Background Faculty turnover threatens the research, teaching and clinical missions of medical schools. We measured early attrition among newly-hired medical school faculty and identified personal and institutional factors associated with early attrition. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified faculty hired during the 2005–2006 academic year at one school. Three-year attrition rates were measured. A 40-question electronic survey measured demographics, career satisfaction, faculty responsibilities, institutional/departmental support, and reasons for resignation. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CI) identified variables associated with early attrition. Results Of 139 faculty, 34% (95% CI = 26-42%) resigned within three years of hire. Attrition was associated with: perceived failure of the Department Chair to foster a climate of teaching, research, and service (OR = 6.03; 95% CI: 1.84, 19.69), inclusiveness, respect, and open communication (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 9.98). Lack of professional development of the faculty member (OR = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.25, 11.81); institutional recognition and support for excellence in teaching (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 0.78, 11.19) and clinical care (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.04, 14.41); and >50% of professional time devoted to patient care (OR = 3.93; 95% CI: 1.29, 11.93) predicted attrition. Gender, race, ethnicity, academic degree, department type and tenure status did not predict early attrition. Of still-active faculty, an additional 27 (48.2%, 95% CI: 35.8, 61.0) reported considering resignation within the 5 years. Conclusions In this pilot study, one-third of new faculty resigned within 3 years of hire. Greater awareness of predictors of early attrition may help schools identify threats to faculty career satisfaction and retention. PMID:24512629
Enhancing the Voice of Faculty in the Association of American Medical Colleges: The Evolution of Faculty in U.S. Medical Schools and the Transformation of the Council of Academic Societies Into the Council of Faculty and Academic Societies.
Nelson, Kathleen G; Crawford, James M; Fisher, Rosemarie L L
Since its inception in 1966, the Council of Academic Societies (CAS) represented academic faculty in the governance structure of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). As the role of faculty in the academic health center of the 21st century has evolved (e.g., the number of faculty members has increased, contact hours with trainees per individual faculty member have decreased, the faculty has aged), new models for representation have become necessary. Because of the structure and requirements for organizational membership, CAS was not representing faculty as broadly as possible, so a redesign was necessary. In November 2012, the AAMC Assembly adopted changes to its bylaws creating the new Council of Faculty and Academic Societies. The new design increases the opportunity for all schools to be represented by both junior and senior faculty members while retaining society membership and, therefore, representation of the breadth of specialties in academic medicine. The new council's structure better facilitates meeting its charge: to identify critical issues facing academic medicine faculty members; to provide faculty with a voice as the AAMC addresses those issues through the creation and implementation of AAMC programs, services, and policies; and to serve as a communications conduit between the AAMC and faculty regarding matters related to the core missions of academic medicine.
Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S
The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients.
Wright, Melissa; Hill, Lilian H.
Academic health centers are under pressure to graduate more health professionals and, therefore, must retain talented faculty members who can educate students in respective disciplines. Faculty-to-faculty incivility is especially relevant to academic medical centers because faculty in the health professions must not only meet university tenure and…
Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon
In this paper, we discuss an alternative structure and a broader vision for mentoring of medical faculty. While there is recognition of the need for mentoring for professional advancement in academic medicine, there is a dearth of research on the process and outcomes of mentoring medical faculty. Supported by the literature and our experience with both formal dyadic and group peer mentoring programs as part of our federally funded National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine, we assert that a group peer, collaborative mentoring model founded on principles of adult education is one that is likely to be an effective and predictably reliable form of mentoring for both women and men in academic medicine. PMID:16117759
Beech, Bettina M.; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hairston, Kristen G.; Langdon, Sarah E.; Latham-Sadler, Brenda A.; Bell, Ronny A.
Purpose Mentoring is critical for career advancement in academic medicine. However, underrepresented minority (URM) faculty often receive less mentoring than their nonminority peers. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of published mentoring programs designed for URM faculty to identify “promising practices.” Method Databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, PsychLit, Google Scholar, Dissertations Abstracts International, CINHAL, Sociological Abstracts) were searched for articles describing URM faculty mentoring programs. The RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) formed the model for analyzing programs. Results The search identified 73 citations. Abstract reviews led to retrieval of 38 full-text articles for assessment; 18 articles describing 13 programs were selected for review. The reach of these programs ranged from 7 to 128 participants. Most evaluated programs on the basis of the number of grant applications and manuscripts produced or satisfaction with program content. Programs offered a variety of training experiences, and adoption was relatively high, with minor changes made for implementing the intended content. Barriers included time-restricted funding, inadequate evaluation due to few participants, significant time commitments required from mentors, and difficulty in addressing institutional challenges faced by URM faculty. Program sustainability was a concern because programs were supported through external funds, with minimal institutional support. Conclusions Mentoring is an important part of academic medicine, particularly for URM faculty who often experience unique career challenges. Despite this need, relatively few publications exist to document mentoring programs for this population. Institutionally supported mentoring programs for URM faculty are needed, along with detailed plans for program sustainability. PMID:23425989
Dankoski, Mary E.; Palmer, Megan M.; Laird, Thomas F. Nelson; Ribera, Amy K.; Bogdewic, Stephen P.
Many faculty in today's academic medical centers face high levels of stress and low career satisfaction. Understanding faculty vitality is critically important for the health of our academic medical centers, yet the concept is ill-defined and lacking a comprehensive model. Expanding on previous research that examines vital faculty in higher…
Evergreen State Coll., Olympia, Washington.
Presented in this paper is an outline of the policy at Evergreen State College concerning faculty evaluation, faculty reappointment or nonreappointment, and program review and institutional self-study. Within the policy is the belief that the principles governing academic freedom and faculty responsibility at Evergreen must apply to all members of…
Wilson, Cecilia E.
Insufficient information exists regarding the process influencing faculty decisions, specifically in the area of maintaining academic integrity in an online environment. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and decision-making process of nursing faculty related to maintaining academic integrity in an online environment. The…
DeCastro, Rochelle; Sambuco, Dana; Ubel, Peter A.; Stewart, Abigail; Jagsi, Reshma
Purpose Professional rejection is a frequent experience in an academic medical career. The authors sought to understand how rejection affects those pursuing such careers and why some individuals may be more resilient than others in a population of individuals with demonstrated ability and interest in research careers. Method Between February 2010 and August 2011, the authors conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 100 former recipients of National Institutes of Health mentored career development awards and 28 of their mentors. Purposive sampling ensured a diverse range of viewpoints. Multiple analysts thematically coded verbatim transcripts using qualitative data analysis software. Results Participants described a variety of experiences with criticism and rejection in their careers, as well as an acute need for persistence and resilience in the face of such challenges. Through their narratives, participants also vividly described a range of emotional and behavioral responses to their experiences of professional rejection. Their responses illuminated the important roles that various factors, including mentoring and gender, play in shaping the ultimate influence of rejection on their own careers and on the careers of those they have mentored. Conclusions Responses to rejection vary considerably, and negative responses can lead promising individuals to abandon careers in academic medicine. Resilience does not, however, appear to be immutable—it can be learned. Given the frequency of experiences with rejection in academic medicine, strategies such as training mentors to foster resilience may be particularly helpful in improving faculty retention in academic medicine. PMID:23425991
LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna
This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.
Bossenmaier, Monica M.
Nursing school faculty and students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed for their attitudes toward the academic advisement process, specifically a one-year trial system called core advising. Findings showed that students needed and wanted advising services and that faculty advisors must have a reduced teaching load with preparation for…
Benson, Carole A; Morahan, Page S; Sachdeva, Ajit K; Richman, Rosalyn C
The experience and lessons learned in the design, implementation and initial evaluation of a demonstration faculty-to-faculty mentoring program, during a time of major institutional reorganization, are described. The question addressed was: Can a voluntary mentoring program be established with minimal resources and be effective in the context of major organizational change? Key design elements included two-tiered programs (one year preceptoring and multi-year mentoring), voluntary participation, and selection of senior faculty members by the junior faculty members. A total of 20% of junior faculty and 30% of senior faculty participated. Faculty indicated the program was worth the time invested, had a positive impact on their professional life and increased productivity. There was high satisfaction with the mentoring relationship, especially the psychosocial mentoring functions, and a trend toward increased retention of minority faculty. Within two years, the program was institutionalized into the Office for Faculty Affairs, and faculty approved a mentoring policy. It is concluded that voluntary mentoring programs can have a positive impact on junior and senior faculty satisfaction, reinvigorate the collegial culture, and improve productivity and retention even during a time of reorganization and minimal resources.
Nyquist, Julie G.; Hitchcock, Maurice A.; Teherani, Arianne
Describes the challenges and elements of satisfaction in academic medicine. Proposes a model of academic faculty satisfaction which postulates that organizational, job-related, and personal factors combine to develop self-knowledge, social knowledge, and satisfaction with outcomes of productivity, retention, and learner-patient satisfaction. (DB)
Blackburn, Robert T.; Fox, Thomas G.
This paper reports the recruitment, socialization, and retention of a faculty of medicine. The study shows the process of M.D. and Ph.D. conversion to academic medicine through socialization and the factors which affect retention and attrition of a medical faculty. The research utilizes Sherlock and Morris' professional development paradigm. As…
Yanamadala, Mamata; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G; Hawley, Jeffrey; Heflin, Mitchell T; Shah, Bimal R
Interested faculty enrolled in this 6-month-long quality improvement (QI) course to facilitate independent QI project work. The course included monthly 1.5-hour sessions: 20-minute presentations covering key QI concepts, then small group activities to facilitate project work. Faculty were required to identify, construct, and implement an independent QI project. They met individually with mentors twice during the course, with additional guidance offered virtually via phone or e-mail, and completed pretests and posttests of QI knowledge (maximum score = 15) and self-assessed confidence. A statistically significant difference in knowledge (pre-course mean = 7.75, standard deviation [SD] = 3.06; post-course mean = 11.75, SD = 3.28; P = .02) and self-assessed confidence (pre mean = 3.08, SD = 0.65; post mean = 4.5, SD = 0.68; P < .0001) was found. Of 8 faculty, 5 were able to conduct small tests of change; 3 studied the current processes and planned to run tests of change. Positive responses to this course helped obtain buy-in from leadership to develop a leadership program in QI.
Binder, Renée; Friedli, Amy; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena
Faculty members are expected to abide by codes of conduct that are delineated in institutional policies and to behave ethically when engaging in scientific pursuits. As federal funds for research decrease, faculty members face increasing pressure to sustain their research activities, and many have developed new collaborations and pursued new entrepreneurial opportunities. As research collaborations increase, however, there may be competition to get credit as the first person to develop ideas, make new discoveries, and/or publish new findings. This increasingly competitive academic environment may contribute to intentional or unintentional faculty misconduct. The authors, who work in the Dean's Office at a large U.S. medical school (University of California, San Francisco), investigate one to two cases of alleged misconduct each month. These investigations, which are stressful and unpleasant, may culminate in serious disciplinary action for the faculty member. Further, these allegations sometimes result in lengthy and acrimonious civil litigation. This Perspective provides three examples of academic misconduct: violations of institutional conflict-of-interest policies, disputes about intellectual property, and authorship conflicts.The authors also describe prevention and mitigation strategies that their medical school employs, which may be helpful to other institutions. Prevention strategies include training campus leaders, using attestations to reduce violations of institutional policies, encouraging open discussion and written agreements about individuals' roles and responsibilities, and defining expectations regarding authorship and intellectual property at the outset. Mitigation strategies include using mediation by third parties who do not have a vested academic, personal, or financial interest in the outcome.
Daley, Sandra P; Broyles, Shelia L; Rivera, Lourdes M; Brennan, Jesse J; Lu, Ethel Regis; Reznik, Vivian
In May 2010, the Association of American Medical Colleges reported that nonwhite professors have a lower promotion rate than white professors. A cohort of 30 underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty who participated in a structured faculty development program at a public, research-intensive, academic medical center were followed in a 10-year longitudinal study. This paper reports on the career status of 12 of the 30 URM faculty who were eligible for promotion during this period. Ninety-two percent (11/12) of URM faculty eligible for promotion were promoted to associate professor. When asked what factors contributed to their success, these URM faculty identified access and support of senior faculty mentors, peer networking, professional skill development, and knowledge of institutional culture. A faculty development program that addresses these components can promote the success of URM faculty in academic medicine.
Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Taleghani, Fariba; Mohammadzadeh, Zahra
Introduction: One of the important criteria in the promotion of faculty members is in the scope of their educational roles and duties. The purpose of this study was the assessment of reasonability and attainability of educational criteria for scientific rank promotion from the perspective of the faculty members of Medical Sciences Universities in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in 2011 in 13 Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Through stratified sampling method, 350 faculty members were recruited. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to investigate the reasonability and attainability of educational criteria with scores from 1 to 5. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed and collected at each university. The mean and standard deviation of reasonability and attainability scores were calculated and reported by using the SPSS software version 16. Results: Faculty members considered many criteria of educational activities reasonable and available (with a mean score of more than 3). The highest reasonability and attainability have been obtained by the quantity and quality of teaching with the mean scores (3.93 ± 1.15 and 3.82 ± 1.17) and (3.9 ± 1.22 and 4.13 ± 1.06) out of five, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of total scores of reasonability of educational activities were 50.91 ± 14.22 and its attainability was 60.3 ± 13.72 from the total score of 90. Discussion and Conclusion: The faculty members of the Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran considered the educational criteria of promotion moderately reasonable and achievable. It is recommended to revise these criteria and adapt them according to the mission and special conditions of medical universities. Furthermore, providing feedback of evaluations, running educational researches, and implementing faculty development programs are suggested. PMID:25013822
Kavan, Michael G.; Malin, Paula Jo; Wilson, Daniel R.
Objectives: This article explores ethical and practical issues associated with the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) provision that states health professionals who provide psychiatric/psychological care to medical students must have no involvement in the academic evaluation or promotion of students receiving those services. Method: The…
Rickard, Charles E.; Walters, James C.
Presents a marketing strategy to assist admissions personnel in recruiting academically strong students to colleges and universities. Discusses the importance of institutional prestige and faculty achievement as well as the need to involve faculty in student recruitment. (JAC)
Wiegers, Susan E; Houser, Steven R; Pearson, Helen E; Untalan, Ann; Cheung, Joseph Y; Fisher, Susan G; Kaiser, Larry R; Feldman, Arthur M
Academic medical centers are faced with increasing budgetary constraints due to a flat National Institutes of Health budget, lower reimbursements for clinical services, higher costs of technology including informatics and a changing competitive landscape. As such, institutional stakeholders are increasingly asking whether resources are allocated appropriately and whether there are objective methods for measuring faculty contributions and engagement. The complexities of translational research can be particularly challenging when trying to assess faculty contributions because of team science. For over a decade, we have used an objective scoring system called the Matrix to assess faculty productivity and engagement in four areas: research, education, scholarship, and administration or services. The Matrix was developed to be dynamic, quantitative, and able to insure that a fully engaged educator would have a Matrix score that was comparable to a fully engaged investigator. In this report, we present the Matrix in its current form in order to provide a well-tested objective system of performance evaluation for nonclinical faculty to help academic leaders in decision making.
Galbraith, Quinn; Garrison, Melissa; Hales, Whitney
This study measures the opinions of ARL librarians concerning the benefits and disadvantages of faculty status in academic librarianship. Average responses from faculty and nonfaculty librarians, as well as from tenured and tenure-track librarians, are analyzed to determine the general perceptions of each group. Overall, faculty librarians…
Fontana, Joyce S
Student academic dishonesty was examined using a qualitative critical method to determine the effects of this experience on nurse educators. Twelve faculty members were interviewed about confronting and reporting academic misconduct. Results indicated that educators perceived significant personal and professional risks associated with addressing academic dishonesty, including damage to their relationships with students and colleagues. Participants identified their primary responsibility as gatekeepers of the profession and therefore noted their willingness to bear the burden of being the accuser.
Králíková, E; Kozák, J; Rames, J; Zámecník, L; Wallenfels, I
At the 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague the prevalence of smoking was investigated among the faculty, staff, students and among health professionals in the country. We found 38.1% smokers (current and occasional) among malephysicians (N = 625), 25.6% smokers among women physicians (N = 394), 48.7% smoking nurses (N = 729) and 42.3% smokers among paramedical staff (N = 298). We have also followed up smoking habits among our students since 1989 (N = 1235). The number of smokers among them rose from 7% in 1989 to 18% in 1994. Students were also asked about their opinion on smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease which has a rising trend. Trying to coordinate the anti-smoking activity at all seven medical faculties in the Czech Republic, in collaboration with the Faculty of Medicine of Masaryk University in Brno, the National Centre for Health Promotion and the Czech Commission of EMASH, present the main points of the anti-smoking strategy at Czech medical faculties.
Gidman, Lori Kathleen
The leadership style of academic leaders was studied through the eyes of faculty members. This empirical study looked at faculty perceptions of academic leadership with the use of a numerical survey as the basis for observation. Faculty members at six private liberal arts institutions completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in…
Burnett, Perry; Shemroske, Kenneth; Khayum, Mohammed
Scholarly attention regarding faculty involvement has primarily focused on faculty opinions of shared governance and faculty influence on institutional decision-making. There has been limited attention given to academic service productivity and the effectiveness of traditional approaches toward the accomplishment of faculty service requirements.…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
Results of the AAMC's Annual Medical School Faculty Salary Survey for the fiscal year 1973-74 are presented. Such statistics as mean and median are presented nationally and regionally, and for the first time they are also presented by ownership (public/private), for each academic department and each rank, and according to nature of appointment.…
Pessar, Linda F.; Levine, Ruth E.; Bernstein, Carol A.; Cabaniss, Deborah S.; Dickstein, Leah J.; Graff, Sarah V.; Hales, Deborah J.; Nadelson, Carol; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Scheiber, Stephen C.; Jones, Paul M.; Silberman, Edward K.
Objective: Finding time to teach psychiatry has become increasingly difficult. Concurrently, changes in medical student education are elevating demands for teaching. Academic psychiatry is challenged by these pressures to find innovative ways to recruit, retain, and reward faculty for teaching efforts. To address this challenge, the authors…
Davis, Dannielle Joy; Chaney, Cassandra; Edwards, LaWanda; Thompson-Rogers, G. Kaye; Gines, Kathryn T.
In this article we describe the experiences of Black women academics who participated in one or more of the following programs geared towards supporting the research and professional development of faculty: (a) the Sisters of the Academy's (SOTA) Research Boot Camp; (b) the National Center for Faculty Development and Diversity's Faculty Success…
Bluestein, Stephanie A.
This paper highlights the results of a study on the effects of student-faculty interaction on academic dishonesty; the results were used to develop an explanatory model showing how faculty's classroom demeanor and attitude can impact the likelihood of cheating. Individual, confidential interviews pertaining to student-faculty interaction and…
Hamel, Elizabeth Otto; Ku, Manwai; Correll, Shelley; Grewal, Daisy; Lavori, Philip; Periyakoil, V.J.; Reiss, Allan; Sandborg, Christy; Walton, Gregory; Winkleby, Marilyn; Valantine, Hannah
Abstract Background: Gender stereotypes in science impede supportive environments for women. Research suggests that women's perceptions of these environments are influenced by stereotype threat (ST): anxiety faced in situations where one may be evaluated using negative stereotypes. This study developed and tested ST metrics for first time use with junior faculty in academic medicine. Methods: Under a 2012 National Institutes of Health Pathfinder Award, Stanford School of Medicine's Office of Diversity and Leadership, working with experienced clinicians, social scientists, and epidemiologists, developed and administered ST measures to a representative group of junior faculty. Results: 174 School of Medicine junior faculty were recruited (62% women, 38% men; 75% assistant professors, 25% instructors; 50% white, 40% Asian, 10% underrepresented minority). Women reported greater susceptibility to ST than did men across all items including ST vulnerability (p < 0.001); rejection sensitivity (p = 0.001); gender identification (p < 0.001); perceptions of relative potential (p = 0.048); and, sense of belonging (p = 0.049). Results of career-related consequences of ST were more nuanced. Compared with men, women reported lower beliefs in advancement (p = 0.021); however, they had similar career interest and identification, felt just as connected to colleagues, and were equally likely to pursue careers outside academia (all p > 0.42). Conclusions: Innovative ST metrics can provide a more complete picture of academic medical center environments. While junior women faculty are susceptible to ST, they may not yet experience all of its consequences in their early careers. As such, ST metrics offer a tool for evaluating institutional initiatives to increase supportive environments for women in academic medicine. PMID:26555562
Dankoski, Mary E.; Palmer, Megan M.; Banks, Julianna; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Walvoord, Emily; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Bogdewic, Stephen P.; Gopen, George D.
All faculty regardless of discipline or school need to be highly competent at writing for an academic audience. The "publish or perish" pressure is alive and well for academic advancement, publications, and external grant funding. Yet few faculty, particularly in the health professions and sciences, receive formal training on the craft…
Gardner, Susan J.; Juricek, John Eric; Xu, F. Grace
Web sites are increasingly used by academic libraries to promote key services and collections to teaching faculty. This study analyzes the content, location, language, and technological features of fifty-four academic library Web pages designed especially for faculty to expose patterns in the development of these pages.
Smart, John C.; Umbach, Paul D.
Variation in how faculty in disparate theory-based academic environments design and structure their undergraduate courses to promote student learning in 12 areas was examined. The findings suggest that faculty create distinctive academic environments that reinforce and reward their preferred patterns of student competencies in a manner consistent…
Morahan, Page S.; Gold, Jennifer S.; Bickel, Janet
Surveyed faculty affairs personnel at U.S. medical schools. Found that schools support over four times as many offices of faculty affairs as faculty development. Core functions of faculty affairs offices include administrative support for appointments, promotions, and tenure committees; faculty information and policies; faculty governance…
Bickel, Janet; Brown, Ann J
Differences and tensions between the Baby Boom generation (born 1945-1962) and Generation X (born 1963-1981) have profound implications for the future of academic medicine. By and large, department heads and senior faculty are Boomers; today's residents and junior faculty are Generation X'ers. Looking at these issues in terms of the generations involved offers insights into a number of faculty development challenges, including inadequate and inexpert mentoring, work-life conflicts, and low faculty morale. These insights suggest strategies for strengthening academic medicine's recruitment and retention of Generation X into faculty and leadership roles. These strategies include (1) improving career and academic advising by specific attention to mentoring "across differences"--for instance, broaching the subject of formative differences in background during the initial interaction; adopting a style that incorporates information-sharing with engagement in problem solving; offering frequent, frank feedback; and refraining from comparing today to the glories of yesterday; to support such improvements, medical schools should recognize and evaluate mentoring as a core academic responsibility; (2) retaining both valued women and men in academic careers by having departments add temporal flexibility and create and legitimize less-than-full-time appointments; and (3) providing trainees and junior faculty with ready access to educational sessions designed to turn their "intellectual capital" into "academic career capital."Given the trends discussed in this article, such supports and adaptations are indicated to assure that academic health centers maintain traditions of excellence.
Kwong, Theresa; Ng, Hing-Man; Kai-Pan, Mark; Wong, Eva
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity; their understanding of experiences pertaining to different aspects of academic misconduct (e.g. plagiarism); and to examine the underlying reasons behind academic integrity violations in a Hong Kong context.…
Daley, Sandra P; Palermo, Ann-Gel; Nivet, Marc; Soto-Greene, Maria L; Taylor, Vera S; Butts, Gary C; Johnson, Jerry; Strelnick, A Hal; Lee-Rey, Elizabeth; Williams, Beverly; Dorscher, Jocelyn; Lipscomb, Wanda D; McDowell, Sherria; Cornbill, Ray; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Herbert-Carter, Janice; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne W; Smith, Quentin T; Rust, George; Kondwani, Kofi
This article describes the ingredients of successful programs for the development of minority faculty in academic medicine. Although stung by recent cuts in federal funding, minority faculty development programs now stand as models for medical schools that are eager to join the 140-year-old quest for diversity in academic medicine. In this article, the ingredients of these successful faculty development programs are discussed by experts in minority faculty development and illustrated by institutional examples. Included are descriptions of program goals and content, mentoring and coaching, selecting participants, providing a conducive environment, managing the program, and sustaining support. This article is a companion to another article, "Successful Programs in Minority Faculty Development: Overview," in this issue of the Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine.
Campbell, Kendall M; Rodríguez, José E; Brownstein, Naomi C; Fisher, Zedeena E
Tenure has been used for years to recruit, promote, and retain faculty in higher education and has been associated with job security and academic freedom. Absence of tenure and not being in tenure-earning tracks is grouped with the challenges faced by underrepresented minorities in academic medicine. Those challenges include being found at the assistant professor rank more often, having more clinical responsibilities, and not being in leadership positions as often as compared to non-minority faculty. The role of tenure and tenure tracks is unclear as it relates to the presence of minority faculty. This article presents a look at the status of tenure among black and Latino faculty in academic medicine at US medical schools.
