needs. Key informants were selected from five states. Statistics regarding financial practices, users, services, space access, and circulation practices were collected via survey…

  2. Software engineering in medical informatics: the academic hospital as learning environment.

    PubMed

    Prins, H; Cornet, R; van den Berg, F M; van der Togt, R; Abu-Hanna, A

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, the revised course Software Engineering has been implemented in the Medical Informatics curriculum at the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam. This 13 weeks, full-time course consists of three parts: internship, theory and project. All parts are provided in problem-oriented manner with special attention for relevant skills such as project management, documentation and presentation. During the internship, students observe how health care professionals at several hospital wards work and how information supply is organized. In the theory part, students study concepts and methods of software engineering by means of case descriptions and self-directed learning. During the project, they apply their acquired knowledge to an observed, clinical information problem and complete several stages of the software engineering process. Evaluation by inquiry showed that, compared to other courses, students spent more time, and distributed their time more evenly, during the whole period of the course. In conjunction with theory, a combination of internship and project in a hospital seems to provide a surplus value compared to a practical in a computer laboratory. The integration of software theory, clinical practice and problem-based approach, contributed to the enthusiastic, intensive and realistic way students learned in this important topic that might be chosen as a future profession. PMID:15460769

  3. What makes a top research medical school? A call for a new model to evaluate academic physicians and medical school performance.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Matthew J; Lunn, Mitchell R; Peng, Lily

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910, the medical education enterprise has undergone many changes to ensure that medical schools meet a minimum standard for the curricula and clinical training they offer students. Although the efforts of the licensing and accrediting bodies have raised the quality of medical education, the educational processes that produce the physicians who provide the best patient care and conduct the best biomedical research have not been identified. Comparative analyses are powerful tools to understand the differences between institutions, but they are challenging to carry out. As a result, the analysis performed by U.S. News & World Report (USN&WR) has become the default tool to compare U.S. medical schools. Medical educators must explore more rigorous and equitable approaches to analyze and understand the performance of medical schools. In particular, a better understanding and more thorough evaluation of the most successful institutions in producing academic physicians with biomedical research careers are needed. In this Perspective, the authors present a new model to evaluate medical schools' production of academic physicians who advance medicine through basic, clinical, translational, and implementation science research. This model is based on relevant and accessible objective criteria that should replace the subjective criteria used in the current USN&WR rankings system. By fostering a national discussion about the most meaningful criteria that should be measured and reported, the authors hope to increase transparency of assessment standards and ultimately improve educational quality. PMID:25607941

  4. Analysis of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sohrabi, Mozaffar Cheshmeh; Zare, Firoozeh; Hassnazadeh, Akbar; Malekahmadi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous researches conducted on about the quality of perception of media messages shows that the people are not passive receivers but they have the ability of understanding, interpreting and accepting or rejecting messages. In order to make clear the relationship of information and communication technologies with social changes and to gain a broader vision from this scope, sociological theories about information and communication technologies’ usage, especially appropriation approach can be very useful. So, keeping in mind the important role of Databases in the qualitative expansion of education, research, diagnosis, remedy and medical services presentation, this research was carried out with the aim of status determination of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach in 2012. Materials and Methods: This is an applicative research of an analytical-descriptive type, which was carried out by measurement approach. The statistical society of this research was composed of the academic staffs of the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012 and finally 390 academic staffs were selected according to the Cochran's formula were selected. The research tool are searcher's made questionnaire, which was composed of nine separate parts. Its validity was accepted by the specialists and its reliability was calculated and found to be 0.961 by Cronbakh's alpha. Results: Database appropriation score in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences with 65.020% was in a good status and data bases dis appropriation score with 71.484 was in a high status. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, Librarians and politicians in this scope-with determination of the academic staff's positive and negative points in usage and appropriation would be capable of accurately diagnozing and analyzing the chances and challenges of the academic staffs

  5. SU-E-P-01: An Informative Review On the Role of Diagnostic Medical Physicist in the Academic and Private Medical Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The role of physicist in the academic and private hospital environment continues to evolve and expand. This becomes more obvious with the newly revised requirements of the Joint Commission (JC) on imaging modalities and the continued updated requirements of ACR accreditation for medical physics (i.e., starting in June 2014, a physicists test will be needed before US accreditation). We provide an informative review on the role of diagnostic medical physicist and hope that our experience will expedite junior physicists in understanding their role in medical centers, and be ready to more opportunities. Methods: Based on our experience, diagnostic medical physicists in both academic and private medical centers perform several clinical functions. These include providing clinical service and physics support, ensuring that all ionizing radiation devices are tested and operated in compliance with the State and Federal laws, regulations and guidelines. We also discuss the training and education required to ensure that the radiation exposure to patients and staff is as low as reasonably achievable. We review the overlapping roles of medical and health physicist in some institutions. Results: A detailed scheme on the new requirements (effective 7/1/2014) of the JC is provided. In 2015, new standards for fluoroscopy, cone beam CT and the qualifications of staff will be phased in. A summary of new ACR requirements for different modalities is presented. Medical physicist have other duties such as sitting on CT and fluoroscopy committees for protocols design, training of non-radiologists to meet the new fluoroscopy rules, as well as helping with special therapies such as Yittrium 90 cases. Conclusion: Medical physicists in both academic and private hospitals are positioned to be more involved and prominent. Diagnostic physicists need to be more proactive to involve themselves in the day to day activities of the radiology department.

  6. The validity of Iran’s national university entrance examination (Konkoor) for predicting medical students’ academic performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Iran, admission to medical school is based solely on the results of the highly competitive, nationwide Konkoor examination. This paper examines the predictive validity of Konkoor scores, alone and in combination with high school grade point averages (hsGPAs), for the academic performance of public medical school students in Iran. Methods This study followed the cohort of 2003 matriculants at public medical schools in Iran from entrance through internship. The predictor variables were Konkoor total and subsection scores and hsGPAs. The outcome variables were (1) Comprehensive Basic Sciences Exam (CBSE) scores; (2) Comprehensive Pre-Internship Exam (CPIE) scores; and (3) medical school grade point averages (msGPAs) for the courses taken before internship. Pearson correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between the selection criteria and academic performance. Results There were 2126 matriculants (1374 women and 752 men) in 2003. Among the outcome variables, the CBSE had the strongest association with the Konkoor total score (r = 0.473), followed by msGPA (r = 0.339) and the CPIE (r = 0.326). While adding hsGPAs to the Konkoor total score almost doubled the power to predict msGPAs (R2 = 0.225), it did not have a substantial effect on CBSE or CPIE prediction. Conclusions The Konkoor alone, and even in combination with hsGPA, is a relatively poor predictor of medical students’ academic performance, and its predictive validity declines over the academic years of medical school. Care should be taken to develop comprehensive admissions criteria, covering both cognitive and non-cognitive factors, to identify the best applicants to become "good doctors" in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful for policy makers in the medical education field. PMID:22840211

  7. Socioeconomic disparities in lung cancer treatment and outcome persist within a single academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Yorio, Jeffrey T.; Yan, Jingsheng; Xie, Yang; Gerber, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic disparities in treatment and outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are well established. To explore whether these differences are secondary to individual or institutional characteristics, we examined treatment selection and outcome in a diverse population treated at a single medical center. Patient and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients diagnosed with NSCLC stages I-III from 2000-2005 at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Treatment selection was dichotomized as “standard” (surgery for stage I-II; surgery and/or radiation therapy for stage III) or “other.” Associations between patient characteristics (including socioeconomic status) and treatment selection were examined using logistic regression; associations between characteristics and overall survival were examined using Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results A total of 450 patients were included. Twenty-eight percent of patients had private insurance, 43% had Medicare, and 29% had an indigent care plan. The likelihood of receiving “standard” therapy was significantly associated with insurance type [indigent plan versus private insurance OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.04-0.43) for stage I-II; OR 0.38 (95% CI 0.14-1.00) for stage III]. For patients with stage I-II NSCLC, survival was associated with age, gender, insurance type (indigent plan versus private insurance HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.16-3.37), stage, and treatment selection. In stage III NSCLC, survival was associated with treatment selection. Conclusion Within a single academic medical center, socioeconomically disadvantaged patients with stage I-III NSCLC are less likely to receive “standard” therapy. Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients with stage I-II NSCLC have inferior survival independent of therapy. PMID:22512997

  8. Creating a longitudinal integrated clerkship with mutual benefits for an academic medical center and a community health system.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills.Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment.Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations' leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers. PMID:24867551

  9. Creating a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship with Mutual Benefits for an Academic Medical Center and a Community Health System

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills. Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment. Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations’ leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers. PMID:24867551

  10. Self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students in Pakistan regarding academic misconduct: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Honesty and integrity are key attributes of an ethically competent physician. However, academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to plagiarism, cheating, and falsifying documentation, is common in medical colleges across the world. The purpose of this study is to describe differences in the self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students regarding academic misconduct depending on gender, year of study and type of medical institution in Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with medical students from one private and one public sector medical college. A pre-coded questionnaire about attitudes and behaviours regarding plagiarism, lying, cheating and falsifying documentation was completed anonymously by the students. Results A total of 465 medical students filled the questionnaire. 53% of private medical college students reported that they recognize copying an assignment verbatim and listing sources as references as wrong compared to 35% of public medical college students. 26% of private medical college students self-report this behaviour as compared to 42% of public medical college students. 22% of private versus 15% of public medical college students and 21% of students in clinical years compared to 17% in basic science years admit to submitting a fake medical certificate to justify an absence. 87% of students at a private medical college believe that cheating in an examination is wrong as compared to 66% of public medical college students and 24% self-report this behaviour in the former group as compared to 41% in the latter. 63% of clinical year students identify cheating as wrong compared to 89% of their junior colleagues. 71% of male versus 84% of female respondents believe that cheating is wrong and 42% of males compared to 23% of females admit to cheating. Conclusions There are significant differences in medical students’ attitudes and behaviours towards plagiarism, lying, cheating and stealing by gender

  11. Collaboration Between PNPs and School Nurses: Meeting the Complex Medical and Academic Needs of the Child With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Beth; Williams, Shenoa

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric nurse practitioners take a lead role in diagnosing and coordinating the care of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). School nurses offer rich insight into the child's health and social and academic functioning in the school setting. School nurses develop individualized health care plans, administer and monitor medications, provide valuable input on Individualized Education Plans and Section 504 Accommodation Plans, and serve as the point person in communicating with the medical provider. Pediatric nurse practitioners can enhance the collaboration with school nurses by establishing communication parameters, streamlining medication regimens, and facilitating development of educational curricula for school nurses regarding evidence-based ADHD management. Optimizing partnerships with school nurses will provide better surveillance of treatment efficacy and can facilitate improved health and academic and social outcomes for children with ADHD. PMID:26454689

  12. Medical student and academic staff perceptions of role models: an analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Ali A; Shakibi, Mohammad R

    2006-01-01

    Background This study explored the associations between the perceptions of students and the perceptions of academic staff about the characteristics of clinical lecturers at the Department of Internal Medicine at Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS). It also assessed what characteristics constitute a 'role model' from the point of view of students and staff. Methods Staff and students were questioned about the characteristics of their colleagues and lecturers, respectively. They were asked about 15 characteristics under four headings: personality, teaching skill, group working and overall performance as a role model. Associations between lecturers' characteristics were explored using Pearson correlation and characteristics were allocated into groups by partition cluster method. In addition, predictors of being a valuable lecturer were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Based on staff responses, the strongest association observed was between honesty and being respectful (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Based on student responses, the strongest association observed was between being professional and honesty (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001). None of the correlations between student and staff perceptions were significant for any characteristic. Two groups were recognized among the characteristics. group one contained those characteristics which were related to the lecturer's activity; while the second group contained characteristics that were related to the personality or teaching performance of the lecturer. The predictors of lecturer as 'role model' (i.e., perceptions of students) consisted mostly of characteristics from the first group, while the predictors of a 'role model' by fellow academic staff consisted of characteristics that were in both groups. Conclusion These findings showed considerable differences between the perceptions of students about their lecturers when compared with perceptions of staff about their colleagues. Students were more concerned

  13. [Evaluation of family doctor centred medical care based on AOK routine data in Baden-Württemberg].

    PubMed

    Laux, Gunter; Kaufmann-Kolle, Petra; Bauer, Erik; Goetz, Katja; Stock, Christian; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The agreement on family-doctor centred care (Hausarztzentrierte Versorgung, "HzV") pursuant to Sect. 73b, Volume V of the German Social Security Code became effective in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, on July 1(st), 2008. This complex intervention, which is voluntary for both family doctors and patients, aims to strengthen the coordinative function of family practices. As a result, this intervention is believed to increase the quality of medical health care for persons insured - in the medium to long-term - and thereby, ideally, to additionally save expenses. Working package 1 was one out of a total of four working packages and focused on the evaluation of potential intervention effects of the HzV intervention based on the analyses of AOK routine data in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A total of 1.44 million insured persons were eligible for the present analyses. Insured adults voluntarily participating in the family doctor-centred health care intervention (HzV insured persons: n=580,924 in the intervention group) of the AOK were compared to those not participating in this intervention (non-HzV insured persons: n=862,237 in the control group). For both HzV and non-HzV insured persons, a comparison of each outcome of interest (encounters with family doctors, encounters with specialists, rate of hospitalisations, duration of hospitalisations, rate of re-hospitalisations, costs of pharmacotherapy, rate of polypharmacy, rate of Me-Too pharmaceuticals) was conducted for quarters 3 and 4 of 2008 as well as for quarters 3 and 4 in 2010. Both groups of insured persons differed in that they either participated in the HzV intervention between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 or not. Before January 1, 2009 individuals in both groups did not participate in the HzV intervention. This design allowed for both longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons. Moreover, the design implicitly controlled for potential seasonal bias. In order to adjust for relevant covariates (insured persons' age

  14. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess

  15. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to

  16. [Nutrition mode and nurishment status of WUT students in Szczecin as compared to different academical centres in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Seidler, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The mode of nutrition of women and men studying at the WUT (Westpomeranian Technological University) in Szczecin was evaluated. The study was conducted on the group of 198 students. Numerous faults in students nurishment were shown. The unsatisfactory supply of milk and milk products, vegetables, fruit and cereal products in both sexs was confirmed. The consumption of fat, meat, particularly ham, cheeses and eggs was too high in men's diets. Women consumed sugar and sweets in excess. The percentage of energy from fat was too high in women group (35.7%) and in men (37.1%). The evaluation of nutrients consumption was performed according to norms updated in 2008. In both groups deficiency in diet was observed for calcium, potassium, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin C, magnesium, and additionally in women population vitamins from the group B and minerals. The nourishment status was estimated using anthropometric methods in the support of mass and BMI and the circuit of waist and hips (WHR). It was noticed that the BMI value did not reflect the growing problem of obesity among the youth as well as the coefficient abdominal obesity (WHR) measured in the whole population. On the basis of the WHR value it was confirmed that 35% of academical youth from Szczecin has the predisposition to obesity, diabetes II degree, arteriosclerosis and diseases of heart. PMID:21365867

  17. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  18. The development of ureteric strictures after ureteroscopic treatment for ureteric calculi: A long-term study at two academic centres

    PubMed Central

    El-Abd, Ahmed S.; Suliman, Mohammed G.; Abo Farha, Mohamed O.; Ramadan, Ahmed R.; El-Tatawy, Hassan H.; El-Gamal, Osama M.; El-Gamal, Samir A.; Figenshau, Robert; El Abd, Shawky A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of symptomatic and ‘silent’ obstruction after ureteroscopic procedures. Patients and methods In all, 1980 patients underwent ureteroscopy for ureteric calculi in two large centres. The methods of disintegration, auxiliary procedures used and type of stenting were considered. Intraoperative complications, in addition to the size and site of the stone, were assessed in relation to postoperative obstruction. The mean (range) follow-up was 42 (12–68) months, with patients assessed after 3–6 months and yearly thereafter. The postoperative evaluation included an assessment of pain, renal ultrasonography, a plain abdominal film, intravenous urography, and a diuretic renal scan in some cases to confirm obstruction. Results The success rate of stone removal was 98.5%. The failures were related to the size of the stone (>2 cm; P < 0.001). In eight patients there was a ureteric perforation, and six of these developed a ureteric stricture. A stricture also occurred in 12 patients (0.6%) during the follow-up; these included nine of 204 with stones of >2 cm (4.4%), compared to three (0.17%) of 1746 patients with stones of <2 cm (P < 0.001). Fourteen patients presented with pain (0.7%), and five had no obstruction, while in nine (0.46%) the pain was associated with obstruction. There was silent obstruction in three cases (0.15%). The negative and positive predictive values for pain were 99.8% and 64.3%, respectively. Conclusions Radiographic surveillance for stricture formation and obstruction is mandatory in patients who are symptomatic after ureteroscopy, and for up to 18 months in patients with intraoperative complications or with a stone of >2 cm in the proximal ureter. PMID:26019943

  19. Thirty-Day Postoperative Death Rate at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Calland, J. Forrest; Adams, Reid B.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; O’Connor, Matthew J.; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Guerlain, Stephanie; Jones, Rayford Scott

    2002-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding of perioperative deaths at an academic medical center. Summary Background Data Because published data have typically focused on specific patient populations, diagnoses, or procedures, there are few data regarding surgical deaths and complications in institutional or regional studies. Specifically, surgical adverse events and errors are generally not studied comprehensively. This limits the overall understanding of complications and deaths. Methods Data from all operations performed in the main operating suite of the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center from January 1 to June 30, 1999, were compared with state death records to gain a dataset of patients dying within 30 days of surgery. All clinical records from patients who died were screened for adverse events and subsequently reviewed by three surgeons who identified adverse events and errors and performed comparisons with survivors. Results One hundred nineteen deaths followed 7,379 operations performed on 6,296 patients, yielding a patient death rate of 1.9%. Patients dying within 30 days of surgery were older and had higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores. Of 119 deaths, 86 (72.3%) were attributable to the patient’s primary disease. Twenty-three patient deaths (19.3% of all deaths, 0.37% of all patients) could not be attributed to the patient’s primary disease and thus were suspicious for an adverse event (AE) as the cause of the death. Of the 23 deaths suspicious for AE, 15 (12.6% of all deaths, and 65.2% of AE deaths) followed an error in care and thus were classified as potentially preventable, affecting 0.24% of the study population. Conclusions Overall, the 30-day postoperative death rate was low in the total surgical population at an academic medical center. Errors and AEs were associated with 12.6% and 19.3% of deaths, respectively. Retrospective review inadequately characterized the nature of AEs and failed to determine causality. Prospective

  20. The strategic impact of a post baccalaureate pre-medicine intervention program on medical school academic performance.

    PubMed

    Epps, Anna Cherrie

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal (11-year) study of the academic impact on post-baccalaureate graduates' performance profiles from years 2001-2011 is to determine whether or not post-baccalaureate program reinforcement, enrichment, and intervention efforts strategically affected the students' academic performance profile while matriculating at Meharry Medical College-School of Medicine. A second purpose of this study is to provide some predictive information to help identify 'at risk' students to ensure that proactive intervention efforts are provided early in their pursuit of a health professions career, thus avoiding the pitfall of unpreparedness and the lack of counseling. PMID:25702723

  1. Performance evaluation of Al-Zahra academic medical center based on Iran balanced scorecard model

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhsh, Roghayeh Mohammadi; Gangi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growth and development in any country's national health system, without an efficient evaluation system, lacks the basic concepts and tools necessary for fulfilling the system's goals. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a technique widely used to measure the performance of an organization. The basic core of the BSC is guided by the organization's vision and strategies, which are the bases for the formation of four perspectives of BSC. The goal of this research is the performance evaluation of Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Iran BSC model. Materials and Methods: This is a combination (quantitative–qualitative) research which was done at Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The research populations were hospital managers at different levels. Sampling method was purposive sampling in which the key informed personnel participated in determining the performance indicators of hospital as the BSC team members in focused discussion groups. After determining the conceptual elements in focused discussion groups, the performance objectives (targets) and indicators of hospital were determined and sorted in perspectives by the group discussion participants. Following that, the performance indicators were calculated by the experts according to the predetermined objectives; then, the score of each indicator and the mean score of each perspective were calculated. Results: Research findings included development of the organizational mission, vision, values, objectives, and strategies. The strategies agreed upon by the participants in the focus discussion group included five strategies, which were customer satisfaction, continuous quality improvement, development of human resources, supporting innovation, expansion of services and improving the productivity. Research participants also agreed upon four perspectives for the Al-Zahra hospital BSC. In the patients and community

  2. Rejecting conventional wisdom: how academic medical centers can regain their leadership positions.

    PubMed

    Krauss, K; Smith, J

    1997-07-01

    Academic medical centers (i.e., medical schools and their principal hospitals) are following very similar strategies in attempts to secure their futures. It is likely that these undifferentiated strategies will fail, since most of them have been copied from the lower-cost, geographically better-positioned hospitals and health systems. Despite a wealth of innovative, entrepreneurial talent and the potential to reshape the world that AMCs live in, most AMCs are in reactive modes. Future directions and strategies are almost always shaped, forced, and justified by external pressures. The major problem with the strategic plans of most AMCs is that they are based on conventional industry wisdom. Strategic plans tend not to be analytically driven. The insight and understanding of those factors that drive the demand for AMCs' services and determine the performances of AMCs are lacking. The authors note some questions that are critical to the formulation of strategies for AMCs. For example, how can the research mission be changed from a cost-based to a value-based endeavor? Most AMCs cannot answer these questions, and if they do address them in the planning process, they do so superficially. Several examples of the factors that need to be understood are also given, such as patients' purposes and needs in seeking specialty care. Alternative strategies are listed, such as maintaining and exploiting the economic irrationality of the market rather than acting as if it were economically rational or forcing it to become so. Last, the authors outline the scope of the changes that are required and urge AMCs to reject conventional wisdom, determine their own unique situations, and work from there. PMID:9236466

  3. Cardiac rehabilitation referral and enrolment across an academic health sciences centre with eReferral and peer navigation: a randomised controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Faisal, Sobia F; Benz Scott, Lisa; Johnston, Lauren; Grace, Sherry L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe (1) cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referral across cardiac units in a tertiary centre with eReferral; (2) characteristics associated with CR referral and enrolment and (3) the effects of peer navigation (PN) on referral and enrolment. This pilot was a 2 parallel-arm, randomised, single-blind trial with allocation concealment. Setting 3 cardiac units (ie, interventional, general cardiology, and cardiac surgery) in 1 of 2 hospitals of a tertiary centre. Participants CR-eligible adult cardiac inpatients were randomised to PN or usual care. 94 (54.7%) patients consented, of which 46 (48.9%) were randomised to PN. Outcomes were ascertained in 76 (80.9%) participants. Intervention The PN (1) visited participant at the bedside, (2) mailed a card to participant's home reminding about CR and (3) called participant 2 weeks postdischarge to discuss CR barriers. Outcome measures The primary outcome of enrolment was defined as participant attendance at a scheduled CR intake appointment (yes/no). The secondary outcome was referral. Blinded outcome assessment was conducted 12 weeks postdischarge, via CR chart extraction. Results Those who received care on the cardiac surgery unit (77.9%) were more likely to be referred than those treated on the general cardiology (61.1%) or interventional unit (33.3%; p=0.04). Patients who had cardiac surgery, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were significantly more likely, and those with congenital heart disease, cancer and a previous cardiac diagnosis were less likely to be referred. Participants referred to a site closer to home (76.2% of those referred) were more likely to enrol than those not (23.7%, p<0.05). PN had no effect on referral (77.6%, p=0.45) or enrolment (46.0%, p=0.24). Conclusions There is wide variability in CR referral, even within academic centres, and despite eReferral. Referral was quite high, and thus, PN did not improve CR utilisation. Results support triaging patients to the CR programme closest

  4. Changing clinicians' behaviors in an academic medical center: does institutional commitment to total quality management matter?