Bayer, Alan E.
This document is a report on a survey of college faculty for 1972-73 compiled from results of a faculty questionnaire. The document is composed of descriptions of the design of the study, the survey form, the national norms, and an overview of the findings. Included as appendixes are the names of institutions represented by faculty respondents, a…
Bortz, Richard F.
An institution of higher education requires an evaluation scheme that measures program and service quality and value and justly recognizes and evaluates faculty efforts. The department chairperson assumes a leadership role in planning and implementing an academic promotion and faculty recognition system and in evaluating the success of the…
Darby, Alexa; Knight-McKenna, Mary
Success in academic service-learning (AS-L) comes in large measure from the work of faculty dedicated to this pedagogy. The purpose of this study was to examine how faculty who have taught nine or more sections of AS-L courses sustain their motivation despite the pedagogy's inherent challenges. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 faculty…
Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Simpkins, Susan
The academic portfolio provides a means for faculty to organize, present and reflect on their accomplishments in the areas of teaching, scholarship and service. Since the portfolio represents faculty accomplishments in these key areas it may be used to support an application for promotion, tenure or merit reviews. Given this, it is important to…
Long, Calvin T.
The academic training needs of two-year college mathematics faculty are discussed in this paper and appropriate courses of study are proposed. After introductory comments on the diversity of two-year college students' needs for mathematics education, an undergraduate course of study appropriate for two-year college math faculty is proposed. This…
Quick, Robin L.
This study is an exploratory study of faculty members' knowledge and perceptions toward of with academically vulnerable college students who are specifically experiencing reading and writing difficulties. Data were gathered from 174 college faculty at six higher education institutions throughout northwestern Pennsylvania via an online electronic…
Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.
Using cross-classified multilevel modeling, this study attempted to improve our understanding of the group-level conditional effects of student-faculty interaction by examining the function of academic majors in explaining the effects of student-faculty interaction on students' academic self-concept. The study utilized data on 11,202…
Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur; Kaufman, Aviele M.; Liebling, Dana E.
Despite the fact that cheating on tests and other forms of academic dishonesty are rampant, there is no standard definition of academic dishonesty, nor is there agreement as to the particular behaviors that constitute cheating. In this study, a survey was administered to 160 university professors in order to obtain faculty estimates of the clarity…
Faculty members in higher education institutions which technology produced in and used actively try to overcome simultaneous one more works because of their intensive works and responsibilities. This study associated simultaneously doing one more academic works to multitasking. Multitasking may have a detrimental effect on academic works since it…
James, Kia M G
Faculty development often focuses on developing practicing professionals into teaching experts within a classroom setting. As such, the topic of nursing faculty development is often written about from the standpoint of an employing traditional academic institution. Nursing faculty also have development needs related to practice within a clinical education institution. How do faculty members maintain a current perspective on endless changes in the clinical setting? This becomes particularly challenging if faculty are not actively engaged in nursing practice at the bedside and utilize a clinical facility for education sporadically throughout an academic year. This article describes the method one large academic medical center used to partner collaboratively with schools of nursing to create opportunities for faculty development. A need for clinical faculty development was recognized and a clinical facility faculty day was created and implemented. Information shared during this faculty development day included institutional practice changes, the implementation of a computerized medical record documentation system, general orientation policies, and procedures related to the conducting of business within the institution. A networking opportunity was also provided for faculty and the institutional healthcare leadership staff. Anecdotal evaluation information is also shared.
Feder, Martin E; Madara, James L
The authors report how one academic medical center (AMC) and associated nonclinical departments implemented evidence-based academic criteria and an evidence-based academic vetting process, which may be models for other institutions. In 2004-2005, The University of Chicago Division of the Biological Sciences and Pritzker School of Medicine reconceptualized its appointment, promotion, and tenure criteria to recognize all forms of scholarship as equally legitimate bases for academic tenure. The revised criteria also accommodate differences in academic effort consistent with varying clinical demands. Implementation of these criteria, however, necessitated revised practices in providing objective evidence and analysis of their satisfaction. Three complementary mechanisms now yield excellent evidence and analysis. The first, electronic forms (e-forms) comprise highly specific response items with embedded instructions, advice, and rationale. The e-forms encourage candidates and departments to provide the evidence that subsequent review needs to evaluate appointment or promotion proposals. Unexpectedly, the e-forms have been coopted as effective mechanisms for faculty development. Second, a faculty dean of academic affairs, a regular faculty member, was appointed to provide robust academic authority and perspective to the process. Third, the promotion and tenure advisory committee was restricted to evaluating academic criteria, and from considerations of institutional value. This change interposed a "firewall" between academic and institutional review. These changes have attenuated dissatisfaction with the appointments and promotions process both within and outside the AMC.
Sambuco, Dana; Dabrowska, Agata; DeCastro, Rochelle; Stewart, Abigail; Ubel, Peter A.; Jagsi, Reshma
Purpose Few researchers have explored the negotiation experiences of academic medical faculty even though negotiation is crucial to their career success. The authors sought to understand medical faculty researchers' experiences with and perceptions of negotiation. Method Between February 2010 and August 2011, the authors conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 100 former recipients of National Institutes of Health mentored career development awards and 28 of their mentors. Purposive sampling ensured a diverse range of viewpoints. Multiple analysts thematically coded verbatim transcripts using qualitative data analysis software. Results Participants described the importance of negotiation in academic medical careers but also expressed feeling naïve and unprepared for these negotiations, particularly as junior faculty. Award recipients focused on power, leverage, and strategy, and they expressed a need for training and mentorship to learn successful negotiation skills. Mentors, by contrast, emphasized the importance of flexibility and shared interests in creating win-win situations for both the individual faculty member and the institution. When faculty construed negotiation as adversarial and/or zero-sum, participants believed it required traditionally masculine traits and perceived women to be at a disadvantage. Conclusions Academic medical faculty often lack the skills and knowledge necessary for successful negotiation, especially early in their careers. Many view negotiation as an adversarial process of the sort that experts call “hard positional bargaining.” Increasing awareness of alternative negotiation techniques (e.g., “principled negotiation,” in which shared interests, mutually satisfying options, and fair standards are emphasized), may encourage the success of medical faculty, particularly women. PMID:23425992
Mkony, Charles A.; Kaaya, Ephata E.; Goodell, Alex J.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.
Background Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. Objective To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. Design We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members. Results The five schools reported 366 appointed faculty members (excluding visiting, part-time, or honorary appointments) for an estimated total enrolled student capacity of 3,275. Thirty-eight percent of these faculty were senior lecturers or higher. Twenty-seven percent of the appointments were in basic science, 51% in clinical science, and 21% in public health departments. The most populated disciplines (more than 20 faculty members across the five institutions) were biochemistry and molecular biology, medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and surgery; the least populated disciplines (less than 10 faculty members) were anesthesiology, behavioral sciences, dermatology, dental surgery, emergency medicine, hematology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, otorhinolaryngology, oncology and radiology, psychiatry. These figures are only indicative of faculty numbers because of differences in the way the schools published their faculty lists. Conclusions Universities are not recruiting faculty at the same rate that they are admitting students, and there is an imbalance in the distribution of faculty across disciplines. Although there are differences among the universities, all are struggling to recruit and retain staff. If Tanzanian universities, the government, donors, and international partners commit resources
Buss, Daryl D
The faculty at member schools and colleges of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) are critical for continued progress in veterinary medicine. The success of those faculty members over the past 50 years has positioned veterinary medicine to engage an ever-widening array of opportunities, responsibilities, and societal needs. Yet the array of skills and accomplishments of faculty in academic veterinary medicine are not always visible to the public, or even within our profession. The quality and the wide range of their scholarship are reflected, in part, through the according of national and international awards and honors from organizations relevant to their particular areas of expertise. The goal of this study was to illustrate the breadth of expertise and the quality of the faculty at 34 schools/colleges of veterinary medicine by examining the diversity of organizations that have recognized excellence in faculty achievements through a variety of awards.
Bachrach, D J
While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management; intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development, management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. While part one of this series, which appeared in Volume 43, No. 6 of Medical Group Management Journal addressed, "The changing role of physician leaders at academic medical centers," part 2 will examine as a case study the faculty leadership development program at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. These two articles were prepared by the author from his research into, and the presentation of a thesis entitled. "The importance of leadership training and development for physicians in academic medical centers in an increasingly complex health care environment," prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in this College.*
Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence
Abstract Objective To identify predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty members. Design A comprehensive Web-based survey of all faculty members in an academic department of family medicine. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with job satisfaction. Setting The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario and its 15 affiliated community teaching hospitals and community-based teaching practices. Participants All 1029 faculty members in the Department of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete the survey. Main outcome measures Faculty members’ demographic and practice information; teaching, clinical, administration, and research activities; leadership roles; training needs and preferences; mentorship experiences; health status; stress levels; burnout levels; and job satisfaction. Faculty members’ perceptions about supports provided, recognition, communication, retention, workload, teamwork, respect, resource distribution, remuneration, and infrastructure support. Faculty members’ job satisfaction, which was the main outcome variable, was obtained from the question, “Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?” Results Of the 1029 faculty members, 687 (66.8%) responded to the survey. Bivariate analyses revealed 26 predictors as being statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction, including faculty members’ ratings of their local department and main practice setting, their ratings of leadership and mentorship experiences, health status variables, and demographic variables. The multivariable analyses identified the following 5 predictors of job satisfaction: the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment; being born in Canada; the overall quality of mentorship that was received being rated as very good or excellent; and teamwork being rated as very
Chan, Teresa M.; Gottlieb, Michael; Fant, Abra L.; Messman, Anne; Robinson, Daniel W.; Cooney, Robert R.; Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Yarris, Lalena M.
Introduction Scholarship is an essential part of academic success. Junior faculty members are often unfamiliar with the grounding literature that defines educational scholarship. In this article, the authors aim to summarize five key papers which outline education scholarship in the setting of academic contributions for emerging clinician educators. Methods The authors conducted a consensus-building process to generate a list of key papers that describe the importance and significance of academic scholarship, informed by social media sources. They then used a three-round voting methodology, akin to a Delphi study, to determine the most useful papers. Results A summary of the five most important papers on the topic of academic scholarship, as determined by this mixed group of junior faculty members and faculty developers, is presented in this paper. These authors subsequently wrote a summary of these five papers and discussed their relevance to both junior faculty members and faculty developers. Conclusion Five papers on education scholarship, deemed essential by the authors’ consensus process, are presented in this paper. These papers may help provide the foundational background to help junior faculty members gain a grasp of the academic scholarly environment. This list may also inform senior faculty and faculty developers on the needs of junior educators in the nascent stages of their careers. PMID:27625714
Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun
This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…
Jones, Jeremiah; Sidwell, Richard A
Independent academic medical centers have been training surgeons for more than a century; this environment is distinct from university or military programs. There are several advantages to training at a community program, including a supportive learning environment with camaraderie between residents and faculty, early and broad operative experience, and improved graduate confidence. Community programs also face challenges, such as resident recruitment and faculty engagement. With the workforce needs for general surgeons, independent training programs will continue to play an integral role.
Berner, Eta S
Academic culture has a set of norms, expectations, and values that are sometimes tacit and sometimes very explicit. In medical school and other health professions educational settings, probably the most common norm includes placing a high value on peer-reviewed research publications, which are seen as the major evidence of scholarly productivity. Other features of academic culture include encouraging junior faculty and graduate students to share their research results at professional conferences and lecturing with slides as a major way to convey information. Major values that faculty share with journal editors include responsible conduct of research and proper attribution of others' words and ideas. Medical school faculty also value technology and are often quick to embrace technological advances that can assist them in their teaching and research. This article addresses the effects of technology on three aspects of academic culture: education, presentations at professional meetings, and research publications.The technologies discussed include online instruction, dissemination of conference proceedings on the Internet, plagiarism-detection software, and new technologies deployed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the home of PubMed. The author describes how the ease of deploying new technologies without faculty changing their norms and behavior in the areas of teaching and research can lead to conflicts of values among key stakeholders in the academic medical community, including faculty, journal editors, and professional associations. The implications of these conflicts and strategies for managing them are discussed.
Campion, MaryAnn W.; Bhasin, Robina M.; Beaudette, Donald J.; Shann, Mary H.; Benjamin, Emelia J.