    PubMed

    Wyszewianski, L; Kratochwill, E W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine whether changing clinicians' behaviors to reduce costs in a large academic medical center is facilitated by the prior existence of a total quality management program. Ten teams, made up primarily of clinicians, were charged with devising strategies for altering specific clinical behaviors to reduce costs without detriment to quality of care. Half the teams followed the center's total quality management approach. Team success was assessed by how well three key tasks were completed: problem definition, design of plan of action, and plan implementation. Two teams achieved outright successes, three had outright failures, and five were in between. Adherence to a total quality management approach was not found to be associated with team success. A much better predictor of success was the level of involvement and support by clinicians and managers; because that factor is largely controlled by institutional incentives, those incentives may need to be realigned before the effectiveness of a total quality management approach can be properly evaluated. PMID:9116529

  5. Usability of Academic Electronic Medical Record Application for Nursing Students' Clinical Practicum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Suk; Park, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Nursing curricula for undergraduate nursing students need to reflect the information technology used in current nursing practice. A smart-device Academic Electronic Medical Record (AEMR) application can help nursing students access and document records for the clinical practicum. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the usability of an AEMR application before applying it to the clinical nursing practicum. Methods A previously developed EMR application was modified as an AEMR to access patient information at bedside and to practice documentation. We added several features to the current EMR application to create an AEMR environment. We created a series of document forms and several useful scales on an external application, which included nursing admission notes, vital signs, and intake/output. The case scenarios and tasks were created by a research team to evaluate aspects of AEMRs, including their usability and functionality. Five nursing students completed 15 tasks using a think-aloud method with a tablet device. Results Minor usability issues were identified and rectified. All participants indicated that they became familiar with the application with little effort. They said that the application icons were intuitive, which helped them find patient information more quickly and accurately. Conclusions The application will improve timely access to patient data and documentation for nursing students. We are confident that this AEMR application will enhance nursing students' experience with their clinical practicum, and help them to better understand patient conditions and document them with ideal accessibility. PMID:26279956

  6. A new model for enhanced information services in an academic medical center.

    PubMed Central

    Panko, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    The information base used in the biomedical enterprise, already large, continues to expand at a striking rate. Networking and desktop computing technology is playing a more important role in the operations of academic medical centers. Integration efforts aimed at enhancing information access by using distributed computing are very substantial technical challenges. However, if these integration efforts focus only on the technical aspects, they are doomed to failure. New organizational approaches are also needed. This paper describes an new model for enhanced information services. This model calls for the central information supplier to provide a set of core services. Users, who may be individuals or units and generally have more insight into the nature of their problems, will be encouraged to add value to these core services in the form of specialization or customization to meet their unique and critical needs. This model provides a way to adapt and transform current organizational elements to effectively use the large information technology investments and to meet the increasing challenges of biomedical information use. PMID:1807648

  7. The Changing Landscape of Molecular Diagnostic Testing: Implications for Academic Medical Centers

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Heidi L.; Hynes, Elizabeth; Funke, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the field of molecular diagnostics has undergone tremendous transformation, catalyzed by the clinical implementation of next generation sequencing (NGS). As technical capabilities are enhanced and current limitations are addressed, NGS is increasingly capable of detecting most variant types and will therefore continue to consolidate and simplify diagnostic testing. It is likely that genome sequencing will eventually serve as a universal first line test for disorders with a suspected genetic origin. Academic Medical Centers (AMCs), which have been at the forefront of this paradigm shift are now presented with challenges to keep up with increasing technical, bioinformatic and interpretive complexity of NGS-based tests in a highly competitive market. Additional complexity may arise from altered regulatory oversight, also triggered by the unprecedented scope of NGS-based testing, which requires new approaches. However, these challenges are balanced by unique opportunities, particularly at the interface between clinical and research operations, where AMCs can capitalize on access to cutting edge research environments and establish collaborations to facilitate rapid diagnostic innovation. This article reviews present and future challenges and opportunities for AMC associated molecular diagnostic laboratories from the perspective of the Partners HealthCare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine (LMM). PMID:26828522

  8. Rating and Classification of Incident Reporting in Radiology in a Large Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rate of safety incident report of adverse events in a large academic radiology department and to share the various types that may occur. This is a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, institutional review board-approved study. Consent requirement was waived. All incident reports from April 2006-September 2012 were retrieved. Events were further classified as follows: diagnostic test orders, identity document or documentation or consent, safety or security or conduct, service coordination, surgery or procedure, line or tube, fall, medication or intravenous safety, employee general incident, environment or equipment, adverse drug reaction (ADR), skin or tissue, and diagnosis or treatment. Overall rates and subclassification rates were calculated. There were 10,224 incident reports and 4,324,208 radiology examinations (rate = 0.23%). The highest rates of the incident reports were due to diagnostic test orders (34.3%; 3509/10,224), followed by service coordination (12.2%; 1248/10,224) and ADR (10.3%; 1052/4,324,208). The rate of incident reporting was highest in inpatient (0.30%; 2949/970,622), followed by emergency radiology (0.22%; 1500/672,958) and outpatient (0.18%; 4957/2,680,628). Approximately 48.5% (4947/10,202) of incidents had no patient harm and did not affect the patient, followed by no patient harm, but did affect the patient (35.2%, 3589/10,202), temporary or minor patient harm (15.5%, 1584/10,202), permanent or major patient harm (0.6%, 62/10,202), and patient death (0.2%, 20/10,202). Within an academic radiology department, the rate of incident reports was only 0.23%, usually did not harm the patient, and occurred at higher rates in inpatients. The most common incident type was in the category of diagnostic test orders, followed by service coordination, and ADRs. PMID:27020256

  9. SU-E-P-19: A National Collaborative Academic Medical Physics Network: Structure, Activity and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A national Australian inter-university medical physics (MP) group was formed in 2011/12, supported by Department of Health Better Access to Radiation Oncology BARO) seed funding. Core membership includes the six universities providing postgraduate MP courses. Objectives include increasing capacity, development and efficiency of national academic MP structures/systems and hence supporting education, clinical training and research, for the MP workforce support. Although the BARO scheme focuses on Radiation Oncology, the group has wider MP interests. Methods: Two further BARO seed grants were achieved: 1) for networked academic activities, including shared-resource teaching, eg using virtual reality systems; MP outreach to schools and undergraduates; developing web-based student and registrar education/resources, etc.; and 2) for conjoint ‘translational research’ posts between universities and partner hospitals, to clinically progress advanced RT technologies and to support students and registrars. Each university received 0.5 FTE post from each grant over 2 years (total: $1.75M) and leveraged local additional partner funds. Results: Total funding: $4–5M. Overall there have been 35 (mainly overseas) postholders bringing specific expertise, beginning in early 2013. Periods in Australia have been from 0.25–2 years (median=1). As well as the education activities, research projects include lung/spine SBRT, 4D RT, FFF beams, technology assessment, complex treatment planning, imaging for radiation oncology, DIR, adaptive breast, datamining, radiomics,etc. Observed positive impacts include: increased interest in MP courses, training support, translational research infrastructure and/or clinical practice in the hospitals involved, plus increased collaboration and effectiveness between the universities. Posts are continuing beyond grant end using leveraged funds, providing the basis for sustainability of some posts. Conclusion: The BARO-funded projects have

  10. Big Fish in a Big Pond: a study of academic self concept in first year medical students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) research has demonstrated that students in high-ability environments have lower academic self-concepts than equally able students in low-ability settings. Research has shown low academic self-concepts to be associated with negative educational outcomes. Social comparison processes have been implicated as fundamental to the BFLPE. Methods Twenty first-year students in an Australian medical school completed a survey that included academic self-concept and social comparison measures, before and after their first written assessments. Focus groups were also conducted with a separate group of students to explore students' perceptions of competence, the medical school environment, and social comparison processes. Results The quantitative study did not reveal any changes in academic self-concept or self-evaluation. The qualitative study suggested that the attributions that students used when discussing performance were those that have been demonstrated to negatively affect self-concept. Students reported that the environment was slightly competitive and they used social comparison to evaluate their performance. Conclusions Although the BFLPE was not evident in the quantitative study, results from the qualitative study suggest that the BFLPE might be operating In that students were using attributions that are associated with lower self-concepts, the environment was slightly competitive, and social comparisons were used for evaluation. PMID:21794166

  11. Empathy in Undergraduate Medical Students of Bangladesh: Psychometric Analysis and Differences by Gender, Academic Year, and Specialty Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Rozina; Mostafa, Mohammad; Rana, Md. Mashud

    2014-01-01

    Empathy is considered to be associated with better patient compliance, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The aim of the study is to measure and examine empathy among a sample of undergraduate medical students of Bangladesh. It was a cross-sectional study and all the medical students of first through fifth year enrolled at Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College during the study period of 2014 were surveyed. Participants anonymously completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Medical Student version translated into Bengali language, a valid and reliable 20-item self-administered questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were calculated to check validity and reliability of the scale. ANOVA was used to examine the differences in empathy between gender, academic years, and specialty preferences. The mean empathy score was 110.41 ± 13.59. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.88. There were significant associations between gender and empathy scores. The level of empathy in medical students gradually increases after clinical training in medical college. A nonsignificant difference was found between empathy scores and specialty preferences. It is suggested that the medical curriculum in Bangladesh should include more extensive program to promote empathy and other humanistic values among the medical students. PMID:25006522

  12. Implementation of a Research Participant Satisfaction Survey at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Smailes, Paula; Reider, Carson; Hallarn, Rose Kegler; Hafer, Lisa; Wallace, Lorraine; Miser, William F.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study covers the development of a survey to assess research subject satisfaction among those participating in clinical research studies at an academic medical center (AMC). The purpose was twofold: to gauge the effectiveness of the survey, as well as to determine the level of satisfaction of the research participants. The authors developed and implemented an electronic research participant satisfaction survey. It was created to provide research teams at the authors’ AMC with a common instrument to capture research participant experiences in order to improve upon the quality of research operations. The instrument captured participant responses in a standardized format. Ultimately, the results are to serve as a means to improve the research experience of participants for single studies, studies conducted within a division or department of the AMC, or across the entire research enterprise at the institution. For ease of use, the survey was created within an electronic data capture system known as REDCap, which is used by a consortium of more than 1,800 institutional partners as a tool from the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Participants in the survey described in this article were more than 18 years of age and participating in an institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. Results showed that the vast majority of participants surveyed had a positive experience engaging in research at the authors’ AMC. Further, the tool was found to be effective in making that determination. The authors hope to expand the use of the survey as a means to increase research satisfaction and quality at their university. PMID:27390769

  13. Ethnicity and academic performance in UK trained doctors and medical students: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Henry W W; McManus, I C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the ethnicity of UK trained doctors and medical students is related to their academic performance. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Online databases PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC; Google and Google Scholar; personal knowledge; backwards and forwards citations; specific searches of medical education journals and medical education conference abstracts. Study selection The included quantitative reports measured the performance of medical students or UK trained doctors from different ethnic groups in undergraduate or postgraduate assessments. Exclusions were non-UK assessments, only non-UK trained candidates, only self reported assessment data, only dropouts or another non-academic variable, obvious sampling bias, or insufficient details of ethnicity or outcomes. Results 23 reports comparing the academic performance of medical students and doctors from different ethnic groups were included. Meta-analyses of effects from 22 reports (n=23 742) indicated candidates of “non-white” ethnicity underperformed compared with white candidates (Cohen’s d=−0.42, 95% confidence interval −0.50 to −0.34; P<0.001). Effects in the same direction and of similar magnitude were found in meta-analyses of undergraduate assessments only, postgraduate assessments only, machine marked written assessments only, practical clinical assessments only, assessments with pass/fail outcomes only, assessments with continuous outcomes only, and in a meta-analysis of white v Asian candidates only. Heterogeneity was present in all meta-analyses. Conclusion Ethnic differences in academic performance are widespread across different medical schools, different types of exam, and in undergraduates and postgraduates. They have persisted for many years and cannot be dismissed as atypical or local problems. We need to recognise this as an issue that probably affects all of UK medical and higher education. More detailed information to track the problem

  14. Impact of medical academic genealogy on publication patterns: An analysis of the literature for surgical resection in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Hirshman, Brian R; Tang, Jessica A; Jones, Laurie A; Proudfoot, James A; Carley, Kathleen M; Marshall, Lawrence; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2016-02-01

    "Academic genealogy" refers to the linking of scientists and scholars based on their dissertation supervisors. We propose that this concept can be applied to medical training and that this "medical academic genealogy" may influence the landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search to identify US authors who have contributed peer-reviewed articles on a neurosurgery topic that remains controversial: the value of maximal resection for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Training information for each key author (defined as the first or last author of an article) was collected (eg, author's medical school, residency, and fellowship training). Authors were recursively linked to faculty mentors to form genealogies. Correlations between genealogy and publication result were examined. Our search identified 108 articles with 160 unique key authors. Authors who were members of 2 genealogies (14% of key authors) contributed to 38% of all articles. If an article contained an authorship contribution from the first genealogy, its results were more likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = 2.74, p < 0.028) relative to articles without such contribution. In contrast, if an article contained an authorship contribution from the second genealogy, it was less likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = -1.74, p < 0.026). We conclude that the literature on surgical resection for HGGs is influenced by medical academic genealogies, and that articles contributed by authors of select genealogies share common results. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of scientific literature, design of medical training, and health care policy. PMID:26727354

  15. Biomedical Research and Technology. A Prognosis for International Economic Leadership. Commission on Academic Medical Centers and the Economy of New England [Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Board of Higher Education, Boston, MA.

    The focus of the work of the Commission on Academic Medical Centers and the Economy of New England is the financing competitors strength and future development of academic centers and biomedical companies in New England. Among the findings and recommendations of the Commission are the following: (1) the New England region will require several…

  16. Fostering Interprofessional Teamwork in an Academic Medical Center: Near-Peer Education for Students during Gross Medical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Richard K.; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Schwinn, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe student satisfaction with a near-peer interprofessional education (IPE) session for physical therapy and medical students. Ten senior physical therapy students worked in peer-groups to develop a musculoskeletal anatomy demonstration for first-semester medical students. Together with their classmates, they…

  17. Clinical and Financial Impact of Pharmacist Involvement in Discharge Medication Reconciliation at an Academic Medical Center: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Laura Beth; Pilch, Nicole A. (Weimert); Bullington, Wendy; Hayes, Genevieve L.; Easterling, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medication reconciliation is one of the more challenging aspects of inpatient care, and its accuracy is paramount to safe transitions of care. Studies have shown that pharmacists have a role in medication reconciliation through improving patient safety and avoiding costs associated with medication errors. The wide-scale use of pharmacists in this process has been limited by time constraints, cost, and lack of resources. Objective: This study evaluates the impact of pharmacists in resolving medication errors, decreasing readmission rates, and reducing institutional costs during the discharge medication reconciliation process. Methods: Pharmacists evaluated discharge medication reconciliation documentation for patients to determine its accuracy, the accuracy of the admission reconciliation documentation, and any potential issues unrelated to accuracy. Analysis of these data determined the time required for pharmacist involvement, the number of errors identified by pharmacists, the quality of pharmacist interventions, the cost avoidance for each error, and the overall impact on hospital readmission. Results: During the 7-week study period, pharmacists performed 67 discharge medication reviews and identified 84 errors. Seventy-five percent were considered to be significant and 6% were considered to be serious. The 30-day readmission rate in the study cohort was 18% compared with 20% in the control group. Based on the clinical severity scale and pharmacist salaries, pharmacist interventions resulted in $42,300 in cost avoidance. Conclusion: Pharmacists involved in this pilot discharge process identified and resolved significant errors on medication reconciliation orders that resulted in a financial benefit to the institution. PMID:26405342

  18. Tradition meets innovation: transforming academic medical culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-04-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past 20 years. Although the academic physician's triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic health centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. The authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multipronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met five times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles, and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers. PMID:23425986

  19. Online Medical Literature Consultation Habits of Academic Teaching Physicians in the EU and CIS Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Voort, Chiel T. M.; Swenne, Cees A.; van der Hoorn-van Velthoven, Catharina A. M.; Belt, Johannes H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and in the European Union (EU2004), ample availability of up to date medical scientific literature is important for progress in medical science and for the education of the next generation of healthcare workers. The aim of this research is to assess if the use of online medical literature among academic teaching (AT) physicians is at the same level in the CIS as in the EU2004. Methodology/Principal Findings In the capital cities of the CIS and the EU2004 member states, AT physicians holding an academic position at least equivalent to an associate professor and performing the three classical tasks in academic medicine (teaching, research and patient care) were interviewed about their use of and familiarity with the Internet and 9 online literature services, including journals and bibliographical databases such as PubMed (Medline), The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Library staff members were interviewed about the availability of these online literature services at their libraries. About 750 physicians and 40 library staff members were invited for participation. Eventually 124 AT physicians and 22 library staff members participated. Internet was everywhere available, but used daily by more AT physicians in the EU2004 (71% versus 48% in the CIS, P = .005). AT physicians in the EU2004 accessed a higher percentage of all articles online (74% versus 43% in the CIS, P<.001). PubMed (P<.001), The Cochrane Library (P<.001) and Web of Science (P<.003) were used more frequently in the EU2004. In the EU2004 more AT physicians were familiar with Open Access journals (89% versus 51% in the CIS, P<.001). Conclusions/Significance AT physicians in the CIS use online medical literature less than in the EU2004. It is recommended that the awareness of freely available online literature services such as Open Access journals is enhanced among AT physicians and library staff members, especially in the CIS. PMID

  20. Batting 300 is Good: Perspectives of Faculty Researchers and their Mentors on Rejection, Resilience, and Persistence in Academic Medical Careers

    PubMed Central

    DeCastro, Rochelle; Sambuco, Dana; Ubel, Peter A.; Stewart, Abigail; Jagsi, Reshma

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Professional rejection is a frequent experience in an academic medical career. The authors sought to understand how rejection affects those pursuing such careers and why some individuals may be more resilient than others in a population of individuals with demonstrated ability and interest in research careers. Method Between February 2010 and August 2011, the authors conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 100 former recipients of National Institutes of Health mentored career development awards and 28 of their mentors. Purposive sampling ensured a diverse range of viewpoints. Multiple analysts thematically coded verbatim transcripts using qualitative data analysis software. Results Participants described a variety of experiences with criticism and rejection in their careers, as well as an acute need for persistence and resilience in the face of such challenges. Through their narratives, participants also vividly described a range of emotional and behavioral responses to their experiences of professional rejection. Their responses illuminated the important roles that various factors, including mentoring and gender, play in shaping the ultimate influence of rejection on their own careers and on the careers of those they have mentored. Conclusions Responses to rejection vary considerably, and negative responses can lead promising individuals to abandon careers in academic medicine. Resilience does not, however, appear to be immutable—it can be learned. Given the frequency of experiences with rejection in academic medicine, strategies such as training mentors to foster resilience may be particularly helpful in improving faculty retention in academic medicine. PMID:23425991

  1. Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy

  2. Academic Debate: Publications Which Promote Political Agendas Have no Place in Scientific and Medical Journals, and Academics Should Refrain from Publishing in Such Journals

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Shimon; Clarfield, A. Mark; Strous, Rael D.; Horton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the full debate held on October 1, 2014, which focused on the following resolution: “Publications which promote political agendas have no place in scientific and medical journals, and academics should refrain from publishing in such journals.” The debate moderator was Professor Shimon Glick. Taking the pro stance was Professor A. Mark Clarfield; the con stance was held by Professor Rael D. Strous. Following the first part of the debate, Dr Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, gave his thoughts on the topic. This was followed by the opportunity for rebuttal by Professors Clarfield and Strous. The debate was summarized and closed by Professor Glick. This paper provides a slightly edited text of the debate, for ease of reading. PMID:25717385

  3. Changing resident test ordering behavior: a multilevel intervention to decrease laboratory utilization at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Hamill, Timothy; Green, Adrienne L; Rosenbluth, Glenn; Baron, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Hospital laboratory test volume is increasing, and overutilization contributes to errors and costs. Efforts to reduce laboratory utilization have targeted aspects of ordering behavior, but few have utilized a multilevel collaborative approach. The study team partnered with residents to reduce unnecessary laboratory tests and associated costs through multilevel interventions across the academic medical center. The study team selected laboratory tests for intervention based on cost, volume, and ordering frequency (complete blood count [CBC] and CBC with differential, common electrolytes, blood enzymes, and liver function tests). Interventions were designed collaboratively with residents and targeted components of ordering behavior, including system changes, teaching, social marketing, academic detailing, financial incentives, and audit/feedback. Laboratory ordering was reduced by 8% cumulatively over 3 years, saving $2 019 000. By involving residents at every stage of the intervention and targeting multiple levels simultaneously, laboratory utilization was reduced and cost savings were sustained over 3 years. PMID:24443317

  4. [Therapeutic misuses as a reason of telephone inquiries to Poison Information Centre of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in 2012].

    PubMed

    Szkolnicka, Beata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was the analysis of exposure due to therapeutic mi. suse registered in Poison Information Centre in 2012. Of all 3084 telephone inquiries 87 were related to therapeutic misuse. The equal gender proportion were noted. More than 50% of calls registered were taken from a lay public. A most common therapeutic misuse was administration of medicine dose higher than recommended, to children of 1-6 y interval and younger, mostly by parents. PMID:24466689

  5. Medical Assistant. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum for a medical assistant program is designed for students interested in caring for the sick, injured, convalescent, or disabled under the direction of the family, physicians, and credentialed nurses. The curriculum is divided into 12 units: orientation to medical assisting; principles of medical ethics; risk management; infection…

  6. Effect of Active Learning on Students' Academic Success in the Medical Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Doctors in a Northern California community reported that medical assisting students did not use medical terminology in context, could not think critically, and faltered in decision making and problem solving during their internships in medical offices. The intent of this instrumental case study was to investigate the gap between current methods of…

  7. Fostering interprofessional teamwork in an academic medical center: Near-peer education for students during gross medical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shields, Richard K; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Schwinn, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe student satisfaction with a near-peer interprofessional education (IPE) session for physical therapy and medical students. Ten senior physical therapy students worked in peer-groups to develop a musculoskeletal anatomy demonstration for first-semester medical students. Together with their classmates, they demonstrated observation, palpation, and musculoskeletal assessment of the shoulder and scapular-thoracic articulation to medical student dissection groups in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. The medical students were encouraged to consider the synergistic function of shoulder structures and the potential impact of a selected pathology: rotator cuff injury. The session provided the medical students with an opportunity to integrate their new anatomical knowledge into a framework for clinical musculoskeletal evaluation. The experience offered senior physical therapy students an opportunity to work in teams with their peers, internalize and adapt to constructive feedback, and seek common ground with members of another profession. Both student groups reported a high degree of satisfaction with the sessions and expressed a desire for further interaction. These positive perceptions by student stakeholders have prompted us to consider additional IPE exchanges for the anatomy course in the upcoming school year. Given the positive outcome of this descriptive study, we now plan to systematically test whether near-peer IPE interactions can enhance the degree that students learn key anatomical concepts. PMID:24888728

  8. Black Medical Students' Perceptions of the Academic Environment and of Faculty and Peer Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Frierson, Henry T.

    1987-01-01

    After 10 years of admitting greater numbers of black medical students to North Carolina medical schools, the current study examined perceptions of four classes of black students attending these medical schools. One objective of this study was to gain a sense of how black students perceived the medical school environment. Another objective was to determine those students' levels of negative reactions generated by interactions with faculty and peers. Some of the major findings indicated that black students generally had negative perceptions of the medical school environments, and much of their reported negativism was associated with perceptions of student and white faculty interactions. PMID:3625797

  9. Self-Handicapping Prior to Academic-Oriented Tasks in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Medication Effects and Comparisons with Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…

  10. Model for a merger: New York-Presbyterian's use of service lines to bring two academic medical centers together.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Steven J; Cooper, Mary Reich; Leiman, Joan M; Stein, Dina E; Pardes, Herbert; Berman, Michael A

    2003-11-01

    NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital is the result of the 1998 merger of two large New York City academic medical centers, the former New York and Presbyterian Hospitals, and is affiliated with two independent medical schools, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Joan and Sanford J. Weill Medical College of Cornell University. At the time of the merger, the hospital faced a number of significant challenges, chief among them the clinical integration of the two medical centers. Size, separate medical schools, geography, and different histories and cultures all presented barriers to collaboration. To bring about the needed clinical alignment, the hospital turned to service lines as a way to realize the benefits of clinical integration without forcing the consolidation of departments. In this article, members of the hospital's senior management review the thinking behind the hospital's use of the service lines, their development and operation, and the significant, positive effects they have had on volume, clinical quality, clinical efficiency, best practices, and revenue management. They discuss how the service lines were used to bring together the two clinical cultures, the impact they have had on the way the hospital is operated and managed, and why service lines have worked at NewYork-Presbyterian in contrast to other hospitals that tried and abandoned them. Service lines play an increasingly central role in the hospital's clinical and business strategies, and are being extended into the NewYork-Presbyterian health care system. PMID:14604869

  11. A Thoracic Surgical Case Presented at the First Academic Meeting of the Chosun (Korean) Medical Association Held in 1947

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The late Prof. Kyeok Boo Han (1913–2005) was one of the pioneers in the early stages of the establishment of thoracic surgery in Korea. He was in charge of thoracic surgery at Seoul National University Hospital from 1948 to the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. He presented a thoracic surgical case entitled “Adhesive (constrictive) pericarditis: one surgical case” at the first academic meeting of the Chosun (an old name for Korea) Medical Association, held in 1947. This presentation is considered to be the first thoracic surgical case presented by a Korean surgeon at a domestic medical meeting after the National Liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. In this regard, this study was intended to analyze the content and the meaning of the case, published in a journal in 1948. PMID:27525248

  12. A Thoracic Surgical Case Presented at the First Academic Meeting of the Chosun (Korean) Medical Association Held in 1947.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-08-01

    The late Prof. Kyeok Boo Han (1913-2005) was one of the pioneers in the early stages of the establishment of thoracic surgery in Korea. He was in charge of thoracic surgery at Seoul National University Hospital from 1948 to the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. He presented a thoracic surgical case entitled "Adhesive (constrictive) pericarditis: one surgical case" at the first academic meeting of the Chosun (an old name for Korea) Medical Association, held in 1947. This presentation is considered to be the first thoracic surgical case presented by a Korean surgeon at a domestic medical meeting after the National Liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. In this regard, this study was intended to analyze the content and the meaning of the case, published in a journal in 1948. PMID:27525248

  13. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    PubMed

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors. PMID:23187027

  14. Self-Efficacy's Influence on Student Academic Achievement in the Medical Anatomy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Jennifer Marie; Meece, Judith L.; Granger, Noelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy is defined as a person's beliefs in his or her own abilities to successfully complete a task and has been shown to influence student motivation and academic behaviors. More specifically, anatomical self-efficacy is defined as an individual's judgment of his or her ability to successfully complete tasks related to the anatomy…

  15. Free text databases in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. S.; Shea, S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of Folio Views, a PC DOS based product for free text databases, is explored in three applications in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS): (1) a telephone directory, (2) a grants and contracts newsletter, and (3) nursing care plans. PMID:1666967

  16. Religious affiliation, quality of life and academic performance: New Zealand medical students.

    PubMed

    Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian; Thompson, Andrea; Sisley, Richard; Doherty, Iain; Hawken, Susan J

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the connections between religious affiliation, quality of life (QOL) and measures of academic performance. Participants (n = 275) were recruited from the School of Medicine within a New Zealand university. Religious affiliation was classified according to three subcategories: Christian (n = 104), Eastern religion (n = 34) and non-religious (n = 117). The participants completed the World Health Organisation quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organisation Spiritual, Religiousness, and Personal Beliefs questionnaire immediately before their lecture time. The main findings of the study indicated that participants from different religious affiliations expressed different spiritual QOL perceptions. However, these different expressions did not translate into their perceptions related to hours of study and academic achievement. In addition, the QOL measures did not relate to academic achievement estimation but did predict hours of study. Greater hours of study were related to greater physical health but lower psychological health and poorer engagement in developing social relationships. Data from a small focus group (n = 4) revealed that these students believed that having a belief system assisted them when coping with the academic learning environment, although little difference could be found between external religious orientations and internal belief systems. PMID:24005316

  17. Pre-Veterinary Medical Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Academic Success in Veterinary College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Marcia F.; Kaiser, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A five-year longitudinal study was designed to find the best predictors of academic success in veterinary school at Kansas State University and to set up a multiple regression formula to be used in selecting students. The preveterinary grade point average was found to be the best predictor. (JMD)