Purpose Faculty vitality is integral to the advancement of higher education. Strengthening vitality is particularly important for mid-career faculty, who represent the largest and most dissatisfied segment. The demands of academic medicine appear to be another factor that may put faculty at risk of attrition. To address these issues, we initiated a ten-month mid-career faculty development program. Methods A mixed-methods quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the program's impact on faculty and institutional vitality. Pre/post surveys compared participants with a matched reference group. Quantitative data were augmented by interviews and focus groups with multiple stakeholders. Results At the program's conclusion, participants showed statistically significant gains in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and connectivity when compared to the referents. Conclusion Given that mid-career faculty development in academic medicine has not been extensively studied, our evaluation provides a useful perspective to guide future initiatives aimed at enhancing the vitality and leadership capacity of mid-career faculty. PMID:27942418
Royal, Kenneth D.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Flammer, Keven
A study was conducted to assess veterinary students' and faculty perceptions of a variety of academic and classroom behaviors, and the degree to which these are acceptable or not. Two instruments were developed for this purpose: 1) The Exams and Assignments Scale (EAS), consisted of 23 items measuring the extent to which a variety of examination…
Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.
A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…
LaSala, Kathleen B; Wilson, Vicki; Sprunk, Elizabeth
There are an increasing number of nursing academic administrators who identify themselves as victims of faculty incivility. This study examined experiences that academic administrators encountered with faculty incivility using a phenomenological research design. Three major themes emerged: faculty inappropriate behaviors, consequences of faculty behaviors on administrator targets, and administrators call for action. Findings revealed that incivility had devastating effects on administrators personally and professionally.
Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…
Quesenberry, Alexandria C; Oelschlegel, Sandy; Earl, Martha; Leonard, Kelsey; Vaughn, Cynthia J
Librarians at an academic medical center library gathered data to determine if library services and resources impacted scholarly activity. A survey was developed and sent out to faculty and residents asking how they used the library during scholarly activity. Sixty-five faculty members and residents responded to the survey. The majority of respondents involved with scholarly activity use the library's services and resources. PubMed is the most frequently used database. The positive results show the library impacts the scholarly activity of medical faculty and residents.
Piland, William E.; Villanueva, Xavier
Describes a study of faculty opinions concerning academic standards in the community college classroom, comparing faculty responses based on personal characteristics, academic senate experience, and employment factors. Although faculty generally agreed on the importance of academic standards, there were differences based on senate membership,…
Sarikaya, Ozlem; Kalaca, Sibel; Yeen, Berrak C.; Cali, Sanda
Self-assessment tools have previously been used to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching skills of medical educators. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching performances of faculty members in relation to their medical disciplines and academic positions. A…
Hiers, Richard H.
Analyzes the origins of recent federal appellate decisions' divergence from the Supreme Court's identification of teachers' or faculty's academic freedom as "a special concern of the First Amendment." Suggests ways in which academic freedom might better be accorded its rightful importance within the framework of current Supreme Court…
Lampman, C; Crew, E C; Lowery, S; Tompkins, K A; Mulder, M
Academic contrapower harassment (ACPH) occurs when someone with seemingly less power in an educational setting (e.g., a student) harasses someone more powerful (e.g., a professor). A representative sample of 289 professors from U.S. institutions of higher education described their worst incident with ACPH. Open-ended responses were coded using a keyword text analysis. Compared to the experiences of men faculty, women faculty reported that students were more likely to challenge their authority, argue or refuse to follow course policies, and exhibit disrespectful or disruptive behaviors. Although sexual harassment was uncommon, men faculty were more likely than women faculty to recount such incidents. Women faculty reported significantly more negative outcomes as a result of ACPH (e.g., anxiety, stress-related illness, difficulty concentrating, wanting to quit) than men faculty, and negative outcomes were most likely to result from ACPH involving intimidation, threats, or bullying from students. Implications for the prevention and reporting of ACPH are discussed.
Butts, Gary C; Johnson, Jerry; Strelnick, A Hal; Soto-Greene, Maria L; Williams, Beverly; Lee-Rey, Elizabeth
In fiscal year 2006, the US Government abruptly and drastically reduced its funding for programs to increase the racial and ethnic diversity of academic medicine, including programs to increase the development of minority medical faculty. Anticipating this reduction, 4 such programs-the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine-decided to pool their resources, forming the Northeast Consortium of Minority Faculty Development. An innovation in minority faculty development, the Northeast Consortium of Minority Faculty Development has succeeded in exposing faculty trainees to research and teaching that they might not have considered otherwise, expanding the number and diversity of their mentors and role models, providing them potential access to larger and different populations and databases for purposes of research, and expanding their peer contacts. After introducing the Northeast Consortium of Minority Faculty Development, this article describes the origins and goals of each member program.
Brown, James C.; Barnett, John M.
A survey of 96 faculty in 12 medical schools showed that faculty average 48.6 minutes a week discussing personal problems with students. The most common problems concern finances, emotional health, and interactions with faculty. Techniques used include listening, questioning, sympathy, and empathy. (MSE)
Cahn, Peter S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Shanahan, Christopher W
Purpose The difficulty of attracting attendance for in-person events is a problem common to all faculty development efforts. Social media holds the potential to disseminate information asynchronously while building a community through quick, easy-to-use formats. The authors sought to document creative uses of social media for faculty development in academic medical centers. Method In December 2011, the first author (P.S.C.) examined the websites of all 154 accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada for pages relevant to faculty development. The most popular social media sites and searched for accounts maintained by faculty developers in academic medicine were also visited. Several months later, in February 2012, a second investigator (C.W.S.) validated these data via an independent review. Results Twenty-two (22) medical schools (14.3%) employed at least one social media technology in support of faculty development. In total, 40 instances of social media tools were identified - the most popular platforms being Facebook (nine institutions), Twitter (eight institutions), and blogs (eight institutions). Four medical schools, in particular, have developed integrated strategies to engage faculty in online communities. Conclusions Although relatively few medical schools have embraced social media to promote faculty development, the present range of such uses demonstrates the flexibility and affordability of the tools. The most popular tools incorporate well into faculty members' existing use of technology and require minimal additional effort. Additional research into the benefits of engaging faculty through social media may help overcome hesitation to invest in new technologies.
Cahn, Peter S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Shanahan, Christopher W.
Purpose The difficulty of attracting attendance for in-person events is a problem common to all faculty development efforts. Social media holds the potential to disseminate information asynchronously while building a community through quick, easy-to-use formats. The authors sought to document creative uses of social media for faculty development in academic medical centers. Method In December 2011, the first author (P.S.C.) examined the websites of all 154 accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada for pages relevant to faculty development. The most popular social media sites and searched for accounts maintained by faculty developers in academic medicine were also visited. Several months later, in February 2012, a second investigator (C.W.S.) validated these data via an independent review. Results Twenty-two (22) medical schools (14.3%) employed at least one social media technology in support of faculty development. In total, 40 instances of social media tools were identified – the most popular platforms being Facebook (nine institutions), Twitter (eight institutions), and blogs (eight institutions). Four medical schools, in particular, have developed integrated strategies to engage faculty in online communities. Conclusions Although relatively few medical schools have embraced social media to promote faculty development, the present range of such uses demonstrates the flexibility and affordability of the tools. The most popular tools incorporate well into faculty members’ existing use of technology and require minimal additional effort. Additional research into the benefits of engaging faculty through social media may help overcome hesitation to invest in new technologies. PMID:23810170
Shea, Steven; Clark, Anthony S.; Clayton, Paul D.
We describe a clinical information system for hospital-based ambulatory care implemented in the context of the institution's IAIMS Phase III effort. Key features of this application are physician data entry to maintain summary clinical profiles that include medication lists, problem lists, and preventive care, and integration with other components of the Clinical Information System at the levels of the database, the user interface, and data sharing. A goal of this application is to provide coded data as a substrate for computer-based decision support.
Faculty status, tenure, and professional identity have been long-lasting issues for academic librarians for nearly forty years, yet there is little agreement on the benefits of faculty status. This paper examines faculty status and tenure for academic librarians and presents the results of a survey inquiry into professional identity, current and…
Melvin, J L; Pate, C M
The mission statements of academic medical centers call on them to accomplish many goals. This often leads to conflicting choices when selecting activities and establishing policies. When individual faculty members are expected to divide work time to meet research, teaching and clinical needs, careful planning and disciplined decisions of action are necessary to avoid a sense of ambiguity and frustration.
Yurko, Richard J.
Faculty Title VII litigation, challenges to the faculty evaluation process, and possible jucidial responses to faculty claims are reviewed. A proposed model would temper judicial interference in faculty employment disputes by informed deferences while preserving the unique character of academic institutions. (Journal availbility: Boston Univ. Law…
Hard, Stephen F.; Conway, James M.; Moran, Antonia C.
This study investigated faculty and college student beliefs concerning student academic misconduct. Faculty beliefs predicted efforts to prevent misconduct and efforts to challenge it. Student beliefs predicted frequency of misconduct. Faculty and students overestimated the extent of misconduct, students to a greater degree. Faculty who…
After establishment of the medical faculties in Zagreb (1917 year), Ljubljana (1919 year) and Belgrade (1921 gear), by the decision of the minister of the National education of the Independent State Croatia from 31.3.1944. year, there were establishment the medical faculties in Sarajevo and Split the same year. The Medical faculty in Sarajevo, as the faculty of the University in Zagreb, officially began with the work 22.11.1944. year by the opening which made the then dean of the Medical faculty in Zagreb professor (doctor) Ante Sercer. For the dean of the Medical faculty in Sarajevo was nominated professor Stanko Sielski, the renown bosnian-herzegovinian physician, the former head of the district bacteriological station in Tuzla and Banja Luka. The access lectures held professor (doctor) Mile Budak, professor (doctor) Ljudevit Thaller, professor (doctor) Ibrahim Ruzdic. The first generation of the students of the school 1944/1945 year numbered about 165 students. The teaching was organized in the complex of the building of the present residance Conac in Sarajevo, and the practical instruction was performed on the basis of the contract with the then General hospital in Sarajevo. The teachers of the faculty were the eminent professors of the Medical faculty at the University in Zagreb. From all the known person, the fact about the so called NDH (IS Croatia) to the medical faculty, for the long time were hidden from the publicity, so that about them was not spoken, till the back several years, either the momentary alive students of the generation. In this article is stated the factographia connected for the establishment and functionioning of the mentioned first medical faculty in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Gunn, Christine M.; Kaplan, Samantha A.; Raj, Anita; Freund, Karen M.
Abstract Background: Women have entered academic medicine in significant numbers for 4 decades and now comprise 20% of full-time faculty. Despite this, women have not reached senior positions in parity with men. We sought to explore the gender climate in academic medicine as perceived by representatives to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) and Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI). Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured telephone interviews with GWIMS and GDI representatives and other senior leaders at 24 randomly selected medical schools of the 1995 National Faculty Study. All were in the continental United States, balanced for public/private status and AAMC geographic region. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and organized into content areas before an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Themes that were expressed by multiple informants were studied for patterns of association. Results: Five themes were identified: (1) a perceived wide spectrum in gender climate; (2) lack of parity in rank and leadership by gender; (3) lack of retention of women in academic medicine (the “leaky pipeline”); (4) lack of gender equity in compensation; and (5) a disproportionate burden of family responsibilities and work-life balance on women's career progression. Conclusions: Key informants described improvements in the climate of academic medicine for women as modest. Medical schools were noted to vary by department in the gender experience of women, often with no institutional oversight. Our findings speak to the need for systematic review by medical schools and by accrediting organizations to achieve gender equity in academic medicine. PMID:25658907
Simon, Christopher A.; Carr, Jim R.; McCullough, Sesi M.; Morgan, Sally J.; Oleson, Ted; Ressel, Margret
This case study analysis of faculty at a medium-sized university in the Western United States found that the level of faculty institutional confidence is related to the use of formal deterrence strategies toward academic ethics violations. Additionally, it found that female faculty members are less confident in the administration but are only…
This study examined academic library usage and outcomes. The objective of the study was to understand how academic libraries help students learn and assist faculty with teaching and research. From March to May 2005, nine Colorado institutions administered two online questionnaires--one to undergraduate students and another to faculty members who…
Fox, Thomas G.; Blackburn, Robert T.