  18. HMO development in an academic medical center: the rise and fall of a prepaid health program in New York city.

    PubMed

    Bosch, S J; Deuschle, K W

    1993-08-01

    Through a documented case study the authors identify the critical factors that impede the introduction of prepaid medical care as part of education and practice within a prestigious and well established academic medical center. The inherent conflicts between individual fee-for-service practice and population-based prepaid practice and the resistance to innovations in medical care organization as they surfaced in that center, are presented. The need for a clear understanding of the complexities of HMO development and of an appreciation for the importance of a planning process in which all interested parties are involved, is emphasized. A clear commitment by policy makers, administrators and providers is highlighted as fundamental for the implementation of a system where practitioners are motivated to assume responsibility for the comprehensive care of a defined population that prepays for their services. The rewards as well as the difficulties for institutionalizing commitment to this form of health care delivery and impacting on medical education are discussed. PMID:8408749

  19. A Podiatric Medical Residency Program in an Academic Health Science Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogy, Louis T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The podiatric medical residency program in the Health Science Center at San Antonio provides an intensive exposure for the newly graduated podiatrist to practice in a multidisciplinary environment. Residents become more familiar with general medical and surgical diseases and disorders as well as podiatric pathology. (LBH)

  20. Evaluation of Safe Medication Administration through the Use of Simulation in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dover, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing educational programs are struggling with how to educate students to safely and efficiently administer medications. There is no doubt education programs need to find a way to assist students to acquire the skill of medication administration and to also transfer the skill into practice. Knowledge, skills, and abilities are requirements for…

  1. Can Learning Style Predict Student Satisfaction with Different Instruction Methods and Academic Achievement in Medical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurpinar, Erol; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The curriculum of our medical school has a hybrid structure including both traditional training (lectures) and problem-based learning (PBL) applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of our medical students and investigate the relation of learning styles with each of satisfaction with different instruction methods…

  2. The revised guidelines of the Medical Council of India for academic promotions: Need for a rethink.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rakesh; Gogtay, Nithya; Kumar, Rajeev; Sahni, Peush

    2015-01-01

    Note: This editorial is being published simultaneously in the Indian Heart Journal, Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Indian Journal of Urology, Indian Pediatrics, International Journal of Health Research & Medicolegal Practice, Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology, Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, Journal of Clinical and Scientific Research, Journal of Conservative Dentistry, Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, and The National Medical Journal of India. It may also be published in forthcoming issues of other journals. This editorial is not endorsed by all members of the Indian Association of Medical Journal Editors (IAMJE). PMID:26985403

  3. The revised guidelines of the Medical Council of India for academic promotions: Need for a rethink

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rakesh; Gogtay, Nithya; Kumar, Rajeev; Sahni, Peush

    2015-01-01

    Note: This editorial is being published simultaneously in the Indian Heart Journal, Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Indian Journal of Urology, Indian Pediatrics, International Journal of Health Research & Medicolegal Practice, Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology, Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, Journal of Clinical and Scientific Research, Journal of Conservative Dentistry, Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, and The National Medical Journal of India. It may also be published in forthcoming issues of other journals. This editorial is not endorsed by all members of the Indian Association of Medical Journal Editors (IAMJE). PMID:26985403

  4. Impact on health-related quality of life and costs of managing chronic neuropathic pain in academic pain centres: Results from a one-year prospective observational Canadian study

    PubMed Central

    Tarride, J-E; Moulin, DE; Lynch, M; Clark, AJ; Stitt, L; Gordon, A; Morley-Forster, PK; Nathan, H; Smyth, C; Toth, C; Ware, MA

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of chronic pain, including neuropathic pain (NeP), is a major public health issue. However, there is a paucity of data evaluating pain management strategies in real-life settings. OBJECTIVE: To inform policy makers about the economic value of managing chronic NeP in academic centres by conducting a subeconomic assessment of a Canadian multicentre cohort study aimed at determining the long-term outcomes of the management of chronic NeP in academic pain centres. Specific questions regarding the economic value of this type of program were answered by a subset of patients to provide further information to policy makers. METHODS: Baseline demographic information and several pain-related measurements were collected at baseline, three, six and 12 months in the main study. A resource use questionnaire aimed at determining NeP-related costs and the EuroQoL-5 Dimension were collected in the subset study from consenting patients. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare outcomes over time and according to responder status. RESULTS: A total of 298 patients were evaluated in the present economic evaluation. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 53.7±14.0 years, and 56% were female. At intake, the mean duration of NeP was >5 years. Statistically significant improvements in all pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were observed between the baseline and one-year visits. Use decreased over time for many health care resources (eg, visits to the emergency room decreased by one-half), which resulted in overall cost savings. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that increased access to academic pain centres should be facilitated in Canada. PMID:26474381

  5. Development of a Hospital-based Massage Therapy Course at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Liza J.; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Rodgers, Nancy J.; Hauschulz, Jennifer L.; Dreyer, Nikol E.; Thomley, Barbara S.; Bauer, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Massage therapy is offered increasingly in US medical facilities. Although the United States has many massage schools, their education differs, along with licensure and standards. As massage therapy in hospitals expands and proves its value, massage therapists need increased training and skills in working with patients who have various complex medical concerns, to provide safe and effective treatment. These services for hospitalized patients can impact patient experience substantially and provide additional treatment options for pain and anxiety, among other symptoms. The present article summarizes the initial development and description of a hospital-based massage therapy course at a Midwest medical center. Methods: A hospital-based massage therapy course was developed on the basis of clinical experience and knowledge from massage therapists working in the complex medical environment. This massage therapy course had three components in its educational experience: online learning, classroom study, and a 25-hr shadowing experience. The in-classroom study portion included an entire day in the simulation center. Results: The hospital-based massage therapy course addressed the educational needs of therapists transitioning to work with interdisciplinary medical teams and with patients who have complicated medical conditions. Feedback from students in the course indicated key learning opportunities and additional content that are needed to address the knowledge and skills necessary when providing massage therapy in a complex medical environment. Conclusions: The complexity of care in medical settings is increasing while the length of hospital stay is decreasing. For this reason, massage provided in the hospital requires more specialized training to work in these environments. This course provides an example initial step in how to address some of the educational needs of therapists who are transitioning to working in the complex medical environment. PMID

  6. Impact of a Cost Visibility Tool in the Electronic Medical Record on Antibiotic Prescribing in an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Fargo, Kelly L.; Johnston, Jessica; Stevenson, Kurt B.; Deutscher, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating the impact of passive cost visibility tools on antibiotic prescribing are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the implementation of a passive antibiotic cost visibility tool would impact antibiotic prescribing and decrease antibiotic spending. Methods: An efficiency and effectiveness initiative (EEI) was implemented in October 2012. To support the EEI, an antibiotic cost visibility tool was created in June 2013 displaying the relative cost of antibiotics. Using an observational study of interrupted time series design, 3 time frames were studied: pre EEI, post EEI, and post cost visibility tool implementation. The primary outcome was antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days. Secondary outcomes included case mix index (CMI)–adjusted antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days and utilization of the cost visibility tool. Results: Initiation of the EEI was associated with a $4,675 decrease in antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days (P = .003), and costs continued to decrease in the months following EEI (P = .009). After implementation of the cost visibility tool, costs remained stable (P = .844). Despite CMI increasing over time, adjustment for CMI had no impact on the directionality or statistical significance of the results. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a significant and sustained decrease in antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days when focused medication cost reduction efforts were implemented, but passive cost visibility tool implementation was not associated with additional cost reduction. Antibiotic cost visibility tools may be of most benefit when prior medication cost reduction efforts are lacking or when an active intervention is incorporated. PMID:26405341

  7. Integration of an academic medical center and a community hospital: the Brigham and Women's/Faulkner hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Andrew J; Otten, Jeffrey R; Goldszer, Robert C; Hanson, Margaret; Trull, David J; Paulus, Kenneth; Brown, Monte; Dzau, Victor; Brennan, Troyen A

    2005-03-01

    Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the need for lower-cost clinical space in an era of provider risk-sharing, BWH and Faulkner entered into a comprehensive affiliation agreement. Over the past seven years, the relationship has enhanced overall volume, broadened training programs, lowered the cost of resources for secondary care, and improved financial performance for both institutions. The lessons of this relationship, both in terms of success factors and ongoing challenges for the hospitals, medical staffs, and a large multispecialty referring physician group, are reviewed. The key factors for success of the relationship have been integration of training programs and some clinical services, provision of complementary clinical capabilities, geographic proximity, clear role definition of each institution, commitment and flexibility of leadership and medical staff, active and responsive communication, and the support of a large referring physician group that embraced the affiliation concept. Principal challenges have been maintaining the community hospital's cost structure, addressing cultural differences, avoiding competition among professional staff, anticipating the pace of patient migration, choosing a name for the new affiliation, and adapting to a changing payer environment. PMID:15734807

  8. Advancing LGBT Health at an Academic Medical Center: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Calder, Daniel; Flesch, Judd D; Hirsh, Rebecca L; Higginbotham, Eve; Tkacs, Nancy; Crawford, Beverley; Fishman, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Academic health centers are strategically positioned to impact the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations by advancing science, educating future generations of providers, and delivering integrated care that addresses the unique health needs of the LGBT community. This report describes the early experiences of the Penn Medicine Program for LGBT Health, highlighting the favorable environment that led to its creation, the mission and structure of the Program, strategic planning process used to set priorities and establish collaborations, and the reception and early successes of the Program. PMID:26788778

  9. Reflections from a chair: Leadership of a clinical department at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Willett, Christopher G

    2015-11-01

    The leadership position of an academic departmental chair can be a positive and rewarding opportunity. These rewards principally stem from the success of the faculty, residents, other trainees, nurses, and everyone supporting the department. With health care reform and the constraints of the federal budget, increasing attention and time has become directed toward administrative management. There are multiple and often competing constituencies and agendas requiring thoughtful strategies to achieve departmental goals. The objectives of a chair are advancing patient care, education, and research. True excellence of a department is achieved by the innovation of its faculty. PMID:26218104

  10. Surgical Residency Training at a University-Based Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Rebecca L; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2016-02-01

    The past two decades have been witness to some of the most dynamic changes that have occurred in surgical education in all of its history. Political policies, social revolution, and the competing priorities of a new generation of surgical trainees are defining the needs of modern training paradigms. Although the university-based academic program's tripartite mission of clinical service, research, and education has remained steadfast, the mechanisms for achieving success in this mission necessitate adaptation and innovation. The resource-rich learning environment and the unique challenges that face university-based programs contribute to its ability to generate the future leaders of the surgical workforce. PMID:26612020

  11. An academic, clinical and industrial update on electrospun, additive manufactured and imprinted medical devices.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christina N M; Fuller, Kieran P; Larrañaga, Aitor; Biggs, Manus; Bayon, Yves; Sarasua, Jose R; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning, additive manufacturing and imprint lithography scaffold fabrication technologies have attracted great attention in biomedicine, as they allow production of two- and three- dimensional constructs with tuneable topographical and geometrical features. In vitro data demonstrate that electrospun and imprinted substrates offer control over permanently differentiated and stem cell function. Advancements in functionalisation strategies have further enhanced the bioactivity and reparative capacity of electrospun and additive manufactured devices, as has been evidenced in several preclinical models. Despite this overwhelming success in academic setting, only a few technologies have reached the clinic and only a fraction of them have become commercially available products. PMID:26111642

  12. Allergic rhinitis and its associated co-morbidities at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania; A prospective review of 190 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the commonest atopic diseases which contribute to significant morbidity world wide while its epidemiology in Tanzania remains sparse. There was paucity of information regarding allergic rhinitis in our setting; therefore it was important to conduct this study to describe our experience on allergic rhinitis, associated co-morbidities and treatment outcome in patients attending Bugando Medical Centre. Methods This was descriptive cross-sectional study involving all patients with a clinical diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at Bugando Medical Centre over a three-month period between June 2011 and August 2011. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 190 patients were studied giving the prevalence of allergic rhinitis 14.7%. The median age of the patients was 8.5 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Adenoid hypertrophy, tonsillitis, hypertrophy of inferior turbinate, nasal polyps, otitis media and sinusitis were the most common co-morbidities affecting 92.6% of cases and were the major reason for attending hospital services. Sleep disturbance was common in children with adenoids hypertrophy (χ2 = 28.691, P = 0.000). Allergic conjunctivitis was found in 51.9%. The most common identified triggers were dust, strong perfume odors and cold weather (P < 0.05). Strong perfume odors affect female than males (χ2 = 4.583, P = 0.032). In this study family history of allergic rhinitis was not a significant risk factor (P =0.423). The majority of patients (68.8%) were treated surgically for allergic rhinitis co morbidities. Post operative complication and mortality rates were 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. The overall median duration of hospital stay of in-patients was 3 days (2 – 28 days). Most patients (98.4%) had satisfactory results at discharge. Conclusion The study shows that allergic rhinitis is common in our

  13. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China during 2011-2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A "Plan, Do, Check, Act" cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China, (April 2012-October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements have been

  14. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-ling; Pan, Sheng-dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China during 2011–2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A “Plan, Do, Check, Act” cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China, (April 2012–October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements

  15. There is no "i" in teamwork in the patient-centered medical home: defining teamwork competencies for academic practice.

    PubMed

    Leasure, Emily L; Jones, Ronald R; Meade, Lauren B; Sanger, Marla I; Thomas, Kris G; Tilden, Virginia P; Bowen, Judith L; Warm, Eric J

    2013-05-01

    Evidence suggests that teamwork is essential for safe, reliable practice. Creating health care teams able to function effectively in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), practices that organize care around the patient and demonstrate achievement of defined quality care standards, remains challenging. Preparing trainees for practice in interprofessional teams is particularly challenging in academic health centers where health professions curricula are largely siloed. Here, the authors review a well-delineated set of teamwork competencies that are important for high-functioning teams and suggest how these competencies might be useful for interprofessional team training and achievement of PCMH standards. The five competencies are (1) team leadership, the ability to coordinate team members' activities, ensure appropriate task distribution, evaluate effectiveness, and inspire high-level performance, (2) mutual performance monitoring, the ability to develop a shared understanding among team members regarding intentions, roles, and responsibilities so as to accurately monitor one another's performance for collective success, (3) backup behavior, the ability to anticipate the needs of other team members and shift responsibilities during times of variable workload, (4) adaptability, the capability of team members to adjust their strategy for completing tasks on the basis of feedback from the work environment, and (5) team orientation, the tendency to prioritize team goals over individual goals, encourage alternative perspectives, and show respect and regard for each team member. Relating each competency to a vignette from an academic primary care clinic, the authors describe potential strategies for improving teamwork learning and applying the teamwork competences to academic PCMH practices. PMID:23524923

  16. 19th-century academic examinations for physicians in the United States Army Medical Department.

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, A P

    1994-01-01

    During the latter half of the 19th century, the United States Army commissioned medical officers or hired civilian physicians to serve its troops. The civilian physician signed a contract for services, and the candidate for a commission was subjected to rigorous examinations before becoming an officer. The rigorous testing of prospective medical officers was necessary because of the lack of standardization in the education of physicians. Examples of the test, statistics, and individual records show how the Army dealt with unqualified candidates. Images PMID:8048241

  17. A case study: the evolution of a “facilitator model” liaison program in an academic medical library*

    PubMed Central

    DeShay, Claudia H.; Huslig, Mary Ann; Mayo, Helen G.; Patridge, Emily F.

    2012-01-01

    Question: What type of liaison program would best utilize both librarians and other library staff to effectively promote library services and resources to campus departments? Setting: The case is an academic medical center library serving a large, diverse campus. Methods: The library implemented a “facilitator model” program to provide personalized service to targeted clients that allowed for maximum staff participation with limited subject familiarity. To determine success, details of liaison-contact interactions and results of liaison and department surveys were reviewed. Results: Liaisons successfully recorded 595 interactions during the program's first 10 months of existence. A significant majority of departmental contact persons (82.5%) indicated they were aware of the liaison program, and 75% indicated they preferred email communication. Conclusion: The “facilitator model” provides a well-defined structure for assigning liaisons to departments or groups; however, training is essential to ensure that liaisons are able to communicate effectively with their clients. PMID:22879805

  18. The future of academic medical centers in the United States: passing through the valley of the shadow of death.

    PubMed

    Alpert, J S; Flanagan, D M; Botsford, N A

    2001-04-23

    The last 2 decades witnessed remarkable events in the life of academic medical centers (AMCs) in the United States. Twenty years ago, AMCs were thriving as the era of fee-for-service medicine came to a close: clinical departments were expanding, hiring new faculty members, purchasing new equipment as necessary, and funding research projects and protected research time with the abundant clinical revenues. The subsequent 20 years since that golden era came to a close witnessed teh disappearance of these expansionary trends. Departments have contracted, protected research time and start-up funds have declined precipitously, and many faculty members are infected with a sense of malaise and fear for the future. PMID:11322837

  19. Our experience with pre-operative haemostatic assessment of paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi

    PubMed Central

    Adekwu, Amali; Adoga, Agida Samuel; Gav, Terna Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2-4% of all patients requiring adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy, pre-operative screening tests for coagulation disorders are indicated to detect surgical bleeding complications. However, because of cost effect on the patients, the usefulness of these tests is being challenged. We therefore highlight our experience in paediatric patients undergoing adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or both in our centre. Patients and Methods: This is a 3½-year analysis of the data of 165 paediatric patients who had adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or both over the study period. The data collected included age, sex, procedure done and detailed clinical bleeding history. Results: A total of 165 children had either adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy, or both. There were 76 males and 89 females giving a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Their ages ranged from 10 months to 18 years. Eighty-five (51.5%) patients had adenotonsillectomy, 48 (29.1%) and 32 (19.4%) had only tonsillectomies and adenoidectomies, respectively. Only 11 (6.7%) families volunteered the history of either prolonged bleeding with minor injury on the skin or occasional slight nose bleeding. Six (3.6%) patients including 3 of the children with positive family history had posttonsillectomy bleed, out of which 4 (66.7%) were moderate whereas the remaining 2 (33.3%) were severe bleeding, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.041). The two cases of severe bleeding had fresh whole blood transfused whereas the rest that had no bleeding issues were discharged home 48 h postoperatively. Conclusion: Our experience in this study suggests that detailed bleeding history is necessary as well as pre-operative haemostatic assessment, if available and affordable for paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy. PMID:27251655

  20. Assessment of learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Urval, Rathnakar P; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A

    2014-09-01

    While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Teachers can use this knowledge to facilitate student learning. Moreover, students themselves can use this knowledge to change their learning habits. Five hundred undergraduate students belonging to two consecutive batches in their second year of undergraduate medical training were invited to participate in the exercise. Consenting students (415 students, 83%) were administered a printed form of version 7.0 of the VARK questionnaire. Besides the questionnaire, we also collected demographic data, academic performance data (marks obtained in 10th and 12th grades and last university examination), and self-perceived learning style preferences. The majority of students in our study had multiple learning preferences (68.7%). The predominant sensory modality of learning was aural (45.5%) and kinesthetic (33.1%). The learning style preference was not influenced by either sex or previous academic performance. Although we use a combination of teaching methods, there has not been an active effort to determine whether these adequately address the different types of learners. We hope these data will help us better our course contents and make learning a more fruitful experience. PMID:25179610

  1. Perspective: the negativity bias, medical education, and the culture of academic medicine: why culture change is hard.

    PubMed

    Haizlip, Julie; May, Natalie; Schorling, John; Williams, Anne; Plews-Ogan, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Despite ongoing efforts to improve working conditions, address well-being of faculty and students, and promote professionalism, many still feel the culture of academic medicine is problematic. Depression and burnout persist among physicians and trainees. The authors propose that culture change is so challenging in part because of an evolutionary construct known as the negativity bias that is reinforced serially in medical education. The negativity bias drives people to attend to and be more greatly affected by the negative aspects of experience. Some common teaching methods such as simulations, pimping, and instruction in clinical reasoning inadvertently reinforce the negativity bias and thereby enhance physicians' focus on the negative. Here, the authors examine the concept of negativity bias in the context of academic medicine, arguing that culture is affected by serially emphasizing the inherent bias to recognize and remember the negative. They explore the potential role of practices rooted in positive psychology as powerful tools to counteract the negativity bias and aid in achieving desired culture change. PMID:22836850

  2. Integrating Education into Primary Care Quality and Cost Improvement at an Academic Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, R. Van; Standiford, Connie J.; Green, Lee A.; Bernstein, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In 1996 the University of Michigan Health System created the Guidelines Utilization, Implementation, Development, and Evaluation Studies (GUIDES) unit to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of primary care for common medical problems. GUIDES's primary functions are to oversee the development of evidence-based, practical…

  3. Two Models for Implementing Senior Mentor Programs in Academic Medical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sara J.; Bates, Tovah; Cohan, Mary; Bragg, Dawn S.; Roberts, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares two models of undergraduate geriatric medical education utilizing senior mentoring programs. Descriptive, comparative multiple-case study was employed analyzing program documents, archival records, and focus group data. Themes were compared for similarities and differences between the two program models. Findings indicate that…

  4. Use of Nonacademic Factors to Predict Academic Performance in Freshman Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bonnie

    1990-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship of students' age, race, gender, father's occupation, anxiety, and field independence with grade point averages, first-term grades, and standardized test scores in 85 freshman medical students in a variety of courses. Implications of the findings for different fields are discussed. (MSE)

  5. Seven year review of retention in HIV care and treatment in federal medical centre Ido-Ekiti

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Oluwoleadeyemi; Ojo, Olujide John; Atoyebi, Oladele Ademola; Ekpo, David Sylvanus; Ogundana, Adebusuyi Opeyemi; Olaniyan, Temitope Oluseun; Owoade, John Adeyemi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Poor retention of patients in care is a major driver of poor performance and increased morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS programme despite the expansion and advancement Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART). The objective of this study is to assess retention rates and possible determining factors in People Living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART. Methods This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in Federal Medical Center, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Medical records of clients who were enrolled in ART Care and support unit (HIV Clinic) of the health facility from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed and analyzed using SPSS version 16. A total of 621 client records were reviewed for basic demographic information, CD4 count, WHO stage, number of follow-up visit, client ART status and client retention status (defined as client attending at least one clinic visit in 2012. Results A total of 347(63%) patients were retained in care and 208(37%) were not retained over the seven year review period. Retention was statistically significant with age (P-value 0.031), ART status (P-value 0.000) baseline CD4 (P-value 0.004), year of diagnosis and ART initiation (P-value= 0.027). Poor retention was associated decreasing age, pre-ART client, HIV stage 1&IV client and baseline CD4 above 400cell/mm3. Conclusion Retention in care of PLHIV is a minimum necessary condition for maintaining or restoring health in the long run. The strategies to sustain and improve retention rate should be adopted to maximize ART benefits. A follow-up study on other factors affecting retention from diagnosis to long term retention ART programme is recommended. PMID:26889320

  6. Pathology service line: a model for accountable care organizations at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Ira; Prystowsky, Michael B

    2012-05-01

    Accountable care is designed to manage the health of patients using a capitated cost model rather than fee for service. Pay for performance is an attempt to use quality and not service reduction as the way to decrease costs. Pathologists will have to demonstrate value to the system. This value will include (1) working with clinical colleagues to optimize testing protocols, (2) reducing unnecessary testing in both clinical and anatomic pathology, (3) guiding treatment by helping to personalize therapy, (4) designing laboratory information technology solutions that will promote and facilitate accurate, complete data mining, and (5) administering efficient cost-effective laboratories. The pathology service line was established to improve the efficiency of delivering pathology services and to provide more effective support of medical center programs. We have used this model effectively at the Montefiore Medical Center for the past 14 years. PMID:22333926

  7. Improving the quality of cancer pain management in an academic medical center emergency department.

    PubMed

    Won, Young Hwa; Choi, Yun Jung; Ahn, Shin; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Park, Jeong Yun; Kim, Sulhwa; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Yeon Hee

    2014-12-01

    The impact and outcomes of the implementation of a pain management guideline and pain assessment standard operating procedure (SOP) in a cancer-specific emergency department are evaluated in this article. After implementation of the SOP, the number of pain assessments conducted per patient during hospitalization increased, as did the percentage of patients who underwent a pain assessment at admission, within one hour after analgesic medication was administered, and at regular intervals. PMID:25427696

  8. Horizontal and vertical integration of academic disciplines in the medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Vidic, Branislav; Weitlauf, Harry M

    2002-05-01

    A rapid expansion of new scientific information and the introduction of new technology in operative and diagnostic medicine has marked the last several decades. Medical educators, because of and parallel to these developments, initiated a search for a more effective system of presenting core material to medical students. The new educational trends, although varying somewhat from one institution to another, concentrated on the following pedagogical shifts: 1) expansion of conceptual presentation of material at the expense of detail-oriented education; 2) amplification of an integrated approach, as opposed to subject-oriented instruction; 3) scheduling of elective courses to compliment required courses in the curriculum; and 4) institution of small group instruction (i.e., problem-based learning) to actively involve students in the educational process and to develop deductive reasoning based on clinical cases. The future pedagogical system in medical schools will most likely be a combination of "classical" presentation of material combined with concept-oriented, subject-integrated and small group instruction based on either hypothetical or real clinical cases. It is imperative for the success of the new curriculum, however, that certain criteria are satisfied: 1) reorganize basic science departments to determine course ownership; 2) establish a reward system for teaching faculty; and 3) establish new course objectives. PMID:11948961

  9. An Evaluation of a Voluntary Academic Medical Center Website Designed to Improve Access to Health Education among Consumers: Implications for E-Health and M-Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hollingsworth, Nicole Rosella

    2012-01-01

    Academic Medical Centers across the United States provide health libraries on their web portals to disseminate health promotion and disease prevention information, in order to assist patients in the management of their own care. However, there is a need to obtain consumer input, consumer satisfaction, and to conduct formal evaluations. The purpose…

  10. A study of the academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohsen; Samouei, Rahele; Tayebani, Tayebeh; Kolahduz, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the increasing importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in different aspects of life, such as academic achievement, the present survey is aimed to predict academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences, according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status. Materials and Methods: The present survey is a descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study performed on the medical students of Isfahan, Tehran, and Mashhad Universities of Medical Sciences. Sampling the universities was performed randomly after which selecting the students was done, taking into consideration the limitation in their numbers. Based on the inclusion criteria, all the medical students, entrance of 2005, who had attended the comprehensive basic sciences examination in 2008, entered the study. The data collection tools included an Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (standardized in Isfahan), the average score of the first to fifth semesters, total average of each of the five semesters, and the grade of the comprehensive basic sciences examination. The data were analyzed through stepwise regression coefficient by SPSS software version 15. Results: The results indicated that the indicators of independence from an emotional intelligence test and average scores of the first and third academic semesters were significant in predicting the students’ academic performance in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the average scores of students, especially in the earlier semesters, as well as the indicators of independence and the self-esteem rate of students can influence their success in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. PMID:26430693

  11. The Phenomenon of Collaboration: A Phenomenologic Study of Collaboration between Family Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments at an Academic Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David R.; Brewster, Cheryl D.; Karides, Marina; Lukas, Lou A.

    2011-01-01

    Collaboration is essential to manage complex real world problems. We used phenomenologic methods to elaborate a description of collaboration between two departments at an academic medical center who considered their relationship to represent a model of effective collaboration. Key collaborative structures included a shared vision and commitment by…

  12. Utilization of a Pharmacy Clinical Surveillance System for Pharmacist Alerting and Communication at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Stashek, Chad; Anger, Kevin E; Szumita, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to describe the utilization metrics of a pharmacy clinical surveillance system (PCSS) at a tertiary, academic medical center.We performed a retrospective database analysis assessing rule-based alerts (RBA), interventions and pharmacist communication notes documented in the PCSS from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Reports were generated on 92 unique RBAs sent to clinicians for evaluation. Metrics assessed included the number of RBAs that were triggered, clinically evaluated, intervened on by pharmacists, and therapeutic category of interventions. Pharmacy communication notes were also evaluated.A total of 399,979 RBAs were triggered through the PCSS. During that time, pharmacists documented a total of 17,733 interventions. The most common RBAs were related to lab abnormalities (132,487; 33 %) and anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (126,425; 32.1 %). Interventions were most frequently related to RBAs regarding anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (6412; 36 %) and antimicrobial therapy (3320; 19 %). Pharmacist communication was most commonly related to clarification of medication and lab orders, and therapeutic drug monitoring.Based on utilization metrics presented, the implementation of a PCSS has successfully generated RBAs to aid pharmacists in clinical practice and improved departmental documentation and communication. Further analysis is warranted to assess the impact of the RBAs, interventions, and communication notes on outcomes such as hospital cost and adverse drug events. PMID:26547844

  13. Developing a consensus framework and risk profile for agents of opportunity in academic medical centers: implications for public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Brenna M; Nelson, Lewis S; Graham, Margaret E; Bendzans, Carly; McCrillis, Aileen M; Portelli, Ian; Zhang, Meng; Goldberg, Judith; Rosenberg, Sheldon D; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Tunik, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Agents of opportunity (AO) in academic medical centers (AMC) are defined as unregulated or lightly regulated substances used for medical research or patient care that can be used as "dual purpose" substances by terrorists to inflict damage upon populations. Most of these agents are used routinely throughout AMC either during research or for general clinical practice. To date, the lack of careful regulations for AOs creates uncertain security conditions and increased malicious potential. Using a consensus-based approach, we collected information and opinions from staff working in an AMC and 4 AMC-affiliated hospitals concerning identification of AO, AO attributes, and AMC risk and preparedness, focusing on AO security and dissemination mechanisms and likely hospital response. The goal was to develop a risk profile and framework for AO in the institution. Agents of opportunity in 4 classes were identified and an AO profile was developed, comprising 16 attributes denoting information critical to preparedness for AO misuse. Agents of opportunity found in AMC present a unique and vital gap in public health preparedness. Findings of this project may provide a foundation for a discussion and consensus efforts to determine a nationally accepted risk profile framework for AO. This foundation may further lead to the implementation of appropriate regulatory policies to improve public health preparedness. Agents of opportunity modeling of dissemination properties should be developed to better predict AO risk. PMID:21149234

  14. Centralized care management support for "high utilizers" in primary care practices at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brent C; Paik, Jamie L; Haley, Laura L; Grammatico, Gina M

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence of effectiveness is limited, care management based outside primary care practices or hospitals is receiving increased attention. The University of Michigan (UM) Complex Care Management Program (CCMP) provides care management for uninsured and underinsured, high-utilizing patients in multiple primary care practices. To inform development of optimal care management models, we describe the CCMP model and characteristics and health care utilization patterns of its patients. Of a consecutive series of 49 patients enrolled at CCMP in 2011, the mean (SD) age was 48 (+/- 14); 23 (47%) were women; and 29 (59%) were White. Twenty-eight (57%) had two or more chronic medical conditions, 39 (80%) had one or more psychiatric condition, 28 (57%) had a substance abuse disorder, and 11 (22%) were homeless. Through phone, e-mail, and face-to-face contact with patients and primary care providers (PCPs), care managers coordinated health and social services and facilitated access to medical and mental health care. Patients had a mean (SD) number of hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits in 6 months prior to enrollment of2.2 (2.5) and 4.2 (4.3), respectively, with a nonstatistically significant decrease in hospitalizations, hospital days, and emergency room visits in 6 months following enrollment in CCMP. Centralized care management support for primary care practices engages high-utilizing patients with complex medical and behavioral conditions in care management that would be difficult to provide through individual practices and may decrease health care utilization by these patients. PMID:24761538

  15. A decade of offering a Healing Enhancement Program at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Cutshall, Susanne M; Rodgers, Nancy J; Dion, Liza J; Dreyer, Nikol E; Thomley, Barbara S; Do, Alexander; Wood, Christina; Pronk, Susan C; Bauer, Brent A

    2015-11-01

    An increased focus has been given to improving the patient experience in health care. This focus has included placing value in a patient-centric, holistic approach to patient care. In the past decade, the Healing Enhancement Program was developed at 1 large medical center to address this focus through implementation of such integrative medicine services as massage, acupuncture, and music therapy to holistically address the pain, anxiety, and tension that hospitalized patients often experience. We describe the development and growth of this program over the past decade. PMID:26573445

  16. [Efficiency of inspections of the corpse before cremation performed in the area of the Halle University Medical Centre].

    PubMed

    Heide, Steffen; Stiller, Dankwart; Hilbig, Franziska; Lessig, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    From 1993 to 2007, the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Halle conducted 882 post-mortems before cremation. These records were now used for a systematic analysis of these cases to assess the efficiency of so-called second inspections of the corpse carried out in the area covered by the Halle University Hospital. In the period under review, considerable fluctuations were found from year to year, but these are mainly attributable to changes in the Saxony-Anhalt burial law introduced in 2002. Our 882 post-mortems were based on 84,677 corpse inspections before cremation; thus, an autopsy was performed in about 1% of all cases. Males were significantly overrepresented, younger age groups were dominant and there was a relatively high percentage where the first inspection of the corpse could not determine the manner of death or had to declare death by an unnatural cause. With regard to the manner and cause of death, the results of the first inspection and the post-mortem differed significantly. In 17.6% of our 882 cases, only the post-mortem revealed that death had been due to an unnatural cause. Despite the presence of sometimes strong clues to an unnatural cause, 156 of these cases were classified as natural deaths (56.4%) or the manner of death was stated as undetermined (43.6%). For more than two thirds of these 156 cases we were able to inspect the records kept by the Departments of Public Prosecution. 105 of these at first overlooked cases of unnatural deaths turned out to be deaths by accident. The other cases included 11 suicides, and 36 deaths related to medical treatment. In the remaining four cases, the autopsy results strongly suggested homicide, but only in one of these four cases subsequent police investigations were able to identify the perpetrator. This outcome demonstrates that the rule of inspecting the corpse a second time before cremation is clearly indispensable, even in its currently rather limited form. PMID:24547618

  17. A comprehensive model to build improvement capability in a pediatric academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Gerry M; Schoettker, Pamela J; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Luzader, Carolyn; Kotagal, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center developed a comprehensive model to build quality improvement (QI) capability to support its goal to transform its delivery system through a series of training courses. Two online modules orient staff to basic concepts and terminology and prepare them to participate more effectively in QI teams. The basic program (Rapid Cycle Improvement Collaborative, RCIC) is focused on developing the capability to use basic QI tools and complete a narrow-scoped project in approximately 120 days. The Intermediate Improvement Science Series (I(2)S(2)) program is a leadership course focusing on improvement skills and developing a broader and deeper understanding of QI in the context of the organization and external environment. The Advanced Improvement Methods (AIM) course and Quality Scholars Program stimulate the use of more sophisticated methods and prepare Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) and external faculty to undertake QI research. The Advanced Improvement Leadership Systems (AILS) sessions enable interprofessional care delivery system leadership teams to effectively lead a system of care, manage a portfolio of projects, and to deliver on CCHMC's strategic plan. Implementing these programs has shown us that 1) a multilevel curricular approach to building improvement capability is pragmatic and effective, 2) an interprofessional learning environment is critical to shifting mental models, 3) repetition of project experience with coaching and feedback solidifies critical skills, knowledge and behaviors, and 4) focusing first on developing capable interprofessional improvement leaders, versus engaging in broad general QI training across the whole organization, is effective. PMID:24369867

  18. Early Clinical Experiences for Second-Year Student Pharmacists at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Amerine, Lindsey B.; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N.; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T.; Rodgers, Philip T.; Williams, Dennis M.; Pinelli, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center. Design. Twenty-two second-year student pharmacists were randomly selected from volunteers, given program training, and scheduled for three 5-hour evening shifts in 2013-2014. Pre/post surveys and reflection statements were collected from 19 students. Data were analyzed with a mixed methods approach. Assessment. Survey results revealed an increase in student self-efficacy (p<0.05) and positive perceptions of SMART. Qualitative findings suggest the program provided opportunities for students to develop strategies for practice, promoted an appreciation for the various roles pharmacists play in health care, and fostered an appreciation for the complexity of real-world practice. Conclusion. Early clinical experiences can enhance student learning and development while fostering an appreciation for pharmacy practice. PMID:26839428

  19. In vitro activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae recovered in Spanish medical centres: Results of the CENIT study.

    PubMed

    Tato, Marta; García-Castillo, María; Bofarull, Ana Moreno; Cantón, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel antimicrobial agent with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including drug-resistant strains, and other Gram-negative pathogens, including most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The CENIT study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam and comparators against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (n=500) and Enterobacteriaceae (n=500) collected from patients with complicated intra-abdominal, complicated urinary tract, lower respiratory tract or bloodstream infections in 10 medical centres in Spain (January-September 2013). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the ISO broth microdilution method using commercial dry-form panels and results were interpreted per EUCAST and CLSI guidelines and for ceftolozane/tazobactam with FDA criteria. Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftolozane alone were the most potent (MIC(50/90), 0.5/4 mg/L) agents tested against all P. aeruginosa isolates. This advantage was maintained regardless of resistance phenotype, even against isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated excellent overall activity (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5 mg/L) against all 250 Escherichia coli isolates, including isolates displaying a wild-type (MIC(90), 0.25/0.25 mg/L) or ESBL (MIC(50/90), 0.5/1mg/L) phenotype, and good activity against isolates displaying an AmpC-like phenotype (MIC range 0.25-4 mg/L). Ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated good overall activity (MIC(50/90), 0.25/4 mg/L) against all 104 Klebsiella spp. isolates, although activity was lower against those with an ESBL phenotype (MIC(50/90), 4/16 mg/L), and was inactive against the carbapenemase-producing isolates (MIC≥64 mg/L). Ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against most of the P. aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates obtained from medical centres in Spain, supporting the potential value of ceftolozane/tazobactam in treating infections due

  20. Self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): medication effects and comparisons with controls.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E; King, Sara

    2007-04-01

    Examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication, and 18 non-ADHD controls. Participants completed three measures of self handicapping and also completed self-evaluations of their performance. Results showed greater self handicapping and more positive self-evaluations in children with ADHD than in controls regardless of medication condition. Findings suggest children with ADHD may use self handicapping to ameliorate the effects of experiencing high rates of academic failure. PMID:17195950

  1. Evaluation of interventional endoscopy unit efficiency metrics at a tertiary academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Summerlee, Robert; Suarez, Alejandro L.; Perbtani, Yaseen; Williamson, J. Blair; Shrode, Charles W.; Gupte, Anand R.; Chauhan, Shailendra S.; Draganov, Peter V.; Forsmark, Chris E.; Wagh, Mihir S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: There is an increasing demand for interventional endoscopic services and the need to develop efficient endoscopic units. The aim of this study was to analyze performance data and define metrics to improve efficiency in a single academic interventional endoscopy center. ]Patients and methods: The prospective operations performance data (6-month period) of our interventional endoscopy unit (EU) was analyzed. First-case start time (FIRST) delay was defined as any time the first patient of the day entered the endoscopy room after the scheduled time. Non-endoscopy time (NET) and total time (TT) were defined as non-procedural and total time elapsed in the EU, respectively. Time-interval between successive patients (TISP) was defined as the time from one patient departure from the room until the time of arrival of the next patient in the room. Results: A total of 1421 patients underwent 1635 endoscopic procedures. FIRST was delayed (54.2 % cases) by 13.6 min (range 1 – 53), but started within 15 min of the scheduled time in 85 % of the cases. NET accounted for 9.1 hours (67.2 %) of 13.5 hours TT/day. TISP (37.1 min, range 5 – 125) comprised 54.2 % of the NET, and was delayed (> 30 min) in 49.8 % of cases. “Patient flow” processes (registration, admission, transportation, scheduling) accounted for 50.1 % of TISP delays. Conclusions: Delays in NET, specifically TISP, rather than FIRST, were identified as a cause for decreased efficiency. “Patient flow” processes were the main reasons for delays in TISP. This study identifies potential process measures that can be used as benchmarks to improve efficiency in the EU. PMID:26878040

  2. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Current Surgical Management in United States Academic Medical Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Renea M; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Kurzrock, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Controversy exists regarding the necessity and timing of genitoplasty in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Our knowledge of surgical preferences is limited to retrospective series from single institutions and physician surveys which have suggested a high rate of early reconstruction. Our objective was to evaluate current CAH surgical treatment in academic centers. Methods We queried the FPSC database to identify all girls under 18 years of age with a diagnosis of CAH between 2009 and 2012. Procedures were identified by CPT codes for vaginoplasty, clitoroplasty and other genital procedures. Type of reconstruction, age at surgery and surgeon-volume were analyzed. Results There were a total of 2,614 females with a diagnosis of CAH seen at 60 institutions identified in the database. Of infants who were less than 12 months of age between 2009 and 2011, as few as 18% proceeded to surgery within a one to four year follow up period. Of those referred to a pediatric urologist, 46% proceeded to surgery. Of girls who had surgery before 2 years of age, 73% underwent clitoroplasty and 89% vaginoplasty; 68% had a combined procedure. A medium- or high-volume surgeon was involved in 63% of cases. Conclusions Many girls with CAH did not proceed to early reconstructive surgery. Of those referred to surgeons, possibly the most virilized girls, about half proceeded to early surgery and almost all had vaginoplasty as a component of surgery. About two-thirds of procedures were performed by medium- or high- volume surgeons indicative of DSD surgical centralization. PMID:25817160

  3. Changing the culture of academic medicine: the C-Change learning action network and its impact at participating medical schools.

    PubMed

    Krupat, Edward; Pololi, Linda; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E

    2013-09-01

    The culture of academic medicine has been described as hierarchical, competitive, and not highly supportive of female or minority faculty. In response to this, the authors designed the Learning Action Network (LAN), which was part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C-Change). The LAN is a five-school consortium aimed at changing the organizational culture of its constituent institutions. The authors selected LAN schools to be geographically diverse and representative of U.S. medical schools. Institutional leaders and faculty representatives from constituent schools met twice yearly for four years (2006-2010), forming a cross-institutional learning community. Through their quarterly listing of institutional activities, schools reported a wide array of actions. Most common were increased faculty development and/or mentoring, new approaches to communication, and adoption of new policies and procedures. Other categories included data collection/management, engagement of key stakeholders, education regarding gender/diversity, and new/expanded leadership positions. Through exit interviews, most participants reported feeling optimistic about maintaining the momentum of change. However, some, especially in schools with leadership changes, expressed uncertainty. Participants reported that they felt that the LAN enabled, empowered, facilitated, and/or caused the reported actions.For others who might want to work toward changing the culture of academic medicine, the authors offer several lessons learned from their experiences with C-Change. Most notably, people, structures, policies, and reward systems must be put into place to support cultural values, and broad-based support should be created in order for changes to persist when inevitable transitions in leadership occur. PMID:23887002

  4. Seeing through Medical Ethics: A Request for Professional Transparency and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, J. T. H.

    2016-01-01

    This essay is a critique of medical/clinical ethics from the personal perspective of a medical historian in an academic health science centre who has interacted with ethicists. It calls for greater transparency and accountability of ethicists involved in "bedside consulting"; it questions the wisdom of the four principles of biomedical…

  5. Academic medicine change management: the power of the liaison committee on medical education accreditation process.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Latha; Fleit, Howard B; Shroyer, A Laurie

    2013-09-01

    Stony Brook University School of Medicine (SBU SOM) used a Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) site visit to design a change management approach that engaged students, revitalized faculty, and enabled significant, positive institutional transformation while flexibly responding to concurrent leadership transitions. This "from-the-trenches" description of novel LCME site-visit-related processes may provide an educational program quality improvement template for other U.S. medical schools. The SBU SOM site visit processes were proactively organized within five phases: (1) planning (4 months), (2) data gathering (12 months), (3) documentation (6 months), (4) visit readiness (2 months), and (5) visit follow-up (16 months). The authors explain the key activities associated with each phase.The SBU SOM internal leadership team designed new LCME-driven educational performance reports to identify challenging aspects of the educational program (e.g., timeliness of grades submitted, midcourse feedback completeness, clerkship grading variability across affiliate sites, learning environment or student mistreatment incidents). This LCME process increased institutional awareness, identified the school's LCME vulnerabilities, organized corrective actions, engaged key stakeholders in communication, ensured leadership buy-in, and monitored successes. The authors' strategies for success included establishing a strong internal LCME leadership team, proactively setting deadlines for all phases of the LCME process, assessing and communicating vulnerabilities and action plans, building multidisciplinary working groups, leveraging information technology, educating key stakeholders through meetings, retreats, and consultants, and conducting a mock site visit. The urgency associated with an impending high-stakes LCME site visit can facilitate positive, local, educational program quality improvement. PMID:23887000

  6. Not for industry only: medical students and office-based academic detailing the PIVOT (Pregnant women Influenza Vaccine Optimization Team) initiative.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Daina A; Mallen, Jonathan R; Kwiatkowski, Thomas G; Rabin, Jill M; Dlugacz, Yosef D; Silverman, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Academic detailing is a method of educational outreach that utilizes individualized encounters with physicians to broach specific medical issues in an evidence-based and quality-driven manner. Medical students utilized the matter of influenza vaccination during pregnancy as a lens through which to explore the methods of academic detailing in a community setting. Structured and customized dialogues between North Shore-LIJ affiliated obstetricians and Hofstra North Shore-LIJ medical students were conducted regarding the disparity between the proportion of providers that recommend the vaccine and the percentage of pregnant women being vaccinated annually. Ultimately the project aimed to increase vaccine-carrying rates throughout office based practices in the community, while establishing a viable method for up-to-date information exchange between practicing physicians and academic medicine. While the extent of affected change is currently being quantified, the project proved successful insofar as academic detailing allowed the students to gain access to physicians, and engage in compelling and educational conversations. Both the physicians and students felt these interactions were valuable and well worth continuing. The goal for the future is to expand these practices to other pressing public health issues while continuing to refine the technique. PMID:25926764

  7. Hospitalized but not Admitted: Characteristics of Patients with “Observation Status” at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Ann M.; Graf, Ben; Gangireddy, Sreedevi; Hoffman, Robert; Ehlenbach, Mary; Heidke, Cynthia; Fields, Sheilah; Liegel, Barbara; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)defines observation status for hospitalized patients as a “well-defined set of specific, clinically appropriate services,” usually lasting <24 hours, and that in “only rare and exceptional cases” should last > 48 hours. Although an increasing proportion of observation care occurs on hospital wards, studies of patients with observation status have focused on the efficiency of dedicated units. Objective To describe inpatient and observation care. Design and Setting Descriptive study of all inpatient and observation stays between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, a 566 bed tertiary academic medical center. Participants All patients with observation or inpatient stays during the study period. Main Outcome and Measures Patient demographics, length of stay, difference between cost and reimbursement per stay, and percent of patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities. Results Of 43,853 stays, 4,578 (10.4%) were observation, with 1,141 distinct diagnosis codes. Average observation length of stay was 33.3 hours, with 44.4% of stays <24 hours, and 16.5% >48 hours. Observation care had a negative margin per stay (-$331); the inpatient margin per stay was positive (+$2,163). Adult General Medicine patients accounted for 2,404 (52.5%) of all observation stays; 25.4% of the 9,453 Adult General Medicine stays were observation. The mean length of stay for general medicine observation patients was 41.1 hours, with 32.6% of stays < 24 hours, and 26.4% >48 hours. As compared to observation patients on other clinical services, Adult General Medicine had the highest percent >65 years (40.9%), highest percent female (57.9%), highest percent discharged to skilled nursing facilities (11.6%) and the most negative margin per stay (-$1,378). Conclusions and Relevance In an academic medical center, observation status for hospitalized patients differed markedly

  8. MiPLAN: a learner-centered model for bedside teaching in today's academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Stickrath, Chad; Aagaard, Eva; Anderson, Mel

    2013-03-01

    Clinician educators and medical trainees face intense pressure to complete numerous patient care and teaching activities in a limited amount of time. To address the need for effective and efficient teaching methods for use in the inpatient setting, the authors used constructivist learning theory, the principles of adult learning, and their expertise as clinician educators to develop the MiPLAN model for bedside teaching. This three-part model is designed to enable clinical teachers to simultaneously provide care to patients while assessing learners, determining high-yield teaching topics, and providing feedback to learners.The "M" refers to a preparatory meeting between teacher and learners before engaging in patient care or educational activities. During this meeting, team members should become acquainted and the teacher should set goals and clarify expectations. The "i" refers to five behaviors for the teacher to adopt during learners' bedside presentations: introduction, in the moment, inspection, interruptions, and independent thought. "PLAN" is an algorithm to establish priorities for teaching subsequent to a learner's presentation: patient care, learners' questions, attending's agenda, and next steps.The authors suggest that the MiPLAN model can help clinical teachers gain more confidence in their ability to teach at the bedside and increase the frequency and quality of bedside teaching. They propose further research to assess the generalizability of this model to other institutions, settings, and specialties and to evaluate educational and patient outcomes. PMID:23348088

  9. Improving the Safety of Oral Chemotherapy at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Erica; Capozzi, Donna; McGettigan, Suzanne; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Schuchter, Lynn; Myers, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last decade, the use of oral chemotherapy (OC) for the treatment of cancer has dramatically increased. Despite their route of administration, OCs pose many of the same risks as intravenous agents. In this quality improvement project, we sought to examine our current process for the prescription of OC at the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania and to improve on its safety. Methods: A multidisciplinary team that included oncologists, advanced-practice providers, and pharmacists was formed to analyze the current state of our OC practice. Using Lean Six Sigma quality improvement tools, we identified a lack of pharmacist review of the OC prescription as an area for improvement. To address these deficiencies, we used our electronic medical system to route OC orders placed by treating providers to an oncology-specific outpatient pharmacist at the Abramson Cancer Center for review. Results: Over 7 months, 63 orders for OC were placed for 45 individual patients. Of the 63 orders, all were reviewed by pharmacists, and, as a result, 22 interventions were made (35%). Types of interventions included dosage adjustment (one of 22), identification of an interacting drug (nine of 22), and recommendations for additional drug monitoring (12 of 22). Conclusion: OC poses many of the same risks as intravenous chemotherapy and should be prescribed and reviewed with the same oversight. At our institution, involvement of an oncology-trained pharmacist in the review of OC led to meaningful interventions in one third of the orders. PMID:26733627

  10. Use of a data warehouse at an academic medical center for clinical pathology quality improvement, education, and research

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Schriever, Andy; Mathur, Gagan; Blau, John L.; Stauffer, Stephanie L.; Ford, Bradley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathology data contained within the electronic health record (EHR), and laboratory information system (LIS) of hospitals represents a potentially powerful resource to improve clinical care. However, existing reporting tools within commercial EHR and LIS software may not be able to efficiently and rapidly mine data for quality improvement and research applications. Materials and Methods: We present experience using a data warehouse produced collaboratively between an academic medical center and a private company. The data warehouse contains data from the EHR, LIS, admission/discharge/transfer system, and billing records and can be accessed using a self-service data access tool known as Starmaker. The Starmaker software allows users to use complex Boolean logic, include and exclude rules, unit conversion and reference scaling, and value aggregation using a straightforward visual interface. More complex queries can be achieved by users with experience with Structured Query Language. Queries can use biomedical ontologies such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine. Result: We present examples of successful searches using Starmaker, falling mostly in the realm of microbiology and clinical chemistry/toxicology. The searches were ones that were either very difficult or basically infeasible using reporting tools within the EHR and LIS used in the medical center. One of the main strengths of Starmaker searches is rapid results, with typical searches covering 5 years taking only 1–2 min. A “Run Count” feature quickly outputs the number of cases meeting criteria, allowing for refinement of searches before downloading patient-identifiable data. The Starmaker tool is available to pathology residents and fellows, with some using this tool for quality improvement and scholarly projects. Conclusion: A data warehouse has significant potential for improving utilization of clinical pathology testing. Software

  11. Information and communications technology, culture, and medical universities; organizational culture and netiquette among academic staff

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Iravani, Hoorsana; Abzari, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Netiquette is appropriate behavioral etiquette when communicating through computer networks or virtual space. Identification of a dominant organizational culture and its relationship with a network culture offers applied guidelines to top managers of the university to expand communications and develop and learn organization through the use of the internet. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between netiquette and organizational culture among faculty members of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Iran. Materials and Methods: To achieve this aim, the research method in this study was correlational research, which belonged to the category of descriptive survey research. The target population comprised of 594 faculty members of the IUMS, from which a sample of 150 was randomly selected, based on a simple stratified sampling method. For collecting the required data, two researcher-made questionnaires were formulated. Even as the first questionnaire tended to measure the selected sample members’ organizational culture according to Rabbin's model (1999), the latter was designed in the Health Management and Economic Research Center (HMERC), to evaluate netiquette. The reliability of the questionnaires was computed by Choronbach's alpha coefficient formula and they happened to be 0.97 and 0.89, respectively. Ultimately, SPSS Version #15 was used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results: The findings revealed that the organizational culture and netiquette were below average level among the sample members, signifying a considerable gap in the mean. In spite of that, there was no significant relationship between netiquette and the organizational culture of the faculty members. Conclusion: Emphasizing the importance of cultural preparation and a network user's training, this research suggests that the expansion of network culture rules among IUMS and organizational official communications, through the use of internet

  12. Implementation of an off-label recombinant factor VIIa protocol for patients with critical bleeding at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Bain, Jonathan; Lewis, Daniel; Bernard, Andrew; Hatton, Kevin; Reda, Hassan; Flynn, Jeremy

    2014-11-01

    To describe the development of a pharmacy driven off-label recombinant factor seven (rFVIIa) protocol by a multi-disciplinary team for critical bleeding. A multi-disciplinary team made up of members from several critical care and surgical departments within the hospital were formed and charged with developing a standardized approach to how rFVIIa would be used for critical bleeding in an academic medical center. Groups represented on the multi-disciplinary team included clinical pharmacy, emergency medicine, pulmonary, hematology, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, neurosurgery, and vascular surgery physicians. A pharmacist driven off-label rFVIIa protocol was developed and implemented for the use in those patients with critical bleeding. The protocol was based on the available literature and local expert opinion. Through the use of this protocol a significantly smaller average dose of rFVIIa is now being used when compared to those patients treated prior to the new protocol (47.5 vs. 62.2 mcg/kg, p = 0.036) while all-cause mortality was not significantly altered (35 vs. 48.8%, p = 0.057). An effective and safe pharmacy driven protocol was implemented by a multi-disciplinary team for rFVIIa as seen by providing a significantly lower average dose of rFVIIa while not sacrificing for overall patient mortality. PMID:24980752

  13. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: The University of Michigan-Coulter Translational Research Partnership Program.