Reports that faculties perceive the protection or enhancement of collegiality as the single most important factor influencing their attitudes toward unionization. Faculties see collective bargaining as a means of strengthening their position in the decisionmaking process of the medical school. (Editor/PG)
Stubbs, Barbara; Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola
Abstract Objective To collect information about the types, frequency, importance, and quality of mentorship received among academic family medicine faculty, and to identify variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. Design Web-based survey of all faculty members of an academic department of family medicine. Setting The Department of Family and Community Medicine of the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants All 1029 faculty members were invited to complete the survey. Main outcome measures Receiving mentorship rated as very good or excellent in 1 or more of 6 content areas relevant to respondents’ professional lives, and information about demographic and practice characteristics, faculty ratings of their local departments and main practice settings, teaching activities, professional development, leadership, job satisfaction, and health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. Results The response rate was 66.8%. Almost all (95.0%) respondents had received mentorship in several areas, with informal mentorship being the most prevalent mode. Approximately 60% of respondents rated at least 1 area of mentoring as very good or excellent. Multivariate logistic regression identified 5 factors associated with an increased likelihood of rating mentorship quality as very good or excellent: positive perceptions of their local department (odds ratio [OR] = 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.54, P < .001); positive ratings of practice infrastructure (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.80, P = .003); increased frequency of receiving mentorship (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.59 to 4.89, P < .001); fewer years in practice (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.12, P = .007); and practising in a family practice teaching unit (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27, P = .040). Conclusion With increasing emphasis on distributed education and community-based teachers, family medicine faculties will need to develop strategies to support
Balkanci, Z. Dicle; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge
Physiology education, which occupies an important place in undergraduate medical education, exhibits diversities across the world. Since there was no specific source of information about physiology education in Turkish medical faculties, the authors aimed to evaluate the general status of undergraduate physiology teaching of medical students in…
Das, Mandira; And Others
This study sought to evaluate faculty opinion of existing medical curricula in two medical schools in different countries in terms of six educational strategies using the "SPICES continuum." Significant differences between existing educational plans of the two medical schools were identified. (LZ)
Allemand, Kristina R.
Educators are concerned that academic dishonesty is increasing among students, particularly in higher education. There is not a single definition of academic dishonesty accepted by all stakeholders in the field of education. Most studies of academic dishonesty do not include both student and faculty perceptions of academic dishonesty. An in-depth…
Academic dishonesty in postsecondary education can often transfer to dishonesty in the workplace. Dishonest behavior by students undermines the integrity of the entire institution, including its faculty. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of goal orientation and its impact on student cheating behavior, faculty experiences…
Bayer, Alan E.
The "Teaching Faculty in Academe, 1972-1973" machine-readable data file (MRDF) resulted from a mail survey of faculty members in 301 institutions of higher education in the United States and represents a replication or follow-up of a previous survey conducted in 1968-1969. The purpose of the survey was to reassess college and university faculty in…
McCabe, Donald L.; Butterfield, Kenneth D.; Trevino, Linda Klebe
Found that faculty at honor-code schools have more positive attitudes toward their schools' academic integrity policies and allow the system to take care of monitoring and disciplinary activities. Faculty in noncode institutions have less positive attitudes and are more likely to take personal actions designed to deal with cheaters. Faculty in…
Gonzales, Leslie D.; Martinez, E.; Ordu, C.
In this paper, we draw from academic capitalism to explore the work lives and experiences of faculty who work in a striving university. Our analysis suggests that faculty members feel pressures induced by academic capitalism, including a lack of space, no time and the sense of constant surveillance. Our work adds to the theoretical as well as…
Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley
The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…
Teodorescu, Daniel; Andrei, Tudorel
The purpose of this research was to examine student perceptions of academic integrity among faculty and peers at a sample of public universities in Romania. The study explores the factors that influence academic dishonesty among college students and compares the relative importance of faculty influences and peer influences on students' intent to…
Burke, Dolores Lewis
Internal and external organizational influences on faculty mobility were studied during the 1985-1986 academic year. The investigation, which was designed as a replication of a 1958 study of the academic marketplace by Caplow and Reece, involved interviews with department heads, colleagues of departed faculty members, and new appointees at six…
Meador, Kimford J
Marked changes in US medical school funding began in the 1960s with progressively increasing revenues from clinical services. The growth of clinical revenues slowed in the mid-1990s, creating a funding crisis for US academic health care centers, who responded by having their faculty increase their clinical duties at the expense of research activities. Surveys document the resultant stresses on the academic clinician researcher. The NIH provides greater funding for basic and translational research than for clinical research, and the new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute is inadequately funded to address the scope of needed clinical research. An increasing portion of clinical research is funded by industry, which leaves many important clinical issues unaddressed. There is an inadequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a lack of external support for clinical research. The impact on the academic environment in university medical centers is especially severe on young faculty, who have a shrinking potential to achieve successful academic careers. National health care research funding policies should encourage the right balance of life-science investigations. Medical universities need to improve and highlight education on clinical research for students, residents, fellows, and young faculty. Medical universities also need to provide appropriate incentives for clinical research. Without training to ensure an adequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a method to adequately fund clinical research, discoveries from basic and translational research cannot be clinically tested and affect patient care. Thus, many clinical problems will continue to be evaluated and treated with inadequate or even absent evidence-based knowledge.
Rich, Ben A.
A discussion of legal issues in the academic medical center focuses on standards of care applicable to practitioners, special problems of patient care delivery, and the special status of public academic medical centers. Informed consent to care, relations with affiliated institutions, and private/non-private patient status are also considered.…
Szelenyi, Katalin; Goldberg, Richard A.
This study examines the demographic, academic, attitudinal, and institutional correlates of receiving industry or business funding for academic work in a national sample of faculty in the United States. The findings depict a complicated picture of externally funded academic work, with implications for the practical and theoretical understanding of…
Assemi, Mitra; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M; Corelli, Robin L
Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition.
Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M.; Corelli, Robin L.
Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition. PMID:27293228
Dhulkhed, Vithal Krishna; Kurdi, Madhuri S; Dhulkhed, Pavan V; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H
Research publications are desirable for academic promotion in medical colleges as per the current rules of the Medical Council of India (MCI). These rules reflect an endeavour to improve the academic standards. We strongly believe that every medical college teacher should conduct true research and contribute to good peer-reviewed publications. However, it is felt that the MCI rule has the potential to lead to undesirable consequences, and the quality of teaching and learning could take a back-seat. There is an urgent need to adopt more objective criteria and better guidelines as followed by well-known global institutes. In our own country, the University Grants Commission has formulated specific guidelines for this purpose in the form of Academic Performance Indicators which, it appears, are not taken into consideration by the MCI. This article discusses the adverse impact of the rule and suggests ways for the adoption of a more scientific assessment system for faculty appointment and promotion. PMID:27942051
Dhulkhed, Vithal Krishna; Kurdi, Madhuri S; Dhulkhed, Pavan V; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H
Research publications are desirable for academic promotion in medical colleges as per the current rules of the Medical Council of India (MCI). These rules reflect an endeavour to improve the academic standards. We strongly believe that every medical college teacher should conduct true research and contribute to good peer-reviewed publications. However, it is felt that the MCI rule has the potential to lead to undesirable consequences, and the quality of teaching and learning could take a back-seat. There is an urgent need to adopt more objective criteria and better guidelines as followed by well-known global institutes. In our own country, the University Grants Commission has formulated specific guidelines for this purpose in the form of Academic Performance Indicators which, it appears, are not taken into consideration by the MCI. This article discusses the adverse impact of the rule and suggests ways for the adoption of a more scientific assessment system for faculty appointment and promotion.
Kim, Geun Bae
This paper aims to reveal how Hamheung Medical College in North Korea kept up its faculty with the trend of a new political system. The time period consists of three series of evaluations that occurred between the start of a reformation action in 1946 and the establishment of the regime in 1948. At the time, it was difficult to secure college faculty in the medical field, because of a serious shortage of medical personnel. Moreover, the problem in the recruitment of faculty at the medical college grew bigger since the members were required to have a high level of political consciousness. Then how did Hamheung Medical College accomplish this ideal securing of faculty that possessed political ideology and medical expertise? For the first time, a faculty evaluation at the local level was carried out and got rid of a few pro-Japanese or reactionary factions but maintained most of the faculty. Although academic background and research career of the faculty were considered, securing of the manpower in terms of number was crucial for the reconstruction of a professional school level. At the second time, as the central education bureau's intervention tightened the censorship, most of the faculty were evaluated as unqualified. Indeed, it was difficult to satisfy the standard of professionalism which emphasized a high level of academic career and political thought that included affiliation of Workers' Party of North Korea. The Medical College could not find faculty that could replace those professors and therefore, most of them maintained their faculty positions. Since then, the faculty who received excellent evaluations led the school at the very front. At the third time, the Medical College itself led the evaluations and implemented more relaxed standards of political ideology and medical expertise. Faculty who were cooperative to the reformation actions that North Korea carried forward or had working experience at the hospital and health service received a high level of
Travis, Elizabeth L; Doty, Leilani; Helitzer, Deborah L
Despite increases in the percentages of women medical school graduates and faculty over the past decade, women physicians and scientists remain underrepresented in academic medicine's highest-level executive positions, known as the "C-suite." The challenges of today and the future require novel approaches and solutions that depend on having diverse leaders. Such diversity has been widely shown to be critical to creating initiatives and solving complex problems such as those facing academic medicine and science. However, neither formal mentoring programs focused on individual career development nor executive coaching programs focused on individual job performance have led to substantial increases in the proportion of women in academic medicine's top leadership positions.Faced with a similar dilemma, the corporate world has initiated sponsorship programs designed to accelerate the careers of women as leaders. Sponsors differ from mentors and coaches in one key area: They have the position and power to advocate publicly for the advancement of nascent talent, including women, in the organization. Although academic medicine differs from the corporate world, the strong sponsorship programs that have advanced women into corporations' upper levels of leadership can serve as models for sponsorship programs to launch new leaders in academic medicine.
Byrd, G D
OBJECTIVES: This 1990-1991 study explored the relationship between the size of health sciences library journal collections and the number of different journals cited by medical school faculty in departments of biochemistry and medicine. METHODS: Two regression equations, including variables associated with a national stratified sample of 622 faculty who published articles during those two years, were used to explore factors correlated with variations in faculty use of the journal literature and faculty publishing productivity. RESULTS: Results suggest that, after controlling for other variables in the models, neither the number of different journals those faculty cited, nor the number of articles they published, had statistically significant correlations with the number of journals in the health sciences library collection. CONCLUSION: The traditional view that the size of an academic health sciences library's journal collection is a good measure of how well that library is positioned to support faculty research may not be entirely accurate. PMID:10427433
Wanat, Matthew A; Fleming, Marc L; Fernandez, Julianna M; Garey, Kevin W
Objective. To describe the education, training, and academic experiences of newly hired faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy during the 2012-2013 academic year. Methods. A survey regarding education, training, and academic experiences was conducted of all first-time faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy hired during the 2012-2013 academic year. Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members accounted for the majority (68.2%) of new hires. Ambulatory care was the most common pharmacy specialty position (29.8%). Most new faculty members had a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as their terminal degree (74.8%), and 88.3% of pharmacy practice faculty members completed a residency. Of new faculty members who responded to the survey, 102 (67.5%) had at least 3 prior academic teaching, precepting, or research experiences. Conclusion. New faculty members were hired most frequently for clinical faculty positions at the assistant professor level and most frequently in the specialty of ambulatory care. Prior academic experience included precepting pharmacy students, facilitating small discussions, and guest lecturing.
Block, Steven M; Sonnino, Roberta E; Bellini, Lisa
Academic medicine in the United States is at a crossroads. There are many drivers behind this, including health care reform, decreased federal research funding, a refined understanding of adult learning, and the emergence of disruptive innovations in medicine, science, and education. As faculty members are at the core of all academic activities, the definition of "faculty" in academic medicine must align with the expectations of institutions engaged in patient care, research, and education. Faculty members' activities have changed and continue to evolve. Academic health centers must therefore define new rules of engagement that reflect the interplay of institutional priorities with the need to attract, retain, and reward faculty members. In this Commentary, the authors describe and explore the potential effects of the changing landscape for institutions and their clinical faculty members. The authors make a case for institutions to adapt faculty appointment, evaluation, and promotion processes, and they propose a framework for a standardized definition of "faculty" that allows for individual variability. This framework also provides a means to evaluate and reward faculty members' contributions in education, research, and clinical care. The authors propose a deliberate national conversation to ensure that careers in academic medicine remain attractive and sustainable and that the future of academic medicine is secure.
Sharif, Khurram; Kassim, Norizan Mohd
The research focus was a non-academic service quality assessment within higher education. In particular, non-academic service quality perceptions of faculty and students were evaluated using a service profit chain. This enabled a comparison which helped understanding of non-academic service quality orientation from a key users' perspective. Data…
Soo Kim, Tatum
This dissertation addresses the phenomenon of how academic leaders conceptualize faculty performance practices. Qualitative research methods were used to explore the experiences of 11 academic leaders from 4-year higher education institutions in the metropolitan area of New York, NY. Each academic leader had direct responsibility for faculty…
Fleming, Kenneth; Pugh, Christopher; Best, Denise
Postgraduate medical education in the UK has gone through a maelstrom of change in the last 20 years; many components have disadvantaged clinical academic training in particular. In this article we summarise some of the changes and describe the advantages of the creation of a dedicated clinical academic graduate school as a response to these changes.