    PubMed Central

    Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Translational research encompasses the effective movement of new knowledge and discoveries into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. There are many roadblocks to successful bench to bedside research, but few have received as much recent attention as the “valley of death”. The valley of death refers to the lack of funding and support for research that moves basic science discoveries into diagnostics, devices, and treatments in humans, and is ascribed to be the result of companies unwilling to fund research development that may not result in a drug or device that will be utilized in the clinic and conversely, the fact that researchers have no access to the funding needed to carry out preclinical and early clinical development to demonstrate potential efficacy in humans. The valley of death also exists because bridging the translational gap is dependent on successfully managing an additional four risks: Scientific, Intellectual Property, Market, and Regulatory. The University of Michigan (UM) has partnered with the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation (CF) to create a model providing an infrastructure to overcome these risks. This model is easily adoptable to other academic medical centers. PMID:21167009

  14. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: the University of Michigan-Coulter translational research partnership program.

    PubMed

    Pienta, Kenneth J

    2010-12-01

    Translational research encompasses the effective movement of new knowledge and discoveries into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. There are many roadblocks to successful bench to bedside research, but few have received as much recent attention as the "valley of death". The valley of death refers to the lack of funding and support for research that moves basic science discoveries into diagnostics, devices, and treatments in humans, and is ascribed to be the result of companies unwilling to fund research development that may not result in a drug or device that will be utilized in the clinic and conversely, the fact that researchers have no access to the funding needed to carry out preclinical and early clinical development to demonstrate potential efficacy in humans. The valley of death also exists because bridging the translational gap is dependent on successfully managing an additional four risks: scientific, intellectual property, market, and regulatory. The University of Michigan (UM) has partnered with the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation (CF) to create a model providing an infrastructure to overcome these risks. This model is easily adoptable to other academic medical centers (AMCs). PMID:21167009

  15. The response of academic medical centers to the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the Mount Sinai School of Medicine experience.

    PubMed

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response. PMID:22232447

  16. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  17. The decline of high drug resistance rate of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from a southern Taiwan medical centre, 1996-2000.

    PubMed

    Lu, Po-Liang; Lee, Yi-Whey; Peng, Chien-Fang; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Chen, Tyen-Po

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern of pulmonary tuberculosis isolates in southern Taiwan, we performed a hospital-based surveillance at a southern Taiwan medical centre from 1996 to 2000. The combined drug resistance rates to at least one of four first-line agents (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, streptomycin) was 52.4%, and to both isoniazid and rifampicin was 11.4%, indicating high resistance rates compared with those reported in the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) global project and in northern Taiwan. The resistance rates to two second-line drugs, cycloserine, and kanamycin, were 75.7 and 23.7%, respectively. A significant decreasing trend in resistance rates to all tested drugs except streptomycin was observed during the 5-year period. The resistance rates in 1996 and 2000 were 43.1 and 16.4% for isoniazid, 23.4 and 9.5% for rifampicin, 23.4 and 12.1% for ethambutol, 92.7 and 50.9% for pyrazinamide. The combined drug resistance rate may not be the most accurate tool as it includes previously treated cases that may inflate the resistance rate and cases without a history of treatment. However, the observation of trends in the susceptibility of pulmonary tuberculosis with the increasing percentages of tuberculosis patients receiving the complete treatment course and the decreasing percentages of cases lost to follow-up in Kaohsiung after the institution of new governmental regulations for case management in 1997, suggest that such intervention programs are useful. PMID:12636985

  18. Poor semen parameters among infertile couples presenting at a gynaecological clinic of Federal Medical Centre Birnin Kudu North-west Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu; Ashimi, Adewale; Abubakar, Mohammed; Obadire, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male partners contribute significantly to infertile couple problem. The present study was undertaken to review the seminal fluid analysis (SFA) of couples presenting with inability to conceive at the gynecological clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State using World Health Organization 2010 criteria, identify the correlation between poor semen quality and age and to identify culture and sensitivity patterns of isolates. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. The sample size was 63 Ethical clearance was obtained. Patients’ case records and laboratory registers were retrieved. The volume, viscosity, pH, sperm count, motility, and the morphology of the seminal fluid were determined. Semen m/c/s was done. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Il, USA). Descriptive statistics was used. Association between age and semen parameters were determined using Pearson's coefficient of correlations and Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Main outcome measures: The proportion of infertile male with abnormal semen parameters. Results: Of the 308 couple presenting for infertility evaluation, only 63 male partners presented for SFA. This is 20.5% of the couples. After analysis, 52.38% were normospermic while 26.98% and 20.64% were azoospermic and oligospermic, respectively. Asthenospermia was the commonest motility/morphology abnormality occurring in 60.3%. The mean volume, sperm count, motility, morphology, and pH were 2.8 ± 1.8, 40.1 ± 52.3, 28.2 ± 27.7, 46.1 ± 35.6, and 8.3 ± 0.67, respectively. The volume, motility, morphology, and pH showed weak correlations with age. Conclusion: Male partners are significant contributors to the infertile couple problems in this study; therefore awareness is needed in order to engage more males in evaluation and treatment of infertility. PMID:26759515

  19. Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP): the most common opportunistic infection observed in HIV/AIDS cases at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Tok, E L; Tan, C L; Tan, W H; Teo, W S; Leow, H F

    2012-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted among 59 HIV/AIDS patients with opportunistic infections admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre between 2000 and 2009. Fifty-five point nine percent of cases were Chinese, 25.4% were Malays, 11.9% were Indians and 6.8% were of unknown ethnic origin. The male:female ratio was 2.9:1 (44 males and 15 females). The highest prevalence (38.9%) occurred in the 30-39 year old age group. Men comprised 47.7% and women 53.3%; the majority of both were married. The majority of cases were Malaysians (89.8%) and the rest (10.2%) were immigrants. Most of the patients (18.6%) were non-laborers, followed by laborers (11.9%), the unemployed (5.1%) and housewives (3.4%). The most common risk factor was unprotected sexual activity (20.3%). The two most common HIV/AIDS related opportunistic infections were Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP) (62.7%) and toxoplasmosis (28.8%). Seventy-two point nine percent of patients had a CD4 count <200 cells/microl and 5.1% had a CD4 count >500 cells/microl. Eleven point nine percent of cases died during study period. A low CD4 count had a greater association with opportunistic infections. Most of the patients presented with fever (44.1%), cough (42.4%) and shortness of breath (28.8%). Detection of the etiologic pathogens aids clinicians in choosing appropriate management strategies. PMID:23077803

  20. Predictive Value of the School-leaving Grade and Prognosis of Different Admission Groups for Academic Performance and Continuity in the Medical Course – a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kadmon, Guni; Resch, Franz; Duelli, Roman; Kadmon, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-leaving GPA and the time since completion of secondary education are the major criteria for admission to German medical schools. However, the predictive value of the school-leaving grade and the admission delay have not been thoroughly examined since the amendment of the Medical Licensing Regulations and the introduction of reformed curricula in 2002. Detailed information on the prognosis of the different admission groups is also missing. Aim: To examine the predictive values of the school-leaving grade and the age at enrolment for academic performance and continuity throughout the reformed medical course. Methods: The study includes the central admission groups “GPA-best” and “delayed admission” as well as the primary and secondary local admission groups of three consecutive cohorts. The relationship between the criteria academic performance and continuity and the predictors school-leaving GPA, enrolment age, and admission group affiliation were examined up to the beginning of the final clerkship year. Results: The academic performance and the prolongation of the pre-clinical part of undergraduate training were significantly related to the school-leaving GPA. Conversely, the dropout rate was related to age at enrolment. The students of the GPA-best group and the primary local admission group performed best and had the lowest dropout rates. The students of the delayed admission group and secondary local admission group performed significantly worse. More than 20% of these students dropped out within the pre-clinical course, half of them due to poor academic performance. However, the academic performance of all of the admission groups was highly variable and only about 35% of the students of each group reached the final clerkship year within the regular time. Discussion: The school-leaving grade and age appear to have different prognostic implications for academic performance and continuity. Both factors have consequences for the

  1. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students’ course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Methods Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Results Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale “quality of teaching” directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students’ peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students’ examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. Conclusion The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools. PMID:25610011

  2. The Irish Centre for Talented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilheany, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Conducting potency tests on penicillin, discussing rocket technology with a NASA astronaut, analysing animal bone fragments from medieval times, these are just some of the activities which occupy the time of students at The Irish Centre for Talented Youth. The Centre identifies young students with exceptional academic ability and then provides…

  3. Tigecycline antimicrobial activity tested against clinical bacteria from Latin American medical centres: results from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2011-2014).

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial organisms (n = 13,494) were consecutively collected in 2011-2014 from 21 Latin American medical centres (11 nations). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution at a central laboratory. Tigecycline was very active against Gram-positive organisms, with MIC50/90 values of 0.06/0.06 µg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2878), 0.06/0.12 µg/mL for coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 880), 0.06/0.06 µg/mL for enterococci (n = 708) and ≤0.03/≤0.03-0.06 µg/mL for streptococci (n = 1352). All Gram-positive species exhibited 100.0% susceptibility (FDA and/or EUCAST criteria), except for Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.8% susceptible). The S. aureus oxacillin resistance rate varied from 28.0% (Brazil) to 55.0% (Argentina), and the overall vancomycin resistance rate was 15.5% (Enterococcus faecium, 50.3%; and Enterococcus faecalis, 2.3%). The E. faecium vancomycin resistance rate varied from a low (26.3%) in Argentina to a high (71.7%) in Brazil. Against Enterobacteriaceae (n = 4543), tigecycline MIC50/90 values were 0.25/1 µg/mL; 98.3% and 94.2% of strains were considered susceptible according to FDA and EUCAST breakpoints, respectively. Overall, 37.7% and 57.3% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the CLSI ESBL screening phenotype. The highest CLSI ESBL screening phenotype rates among E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains were observed for isolates collected from Mexico (69.9%) and Chile (69.9%), respectively. Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was substantially higher in Brazil (9.0%) and Argentina (6.3%) compared with Chile and Mexico (0.4-0.7%). Tigecycline was also active against Acinetobacter spp. (MIC50/90, 1/2 µg/mL; 92.3/72.1% inhibited at ≤2/≤1 µg/mL) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 µg/mL; 91.5/83.0% inhibited at ≤2/≤1 µg/mL). PMID:27291285

  4. What's in a Name? The Necessary Transformation of the Academic Medical Center in the Era of Population Health and Accountable Care.

    PubMed

    DiSesa, Verdi J; Kaiser, Larry R

    2015-07-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) and the physicians and other professionals who lead them need to recognize they are in a business that is making a transition from a system of "sickness" care to one of "health" care, accountable for the health of defined populations and for the value (quality divided by cost) of the services provided. This change has profound implications for how AMCs conceive themselves, how they function, and how they are paid for the work that they do. A failure to recognize how the disruption of the mission of AMCs is changing may impair them as irrevocably as other changes caused the demise of Kodak, once the world's leader in the manufacture and sale of photographic film and cameras. Leaders of academic medicine need to understand, respond to, and ultimately lead the transformation of our system of health. In this Commentary, the authors review the pressures driving these changes and potential responses to them-a process already under way. They summarize the issues in the question "Should the words 'health' and 'system' take the place of 'medical' and 'center' in our institutions' names and, more important, in how we conceive of what we do?" The authors propose the name "academic health system" to better identify primary objectives to measure success by the health of patients. PMID:26414052

  5. Influence of projected complication rates on estimated appropriate use rates for carotid endarterectomy. Appropriateness Project Investigators. Academic Medical Center Consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Matchar, D B; Oddone, E Z; McCrory, D C; Goldstein, L B; Landsman, P B; Samsa, G; Brook, R H; Kamberg, C; Hilborne, L; Leape, L; Horner, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine specifically the influence of estimated perioperative mortality and stroke rate on the assessment of appropriateness of carotid endarterectomy. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: An expert panel convened to rate the appropriateness of a variety of potential indications for carotid endarterectomy based on various rates of perioperative complications. We then applied these ratings to the charts of 1,160 randomly selected patients who had carotid endarterectomy in one of the 12 participating academic medical centers. STUDY DESIGN: An expert panel evaluated indications for carotid endarterectomy using the modified Delphi approach. Charts of patients who received surgery were abstracted, and clinical indications for the procedure as well as perioperative complications were recorded. To examine the impact of surgical risk assessment on the rates of appropriateness, three different definitions of risk strata for combined perioperative death or stroke were used: Definition A, low risk < 3 percent; Definition B, low risk < 5 percent; and Definition C, low risk < 7 percent. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall hospital-specific mortality ranged from 0 percent to 4.0 percent and major complications, defined as death, stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or myocardial infarction, varied from 2.0 percent to 11.1 percent. Most patients (72 percent) had surgery for transient ischemic attack or stroke; 24 percent of patients were asymptomatic. Most patients (82 percent) had surgery on the side of a high-grade stenosis (70-99 percent). When the thresholds for operative risk were placed at the values defined by the expert panel (Definition A), only 33.5 percent of 1,160 procedures were classified as "appropriate." When the definition of low risk was shifted upward, the proportion of cases categorized as appropriate increased to 58 percent and 81.5 percent for Definitions B and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high proportion of procedures performed for symptomatic

  6. Current practices in library/informatics instruction in academic libraries serving medical schools in the western United States: a three-phase action research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To conduct a systematic assessment of library and informatics training at accredited Western U.S. medical schools. To provide a structured description of core practices, detect trends through comparisons across institutions, and to identify innovative training approaches at the medical schools. Methods Action research study pursued through three phases. The first phase used inductive analysis on reported library and informatics skills training via publicly-facing websites at accredited medical schools and the academic health sciences libraries serving those medical schools. Phase Two consisted of a survey of the librarians who provide this training to undergraduate medical education students at the Western U.S. medical schools. The survey revealed gaps in forming a complete picture of current practices, thereby generating additional questions that were answered through the Phase Three in-depth interviews. Results Publicly-facing websites reviewed in Phase One offered uneven information about library and informatics training at Western U.S. medical schools. The Phase Two survey resulted in a 77% response rate. The survey produced a clearer picture of current practices of library and informatics training. The survey also determined the readiness of medical students to pass certain aspects of the United States Medical Licensure Exam. Most librarians interacted with medical school curricular leaders through either curricula committees or through individual contacts. Librarians averaged three (3) interventions for training within the four-year curricula with greatest emphasis upon the first and third years. Library/informatics training was integrated fully into the respective curricula in almost all cases. Most training involved active learning approaches, specifically within Problem-Based Learning or Evidence-Based Medicine contexts. The Phase Three interviews revealed that librarians are engaged with the medical schools' curricular leaders, they are

  7. A Regional Assessment of Medicaid Access to Outpatient Orthopaedic Care: The Influence of Population Density and Proximity to Academic Medical Centers on Patient Access

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brendan M.; Draeger, Reid W.; Olsson, Erik C.; Spang, Jeffrey T.; Lin, Feng-Chang; Kamath, Ganesh V.

    2014-01-01

    populous areas. Practices that were farther from academic hospitals were more likely to offer an appointment to patients with Medicaid than practices closer to academic hospitals. Clinical Relevance: This study illustrates the barriers to timely outpatient orthopaedic care that patients with Medicaid face. The findings from our study imply that patients with Medicaid in more populous areas and in areas closer to academic medical centers are less likely to obtain an outpatient orthopaedic appointment than patients with Medicaid in less populous areas and in areas more distant from academic medical centers. A shift in policy to enhance access to orthopaedic care for patients with Medicaid, especially those in urban areas and areas close to academic medical centers, will become increasingly important as more patients become eligible for Medicaid through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. PMID:25232086

  8. The Use of the Internet in Geriatrics Education: Results of a National Survey of Medical Geriatrics Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajjar, Ihab M.; Ruiz, Jorge G.; Teasdale, Thomas A.; Mintzer, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterize use of the Internet in medical geriatrics education programs, 130 medical education programs in the U.S. that train medical students, interns, residents, fellows and practicing physicians were asked to complete a survey developed by the Consortium of E-Learning in Geriatrics Instruction (CELGI). Sixty-eight programs…

  9. A Performance-Based Method for Early Identification of Medical Students at Risk of Developing Academic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lila G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (NY) found that performance on examinations during the third month of medical school was highly predictive of performance during the first two years of medical school. This predictor was more powerful than Medical College Admission Test scores and/or undergraduate grade point averages in…

  10. A Fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective review of 240 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Findings A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37 years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40 years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8 days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P < 0.001). Rebleeding was reported in 3.3% of the patients. The overall mortality rate of

  11. Reaching the Students that Student-Centred Learning Cannot Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Student-centred learning has the potential to engage a more academically diverse student body than the more conventional teacher-centred approaches. In spite of the evidence in favour of student-centred learning, a recent study showed that it was ineffective for around 30% of undergraduates in a large and diverse group studying business operations…

  12. The Prevalence of Job Stress and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome among the Academic Members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Hedayat; Jariani, Mojgan; Beiranvand, Shorangiz; Saki, Mandana; Aghajeri, Nasrin; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%), depersonalization (81.1%), and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%). Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment. Conclusion: Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members. PMID:26989668

  13. Rural Medical School Applicants: Do Their Academic Credentials and Admission Decisions Differ from Those of Nonrural Applicants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Daniel R.; Gorman, Robert J.; Ge, Bin

    2005-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Medical schools located in states with sizable rural areas are concerned about preparing physicians for practice in these areas; this is of particular concern for medical schools that are part of a state-owned university with a responsibility to educate physicians for rural areas. Because individuals from rural areas are most…

  14. Implementation of the interdisciplinary curriculum Teaching and Assessing Communicative Competence in the fourth academic year of medical studies (CoMeD)

    PubMed Central

    Mortsiefer, Achim; Rotthoff, Thomas; Schmelzer, Regine; Immecke, J.; Ortmanns, B.; in der Schmitten, J.; Altiner, A.; Karger, André

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of a longitudinal curriculum for training in advanced communications skills represents an unmet need in most German medical faculties, especially in the 4rth and 5th years of medical studies. The CoMeD project (communication in medical education Düsseldorf) attempted to establish an interdisciplinary program to teach and to assess communicative competence in the 4th academic year. In this paper, we describe the development of the project and report results of its evaluation by medical students. Methods: Teaching objectives and lesson formats were developed in a multistage process. A teaching program for simulated patients (SP) was built up and continuous lecturer trainings were estabilshed. Several clinical disciplines co-operated for the purpose of integrating the communication training into the pre-existing clinical teaching curriculum. The CoMeD project was evaluated using feedback-forms after each course. Results: Until now, six training units for especially challenging communication tasks like “dealing with aggression” or “breaking bad news” were implemented, each unit connected with a preliminary tutorial or e-learning course. An OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) with 4 stations was introduced. The students’ evaluation of the six CoMeD training units showed the top or second-best rating in more than 80% of the answers. Discussion: Introducing an interdisciplinary communication training and a corresponding OSCE into the 4th year medical curriculum is feasible. Embedding communication teaching in a clinical context and involvement of clinicians as lecturers seem to be important factors for ensuring practical relevance and achieving high acceptance by medical students. PMID:22403591

  15. An academic hospitalist model to improve healthcare worker communication and learner education: Results from a quasi-experimental study at a veterans affairs medical center

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Krein, Sarah L; Flanders, Scott A; Bodnar, Timothy W; Young, Eric; Moseley, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although hospitalists may improve efficiency and quality of inpatient care, their effect on healthcare-worker communication and education has been less well-studied. OBJECTIVE To test various approaches to improving healthcare-worker communication and learner education within the context of a newly designed academic hospital medicine program. DESIGN Before-and-after design with concurrent control group. SETTING A Midwestern Veterans Affairs medical center. INTERVENTION Multimodal systems redesign of 1 of 4 medical teams (Gold team) that included clinical modifications (change in rounding structure, with inclusion of nurses, a Clinical Care Coordinator, and a pharmacist) and educational interventions (providing explicit expectations of learners and providing a reading list for both learners and attending physicians). MEASUREMENTS Number of admissions, length of stay, readmissions, house officer and medical student ratings of attendings' teaching, medical student internal medicine National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination (“shelf” exam) scores, and clinical staff surveys. RESULTS Length of stay was reduced by about 0.3 days on all teams after the initiative began (P = 0.004), with no significant differences between Gold and non-Gold teams. The majority of physicians (83%) and nurses (68%) felt that including nurses during rounds improved healthcare-worker communication; significantly more nurses were satisfied with communication with the Gold team than with the other teams (71% vs 53%; P = 0.02). Gold attendings generally received higher teaching scores compared with non-Gold attendings, and third-year medical students on the Gold team scored significantly higher on the shelf exam compared with non–Gold team students (84 vs 82; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Academic hospitalists working within a systems redesign intervention were able to improve healthcare-worker communication and enhance learner education without increasing

  16. Racial and ethnic differences in primary, unscheduled cesarean deliveries among low-risk primiparous women at an academic medical center: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cesarean sections are the most common surgical procedure for women in the United States. Of the over 4 million births a year, one in three are now delivered in this manner and the risk adjusted prevalence rates appear to vary by race and ethnicity. However, data from individual studies provides limited or contradictory information on race and ethnicity as an independent predictor of delivery mode, precluding accurate generalizations. This study sought to assess the extent to which primary, unscheduled cesarean deliveries and their indications vary by race/ethnicity in one academic medical center. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted of 4,483 nulliparous women with term, singleton, and vertex presentation deliveries at a major academic medical center between 2006–2011. Cases with medical conditions, risk factors, or pregnancy complications that can contribute to increased cesarean risk or contraindicate vaginal birth were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate differences in delivery mode and caesarean indications among racial and ethnic groups. Results The overall rate of cesarean delivery in our cohort was 16.7%. Compared to White women, Black and Asian women had higher rates of cesarean delivery than spontaneous vaginal delivery, (adjusted odds ratio {AOR}: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.91, and AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.17, respectively). Black women were also more likely, compared to White women, to undergo cesarean for fetal distress and indications diagnosed in the first stage as compared to the second stage of labor. Conclusions Racial and ethnic differences in delivery mode and indications for cesareans exist among low-risk nulliparas at our institution. These differences may be best explained by examining the variation in clinical decisions that indicate fetal distress and failure to progress at the hospital-level. PMID:24004573

  17. Competency-based simulation assessment of resuscitation skills in emergency medicine postgraduate trainees – a Canadian multi-centred study

    PubMed Central

    Dagnone, J. Damon; Hall, Andrew K.; Sebok-Syer, Stefanie; Klinger, Don; Woolfrey, Karen; Davison, Colleen; Ross, John; McNeil, Gordon; Moore, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of high-fidelity simulation is emerging as a desirable method for competency-based assessment in postgraduate medical education. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of a multi-centre simulation-based Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) of resuscitation competence with Canadian Emergency Medicine (EM) trainees. Method EM postgraduate trainees (n=98) from five Canadian academic centres participated in a high fidelity, 3-station simulation-based OSCE. Expert panels of three emergency physicians evaluated trainee performances at each centre using the Queen’s Simulation Assessment Tool (QSAT). Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to measure the inter-rater reliability, and analysis of variance was used to measure the discriminatory validity of each scenario. A fully crossed generalizability study was also conducted for each examination centre. Results Inter-rater reliability in four of the five centres was strong with a median absolute intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) across centres and scenarios of 0.89 [0.65–0.97]. Discriminatory validity was also strong (p < 0.001 for scenarios 1 and 3; p < 0.05 for scenario 2). Generalizability studies found significant variations at two of the study centres. Conclusions This study demonstrates the successful pilot administration of a multi-centre, 3-station simulation-based OSCE for the assessment of resuscitation competence in post-graduate Emergency Medicine trainees. PMID:27103954

  18. Evaluation of use of electronic patient controlled analgesia pumps to improve patient safety in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Dykes, Patricia; Mcintosh, Kathleen; Buckley, Elizabeth; Yoon, Catherine; Luppi, Carol; Bane, Anne; Bates, David W

    2014-01-01

    Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) and Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) pumps are methods of pain control with complex smart infusion devices and are widely used in hospitals. Smart PCA/PCEA pumps can be programmed with the dose and rate of medications within pre-set ranges. However, adverse effects have been reported associated with these pumps' use. In this paper, we describe a prevalence observational study where observers used an electronic data collection tool to record pump settings and medications with PCA pumps, corresponding medication orders to identify errors. The results showed that there were many labeling and tubing change tag errors, which were a violation of hospital policy. A few potential harmful medication errors were identified but no critical errors. Study results suggest the importance of a standard process of PCA pump use. Next steps include implementing a safety bundle for improving PCA practice to support safe and effective pain management. PMID:24943538

  19. Physicians in the Academic Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Dolores L.

    This book explores the medical professoriate, in particular medical faculty mobility in and out of academic positions as it relates to the organization of academic medicine in United States universities. The work is based on interviews conducted with 300 faculty members in six major medical schools over a period of 6 months in late 1988 and early…

  20. The Symbolic Role of Academic Boards in University Academic Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2013-01-01

    While much research on quality assurance in higher education has centred on issues related to the impact on teaching and learning and academic staff, there is a significant gap in the area of quality assurance and academic governance. Within Australia the roles of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates) have…

  1. Academic Performance of Students with the Highest and Mediocre School-leaving Grades: Does the Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS) Balance Their Prognoses?

    PubMed Central

    Kadmon, Guni; Kadmon, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Admission to undergraduate medical training in Germany occurs by central and local pathways. Central admission includes two distinct groups: Students with top school-leaving grades (best-SLG group) and students with inferior school-leaving grades who are admitted with a delay of up to seven years (delayed admission group). Students with academic difficulties and early dropouts are present in both groups. Local admission at our university involves the German Test for Medical Studies (TMS) and allows the admission by merit of students with a wide range of school-leaving grades. Aims: To examine the justification of a TMS-based strategy to reduce the admission of potentially weak best school-leavers and enhance the admission of potentially able candidates with mediocre school-leaving grades. Method: The prognostic contribution of the school-leaving (SL) GPA and the TMS to academic performance and to continuity in the pre-clinical part of the undergraduate medical program was examined in two study groups: best school leavers (SL grade 1.0, SL-GPA 823-900 points) and mediocre school leavers (SL grades 2.0-2.3, SL-GPA 689-660 points). The outcomes in both groups were compared in relation to their TMS results. The prospective study included four consecutive cohorts. Results: In each study group the TMS predicted the academic performance (β=0.442-0.446) and the continuity of studies (OR=0.890-0.853) better than the SL-GPA (β=0.238-0.047; OR=1.009-0.998). Attrition was most strongly associated with failing to take the TMS (OR=0.230-0.380). Mediocre school leavers with TMS scores ≥125 performed as well as the best school leavers. Mediocre school leavers with TMS scores between 110-124 performed on average less well but within the required standards. Best school leavers with mediocre TMS scores and 30% of the best school leavers who hadn't taken the TMS performed less well than most mediocre school leavers with high TMS scores. Discussion: The TMS appears to

  2. Correlates and Economic and Clinical Outcomes of an Adult IV to PO Antimicrobial Conversion Program at an Academic Medical Center in Midwest United States.

    PubMed

    Sallach-Ruma, Rory; Nieman, Jennifer; Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Reardon, Tom

    2015-06-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate the correlates and outcomes of a parenteral (IV) to oral (PO) antimicrobial conversion program at a Midwest US Academic Medical Center with the hypothesis that it will be associated with reduced drug costs. Patient-level data (n = 237; sex, race, admission source, admission status, admission severity, risk of mortality [relative expected, admission], and early death) were extracted from the Clinical Data Base/Resource Manager. Medication-level, drug-encounter data (n = 317; antibiotic/dose/route/frequency/duration, conversion status, 10-day IV/PO switch-eligibility criteria) were extracted from patient's hospital medical records. Univariate analyses using chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables showed patients not converted (n = 149) versus converted (n = 88) at some point from IV to PO were more likely to be of white race and had higher risk of relative expected mortality. By applying the unit drug cost (derived from 2010 Thomson Reuters RED BOOK(TM)) and labor costs for IV/PO administration, both per dose, the overall 1-month drug cost-saving estimates in 2010 in US dollars were US$5242 from converting and US$8805 savings missed from not converting 518 and 1387 switch-eligible antibiotic doses, respectively. Despite sample-size limitations, this study demonstrated correlates and missed opportunities to convert antimicrobials from IV to PO, which warrants providers' attention. PMID:24399573

  3. The second market failure phenomenon in safety-net health systems: the case of a municipal academic medical center from 1980 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David

    2011-01-01

    The specific aim of this analysis is to demonstrate how the trade-off between efficiency and equity policy approaches affects the ability of at-risk children to access quality health care services at the King/Drew Medical Center of Los Angeles County from 1980 to 2000. The concept of a second market phenomenon is used as a framework to illustrate how efficiency-seeking behaviors of federal, state, and local government actors affected government intervention efforts initiated to remedy health care access hardships created by market failure in low-income communities. A second market failure occurs when government failure results from the reintroduction of market protocols in an environment where the market had originally failed to facilitate the distribution of basic goods and services. The review suggest that financial austerity at the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services in the context of federal, state, and local government policies that emphasized allocative efficiencies, compromised equity values by undermining access to quality pediatric services at the King/Drew Medical Center which was a municipal academic medical center. PMID:21534126

  4. Perceptions of UK medical graduates’ preparedness for practice: A multi-centre qualitative study reflecting the importance of learning on the job

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that graduates of different medical schools vary in their preparedness for their first post. In 2003 Goldacre et al. reported that over 40% of UK medical graduates did not feel prepared and found large differences between graduates of different schools. A follow-up survey showed that levels of preparedness had increased yet there was still wide variation. This study aimed to examine whether medical graduates from three diverse UK medical schools were prepared for practice. Methods This was a qualitative study using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Prospective and cross-sectional data were collected from the three medical schools. A sample of 60 medical graduates (20 from each school) was targeted. They were interviewed three times: at the end of medical school (n = 65) and after four (n = 55) and 12 months (n = 46) as a Year 1 Foundation Programme doctor. Triangulated data were collected from clinicians via interviews across the three sites (n = 92). In addition three focus groups were conducted with senior clinicians who assess learning portfolios. The focus was on identifying areas of preparedness for practice and any areas of lack of preparedness. Results Although selected for being diverse, we did not find substantial differences between the schools. The same themes were identified at each site. Junior doctors felt prepared in terms of communication skills, clinical and practical skills and team working. They felt less prepared for areas of practice that are based on experiential learning in clinical practice: ward work, being on call, management of acute clinical situations, prescribing, clinical prioritisation and time management and dealing with paperwork. Conclusions Our data highlighted the importance of students learning on the job, having a role in the team in supervised practice to enable them to learn about the duties and responsibilities of a new doctor in advance of starting work. PMID:23446055

  5. Universities and medical schools: reflections on a half-century of Canadian medical education.

    PubMed

    Naimark, A

    1993-05-01

    After 50 years of accelerated development, universities and medical schools have entered a period of uncertainty and instability. The Flexnerian paradigm of medical education, rooted in biomedical science and conducted under the aegis of a university, reached its apotheosis by the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Fuelled by the introduction of comprehensive, government-sponsored health care insurance and advances in technology, the demand for health care professionals and for access to facilities increased sharply. Medical education, research and advanced clinical services expanded dramatically aided by the emergence of academic health sciences centres and accompanied by a wave of medical curriculum reform. Now medical schools must strike a dynamic balance in responding to the continued expansion of knowledge and technology, the demand for social equity and the exigencies of prolonged fiscal constraint. They must also balance the biological and sociological approaches to medicine in establishing the foundations for the future development of Canadian medical education. PMID:8477376

  6. Building and evaluating an informatics tool to facilitate analysis of a biomedical literature search service in an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Elizabeth G; Oelschlegel, Sandra; Vaughn, Cynthia J; Lindsay, J Michael; Hurst, Sachiko M; Earl, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes an informatics tool to analyze a robust literature search service in an academic medical center library. Structured interviews with librarians were conducted focusing on the benefits of such a tool, expectations for performance, and visual layout preferences. The resulting application utilizes Microsoft SQL Server and .Net Framework 3.5 technologies, allowing for the use of a web interface. Customer tables and MeSH terms are included. The National Library of Medicine MeSH database and entry terms for each heading are incorporated, resulting in functionality similar to searching the MeSH database through PubMed. Data reports will facilitate analysis of the search service. PMID:23869631

  7. Financing U.S. Graduate Medical Education: A Policy Position Paper of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine and the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Butkus, Renee; Lane, Susan; Steinmann, Alwin F; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Tape, Thomas G; Hingle, Susan T; Moyer, Darilyn V

    2016-07-19

    In this position paper, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine and the American College of Physicians examine the state of graduate medical education (GME) financing in the United States and recent proposals to reform GME funding. They make a series of recommendations to reform the current funding system to better align GME with the needs of the nation's health care workforce. These recommendations include using Medicare GME funds to meet policy goals and to ensure an adequate supply of physicians, a proper specialty mix, and appropriate training sites; spreading the costs of financing GME across the health care system; evaluating the true cost of training a resident and establishing a single per-resident amount; increasing transparency and innovation; and ensuring that primary care residents receive training in well-functioning ambulatory settings that are financially supported for their training roles. PMID:27135592

  8. A Metric-Based System for Evaluating the Productivity of Preclinical Faculty at an Academic Medical Center in the Era of Clinical and Translational Science.

    PubMed

    Wiegers, Susan E; Houser, Steven R; Pearson, Helen E; Untalan, Ann; Cheung, Joseph Y; Fisher, Susan G; Kaiser, Larry R; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-08-01

    Academic medical centers are faced with increasing budgetary constraints due to a flat National Institutes of Health budget, lower reimbursements for clinical services, higher costs of technology including informatics and a changing competitive landscape. As such, institutional stakeholders are increasingly asking whether resources are allocated appropriately and whether there are objective methods for measuring faculty contributions and engagement. The complexities of translational research can be particularly challenging when trying to assess faculty contributions because of team science. For over a decade, we have used an objective scoring system called the Matrix to assess faculty productivity and engagement in four areas: research, education, scholarship, and administration or services. The Matrix was developed to be dynamic, quantitative, and able to insure that a fully engaged educator would have a Matrix score that was comparable to a fully engaged investigator. In this report, we present the Matrix in its current form in order to provide a well-tested objective system of performance evaluation for nonclinical faculty to help academic leaders in decision making. PMID:25740181

  9. A Flexible, Preclinical, Medical School Curriculum Increases Student Academic Productivity and the Desire to Conduct Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Justin G.; Grande, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, small blocks of flexible curriculum time, termed selectives, were implemented in the Mayo Medical School preclinical curriculum. Selectives permitted students to pursue professional endeavors, such as research, service, and career exploration, in the preclinical years. The purpose of this study was to survey current and former Mayo…

  10. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  11. A Multi-Centre Audit of the Use of Medication for the Management of Behavioural Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to investigate prescribing practices surrounding the use of medication for the management of behavioural problems in adults with intellectual disabilities with reference to a national guideline development project. A case note review methodology was employed to explore adherence to the audit criteria that were derived from the…

  12. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    PubMed

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention. PMID:9391932

  13. Attitudes toward Post-Trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Review of Academic Literature, Legislation, and International Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kori; Snyder, Jeremy; Calvert, John

    2016-08-01

    There is currently no international consensus around post-trial obligations toward research participants, community members, and host countries. This literature review investigates arguments and attitudes toward post-trial access. The literature review found that academic discussions focused on the rights of research participants, but offered few practical recommendations for addressing or improving current practices. Similarly, there are few regulations or legislation pertaining to post-trial access. If regulatory changes are necessary, we need to understand the current arguments, legislation, and attitudes towards post-trial access and participants and community members. Given that clinical trials conducted in low-income countries will likely continue, there is an urgent need for consideration of post-trial benefits for participants, communities, and citizens of host countries. While this issue may not be as pressing in countries where participants have access to healthcare and medicines through public schemes, it is particularly important in regions where this may not be available. PMID:27378034

  14. Creating and Maintaining a Successful Service Line in an Academic Medical Center at the Dawn of Value-Based Care: Lessons Learned From the Heart and Vascular Service Line at UMass Memorial Health Care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert A; Cyr, Jay; Keaney, John F; Messina, Louis M; Meyer, Theo E; Tam, Stanley K C; Korenda, Kathleen; Darrigo, Melinda; Kumar, Pooja; Challapalli, Sailu

    2015-10-01

    The service line (SL) model has been proven to help shift health care toward value-based services, which is characterized by coordinated, multidisciplinary, high-quality, and cost-effective care. However, academic medical centers struggle with how to effectively set up SL structures that overcome the organizational and cultural challenges associated with simultaneously delivering the highest-value care for the patient and advancing the academic mission. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of UMass Memorial Health Care's heart and vascular service line (HVSL) from 2006 to 2011 and describe the impact on its success of multiple strategic decisions. These include key academic physician leadership recruitments and engagement via a matrixed governance and management model; development of multidisciplinary teams; empowerment of SL leadership through direct accountability and authority over programs and budgets; joint educational and training programs; incentives for academic achievement; and co-localization of faculty, personnel, and facilities. The authors also explore the barriers to success, including the need to overcome historical departmental-based silos, cultural and training differences among disciplines, confusion engendered by a matrixed reporting structure, and faculty's unfamiliarity with the financial and organizational skills required to operate a successful SL. Also described here is the impact that successful implementation of the SL has on creating high-quality services, increased profitability, and contribution to the financial stability and academic achievement of the academic medical center. PMID:26222322

  15. A decade of building massage therapy services at an academic medical center as part of a healing enhancement program.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Nancy J; Cutshall, Susanne M; Dion, Liza J; Dreyer, Nikol E; Hauschulz, Jennifer L; Ristau, Crystal R; Thomley, Barb S; Bauer, Brent A

    2015-02-01

    The use of complementary and integrative medicine therapies is steadily becoming an integral part of health care. Massage therapy is increasingly offered to hospitalized patients for various conditions to assist with the management of common symptoms such as pain, anxiety, and tension. This article summarizes a decade of building the massage therapy service at a large tertiary care medical center, from the early pilot studies and research to the current program offerings, and the hopes and dreams for the future. PMID:25547538

  16. Assessment of educational criteria in academic promotion: Perspectives of faculty members of medical sciences universities in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Taleghani, Fariba; Mohammadzadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the important criteria in the promotion of faculty members is in the scope of their educational roles and duties. The purpose of this study was the assessment of reasonability and attainability of educational criteria for scientific rank promotion from the perspective of the faculty members of Medical Sciences Universities in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in 2011 in 13 Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Through stratified sampling method, 350 faculty members were recruited. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to investigate the reasonability and attainability of educational criteria with scores from 1 to 5. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed and collected at each university. The mean and standard deviation of reasonability and attainability scores were calculated and reported by using the SPSS software version 16. Results: Faculty members considered many criteria of educational activities reasonable and available (with a mean score of more than 3). The highest reasonability and attainability have been obtained by the quantity and quality of teaching with the mean scores (3.93 ± 1.15 and 3.82 ± 1.17) and (3.9 ± 1.22 and 4.13 ± 1.06) out of five, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of total scores of reasonability of educational activities were 50.91 ± 14.22 and its attainability was 60.3 ± 13.72 from the total score of 90. Discussion and Conclusion: The faculty members of the Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran considered the educational criteria of promotion moderately reasonable and achievable. It is recommended to revise these criteria and adapt them according to the mission and special conditions of medical universities. Furthermore, providing feedback of evaluations, running educational researches, and implementing faculty development programs are suggested. PMID:25013822

  17. Data-Driven Identification of Risk Factors of Patient Satisfaction at a Large Urban Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Lee, Nathan J.; Glicksberg, Benjamin S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey is the first publicly reported nationwide survey to evaluate and compare hospitals. Increasing patient satisfaction is an important goal as it aims to achieve a more effective and efficient healthcare delivery system. In this study, we develop and apply an integrative, data-driven approach to identify clinical risk factors that associate with patient satisfaction outcomes. Methods We included 1,771 unique adult patients who completed the HCAHPS survey and were discharged from the inpatient Medicine service from 2010 to 2012. We collected 266 clinical features including patient demographics, lab measurements, medications, disease categories, and procedures. We developed and applied a data-driven approach to identify risk factors that associate with patient satisfaction outcomes. Findings We identify 102 significant risk factors associating with 18 surveyed questions. The most significantly recurrent clinical risk factors were: self-evaluation of health, education level, Asian, White, treatment in BMT oncology division, being prescribed a new medication. Patients who were prescribed pregabalin were less satisfied particularly in relation to communication with nurses and pain management. Explanation of medication usage was associated with communication with nurses (q = 0.001); however, explanation of medication side effects was associated with communication with doctors (q = 0.003). Overall hospital rating was associated with hospital environment, communication with doctors, and communication about medicines. However, patient likelihood to recommend hospital was associated with hospital environment, communication about medicines, pain management, and communication with nurse. Conclusions Our study identified a number of putatively novel clinical risk factors for patient satisfaction that suggest new opportunities to better understand and manage patient satisfaction

  18. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  19. Development of a new academic digital library: a study of usage data of a core medical electronic journal collection

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Barbara S.; Klatt, Carolyn; Nagy, Suzanne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The current study evaluates the results of a previously reported method for creating a core medical electronic journal collection for a new medical school library, validates the core collection created specifically to meet the needs of the new school, and identifies strategies for making cost-effective e-journal selection decisions. Methods: Usage data were extracted for four e-journal packages (Blackwell-Synergy, Cell Press, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, and ScienceDirect). Usage was correlated with weighted point values assigned to a core list of journal titles, and each package was evaluated for relevancy and cost-effectiveness to the Florida State University College of Medicine (FSU COM) population. Results: The results indicated that the development of the core list was a valid method for creating a new twenty-first century, community-based medical school library. Thirty-seven journals are identified for addition to the FSU COM core list based on use by the COM, and areas of overlapping research interests between the university and the COM are identified based on use of specific journals by each population. Conclusions: The collection development approach that evolved at the FSU COM library was useful during the initial stages of identifying and evaluating journal selections and in assessing the relative value of a particular journal package for the FSU COM after the school was established. PMID:19404499

  20. Issues surrounding the administration of a credit course for medical students: survey of US academic health sciences librarians*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jolene Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: For librarians developing a credit course for medical students, the process often involves trial and error. This project identified issues surrounding the administration of a credit course, so that librarians nationally can rely more upon shared knowledge of common practices and less upon trial and error. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the education services librarian at each medical school listed in the 2000 AAMC Data Book. A second questionnaire was sent to those librarians who did not return the first one. Results: Of the 125 librarians surveyed, 82 returned the questionnaire. Of those 82, only 11 offered a credit course for medical students, though 19 more were in the process of developing one. Data were gathered on the following aspects of course administration: credit course offerings, course listing, information learned to administer the course, costs associated with the course, relationships with other departments on campus, preparation for teaching and grading, and evaluation of the course. Conclusions: Because of small number of respondents offering a credit course and institutional variations, making generalizations about issues surrounding the administration of a credit course is difficult. The article closes with a list of recommendations for librarians planning to develop a course. PMID:15243642

  1. Strategic Planning: An Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) at Georgetown University Medical Center. Volume 1, Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Planning Accomplishments. Volume 3, Environmental Forecast. Volume 4, Institutional Self Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broering, Naomi C.; And Others

    Strategic planning for an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) for Georgetown University Medical Center is considered. The goal is to organize and transmit accessible and timely biomedical information where it is needed. Activities are proposed for education, research, patient care, management, sharing information on…

  2. United Kingdom: Medical Laboratory Science, Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy. A Study of These Programs and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Programs in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alan M.; Monahan, Thomas J.

    Medical laboratory science, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy programs in the United Kingdom (U.K.) are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students from these programs who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. For each of the programs, attention is directed to the relevant professional bodies, career…

  3. Academic Medical Centers Forming Accountable Care Organizations and Partnering With Community Providers: The Experience of the Johns Hopkins Medicine Alliance for Patients.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Scott A; Ishii, Lisa; Schulz, John; Poffenroth, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs)--which include teaching hospital(s) and additional care delivery entities--that form accountable care organizations (ACOs) must decide whether to partner with other provider entities, such as community practices. Indeed, 67% (33/49) of AMC ACOs through the Medicare Shared Savings Program through 2014 are believed to include an outside community practice. There are opportunities for both the AMC and the community partners in pursuing such relationships, including possible alignment around shared goals and adding ACO beneficiaries. To create the Johns Hopkins Medicine Alliance for Patients (JMAP), in January 2014, Johns Hopkins Medicine chose to partner with two community primary care groups and one cardiology practice to support clinical integration while adding approximately 60 providers and 5,000 Medicare beneficiaries. The principal initial interventions within JMAP included care coordination for high-risk beneficiaries and later, in 2014, generating dashboards of ACO quality measures to facilitate quality improvement and early efforts at incorporating clinical pathways and Choosing Wisely recommendations. Additional interventions began in 2015.The principal initial challenges JMAP faced were data integration, generation of quality measure reports among disparate electronic medical records, receiving and then analyzing claims data, and seeking to achieve provider engagement; all these affected timely deployment of the early interventions. JMAP also created three regional advisory councils as a forum promoting engagement of local leadership. Network strategies among AMCs, including adding community practices in a nonemployment model, will continue to require thoughtful strategic planning and a keen understanding of local context. PMID:26535867

  4. Analysis of the question-answer service of the Emma Children's Hospital information centre.

    PubMed

    Kruisinga, Frea H; Heinen, Richard C; Heymans, Hugo S A

    2010-07-01

    The information centre of the Emma Children's Hospital AMC (EKZ AMC) is a specialised information centre where paediatric patients and persons involved with the patient can ask questions about all aspects of disease and its social implications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the question-answer service of this information centre in order to determine the role of a specialised information centre in an academic children's hospital, identify the appropriate resources for the service and potential positive effects. For this purpose, a case management system was developed in MS ACCESS. The characteristics of the requester and the question, the time it took to answer questions, the information sources used and the extent to which we were able to answer the questions were registered. The costs of the service were determined. We analysed all questions that were asked in the year 2007. Fourteen hundred thirty-four questions were asked. Most questions were asked by parents (23.3%), healthcare workers (other than nurses; 16.5%) and nurses (15.3%). The scope of the most frequently asked questions include disease (20.2%) and treatment (13.0%). Information on paper was the main information source used. Most questions could be solved within 15 min. Twelve percent to 28% of total working hours are used for the question-answer service. Total costs including staff salary are rather large. In conclusions, taking over the task of providing additional medical information and by providing readily available, good quality information that healthcare professionals can use to inform their patients will lead to less time investment of these more expensive staff members. A specialised information service can anticipate on the information need of parents and persons involved with the paediatric patient. It improves information by providing with relatively simple resources that has the potential to improve patient and parent satisfaction, coping and medical results. A specialised

  5. Examining the Public Face of Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Language is an important way of presenting an identity, either individual or group. This paper explores the language used in the presentation of the identity of academic development. The study is based on an analysis of websites from academic development centres in the UK and Australia and outlines the public ways in which academic developers…

  6. Implementation of an Interdisciplinary, Team-Based Complex Care Support Health Care Model at an Academic Medical Center: Impact on Health Care Utilization and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Christine; Andersen, Robin; Eng, Jessica; Garrigues, Sarah K.; Intinarelli, Gina; Kao, Helen; Kawahara, Suzanne; Patel, Kanan; Sapiro, Lisa; Thibault, Anne; Tunick, Erika; Barnes, Deborah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Geriatric Resources for the Assessment and Care of Elders (GRACE) program has been shown to decrease acute care utilization and increase patient self-rated health in low-income seniors at community-based health centers. Aims To describe adaptation of the GRACE model to include adults of all ages (named Care Support) and to evaluate the process and impact of Care Support implementation at an urban academic medical center. Setting 152 high-risk patients (≥5 ED visits or ≥2 hospitalizations in the past 12 months) enrolled from four medical clinics from 4/29/2013 to 5/31/2014. Program Description Patients received a comprehensive in-home assessment by a nurse practitioner/social worker (NP/SW) team, who then met with a larger interdisciplinary team to develop an individualized care plan. In consultation with the primary care team, standardized care protocols were activated to address relevant key issues as needed. Program Evaluation A process evaluation based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research identified key adaptations of the original model, which included streamlining of standardized protocols, augmenting mental health interventions and performing some assessments in the clinic. A summative evaluation found a significant decline in the median number of ED visits (5.5 to 0, p = 0.015) and hospitalizations (5.5 to 0, p<0.001) 6 months before enrollment in Care Support compared to 6 months after enrollment. In addition, the percent of patients reporting better self-rated health increased from 31% at enrollment to 64% at 9 months (p = 0.002). Semi-structured interviews with Care Support team members identified patients with multiple, complex conditions; little community support; and mild anxiety as those who appeared to benefit the most from the program. Discussion It was feasible to implement GRACE/Care Support at an academic medical center by making adaptations based on local needs. Care Support patients experienced

  7. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    PubMed

    Eogan, Maeve; McHugh, Anne; Holohan, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence. PMID:22975433

  8. An initial assessment of the cost and utilization of the Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, P. D.; Anderson, R. K.; Hill, C.; McCormack, M.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of "one stop information shopping" is becoming a reality at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC). The goal of our effort is to provide access to university and hospital administrative systems as well as clinical and library applications from a single workstation, which also provides utility functions such as word processing and mail. Since June 1987, CPMC has invested the equivalent of $23 million dollars to install a digital communications network that encompasses 18 buildings at seven geographically separate sites and to develop clinical and library applications that are integrated with the existing hospital and university administrative and research computing facilities. During June 1991, 2425 different individuals used the clinical information system, 425 different individuals used the library applications, and 900 different individuals used the hospital administrative applications via network access. If we were to freeze the system in its current state, amortize the development and network installation costs, and add projected maintenance costs for the clinical and library applications, our integrated information system would cost $2.8 million on an annual basis. This cost is 0.3% of the medical center's annual budget. These expenditures could be justified by very small improvements in time savings for personnel and/or decreased length of hospital stay and/or more efficient use of resources. In addition to the direct benefits which we detail, a major benefit is the ease with which additional computer-based applications can be added incrementally at an extremely modest cost. PMID:1666966

  9. Duodenal Aspirates for Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: Yield, PPIs, and Outcomes after Treatment at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Franco, Diana L; Disbrow, Molly B; Kahn, Allon; Koepke, Laura M; Harris, Lucinda A; Harrison, M Edwyn; Crowell, Michael D; Ramirez, Francisco C

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal aspirates are not commonly collected, but they can be easily used in detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been proposed to contribute to the development of SIBO. We aimed to determine the yield of SIBO-positive cultures detected in duodenal aspirates, the relationship between SIBO and PPI use, and the clinical outcomes of patients identified by this method. In a retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical records from 1263 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy at a tertiary medical center. Aspirates were collected thought out the third and fourth portions of the duodenum, and cultures were considered to be positive for SIBO if they produced more than 100,000 cfu/mL. Culture analysis of duodenal aspirates identified SIBO in one-third of patients. A significantly higher percentage of patients with SIBO use PPIs than patients without SIBO, indicating a possible association. Similar proportions of patients with SIBO improved whether or not they received antibiotic treatment, calling into question the use of this expensive therapy for this disorder. PMID:25694782

  10. Celebrating 10 Years of Undergraduate Medical Education: A Student-Centered Evaluation of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre--Determinants of Community Health Year 2 Program.