Clay, Michael A; Sikon, Andrea L; Lypson, Monica L; Gomez, Arthur; Kennedy-Malone, Laurie; Bussey-Jones, Jada; Bowen, Judith L
Soaring costs of health care, patients living longer with chronic illnesses, and continued attrition of interest in primary care contribute to the urgency of developing an improved model of health care delivery. Out of this need, the concept of the team-based, patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has developed. Amidst implementation in academic settings, clinical teachers face complex challenges not previously encountered: teaching while simultaneously learning about the PCMH model, redesigning clinical delivery systems while simultaneously delivering care within them, and working more closely in expanded interprofessional teams.To address these challenges, the authors reviewed three existing faculty development models and recommended four important adaptations for preparing clinical teachers for their roles as system change agents and facilitators of learning in these new settings. First, many faculty find themselves in the awkward position of teaching concepts they have yet to master themselves. Professional development programs must recognize that, at least initially, health professions learners and faculty will be learning system redesign content and skills together while practicing in the evolving workplace. Second, all care delivery team members influence learning in the workplace. Thus, the definition of faculty must expand to include nurses, pharmacists, social workers, medical assistants, patients, and others. These team members will need to accept their roles as educators. Third, learning to deliver health care in teams will require support of both interprofessional collaboration and intraprofessional identity development. Fourth, learning to manage change and uncertainty should be part of the core content of any faculty development program within the PCMH.
Schuster, Jack H.; Finkelstein, Martin J.
Higher education is becoming destabilized in the face of extraordinarily rapid change. The composition of the academy's most valuable asset--the faculty--and the essential nature of faculty work are being transformed. Jack H. Schuster and Martin J. Finkelstein describe the transformation of the American faculty in the most extensive and ambitious…
Dagg, Anne Innis
A study at the University of Waterloo (Canada) investigated existence of formal or informal policies of (1) antinepotism affecting spouses of current faculty and (2) hiring of the department's own doctoral recipients. Although some departments do hire faculty spouses and own doctorates, many faculty oppose these practices. The questionnaire is…
Hedman, Amy S.
This study assessed a voluntary sample (n = 123) of college faculty's attitudes toward grieving students and likelihood to provide referrals and course accommodations. Empathy levels of faculty were also measured. Although 91% of faculty indicated that at least 1 student had reported a death, only 36% had referred a student to counseling services.…
Little research has been done on faculty attitudes on their advising experience. The current study examined the attitudes of instructional faculty towards their role, responsibility, and competence levels regarding faculty advising in a small, urban university in the southeast United States. The purpose of this research was to investigate and…
Lyman, Jason A; Cohn, Wendy; Knaus, William; Einbinder, Jonathan S
There is increasing interest in integrating population health and informatics topics into the undergraduate medical curriculum, yet little consensus exists on the most effective approach to accomplish this. We introduced the use of an academic data warehouse of encrypted patient information into an existing 2nd year medical school course. Exercises were developed requiring students to retrieve and interpret information regarding local disease prevalence, practice patterns, and patient characteristics. These exercises were integrated into existing weekly problem sets in a multiple-choice format. Faculty and student perceptions were assessed with surveys, and augmented with interviews of student volunteers, and database usage statistics. Our results indicate widespread agreement among both students and faculty that population-based medicine warrants inclusion in undergraduate medical education. The majority of the students felt the exercises complemented the clinical cases around which they were structured. There was less agreement, however, that the exercises were valuable, with several students suggesting a more open-ended, discussion-oriented approach. It was clear that faculty perceptions had a significant impact on student reactions.
Jones, Robert F.
A survey of 115 medical schools concerning early retirement benefits and incentives for faculty found that defined-contribution plans were preferred and were available at 37 percent of institutions. Incentive programs were used by 70 percent of schools during 1987-91. However, few early retirements have occurred. Program characteristics,…
Reybold, L. Earle; Alamia, Jennifer J.
Becoming and being a faculty is a dynamic journey defined by various career transitions, such as moving up through promotion and tenure, moving on to other institutions, and sometimes moving out of the academy altogether. This longitudinal qualitative study explored women faculty experiences of academic transitions and their impact on faculty…
Major, Claire H.; Dolly, John P.
The authors present results from a qualitative study involving recent faculty hires in a college of education at a research university. The focus of the study is experiences that relate to faculty confidence levels for successfully completing academic tasks. The study involves semi-structured interviews for data collection and an inductive…
Bozeman, Barry; Boardman, Craig
This study addresses university-industry interactions for both educational and industrial outcomes. The results suggest that while academic faculty who are affiliated with centers are more involved with industry than non-affiliated faculty, affiliates are also more involved with and supportive of students at the undergraduate, graduate, and…
Darby, Alexa; Newman, Gabrielle
This qualitative study provides a theoretical framework for understanding faculty members' motivation to persist in utilizing academic service-learning pedagogy. Twenty-four faculty members from a private liberal arts university in the southeastern United States were interviewed about the benefits and challenges of teaching academic…
Prins, Sebastian; Jones, Edward; Lathrop, Anna H.
In recognition that student academic misconduct is a complex issue that requires a holistic and institutional approach, this case study explores the impact of an intervention strategy adopted by the Faculty of Applied Health Sciences (comprised of approximately 80 faculty and an average of 3,240 undergraduate students) at Brock University, St.…
Dow-Royer, Cathy A.
Over the last two decades there has been heightened interest in redefining faculty scholarship in higher education (Boyer, 1990). Trends have included the development of cultural frameworks for understanding how disciplines and institutions influence faculty work and how socialization processes impact academic career development. Despite the fact…
Fischer Zellers, Darlene
This study examines the organizational and contextual factors associated with faculty mentoring programs in academic medicine within major research institutions in the United States, and explores the usefulness of organizational behavior theory in understanding these relationships. To date, many formal faculty mentoring programs are in operation…
Bair, Mary A.; Mader, Cynthia E.
This article describes a collaborative self-study undertaken to identify the source of academic writing difficulties among graduate students and find ways to address them. Ten faculty members in a college of education came together to define the problem and to analyze data gleaned from faculty and student surveys, course documents, course…
Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E
As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.
Karpilo, Lacy N.
Student academic success is a top priority of higher education institutions in the United States and the trend of students leaving school prior to finishing their degree is a serious concern. Accountability has become a large part of university and college ratings and perceived success. Retention is one component of the accountability metrics used by accreditation agencies. In addition, there are an increasing number of states allocating funds based in part on retention (Seidman, 2005). Institutions have created initiatives, programs, and even entire departments to address issues related to student academic success to promote retention. Universities and colleges have responded by focusing on methods to retain and better serve students. Retention and student academic success is a primary concern for high education institutions; however, engineering education has unique retention issues. The National Science Board (2004) reports a significant decline in the number of individuals in the United States who are training to become engineers, despite the fact that the number of jobs that utilize an engineering background continues to increase. Engineering education has responded to academic success issues by changing curriculum and pedagogical methods (Sheppard, 2001). This descriptive study investigates the perception of engineering students and faculty regarding teaching methods and faculty involvement to create a picture of what is occurring in engineering education. The population was the engineering students and faculty of Colorado State University's College of Engineering. Data from this research suggests that engaging teaching methods are not being used as often as research indicates they should and that there is a lack of student-faculty interaction outside of the classroom. This research adds to the breadth of knowledge and understanding of the current environment of engineering education. Furthermore, the data allows engineering educators and other higher
Des Marchais, J E; Jean, P; Delorme, P
In 1979 université de Montréal developed the Basic Training Program in Medical Pedagogy; the program has since been offered at two other Canadian medical schools. The learning activities are spread over an academic year so that the teachers are able to continue their clinical or research duties. The program, which follows a model of systematic instruction, comprises 17 self-instructional modules on basic educational topics adapted to medical teaching. The topics are related to four components of an integrated system: student needs and learning objectives, instructional methods, student evaluation and program evaluation. The instructional format is aimed at three levels--understanding, analysis and application--to which assignments and assessments are related. In addition to the modules, the program offers 15 half-day sessions for small groups (five participants and one instructor) to discuss aspects of the program, especially home assignments and the application of personal educational projects. A minimum of 100 hours of personal time is requested. The program's main goal is that students be placed at the centre of the educational process. Of 215 participants since 1979, 171 (80%) have completed the program and reported high satisfaction. Issues related to any faculty development program are discussed. PMID:2317704
Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Hassanpour, Kiana; Aramesh, Kiarash; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan
The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6±3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7±0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4±0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1). It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses) to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medical research ethics issues such as plagiarism.
Purpose: The promotion of educators is challenged by the lack of accepted standards to evaluate the quality and impact of educational activities. Traditionally, promotion is related to research productivity. This study developed an evaluation tool for educational performance of medical school faculty using educator portfolios (EPs). Methods: Design principles and quantitative items for EPs were developed in a consensus workshop. These principles were tested in a simulation and revised based on feedback. The changes of total educational activities following introduction of the system were analyzed. Results: A total of 71% faculty members answered the simulation of the system and the score distributed widely (mean±standard deviation, 65.43±68.64). The introduction of new system significantly increased the total educational activities, especially in assistant professors. Conclusion: The authors offer comprehensive and practical tool for enhancing educational participation of faculty members. Further research for development of qualitative evaluation systems is needed. PMID:27363501
Examined in this study were faculty perceptions of students who do not continue their college education. Also examined was how urban and rural community colleges faculty perceived academic preparation, work ethics, and institutional support as predictors of student success. In this predictive study of community college faculty, 36 faculty members…
Cavazos, Alyssa G.
Due to the dominance of the English language in scholarship, multilingual academics often encounter challenges in achieving academic biliteracy and identifying successful language negotiation practices in academia. Through personal interviews with self-identified multilingual academics across academic disciplines, this paper explores how they…
Kamali, Farahnaz; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh
Introduction: To achieve a valid evaluation of faculty members, it is necessary to develop an inclusive and dynamic system of evaluation addressing all the activities and responsibilities of faculty members. Among these responsibilities, educational activities comprise an important part which needs to be investigated. This study aimed to investigate the current system of evaluating the faculty members’ educational duties. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a checklist for investigating the current evaluation system and was developed confirmed by a focus group. The data for checklist were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire and interview with eight experts of faculty evaluation that worked in different Iranian Medical Universities. For completion of information, the available documents and records were studied. Finally, the current evaluation system of different universities was depicted. Results: The developed checklist had six themes and 123 subthemes. The extracted themes included: Tools, evaluators, processes, appropriateness of faculty field of work with evaluation, feedback status, and university status regarding decisions made based on faculty evaluation results. As for comprehensiveness, all evaluation items except for evaluation and assessment skills and religiosity from personality traits subtheme were fully investigated. The evaluation tools were not enough for different types of education such as clinical education. In six universities, the feedbacks provided were only for making inter/intra department comparison, and no scientific suggestions were included. The results of evaluations were used only for the faculties’ promotions. Discussion: Suitability between evaluation and performance components is a necessity in every evaluation system. The study showed this does not exist in Iranian Universities. For instance, there was no appropriate tool for the evaluation of clinical education. Also, the results of the faculty
Adams, Nancy E.; Gaffney, Maureen A.; Lynn, Valerie
This qualitative study describes collaborations between academic librarians and faculty in education-related disciplines involving evidence-based practice (EBP), an approach that combines the best available research with the professional's experience and expertise. The authors analyzed narratives of academic librarians and their educator partners…
Kim, Young K.; Armstrong, Cameron L.; Edwards, Sarah R.
This study examined whether and how the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--such as college GPA, critical thinking and communication skills, academic satisfaction, and cultural appreciation and social awareness--vary by students' academic disciplines. The study utilized data on 37,977 undergraduate students who…
Mendoza, Pilar; Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.
We present Bourdieu's notions of field, capital, "habitus," and strategy and how these concepts apply today in light of academic capitalism using an empirical study of faculty work in one specific field in engineering that exemplifies current tendencies brought by academic capitalism. We conclude with a discussion of practical implications.…
Curtin, Nicola; Malley, Janet; Stewart, Abigail J.