    PubMed

    Fernando, E; Jusko-Friedman, A; Catton, P; Nyhof-Young, J

    2015-06-01

    Between 2000 and 2011, over 170 second-year medical students participated in a Determinants of Community Health (DOCH 2) project at Princess Margaret Hospital (PMH). Students undertook community-based research projects at the hospital or with PMH community partners involving activities such as producing a literature review, writing a research proposal, obtaining ethics approval, carrying out data collection and analysis, presenting their data to classmates and supervisors, and production of a final report. An electronic survey consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was developed to evaluate the PMH-DOCH 2 program and was distributed to 144 past students with known email addresses. Fifty-eight students responded, a response rate of 40.3%. Data analysis indicates that an increase in oncology knowledge, awareness of the impact of determinants of health on patients, and knowledge of research procedures increased participants' satisfaction and ability to conduct research following DOCH 2. Furthermore, the PMH-DOCH 2 program enhanced the development of CanMEDS competencies through career exploration and patient interaction as well as through shadowing physicians and other allied health professionals. In addition, some students felt their PMH-DOCH 2 projects played a beneficial role during their residency matching process. The PMH-DOCH 2 research program appeared to provide a positive experience for most participants and opportunities for medical students' professional growth and development outside the confines of traditional lecture-based courses. PMID:24906503

  11. Evaluation of Electronic Health Record Implementation in Ophthalmology at an Academic Medical Center (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Michael F.; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C.; Choi, Dongseok; Sanders, David S.; Hwang, Thomas S.; Bailey, Steven; Karr, Daniel J.; Cottle, Elizabeth; Morrison, John C.; Wilson, David J.; Yackel, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate three measures related to electronic health record (EHR) implementation: clinical volume, time requirements, and nature of clinical documentation. Comparison is made to baseline paper documentation. Methods: An academic ophthalmology department implemented an EHR in 2006. A study population was defined of faculty providers who worked the 5 months before and after implementation. Clinical volumes, as well as time length for each patient encounter, were collected from the EHR reporting system. To directly compare time requirements, two faculty providers who utilized both paper and EHR systems completed time-motion logs to record the number of patients, clinic time, and nonclinic time to complete documentation. Faculty providers and databases were queried to identify patient records containing both paper and EHR notes, from which three cases were identified to illustrate representative documentation differences. Results: Twenty-three faculty providers completed 120,490 clinical encounters during a 3-year study period. Compared to baseline clinical volume from 3 months pre-implementation, the post-implementation volume was 88% in quarter 1, 93% in year 1, 97% in year 2, and 97% in year 3. Among all encounters, 75% were completed within 1.7 days after beginning documentation. The mean total time per patient was 6.8 minutes longer with EHR than paper (P<.01). EHR documentation involved greater reliance on textual interpretation of clinical findings, whereas paper notes used more graphical representations, and EHR notes were longer and included automatically generated text. Conclusion: This EHR implementation was associated with increased documentation time, little or no increase in clinical volume, and changes in the nature of ophthalmic documentation. PMID:24167326

  12. Educating Youth About Health and Science Using a Partnership Between an Academic Medical Center and Community-based Science Museum

    PubMed Central

    Griest, Susan; Howarth, Linda C.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William; Carney, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Declining student interest and scholastic abilities in the sciences are concerns for the health professions. Additionally, the National Institutes of Health is committed to promoting more research on health behaviors among US youth, where one of the most striking contemporary issues is obesity. This paper reports findings on the impact of a partnership between Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry linked to a 17-week exhibition of BodyWorlds3 and designed to inform rural underserved youth about science and health research. Self-administered survey measures included health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and interest in the health professions. Four hundred four surveys (88% of participants) were included in analyses. Ninety percent or more found both the Body-Worlds (n = 404) and OHSU (n = 239) exhibits interesting. Dental care habits showed the highest level of intended behavior change (Dental = 45%, Exercise = 34%, Eating = 30%). Overall, females and middle school students were more likely than male and high school students, respectively, to state an intention to change exercise, eating and dental care habits. Females and high school students were more likely to have considered a career in health or science prior to their exhibit visit and, following the exhibit, were more likely to report that this intention had been reinforced. About 6% of those who had not previously considered a career in health or science (n = 225) reported being more likely to do so after viewing the exhibits. In conclusion, high quality experiential learning best created by community-academic partnerships appears to have the ability to stimulate interest and influence intentions to change health behaviors among middle and high school students. PMID:19350372

  13. Pattern of Frequent But Nontargeted Pharmacologic Thromboprophylaxis for Hospitalized Patients With Cancer at Academic Medical Centers: A Prospective, Cross-Sectional, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Rojan, Adam; Campigotto, Federico; Rehman, Nadia; Funches, Renee; Connolly, Gregory; Webster, Jonathan; Aggarwal, Anita; Mobarek, Dalia; Faselis, Charles; Neuberg, Donna; Rickles, Frederick R.; Wun, Ted; Streiff, Michael B.; Khorana, Alok A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hospitalized patients with cancer are considered to be at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite strong recommendations in numerous clinical practice guidelines, retrospective studies have shown that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is underutilized in hospitalized patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients with cancer at five academic hospitals to determine prescription rates of thromboprophylaxis and factors influencing its use during hospitalization. Results A total of 775 patients with cancer were enrolled across five academic medical centers. Two hundred forty-seven patients (31.9%) had relative contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis. Accounting for contraindications to anticoagulation, the overall rate of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis was 74.2% (95% CI, 70.4% to 78.0%; 392 of 528 patients). Among the patients with cancer without contraindications for anticoagulation, individuals hospitalized with nonhematologic malignancies were significantly more likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those with hematologic malignancies (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.82; P = .007). Patients with cancer admitted for cancer therapy were significantly less likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those admitted for other reasons (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.61; P < .001). Sixty-three percent of patients with cancer classified as low risk, as determined by the Padua Scoring System, received anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. Among the 136 patients who did not receive anticoagulation, 58.8% were considered to be high risk by the Padua Scoring System. Conclusion We conclude that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is frequently administered to hospitalized patients with cancer but that nearly one third of patients are considered to have relative contraindications for prophylactic anticoagulation. Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in

  14. Screening for male osteoporosis at an academic medical center: retrospective analysis of DXA usage patterns over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Dedri Markita; Siva, Chokkalingam; Velázquez, Celso; Abdinoor, Abdillahi Abdi

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that men have higher mortality rates than women after a hip fracture. Although the risk of osteoporotic fractures in men is increasing, male osteoporosis still remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In general, male osteoporosis is given low priority by policy makers in public health initiatives. The purpose of this study is to examine the patterns of use and gender distribution of DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scan usage at a university medical center in the United States. The total number of DXA scans increased during the study period while the percentage of men studied actually declined. The results of this study may lead to heightened awareness among providers who are caring for male patients at risk for osteoporosis. PMID:21956247

  15. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota prevents the onset of physical symptoms in medical students under academic examination stress.

    PubMed

    Kato-Kataoka, A; Nishida, K; Takada, M; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Shimizu, K; Kushiro, A; Hoshi, R; Watanabe, O; Igarashi, T; Miyazaki, K; Kuwano, Y; Rokutan, K

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on psychological, physiological, and physical stress responses in medical students undertaking an authorised nationwide examination for promotion. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 and 23 healthy medical students consumed a fermented milk containing LcS and a placebo milk, respectively, once a day for 8 weeks until the day before the examination. Psychophysical state, salivary cortisol, faecal serotonin, and plasma L-tryptophan were analysed on 5 different sampling days (8 weeks before, 2 weeks before, 1 day before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the examination). Physical symptoms were also recorded in a diary by subjects during the intervention period for 8 weeks. In association with a significant elevation of anxiety at 1 day before the examination, salivary cortisol and plasma L-tryptophan levels were significantly increased in only the placebo group (P<0.05). Two weeks after the examination, the LcS group had significantly higher faecal serotonin levels (P<0.05) than the placebo group. Moreover, the rate of subjects experiencing common abdominal and cold symptoms and total number of days experiencing these physical symptoms per subject were significantly lower in the LcS group than in the placebo group during the pre-examination period at 5-6 weeks (each P<0.05) and 7-8 weeks (each P<0.01) during the intervention period. Our results suggest that the daily consumption of fermented milk containing LcS may exert beneficial effects preventing the onset of physical symptoms in healthy subjects exposed to stressful situations. PMID:26689231

  16. A 10-year analysis of "revenues," costs, staffing, and workload in an academic medical center clinical chemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benge, H; Csako, G; Parl, F F

    1993-09-01

    From 1980 to 1990 we found progressive increases in workload (number of billable tests; 12.1% per year), staffing [number of full-time equivalents (FTEs); 5.6% per year], "revenues" (gross billings; 25.8% per year), and direct cost (12.9% per year) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of a large tertiary-care university medical center. The increase in direct cost was mainly attributable to an increase in salary cost (23.7% per year), whereas the impact of increasing "consumable" cost was relatively small (5.3% per year). In fact, after adjustment for inflation, the consumable cost was virtually unchanged or decreased during the 10-year study period. Initially, consumables represented about 60% of the direct cost, and the remaining 40% was for salaries. After 1982/83, however, the relative contribution of consumables and salaries to direct cost gradually reversed. Because the workload grew at a higher rate than staffing, the workload per FTE increased from 1980 to 1990. This was paralleled by gradual increases in both "revenue" per FTE and salary per FTE in actual dollars, but by lesser increases to no increases in inflation-corrected dollars. After adjusting for inflation with different indices, the direct cost per test, the consumable cost per test, and the salary cost per test either remained unchanged or decreased in the 1980s. The findings are discussed in the context of technical advancements in laboratory testing, nationwide shortages of medical technologists, and implementation of prospective fixed-fee reimbursement practices during the study period. PMID:8375047

  17. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  18. Standard medical care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in large specialised centres: data from the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan (ESSENCE)

    PubMed Central

    Nasonov, E; Soloviev, S; Davidson, J E; Lila, A; Togizbayev, G; Ivanova, R; Baimukhamedov, Ch; Omarbekova, Zh; Iaremenko, O; Gnylorybov, A; Shevchuk, S; Vasylyev, A; Pereira, M H S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe disease characteristics and treatment regimens for adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with autoantibody positive disease in three countries (the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan). Methods The ESSENCE study was a 1-year, retrospective, multicentre, observational study. Data included patients’ characteristics, disease activity and severity, and healthcare resource use in 2010. Results Twelve centres enrolled 436 eligible patients: 232 in Russia, 110 in Kazakhstan and 94 in Ukraine. Mean age ranged from 36 to 42 years and median SLE duration from 3 to 6.8 years. According to study definitions, 69.2% of patients in Russia, 72.7% in Kazakhstan and 55.4% in Ukraine had severe disease at diagnosis. SLE activity (Nasonova classification, 1972) decreased from diagnosis to the last visit in 2010 in all countries. At the last visit, mean (SD) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment–Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score was 13.8 (10.5) in Russia, 19.4 (16.9) in Kazakhstan and 7.2 (6.8) in Ukraine, and Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index was 2.0 (2.2), 3.3 (3.2) and 2.2 (2.0), respectively. Treatment regimens included predominantly glucocorticoids (96.7–99.1%), immunosuppressants or cytotoxic drugs, for example, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide (20.7–53.2%), and antimalarial drugs (18.3–40.8%). Conclusions The study provides reliable insight into the SLE clinical profiles in the referenced countries. Patients were 4–10 years younger in the study and had 3–7 years shorter SLE duration than in Western European countries and both SLE activity and severity were higher with higher rate of hospitalisations, but decreased during treatment. Local and international scales demonstrated correlation in SLE activity and organ damage evaluation. There were differences in clinical characteristics and

  19. Academic Counselling in ODL: Information System for Capacity Building of Academic Counselors' in IGNOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishore, S.

    2014-01-01

    Indira Gandhi national Open University (IGNOU) is an apex body for open and distance learning (ODL) system in India. The university has nation-wide operation and pioneer in distance education. IGNOU has an hqrs, 67 Regional Centres and about 3400 Study Centres throughout India. The study centres are the academic contact point for distance learners…

  20. ["Problem-based learning--inflammation and transplantation": an integrated, subject-centred course in the clinical section of the medical curriculum at the medical school of the University of Muenster].

    PubMed

    Herbst, H; Zühlsdorf, M; Sinha, B; Silling, G; Kiefer, R; Marschall, B; Hausberg, M; Böckers, A; Gräwe, U; Berdel, W E; Nippert, R P; Domschke, W

    2003-10-01

    Conventional medical curricula present information pertinent to chronic inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases and transplantation, via systematic lectures and courses in medical specialties without any integrated approach. The authors report on a 3-week model course that attempts to provide students with an overview of clinical presentation, diagnostics, and therapy of representative disease entities with particular emphasis on the interdisciplinary approach to these problems in hospital practice. In addition to problem-based learning in small groups, the model course comprises interdisciplinary concept lectures, practical demonstrations of specific diagnostic procedures, and bedside teaching. In the meantime, the course "Problem-Based Learning--Inflammation and Transplantation" has been held twice successfully as a mandatory course in the clinical part of the curriculum at the Muenster Medical School. PMID:14571365

  1. Evaluating the value of a web-based natural medicine clinical decision tool at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Consumer use of herbal and natural products (H/NP) is increasing, yet physicians are often unprepared to provide guidance due to lack of educational training. This knowledge deficit may place consumers at risk of clinical complications. We wished to evaluate the impact that a natural medicine clinical decision tool has on faculty attitudes, practice experiences, and needs with respect to H/NP. Methods All physicians and clinical staff (nurse practitioners, physicians assistants) (n = 532) in departments of Pediatrics, Family and Community Medicine, and Internal Medicine at our medical center were invited to complete 2 electronic surveys. The first survey was completed immediately before access to a H/NP clinical-decision tool was obtained; the second survey was completed the following year. Results Responses were obtained from 89 of 532 practitioners (16.7%) on the first survey and 87 of 535 (16.3%) clinicians on the second survey. Attitudes towards H/NP varied with gender, age, time in practice, and training. At baseline, before having an evidence-based resource available, nearly half the respondents indicated that they rarely or never ask about H/NP when taking a patient medication history. The majority of these respondents (81%) indicated that they would like to learn more about H/NP, but 72% admitted difficulty finding evidence-based information. After implementing the H/NP tool, 63% of database-user respondents indicated that they now ask patients about H/NP when taking a drug history. Compared to results from the baseline survey, respondents who used the database indicated that the tool significantly increased their ability to find reliable H/NP information (P < 0.0001), boosted their knowledge of H/NP (p < 0.0001), and increased their confidence in providing accurate H/NP answers to patients and colleagues (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Our results demonstrate healthcare provider knowledge and confidence with H/NP can be improved without costly and

  2. Recognizing a Centre of Excellence in Ontario's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The term "Centre of Excellence" is increasingly used by Ontario's colleges with the expectation of portraying a superior level of proficiency, expertise, or investment in a particular academic discipline or program cluster. This paper proposes that the term Centre of Excellence should have a clearer definition so that when one of Ontario's…

  3. Investigating Teachers' Views of Student-Centred Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2014-01-01

    Conventional learning is based on low levels of students' participation where students are rarely expected to ask questions or to challenge the theories of the academic. A paradigm shift in curriculum has resulted in implementing student-centred learning (SCL) approach, putting students as the centre of the learning process. This mode of…

  4. Reasons for academic honesty and dishonesty with solutions: a study of pharmacy and medical students in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Henning, Marcus A; Ram, Sanya; Malpas, Phillipa; Sisley, Richard; Thompson, Andrea; Hawken, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents students' views about honest and dishonest actions within the pharmacy and medical learning environments. Students also offered their views on solutions to ameliorating dishonest action. Three research questions were posed in this paper: (1) what reasons would students articulate in reference to engaging in dishonest behaviours? (2) What reasons would students articulate in reference to maintaining high levels of integrity? (3) What strategies would students suggest to decrease engagement in dishonest behaviours and/or promote honest behaviours? The design of the study incorporated an initial descriptive analysis to interpret students' responses to an 18-item questionnaire about justifications for dishonest action. This was followed by a qualitative analysis of students' commentaries in reference to why students would engage in either honest or dishonest action. Finally a qualitative analysis was conducted on students' views regarding solutions to dishonest action. The quantitative results showed that students were more likely to use time management and seriousness justifications for dishonest actions. The qualitative findings found that students' actions (honest or dishonest) were guided by family and friends, the need to do well, issues of morality and institutional guidelines. Students suggested that dishonest action could be ameliorated by external agencies and polarised views between punitive and rewards-based mechanisms were offered. These results suggest that these students engaged in dishonest action for various reasons and solutions addressing dishonest action need to consider diverse mechanisms that likely extend beyond the educational institution. PMID:23955289

  5. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Divya A.; Chudasama, Rani; Agarwal, Ankit; Rand, Alexandar; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Ngo, Taylor; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code), and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p = 0.006), age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p = 0.014), and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes. PMID:26605089

  6. Improving Immunization Rates Using Lean Six Sigma Processes: Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative III Project

    PubMed Central

    Hina-Syeda, Hussaini; Kimbrough, Christina; Murdoch, William; Markova, Tsveti

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality improvement education and work in interdisciplinary teams is a healthcare priority. Healthcare systems are trying to meet core measures and provide excellent patient care, thus improving their Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers & Systems scores. Crittenton Hospital Medical Center in Rochester Hills, MI, aligned educational and clinical objectives, focusing on improving immunization rates against pneumonia and influenza prior to the rates being implemented as core measures. Improving immunization rates prevents infections, minimizes hospitalizations, and results in overall improved patient care. Teaching hospitals offer an effective way to work on clinical projects by bringing together the skill sets of residents, faculty, and hospital staff to achieve superior results. Methods We designed and implemented a structured curriculum in which interdisciplinary teams acquired knowledge on quality improvement and teamwork, while focusing on a specific clinical project: improving global immunization rates. We used the Lean Six Sigma process tools to quantify the initial process capability to immunize against pneumococcus and influenza. Results The hospital's process to vaccinate against pneumonia overall was operating at a Z score of 3.13, and the influenza vaccination Z score was 2.53. However, the process to vaccinate high-risk patients against pneumonia operated at a Z score of 1.96. Improvement in immunization rates of high-risk patients became the focus of the project. After the implementation of solutions, the process to vaccinate high-risk patients against pneumonia operated at a Z score of 3.9 with a defects/million opportunities rate of 9,346 and a yield of 93.5%. Revisions to the adult assessment form fixed 80% of the problems identified. Conclusions This process improvement project was not only beneficial in terms of improved quality of patient care but was also a positive learning experience for the interdisciplinary team

  7. Science Learning Centres Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The national network of Science Learning Centres aims to raise the quality of science teaching from Key Stage 1 through post-16 (ages 5-19). Short courses are provided locally through the regional Science Learning Centres and longer, more intensive programmes are available at the National Science Learning Centre in York. There are a growing number…

  8. Medical physics practice and training in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amuasi, John H; Kyere, Augustine K; Schandorf, Cyril; Fletcher, John J; Boadu, Mary; Addison, Eric K; Hasford, Francis; Sosu, Edem K; Sackey, Theophilus A; Tagoe, Samuel N A; Inkoom, Stephen; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2016-06-01

    Medical physics has been an indispensable and strategic stakeholder in the delivery of radiological services to the healthcare system of Ghana. The practice has immensely supported radiation oncology and medical imaging facilities over the years, while the locally established training programme continues to produce human resource to feed these facilities. The training programme has grown to receive students from other African countries in addition to local students. Ghana has been recognised by the International Atomic Energy Agency as Regional Designated Centre for Academic Training of Medical Physicists in Africa. The Ghana Society for Medical Physics collaborates with the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences of the University of Ghana to ensure that training offered to medical physicists meet international standards, making them clinically qualified. The Society has also worked together with other bodies for the passage of the Health Profession's Regulatory Bodies Act, giving legal backing to the practice of medical physics and other allied health professions in Ghana. The country has participated in a number of International Atomic Energy Agency's projects on medical physics and has benefited from its training courses, fellowships and workshops, as well as those of other agencies such as International Organization for Medical Physics. This has placed Ghana's medical physicists in good position to practice competently and improve healthcare. PMID:27236505

  9. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  10. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  11. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of self-efficacy among students with different levels of academic achievement at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    GHARETEPEH, AMENEH; SAFARI, YAHYA; PASHAEI, TAHEREH; RAZAEI, MANSOUR; BAGHER KAJBAF, MOHAMMAD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction studies have indicated that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-efficacy and can predict the academic achievement. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in identifying self-efficacy among the students of Public Health School with different levels of academic achievement. Methods This correlational study was conducted on all the students of Public Health School. 129 students were included in the study through census method. Data were collected using Emotional Intelligence and self-efficacy questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis by SPSS 14. Results The average score of students with high academic achievement was higher in self-efficacy (39.78±5.82) and emotional intelligence (117.07±10.33) variables and their components than that of students with low academic achievement (39.17±5.91, 112.07±13.23). The overall emotional intelligence score to predict self-efficacy explanation was different among students with different levels of academic achievement (p<0.001). Self-efficacy structure was explained through self-awareness and self-motivation components in students with low academic achievement (r=0.571). In students with high academic achievement, self-awareness, self-motivation and social consciousness played an effective role in explaining self-efficacy (r=0.677, p<0.001). Conclusion Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy play an important role in achieving academic success and emotional intelligence can explain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to teach emotional intelligence skills to students with low academic achievement through training workshops. PMID:25927067

  12. Body Damage: Dis-Figuring the Academic in Academic Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary academic fiction features a plethora of characters, male and female, identified by a bodily defect or medical malady as a primary character trait. These representations of the damaged college professor have joined other popular academic stereotypes, such as the absent-minded professor, the lecherous professor, and the sadistic…

  13. Hegemony, Big Money and Academic Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article considers whether a threat is posed to academic independence in corporate universities by the United States Studies Centre (USSC) at the University of Sydney. The USSC rapidly worked its way into Australia's oldest university, building a unique governance structure in which a private business lobby vets senior academics and controls…

  14. Centres of excellence.

    PubMed

    Watson, J M

    1980-05-16

    The present Government may not be enthusiastic about health centres. But Dr Joyce M. Watson, of Glasgow University Department of General Practice and based at Woodside Health Centre in Glasgow, writes with enthusiasm of their advantages for the practice of medicine and the care of patients. PMID:10247174

  15. Mitigating risk in academic preclinical drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jayme L; Inglese, James; Walters, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The number of academic drug discovery centres has grown considerably in recent years, providing new opportunities to couple the curiosity-driven research culture in academia with rigorous preclinical drug discovery practices used in industry. To fully realize the potential of these opportunities, it is important that academic researchers understand the risks inherent in preclinical drug discovery, and that translational research programmes are effectively organized and supported at an institutional level. In this article, we discuss strategies to mitigate risks in several key aspects of preclinical drug discovery at academic drug discovery centres, including organization, target selection, assay design, medicinal chemistry and preclinical pharmacology. PMID:25829283

  16. BBMRI-ERIC as a resource for pharmaceutical and life science industries: the development of biobank-based Expert Centres.

    PubMed

    van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Törnwall, Outi; Bréchot, Christian; Dagher, Georges; Galli, Joakim; Hveem, Kristian; Landegren, Ulf; Luchinat, Claudio; Metspalu, Andres; Nilsson, Cecilia; Solesvik, Ove V; Perola, Markus; Litton, Jan-Eric; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Biological resources (cells, tissues, bodily fluids or biomolecules) are considered essential raw material for the advancement of health-related biotechnology, for research and development in life sciences, and for ultimately improving human health. Stored in local biobanks, access to the human biological samples and related medical data for transnational research is often limited, in particular for the international life science industry. The recently established pan-European Biobanking and BioMolecular resources Research Infrastructure-European Research Infrastructure Consortium (BBMRI-ERIC) aims to improve accessibility and interoperability between academic and industrial parties to benefit personalized medicine, disease prevention to promote development of new diagnostics, devices and medicines. BBMRI-ERIC is developing the concept of Expert Centre as public-private partnerships in the precompetitive, not-for-profit field to provide a new structure to perform research projects that would face difficulties under currently established models of academic-industry collaboration. By definition, Expert Centres are key intermediaries between public and private sectors performing the analysis of biological samples under internationally standardized conditions. This paper presents the rationale behind the Expert Centres and illustrates the novel concept with model examples. PMID:25407005

  17. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  18. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  19. Pretoria Centre Reaches Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

  20. Medical Students' Satisfaction and Academic Performance with Problem-Based Learning in Practice-Based Exercises for Epidemiology and Health Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…

  1. When Students Struggle with Gross Anatomy and Histology: A Strategy for Monitoring, Reviewing, and Promoting Student Academic Success in an Integrated Preclinical Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortsch, Michael; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Gross anatomy and histology are now often taught as parts of an integrated medical or dental curriculum. Although this puts these foundational basic sciences into a wider educational context, students may not fully appreciate their importance as essential components of their medical education and may not develop a sufficient level of competency,…

  2. Barriers to senior centre implementation of falls prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Zachary, Ciara; Casteel, Carri; Nocera, Maryalice; Runyan, Carol W

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence of senior centres providing multi-component falls prevention education and the perceived barriers in implementing this education. A telephone interview was conducted in 2006 with 500 senior centres nationwide. Centre directors were asked about the types of multi-component falls prevention education offered (ie, balance exercise classes, medication management, home safety information) and barriers to offering this education. Seventy percent of senior centres offered balance exercise classes, 68% offered medication management and 53% provided home safety information. Thirty-two percent offered all three components. Lack of staff, time and staff not feeling they had sufficient knowledge to deliver falls prevention education were the leading barriers to providing multi-component education. Senior centres provide components of effective falls prevention education and, while some may not address all components of a multifaceted programme, many have existing resources that may be adapted for translation of evidence-based programmes. PMID:22328631

  3. Negotiated Independence: How a Canadian Writing Program Became a Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Judith; Turner, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Describes the transformation of a writing program at a small Canadian university from a subdivision of the English department into a separate, interdisciplinary Centre for Academic Writing. Describes the origins of the program and recounts the processes of review and transition the program underwent. Notes how curricular and…

  4. Action Learning and the Program at the Revans Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botham, David; Vick, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Revans Centre for Action Learning and Research based at the University of Salford (United Kingdom). Topics include collaborations between practitioners and academics, organizational and professional development, change and human learning processes, interdisciplinary teamwork, action learning interfacing with research; and degrees…

  5. UV LED lighting for automated crystal centring

    PubMed Central

    Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    A direct outcome of the exponential growth of macromolecular crystallography is the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. As more and more projects entail screening a profusion of sample crystals, fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments are being implemented at all synchrotron facilities. One of the major obstacles to achieving such automation lies in the sample recognition and centring in the X-ray beam. The capacity of UV light to specifically react with aromatic residues present in proteins or with DNA base pairs is at the basis of UV-assisted crystal centring. Although very efficient, a well known side effect of illuminating biological samples with strong UV sources is the damage induced on the irradiated samples. In the present study the effectiveness of a softer UV light for crystal centring by taking advantage of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) sources has been investigated. The use of UV LEDs represents a low-cost solution for crystal centring with high specificity. PMID:21169682

  6. Lidar Calibration Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the newly established Lidar Calibration Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and calibration of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of instruments, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar Calibration Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.

  7. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  8. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  9. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  10. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  11. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  12. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  13. Winnipeg Centre Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The Winnipeg Centre Project is a field-based, work-study program that attempts to create more appropriate education for the inner-city child. Sponsored by the Planning and Research Branch of the Department of Colleges and Universities Affairs and administered by Brandon University in consultation with the Winnipeg School Division, the project is…

  14. The GSO Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, F.; Glorian, J.-M.; Génot, V.; Rouillard, A.; Petit, P.; Palacios, A.; Caux, E.; Wakelam, V.

    2015-12-01

    Hereafter we describe the activities of the Grand Sud-Ouest Data Centre operated for INSU (CNRS) by the OMP--IRAP and the Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, in a collaboration with the OASU--LAB in Bordeaux and OREME--LUPM in Montpellier.

  15. Wycheproof Education Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetnam and Godfrey, Melbourne (Australia).

    The Wycheproof township in New South Wales (Australia) is the regional center for a grain farming community. The Wycheproof Education Centre was formed by the merger of a separate primary and secondary school (on one site with existing buildings), into a single governing body that is educationally structured into junior, middle, and senior…

  16. Challenges and Potentials for Writing Centres in South African Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, A.

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges involved in developing and running Writing Centres in tertiary contexts in South Africa. These challenges include recognizing the role Writing Centres need to play in the redress of basic academic literacies. They also involve emphasizing writing as a mode of learning where higher cognitive functions such as analysis and…

  17. Business Models of High Performance Computing Centres in Higher Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurich, Markus; Calleja, Paul; Boutellier, Roman

    2013-01-01

    High performance computing (HPC) service centres are a vital part of the academic infrastructure of higher education organisations. However, despite their importance for research and the necessary high capital expenditures, business research on HPC service centres is mostly missing. From a business perspective, it is important to find an answer to…

  18. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  19. [Medical writers in medical research].

    PubMed

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-08-19

    Larger research units often comprise persons of several professions in order to secure a high level of efficiency and quality in the different tasks. In Denmark, employees with special competencies within the field of writing and publication are rarely used in research units. The purpose of this study was to present the advantages and challenges associated with the involvement of medical writers in academic environments. PMID:23952980

  20. The Use of the Academic Electronic Medical Record (EMR) to Develop Critical Thinking Skills in an Associate Degree Nursing Mobility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodyga, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to prepare new graduate nurses to meet the demands of health care delivery systems, the use of computer-based clinical information systems that combine hands-on experience with computer based information systems was explored. Since the introduction of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) nearly two decades ago, the demand for nurses to…

  1. Just for Us: An Academic Medical Center-Community Partnership to Maintain the Health of a Frail Low-Income Senior Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaggy, Susan D.; Michener, J. Lloyd; Yaggy, Duncan; Champagne, Mary T.; Silberberg, Mina; Lyn, Michelle; Johnson, Fred; Yarnall, Kimberly S. H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To promote health and maintain independence, Just for Us provides financially sustainable, in-home, integrated care to medically fragile, low-income seniors and disabled adults living in subsidized housing. Design and Methods: The program provides primary care, care management, and mental health services delivered in patient's homes by a…

  2. An International Journal's Attempts to Address Inequalities in Academic Publishing: Developing a Writing for Publication Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Theresa; Magyar, Anna; Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Scholars around the world are under increasing pressure to publish in English, in Anglophone centre journals. At the same time, research on professional academic writing indicates that scholars from outside Anglophone centre contexts face considerable obstacles in getting their academic work published in such journals, relating to material and…

  3. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  4. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  5. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  6. Elderly Care Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  7. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-11-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  8. Assessment of health care cost for complex surgical patients: review of cost, re-imbursement and revenue involved in pancreatic surgery at a high-volume academic medical centre

    PubMed Central

    Kachare, Swapnil D; Liner, Kendall R; Vohra, Nasreen A; Zervos, Emmanuel E; Hickey, Todd; Fitzgerald, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic surgery is complex with the potential for costly hospitalization. Methods A retrospective review of patients undergoing a pancreatic resection was performed. Results The median age of the study population was 64 years. Half of the cohort was female (51%), and the majority were white (62%). Most patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) (69%). The pre-operative age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index was zero for 36% (n = 50), 1 for 31% (n = 43) and ≥2 for 33% (n = 45). The Clavien–Dindo grading system for post-operative complication was grade I in 17% (n = 24), whereas 45% (n = 62) were higher grades. The medians direct fixed, direct variable, fixed indirect and total costs were $2476, $15 397, $13 207 and $31 631, respectively. There was a positive contribution margin of $7108, whereas the net margin was a loss of $6790. On univariate analyses, age, type of operation and complication grade were associated with total cost (P ≤ 0.05), whereas operation type and complication grade were associated with a net margin (P = 0.01). These findings remained significant on multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusions Increased cost, reimbursement and revenue were associated with type of operation and post-operative complications. PMID:25298015

  9. Publication Pressure and Burn Out among Dutch Medical Professors: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K.; Vergouwen, Anton C. M.; Smulders, Yvo M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Publication of scientific research papers is important for professionals working in academic medical centres. Quantitative measures of scientific output determine status and prestige, and serve to rank universities as well as individuals. The pressure to generate maximum scientific output is high, and quantitative aspects may tend to dominate over qualitative ones. How this pressure influences professionals’ perception of science and their personal well-being is unknown. Methods and Findings We performed an online survey inviting all medical professors (n = 1206) of the 8 academic medical centres in The Netherlands to participate. They were asked to fill out 2 questionnaires; a validated Publication Pressure Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. In total, 437 professors completed the questionnaires. among them, 54% judge that publication pressure ‘has become excessive’, 39% believe that publication pressure ‘affects the credibility of medical research’ and 26% judge that publication pressure has a ‘sickening effect on medical science’. The burn out questionnaire indicates that 24% of medical professors have signs of burn out. The number of years of professorship was significantly related with experiencing less publication pressure. Significant and strong associations between burn out symptoms and the level of perceived publication pressure were found. The main limitation is the possibility of response bias. Conclusion A substantial proportion of medical professors believe that publication pressure has become excessive, and have a cynical view on the validity of medical science. These perceptions are statistically correlated to burn out symptoms. Further research should address the effects of publication pressure in more detail and identify alternative ways to stimulate the quality of medical science. PMID:24023865

  10. Can Chemistry Teachers' Centres Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garforth, F. M.

    1972-01-01

    The difficulties faced by the Hull Chemistry Teachers' Centre in England are discussed. The lack of finances and time, as well as organizational difficulties in relationship with Science Centres and universities are among the problems. (TS)

  11. [The mission of caregivers in an administrative detention centre].

    PubMed

    Boeckel, Martine; Durand, Elisabeth; Hifi, Cherifa; Lahmar, Saliha

    2014-04-01

    Working as a nurse in a medical unit of an administrative detention centre is a choice. The work is made all the more complex by the context of confinement, the diversity of the languages and cultures and the undetermined duration of the detention. It is with a humanitarian approach that the nursing team of the Geispolsheim centre in Alsace deals every day with the health problems of vulnerable migrants confronted with insecurity and uncertainty. PMID:24881238

  12. Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-fen; Jin, Jing-fen; Feng, Xiu-qin; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Ling-ling; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Zhou, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring. Medication administration errors (MAEs) are those that actually reach patients and remain a threat to patient safety. The Joint Commission International (JCI) advocates medication error prevention, but experience in reducing MAEs during the period of before and after JCI accreditation has not been reported. Methods An intervention study, aimed at reducing MAEs in hospitalized patients, was performed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China, during the journey to JCI accreditation and in the post-JCI accreditation era (first half-year of 2011 to first half-year of 2014). Comprehensive interventions included organizational, information technology, educational, and process optimization-based measures. Data mining was performed on MAEs derived from a compulsory electronic reporting system. Results The number of MAEs continuously decreased from 143 (first half-year of 2012) to 64 (first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 60.9% (0.338% versus 0.132%, P<0.05). The number of MAEs related to high-alert medications decreased from 32 (the second half-year of 2011) to 16 (the first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 57.9% (0.0787% versus 0.0331%, P<0.05). Omission was the top type of MAE during the first half-year of 2011 to the first half-year of 2014, with a decrease by 50% (40 cases versus 20 cases). Intravenous administration error was the top type of error regarding administration route, but it continuously decreased from 64 (first half-year of 2012) to 27 (first half-year of 2014). More experienced registered nurses made fewer medication errors. The number of MAEs in surgical wards was twice that in medicinal wards. Compared with non-intensive care units, the intensive care units exhibited higher occurrence rates of MAEs

  13. The DESY Grid Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, A.; Gellrich, A.; Kemp, Y.; Leffhalm, K.; Ozerov, D.; Wegner, P.

    2012-12-01

    DESY is one of the world-wide leading centers for research with particle accelerators, synchrotron light and astroparticles. DESY participates in LHC as a Tier-2 center, supports on-going analyzes of HERA data, is a leading partner for ILC, and runs the National Analysis Facility (NAF) for LHC and ILC in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance, Physics at the Terascale. For the research with synchrotron light major new facilities are operated and built (FLASH, PETRA-III, and XFEL). DESY furthermore acts as Data-Tier1 centre for the Neutrino detector IceCube. Established within the EGI-project DESY operates a grid infrastructure which supports a number of virtual Organizations (VO), incl. ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Furthermore, DESY hosts some of HEP and non-HEP VOs, such as the HERA experiments and ILC as well as photon science communities. The support of the new astroparticle physics VOs IceCube and CTA is currently set up. As the global structure of the grid offers huge resources which are perfect for batch-like computing, DESY has set up the National Analysis Facility (NAF) which complements the grid to allow German HEP users for efficient data analysis. The grid infrastructure and the NAF use the same physics data which is distributed via the grid. We call the conjunction of grid and NAF the DESY Grid Centre. In the contribution to CHEP2012 we will in depth discuss the conceptional and operational aspects of our multi-VO and multi-community Grid Centre and present the system setup. We will in particular focus on the interplay of Grid and NAF and present experiences of the operations.

  14. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  15. Medical Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent A.

    1986-01-01

    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  16. Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) Outpatient Clinical Information System Implemented in a Faculty General Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Steven; Clark, Anthony S.; Clayton, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    We describe a clinical information system for hospital-based ambulatory care implemented in the context of the institution's IAIMS Phase III effort. Key features of this application are physician data entry to maintain summary clinical profiles that include medication lists, problem lists, and preventive care, and integration with other components of the Clinical Information System at the levels of the database, the user interface, and data sharing. A goal of this application is to provide coded data as a substrate for computer-based decision support.

  17. BBMRI-ERIC as a resource for pharmaceutical and life science industries: the development of biobank-based Expert Centres

    PubMed Central

    van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Törnwall, Outi; Bréchot, Christian; Dagher, Georges; Galli, Joakim; Hveem, Kristian; Landegren, Ulf; Luchinat, Claudio; Metspalu, Andres; Nilsson, Cecilia; Solesvik, Ove V; Perola, Markus; Litton, Jan-Eric; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Biological resources (cells, tissues, bodily fluids or biomolecules) are considered essential raw material for the advancement of health-related biotechnology, for research and development in life sciences, and for ultimately improving human health. Stored in local biobanks, access to the human biological samples and related medical data for transnational research is often limited, in particular for the international life science industry. The recently established pan-European Biobanking and BioMolecular resources Research Infrastructure-European Research Infrastructure Consortium (BBMRI-ERIC) aims to improve accessibility and interoperability between academic and industrial parties to benefit personalized medicine, disease prevention to promote development of new diagnostics, devices and medicines. BBMRI-ERIC is developing the concept of Expert Centre as public–private partnerships in the precompetitive, not-for-profit field to provide a new structure to perform research projects that would face difficulties under currently established models of academic–industry collaboration. By definition, Expert Centres are key intermediaries between public and private sectors performing the analysis of biological samples under internationally standardized conditions. This paper presents the rationale behind the Expert Centres and illustrates the novel concept with model examples. PMID:25407005

  18. Provider perceptions of the social work environment and the state of pediatric care in a downsized urban public academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David Besong

    2011-05-01

    The author's purpose through this study was to document and analyze health provider perceptions of their social work environment and the state of pediatric care at Los Angeles County King/Drew Hospital and Medical Center in 2000, after the restructuring and downsizing of the hospital and its community clinics. The research results showed nurses and physicians reporting that both the quality of pediatric care and the provider social work environment were poor. Negative factors in the social work environment included: low employee morale, poorly staffed clinical teams, lack of professional autonomy, perceptions of low quality of care for pediatric patients, and interpersonal issues of poor communication and collaboration among providers. Providers also perceived a non-supportive work environment, sense of powerlessness, poor quality of work, lack of goal clarity from leadership, lack of fairness in leadership behavior, and an organizational leadership that is abandoning its core mission and values, thereby making it difficult for providers to carry out their professional functions. The author's findings in this study suggest a relationship between intra-role conflict, social employment environment and quality of care at King/Drew Medical Center in 2000. Lessons for practice are presented. PMID:21660823

  19. Evaluation of the role of training in the implementation of a depression screening and treatment protocol in 2 academic outpatient internal medicine clinics utilizing the electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Danielle; Sieja, Amber; Corral, Janet; Zehnder, Nichole G; Guiton, Gretchen; Nease, Donald E

    2015-01-01

    Systematic approaches to depression identification and management are effective though not consistently implemented. The research team implemented a depression protocol, preceded by training, in 2 faculty-resident practices. Medical assistants used the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-2 for initial screening; providers performed the PHQ-9. These were documented in the electronic medical record. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association of provider type, clinic site, and training attendance with documentation of PHQ-9 after positive PHQ-2s, and with repeat PHQ-9s after positive PHQ-9s. In logistic regression analysis, training attendance was positively associated with documentation of PHQ-9 after a positive PHQ-2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4 [confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-4.3]) and repeated documentation of a PHQ-9 after a positive PHQ-9 (OR = 2.5 [CI = 1.1-5.3]). This study describes the successful implementation of a stepped-care approach to depression care. The positive association of training with compliance with protocol procedures indicates the importance of training in the implementation of practice change. PMID:24829154

  20. Academic Incivility among Health Sciences Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Melissa; Hill, Lilian H.

    2015-01-01

    Academic health centers are under pressure to graduate more health professionals and, therefore, must retain talented faculty members who can educate students in respective disciplines. Faculty-to-faculty incivility is especially relevant to academic medical centers because faculty in the health professions must not only meet university tenure and…

  1. Western medical ethics taught to junior medical students can cross cultural and linguistic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ypinazar, Valmae A; Margolis, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice) and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9) and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7) There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third week of their medical school

  2. Challenges to academic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pardes, H; Pincus, H A

    1983-09-01

    Economic constraints, effects of retrenchments in federal health policy, and increased competition for resources are challenging all sectors of academic medicine. Departments of psychiatry are at particular risk during this era for reasons including the lack of a sound research and research training base in many psychiatry departments; the small number of students entering the field and implications therein for the availability of residency slots in psychiatry; and patterns of allocating resources within academic medical centers which, combined with biases in reimbursement policy toward cognitively based specialties, threaten the economic strength of psychiatric departments. A conceptual model based on marketing principles is proposed to aid in identifying and capitalizing on the unique strengths of the field. PMID:6412571

  3. Educating the Public About Research Funded by the National Institutes of Health Using a Partnership Between an Academic Medical Center and Community-based Science Museum

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C.; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the public’s health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the public’s understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors. PMID:19350373

  4. Educating the public about research funded by the National Institutes of Health using a partnership between an academic medical center and community-based science museum.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E

    2009-08-01

    The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the public's health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the public's understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors. PMID:19350373

  5. Multidrug resistance mediated by co-carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 genes among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae at five Indian medical centres.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, A; Barla, G S; Peter, R; Sugumar, M; Mathai, D

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the coexistence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), AmpC and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) genes among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) recovered prospectively from patients at multiple sites. The study included 285 CRE strains from 2782 Gram-negative Bacilli collected from multiple centres during 2007-2010, of which 87 were characterised. Standard and reference laboratory methods were used for resistance determination. Detection of blaNDM-1 , blaAmpC , blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M was done by polymerase chain reaction. High levels of antimicrobial resistance observed among study isolates. Co-carriage of ESBLs, AmpC and NDM-1 was 26.3%. Nosocomial origin among the co-carriage isolates was 64.3%, with 9.2% associated mortality. PMID:27514962

  6. Distant Operational Care Centre: Design Project Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to outline the design of the Distant Operational Care Centre (DOCC), a modular medical facility to maintain human health and performance in space, that is adaptable to a range of remote human habitats. The purpose of this project is to outline a design, not to go into a complete technical specification of a medical facility for space. This project involves a process to produce a concise set of requirements, addressing the fundamental problems and issues regarding all aspects of a space medical facility for the future. The ideas presented here are at a high level, based on existing, researched, and hypothetical technologies. Given the long development times for space exploration, the outlined concepts from this project embodies a collection of identified problems, and corresponding proposed solutions and ideas, ready to contribute to future space exploration efforts. In order to provide a solid extrapolation and speculation in the context of the future of space medicine, the extent of this project's vision is roughly within the next two decades. The Distant Operational Care Centre (DOCC) is a modular medical facility for space. That is, its function is to maintain human health and performance in space environments, through prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Furthermore, the DOCC must be adaptable to meet the environmental requirements of different remote human habitats, and support a high quality of human performance. To meet a diverse range of remote human habitats, the DOCC concentrates on a core medical capability that can then be adapted. Adaptation would make use of the DOCC's functional modularity, providing the ability to replace, add, and modify core functions of the DOCC by updating hardware, operations, and procedures. Some of the challenges to be addressed by this project include what constitutes the core medical capability in terms of hardware, operations, and procedures, and how DOCC can be adapted to different remote

  7. Medical management: from colony to community.

    PubMed

    Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2010-12-01

    In this article the development from the colonies founded in the 19th century to the current situation is discussed. Future development is not to simply follow the slogan 'to the community' translated as 'epilepsy must be treated in general hospitals' but to preserve epileptology as specialized care with 'centres of excellence' orchestrated by coupling epilepsy centres with academical neurology. PMID:21074458

  8. How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

    PubMed Central

    Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Lakmal Fonseka, Chathuranga; Gunasekara, Priyanka; Jayasinghe, Prasanjanie; Maduranga, Dasun

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students’ quality of life (QoL) and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods Fourth-year medical students (n=78) from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, were invited. Their pre- and post-exam status of QoL, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, and the level of biochemical marker levels (i.e., serum levels of thyroid profile including thyroglobulin, cortisol and ferritin) were assessed. Differences between the scores of QoL and serum parameters were compared with their performance at the examination. Results The mean QoL score was significantly lower at pre-exam (56.19±8.1) when compared with post-exam (61.7±7.1) levels (p<0.001). The median serum TSH level prior to the exam (0.9 mIU/L; interquartile range 0.74–1.4 mIU/L) was significantly lower (p=0.001) when compared with the level after the exam (median of 2.7 mIU/L; IQR 1.90–3.60). The mean±SD fT4 level was significantly higher before the exam (19.48±0.4 pmol/L at study entry vs. 17.43±0.3 pmol/L after the exam; p<0.001). Median serum ferritin (SF) level prior to the exam (43.15 (23.5–63.3) µg/L) was significantly lower (p≤0.001) when compared with after-exam status (72.36 (49.9–94.9) µg/L). However, there was no difference in mean serum cortisol levels (16.51±0.7 at pre-exam and 15.88±0.7 at post-exam, respectively; p=0.41). Conclusions Students had higher fT4 and low ferritin levels on pre-exam biochemical assessment. It was evident that students who perform better at the examination had significantly higher QoL scores at each domain tested through the questionnaire (Physical health, Psychological, Social

  9. Mentoring Faculty in Academic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an alternative structure and a broader vision for mentoring of medical faculty. While there is recognition of the need for mentoring for professional advancement in academic medicine, there is a dearth of research on the process and outcomes of mentoring medical faculty. Supported by the literature and our experience with both formal dyadic and group peer mentoring programs as part of our federally funded National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine, we assert that a group peer, collaborative mentoring model founded on principles of adult education is one that is likely to be an effective and predictably reliable form of mentoring for both women and men in academic medicine. PMID:16117759

  10. Engaging Academics in Developing Excellence: Releasing Creativity through Reward and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluteau, Patricia; Krumins, Marie Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the importance of giving academics the space to be creative in developing new teaching materials in the context of a government drive to increase the quality of the student experience, and what this means for "academic staff development". Academics who have engaged with a UK Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning…

  11. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  12. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  13. Academic Prophecies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert M.; Polishook, Irwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Academic prophecies are characterized by their innocence, detachment from the realities of politics and economics, and deference to a limited cohort of administrative representatives. Careless forecasting of the untested future contributes to public misunderstanding of higher education's role in society. (MLW)

  14. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  15. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  16. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  17. The Office of the Future Project: the integration of new technology into office practice. Academic detailing through the super highway. Quebec Research Group on Medication Use in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Tamblyn, R M; Jacques, A; Laprise, R; Huang, A; Perreault, R

    1997-01-01

    Effective management of drug therapy in the elderly is a challenge for primary-care physicians. There are 20,400 drugs approved for marketing in Canada. Most elderly patients will fill 33 prescriptions per year and take 5 different medications. To be a safe prescriber in the 1990s, physicians need to be aware that 33,000 drug interactions, 6,500 drug-disease contraindications, and 3,500 drug-allergy contraindications have been documented. Inappropriate prescribing is a problem in the elderly. At least one inappropriate prescription is given to 12% to 46% of seniors, and 25% of drug-related hospital admissions are due to prescribing errors. Half of all physicians will write at least one inappropriate prescription for an elderly patient each year, and one quarter of inappropriate prescriptions will be created by the presence of multiple prescribing physicians. Academic detailing is the most effective approach to improve physician prescribing. However, it is an expensive intervention that must be limited to a small number of drugs and conditions, and it must be continued to retain its effectiveness. Furthermore, it fails to address the problems created by multiple prescribers. In this project, we developed a prototype of the future office practice. Physicians are equipped with personal computers and expert prescribing-system software. This electronic academic detailer reviews all current medications for a patient, identifies therapeutic duplications, generates alerts for 50 prescribing problems that have been identified as clinically relevant by a Canadian expert panel, suggests suitable alternatives, and reviews all new prescriptions for potential problems. Information on all prescriptions received by the physicians' elderly patients is downloaded weekly from the provincial prescription claims database, so that the primary physician is able to coordinate and manage all drugs prescribed to their patients by all physicians. The effectiveness of this intervention is

  18. [The primary healthcare centres].

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Antonio; Maciocco, Gavino

    2014-04-01

    The central attributes of primary care are: first contact (accessibility), longitudinality (person- focused preventive and curative care overtime), patient-oriented comprehensiveness and coordination (including navigation towards secondary and tertiary care). Besides taking care of the needs of the individuals, primary health care teams are also looking at the community, especially when addressing social determinants of health. The rationale for the benefits for primary care for health has been found in: 1) greater access to needed services; 2) better quality of care; 3) a greater focus on prevention; 4) early management of health problems; 5) organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic non-communicable diseases. This paper describes the role of primary healthcare centres in strengthening community primary services and in reducing health inequalities. Furthemore, the experiences of Regional Health Services from Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna are discussed, with a brief overview of the literature. PMID:24770539

  19. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70%) with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20%) met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70%) evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services. PMID:26767134

  20. Resilience Does Not Predict Academic Performance in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Avilan, Rosa Ivette Guzman; Cruz, Juan Jose Bazaldua; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated resilience in an academic environment as it relates to academic success or failure. This work sought to assess resilience in regular and remedial students of gross anatomy during the first and second semesters of medical school and to correlate this personal trait with academic performance. Two groups of students were…