We know little about the role of faculty mentoring in the development of interest in pursuing an academic career among doctoral students. Drawing on Social Cognitive Career Theory, this study examined the relationships between different kinds of mentoring (instrumental, psychosocial, and sponsorship) and academic career self-efficacy, interests,…
Sharkin, Bruce S.; Coulter, Lisa P.
College counseling centers play an important role in the training and supervision of counselor trainees. This article addresses the importance of communication between college counselors and academic counseling program faculty when college counselors supervise graduate students from academic counseling programs. As the authors discuss, effective…
DeZure, Deborah; Shaw, Allyn; Rojewski, Julie
With many baby boomers preparing to retire, higher education is facing an anticipated shortage of academic administrators. Compounding this challenge, many mid-career faculty are reluctant to fill these important positions, concerned that academic leadership is incompatible with work-life balance, that it detracts from their commitments to…
Franke, Ann H.
Discusses two new challenges that face faculty bargaining organizations: first, the Supreme Court's decision in "NLRB vs. Yeshiva University" that faculties exercising power over governance of their institutions have managerial status that excludes them from protection under the National Labor Relations Act, and, second, the current…
Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Sinuani-Stern, Zila
This case study is the first to track the method used by an Israeli institution of higher education to assess and reward faculty members using a set of performance measures ("Excellence criteria"). The study profiles faculty members who received financial rewards for excellence during 2005-2007, based on the previous year's activities,…
Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Taylor, Janette Y; Kneipp, Shawn M; Canales, Mary K
Public health nursing practice is rooted in the core value of social justice. Nursing faculty whose expertise is in public health are often the content experts responsible for teaching this essential, yet potentially controversial, value. Contemporary threats to academic freedom remind us that the disciplinary autonomy and academic duty to teach social justice may be construed as politically ideological. These threats are of particular concern when faculty members guide students through a scientific exploration of sociopolitical factors that lead to health-related social injustices and encourage students to improve and transform injustices in their professional careers. This article (a) reviews recent challenges to academic freedom that influence social justice education, (b) explores academic freedom and duty to teach social justice within the discipline of nursing, and (c) proposes a praxis-based approach to social justice education, which is grounded in transformative pedagogy.
McQuilkin, Patricia; Marshall, Roseda E; Niescierenko, Michelle; Tubman, Venée N; Olson, Bradley G; Staton, Donna; Williams, Jackson H; Graham, Elinor A
This article describes a model employed by the Academic Collaborative to Support Medical Education in Liberia to augment medical education in a postconflict setting where the health and educational structures and funding are very limited. We effectively utilized a cohort of visiting US pediatric faculty and trainees for short-term but recurrent clinical work and teaching. This model allows US academic medical centers, especially those with smaller residency programs, to provide global health experiences for faculty and trainees while contributing to the strengthening of medical education in the host country. Those involved can work toward a goal of sustainable training with a strengthened host country specialty education system. Partnerships such as ours evolve over time and succeed by meeting the needs of the host country, even during unanticipated challenges, such as the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa.
Marshall, Roseda E.; Niescierenko, Michelle; Tubman, Venée N.; Olson, Bradley G.; Staton, Donna; Williams, Jackson H.; Graham, Elinor A.
This article describes a model employed by the Academic Collaborative to Support Medical Education in Liberia to augment medical education in a postconflict setting where the health and educational structures and funding are very limited. We effectively utilized a cohort of visiting US pediatric faculty and trainees for short-term but recurrent clinical work and teaching. This model allows US academic medical centers, especially those with smaller residency programs, to provide global health experiences for faculty and trainees while contributing to the strengthening of medical education in the host country. Those involved can work toward a goal of sustainable training with a strengthened host country specialty education system. Partnerships such as ours evolve over time and succeed by meeting the needs of the host country, even during unanticipated challenges, such as the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. PMID:27335926
Garmel, Gus M
Mentoring is an important aspect of career development for medical students, residents, and junior faculty. It is vital to the professional growth and maturation of individuals early in each phase of their careers. Additionally, mentoring has a critical role throughout all career stages, because the mentor-mentee relationship provides mutual benefit to both participants. This article will describe the role of the mentor, suggest ways to increase the likelihood of successful mentoring, and identify pitfalls in the mentoring process predominantly related to medical students. In contrast to role models, mentors play an active part in the development of a young physician's career. This difference will be discussed. Finally, this article will describe the responsibilities of career guidance and recommendation letter authorship that mentors assume for medical students.
This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…
Bradner, Melissa; Crossman, Steven H; Vanderbilt, Allison A; Gary, Judy; Munson, Paul
Background There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.
Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas.
Kutina, Kenneth L.; And Others
A simulation model of an academic medical center that was developed to aid in strategic planning and policy analysis is described. The model, designated MCM for Medical Center Model, was implemented at the School of Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and the private practices of the faculty in the clinical departments at University…
Green, Stephen A.
Objective: This article explores the commitment of faculty to ethics training in psychiatric education. Although psychiatry has insufficiently addressed the profession's need for ethics training in education, program directors acknowledge its critical importance, and its positive impact has been demonstrated. Additionally, residents often seek…
Guttman, Minerva S; Parietti, Elizabeth S; Reineke, Patricia R; Mahoney, Janet
To increase nursing education capacity in New Jersey, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) New Jersey Nursing Initiative (NJNI) awarded grants to prepare graduate nursing students to become clinically expert faculty. The purpose of this article was to describe the experiences of a collaborative partnership in preparing 14 scholars for the faculty role. The partnership developed two innovative models of preparing faculty with clinical expertise. The curriculum of the Fairleigh Dickinson University Adult Nurse Practitioner program was enhanced with education courses and intensive teaching practicum. The curriculum of the Monmouth University Nursing Education program was enhanced with more intensive clinical immersion in a selected concentration. Both models were based on the National League for Nursing nurse educator competencies (J. A. Halstead, 2007). The RWJF scholars were socialized into the faculty role from the start of the program through curricular and extracurricular activities. To date, all components of the enhanced curriculum were implemented with plans for sustaining the programs and partnership. Of 14 scholars, 4 graduated, and 10 are on track to graduate as projected. The curriculum enhancements improved two successful master's programs preparing graduates for not one, but two advanced practice roles.
Burrus, Robert T., Jr.; Jones, Adam T.; Sackley, William H.; Walker, Michael
Prior to 2009, a mid-sized public institution in the southeast had a faculty-driven honor policy characterized by little education about the policy and no tracking of repeat offenders. An updated code, implemented in August of 2009, required that students sign an honor pledge, created a formal student honor board, and developed a process to track…
Fogelman, A M; Goode, L D; Behrens, B L; DeAngelis, C D; Forsyth, J D; Gewertz, B L; Houpt, J L; Hutton, J J; Kelley, W N; Korn, D; Marton, L J; Tartaglia, A P; Wallace, A G; Wallin, W R; Walters, F M
To gain a better understanding of the effects on medical schools of transformations in medical practice, science, and public expectations, the AAMC in 1994 formed the Advisory Panel on the Mission and Organization of Medical Schools and appointed six working groups to address relevant issues. This article is a report of the findings of the Working Group on Preserving Medical Schools' Academic Mission in a Competitive Marketplace, which was charged with exploring how medical schools could acquire and/or preserve an adequate patient base for teaching, research, and income generation in a competitive marketplace. The other groups' reports will appear in future issues of Academic Medicine. To understand the diversity of approaches that schools have taken to achieve this goal and to preserve their missions, the group interviewed representatives of nine medical schools, selected to represent a cross section of U.S. medical schools. The interviews took place on four occasions between June 1995 and March 1996. The information and comments shared by participants helped the working group gain insight into the fundamental issues it had been charged to address, including those of new delivery structures, what value schools offer to delivery structures, how education and research can be incorporated and supported financially, possible new pressures on relationships between medical schools and teaching hospitals, changes in faculty physicians' employment relationships and terms, and the role of the medical school in graduate medical education. In collecting and analyzing the data, the working group focused on the distinction between protecting an institution's existing enterprise and preserving an institution's core mission. This article gives a detailed overview of the information and comments each school presented, organized under the appropriate question. The working group's conclusions and commentaries on the findings follow. An appendix presents more detailed summaries of
Weisz, George M; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Albury, William Randall
The Warsaw Ghetto, in existence from 1940 to 1943, was the largest ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe. The 400,000-500,000 Jews incarcerated within its walls were deprived not only of food and medicine but also of education. Nonetheless, Jewish physicians served the community as befits their profession, and against all odds obtained permission to conduct a course on sanitary measures to combat epidemics, which they transformed into a veritable, clandestine medical school. This review follows the fate of the school faculty, with an emphasis on the achievements of the survivors.
Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.
Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…
This study used program location and program reputation to describe two important faculty characteristics: academic reputation and research reputation. The study involved 44 graduate programs in health administration representing four program locations: schools of public health, business, medicine/allied health, and graduate/independent. Fourteen programs were identified as ranked programs and the remaining 30 programs were identified as unranked programs. While the study identifies many differences, few are significant, thus adding credence to the argument for diversity in program location and diminishing credence in the argument for program reputation.
Bedenlier, Svenja; Zawacki-Richter, Olaf
Research on internationalization processes in higher education has steadily increased over the past decades. However, there is still a lack of analysis of how these developments have affected higher education and, specifically, the group of academic faculty members. To close this gap, this study explores the effects of internationalization on this…
Switzer, Teri R.
The entire diversity landscape of our university campuses is changing. As American colleges and universities address their need for more globally aware campuses, academic institutions are hiring well-qualified foreign-born scholars to teach in their programs. Both non-resident alien faculty as well as those who are foreign-born but are classified…
Penney, Sharon; Young, Gabrielle; Badenhorst, Cecile; Goodnough, Karen; Hesson, J.; Joy, Rhonda; McLeod, Heather; Pickett, Sarah; Stordy, Mary; Vaandering, Dorothy
This qualitative research project explored the experiences of women who juggle the demands of family or parenthood while engaging in academic careers at a faculty of education. The researcher-participants consisted of 11 women; 9 women provided a written narrative, and all women participated in the data analysis. The data consisted of the…
Schenkein, Harvey A.; Best, Al M.
Surveyed new dental faculty about what factors influenced them to choose academic careers. Found that factors related to teaching and scholarship were the most important influences, while concerns about income and indebtedness were the most important negative considerations. Other positive factors included mentors and role models, long-term…
Hanford, Karen J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine current academic practices of compensation, workload, rewards, and tenure and promotion for nursing faculty who teach graduate and postlicensure programs that are delivered 50% to 100% online. Deans and directors who are members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) were the…
Lazar, Aryeh; Davidovitch, Nitza; Coren, Gal
In order to examine possible gender differences in work calling and work spirituality, 68 university academic faculty members responded to self-report multidimensional measures of these constructs. No gender differences were found for the attribution of the source of a transcendent summons, with a majority of respondents indicating internal…
Kazakhstan's higher education system is based on the Soviet governance structure, limited academic freedom and no autonomy from the state. In such a system faculties are contract employees delivering predesigned courses with no incentive to bring new ideas and methods. But employers and the general public are concerned with the mismatch between…
Lunsford, Crystal G.; Omae, Hilda Nyougo
In this article we discuss some of the factors that influence how faculty members and academic staff at Michigan State University connect their scholarly activities to external audiences. Logistic regression was used to analyze data collected using an institutional-wide survey. Findings reveal that appointment type, discipline, and demographic…
Frazier, Kimberly N.
The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…
Schneider, Steve; Meier, Barbara
This document presents Fox Valley Technical College's (FVTC) 1999-2000 academic/faculty advising guidelines for instructors, advisors, and counselors, entitled "Working Together for Student Success." These guidelines are divided into the following parts: philosophy/definition, core values, institutional advising goals, developmental…
Chambers, Crystal Renee
Critical content analysis is used to identify content within blogs, exposing views within academe that reinforce and normalize racist, sexist, and interactively racist and sexist perspectives. The two themes explored here are unfairness and subjectivities within personnel processes and the qualifications of Black women faculty, as raised through a…
Acker, Sandra; Webber, Michelle; Smyth, Elizabeth
Over the past 40 or so years, women's share of faculty positions in Canada and elsewhere has increased considerably, if not yet reaching parity. Yet working in the gendered university remains problematic. This article uses data from a qualitative research project in which 38 junior academics were interviewed about their responses to being on the…
Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.
This book is designed to help college/university faculty and academic administrators become more constructive and knowledgeable participants in the budgetary process. Chapter 1 introduces budgets and the budgetary process, with an explanation of the importance of budgeting in policy making, Chapter 2 discusses economic and political contexts of…
McMillan, Stephanie Renee
This study explored undergraduate teaching faculty's perceptions regarding using biometric-based technologies to reduce academic dishonesty in online classes. The first objective was to develop a baseline of the respondents' concerns toward and experience with using biometrics; attitudes, experience, and mitigation strategies used to…
In Canada, universities are undergoing a process of corporatization where business interests, values and practices are assuming a more prominent place in higher education. A key feature of this process has been the changing composition of academic labor. While it is generally accepted that universities are relying more heavily on contract faculty,…
Ales, Kathy L.; And Others
This report describes the development and implementation of a required course in medical ethics for second-year medical students at Cornell University Medical College (New York). The planning model stressed achieving faculty consensus. Evaluation indicated that faculty felt the planning sessions added greatly to their teaching and students were…
Lampman, Claudia; Crew, Earl C.; Lowery, Shea D.; Tompkins, Kelley
Academic contrapower harassment (ACPH) occurs when someone with seemingly less power in an educational setting (e.g., a student) harasses someone more powerful (e.g., a professor). A representative sample of 289 professors from U.S. institutions of higher education described their worst incident with ACPH. Open-ended responses were coded using a…
Romanowski, Michael H.; Nasser, Ramzi
Massive oil revenues are currently fueling a surge in the number of educational institutions in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, presenting leadership at all levels with many unprecedented questions. In particular, the growth and reform of higher education challenges the delicate balance between academic freedom and Arab cultural…
Schmid, Megan E.; Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Kraemer, Sara; Kueppers, Mark
The achievement gap, disparities in the academic achievement of marginalized students (e.g., underrepresented minority, first generation in their family to attend college, and low socio-economic status undergraduate students) relative to their non-minority peers is a pervasive problem in higher education. It impacts student access to the major and…
Miller, Alan N.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Bedeian, Arthur G.
Purpose: Although many in academe have speculated about the effects of pressure to publish on the management discipline--often referred to as "publish or perish"--prevailing knowledge has been based on anecdotal rather than empirical evidence. The aim of the present paper is to shed light on the perceptions of management faculty…
Maisto, Maria; Street, Steve
Much has been written about higher education's increasing reliance on contingent academic labor over the last few decades. The narrative, which includes differing accounts of what, or who, is most to blame, has been well rehearsed: the increase came in slow and steady waves tied to significant political and economic events, including postwar…
Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others
A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…
The Museum and Library of History of Medicine celebrated the 700th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" with an exhibition of images and documents recalling the history of the medical faculty. Dissecting tools and surgical instruments testify to the long history of anatomical and surgical studies and to the great worth of the teachers at Rome University. Documents, archival papers, books and pictures document the historical inheritance of the Medical School in Rome.
Wright, James Gardner; Khetani, Nicole; Stephens, Derek
BACKGROUND: Burnout experienced by physicians is concerning because it may affect quality of care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of burnout among physicians at an academic health science centre and to test the hypothesis that work hours are related to burnout. METHODS: All 300 staff physicians, contacted through their personal e-mail, were provided an encrypted link to an anonymous questionnaire. The primary outcome measure, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, has three subscales: personal, work related and patient related. RESULTS: The response rate for the questionnaire was 70%. Quantitative demands, insecurity at work and job satisfaction affected all three components of burnout. Of 210 staff physicians, 22% (n=46) had scores indicating personal burnout, 14% (n=30) had scores indicating work-related burnout and 8% (n=16) had scores indicating patient-related burnout. The correlation between total hours worked and total burnout was only 0.10 (P=0.14) DISCUSSION: Up to 22% of academic paediatric physicians had scores consistent with mild to severe burnout. A simple reduction in work hours is unlikely to be successful in reducing burnout and, therefore, quantitative demands, job satisfaction and work insecurity may require attention to address burnout among academic physicians. PMID:22851895
Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.
Institutions of higher education have attempted to diversify their faculty by recruiting women and minorities. However, recruitment has taken place without an understanding of the social forces that shape the professional socialization and workplace satisfaction of women and minority faculty. Conclusions drawn by the author about the plight of…
Sachdeva, Ajit K.
Discussion of faculty development and integration of prevention into medical school curriculum considers sound educational models, role of the institution, faculty development activities (including program components, processes, needed expertise, and barriers to participation), and faculty rewards and recognition. (DB)
Valsangkar, Nakul P.; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Kim, Bradford J.; Blanton, Casi; Joshi, Mugdha M.; Bell, Teresa M.; Nakeeb, Attila; Dunnington, Gary L.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.
Objective Determine drivers of academic productivity within U.S. departments of surgery. Methods Eighty academic metrics for 3,850 faculty at the top 50 NIH-funded university- and 5 outstanding hospital-based surgical departments were collected using websites, Scopus, and NIH RePORTER. Results Mean faculty size was 76. Overall, there were 35.3% assistant, 27.8% associate, and 36.9% full professors. Women comprised 21.8%; 4.9% were MD-PhDs and 6.1% PhDs. By faculty-rank, median publications/citations were: assistant, 14/175, associate, 39/649 and full-professor, 97/2250. General surgery divisions contributed the most publications and citations. Highest performing sub-specialties per faculty member were: research (58/1683), transplantation (51/1067), oncology (41/777), and cardiothoracic surgery (48/860). Overall, 23.5% of faculty were principal investigators for a current or former NIH grant, 9.5% for a current or former R01/U01/P01. The 10 most cited faculty (MCF) within each department contributed to 42% of all publications and 55% of all citations. MCF were most commonly general (25%), oncology (19%), or transplant surgeons (15%). Fifty-one-percent of MCF had current/former NIH funding, compared with 20% of the rest (p<0.05); funding rates for R01/U01/P01 grants was 25.1% vs. 6.8% (p<0.05). Rate of current-NIH MCF funding correlated with higher total departmental NIH rank (p < 0.05). Conclusions Departmental academic productivity as defined by citations and NIH funding is highly driven by sections or divisions of research, general and transplantation surgery. MCF, regardless of subspecialty, contribute disproportionally to major grants and publications. Approaches that attract, develop, and retain funded MCF may be associated with dramatic increases in total departmental citations and NIH-funding. PMID:26177096
Botha, P. A.; Swanepoel, S.
This article reports on the results of a statistical analysis of the weekly working hours of academics in a Faculty of Human and Social Sciences at a South African university. The aim was to quantify, analyse and compare the workload of academic staff. Seventy-five academics self-reported on their workload by completing the workload measuring…
Tenopir, Carol; King, Donald W.; Bush, Amy
Objectives: The objectives are to determine how medical faculty members use scholarly journals, whether print or electronic journals are read more, whether there is a pattern among types of users, and what similarities and differences there are between the use of journals by medical faculty and faculty in other disciplines. Methods: Medical faculty of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC) multi-campus system were surveyed, and their responses estimated using critical incident technique to characterize the different aspects of their use of print and electronic journals. Results: Medical faculty read a great deal, especially compared to scientists. The most frequently reported principal purpose of reading is to support their primary research (30% of reading). The majority of reading comes from recently published articles, mostly from personal subscriptions. Medical faculty continue to rely on print journals (approximately 70% of readings) versus electronic journals. Age of faculty does not appear to influence the choice of print or electronic format. Medical faculty read more articles than others on average and need information digested and verified in a way to save them time. Convenience and currency are highly valued attributes. Conclusions: It can be asserted that librarians and publishers must find ways to provide the attributes of convenience and currency and match the portability of personal subscriptions in an electronic journal format for medical faculty. PMID:15098053
Peek, Monica E.; Kim, Karen E.; Johnson, Julie K.; Vela, Monica B.
Purpose There is little evidence regarding which factors and strategies are associated with high proportions of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in academic medicine. The authors conducted a national study of U.S. academic medicine departments to better understand the challenges, successful strategies, and predictive factors for enhancing racial and ethnic diversity among faculty (i.e., physicians with an academic position or rank). Method This was a mixed-methods study using quantitative and qualitative methods. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of eligible departments of medicine in 125 accredited U.S. medical schools, dichotomized into low-URM (bottom 50%) versus high-URM rank (top 50%). They used t tests and chi-squared tests to compare departments by geographic region, academic school rank, city type, and composite measures of “diversity best practices.” The authors also conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with a subsample from the highest-and lowest-quartile medical schools in terms of URM rank. Results Eighty-two medical schools responded (66%). Geographic region and academic rank were statistically associated with URM rank, but not city type or composite measures of diversity best practices. Key themes emerged from interviews regarding successful strategies for URM faculty recruitment and retention including institutional leadership, the use of human capital and social relationships and strategic deployment of institutional resources. Conclusions Departments of medicine with high proportions of URM faculty employ a number of successful strategies and programs for recruitment and retention. More research is warranted to identify new successful strategies and to determine the impact of specific strategies on establishing and maintaining workforce diversity. PMID:23348090
Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi
Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…
Guo, Yan; Sippola, Emily; Feng, Xinglin; Dong, Zhe; Wang, Debing; Moyer, Cheryl A.; Stern, David T.
To explore the need for faculty development among Chinese medical educators. Leaders at each medical school in China were asked to complete a 123-item survey to identify interest in various topics and barriers and perceived benefits of participating in faculty development programs. Interest levels were high for all topics. Experience with Hospital…
Montagner, Maria Inez; Montagner, Miguel Ângelo
This article presents a historical and social rediscovery of the trajectories of women professors at Unicamp's Faculty of Medical Sciences and of their personal and professional choices, in conjunction with their social strategies. It explores their roles and positions in the academic world, how they shaped their habitus, and how the latter related to the gender issue. The theoretical reference for the qualitative methodology employed was taken from studies of gender and of the sociology of science and health, including Merton's focused interviews and Bardin's content analysis. The women identified social representations of family, marriage, and children, the social division of work time, and the patriarchal structure of science as gender elements that influenced their careers.
Calleson, Diane C; Jordan, Catherine; Seifer, Sarena D
Since Ernest Boyer's landmark 1990 report, Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, leaders in higher education, including academic medicine, have advocated that faculty members apply their expertise in new and creative ways in partnership with communities. Such community engagement can take many forms, including community-based teaching, research, clinical care, and service. There continues to be a gap, however, between the rhetoric of this idea and the reality of how promotion and tenure actually work in health professions schools. The Commission on Community-Engaged Scholarship in the Health Professions was established in October 2003 with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to take a leadership role in creating a more supportive culture and reward system for community-engaged faculty in the nation's health professions schools. The authors prepared this article to inform the commission's deliberations and to stimulate discussion among educators in the health professions. The authors define the work that faculty engage in with communities, consider whether all work by faculty in community-based settings is actually scholarship, and propose a framework for documenting and assessing community-engaged scholarship for promotion and tenure decisions. They conclude with recommendations for change in academic health centers and health professions schools.
Research on the faculty impact on students' academic achievement has been disproportionately confined to the context of countries with developed higher education systems. Few studies have been undertaken in the developing world like Cambodia. This study employed hierarchical linear modeling to examine the relationships between faculty behaviors…
Fairweather, James S.
In examining the source of public distrust for higher education and faculty work, this volume reviews empirical data concerning questions which lie at the core of the roles of faculty in academe, in the economy, and the larger society. Chapter 1 describes the background in changing social attitudes and economic factors. Chapter 2 looks at faculty…
Komarraju, Meera; Musulkin, Sergey; Bhattacharya, Gargi
Student-faculty interactions can be crucial in developing students' academic self-concept and enhancing their motivation and achievement. Although most interactions with faculty tend to occur within the formal classroom setting, students who experience informal interactions tend to be more motivated, engaged, and actively involved in the learning…
Ramesh, P.; Reddy, K. M.; Rao, R. V. S.; Dhandapani, A.; Siva, G. Samba; Ramakrishna, A.
Purpose: The present study was undertaken to assess academic achievement, teaching aptitude and research attitude of Indian agricultural universities' faculty, to predict indicators for successful teachers and researchers, and thereby enhancing the quality of higher agricultural education. Methodology: Five hundred faculty members were selected to…
Al-Din, Hesham Moustafa Kamal; Abouzid, Mohamed Mahmoud
This study aimed to identify the implementing degree of Total Quality Management (TQM) principals by Academic Departmental Heads (ADH) at the Najran University from faculty members' perspectives. It also aimed to determine significant differences between the average estimate of sample section of faculty members about the implementing degree of TQM…
Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John; Diaz-Castillo, Maribel
This study uses narrative analysis to understand the ways in which Mexican university faculty members used their self-motivational resources to persist in an instructional technology training program within adverse work conditions. The methodology included interviews and participant observation. Findings suggest that faculty's academic resilience…
Kezar, Adrianna; Gehrke, Sean
This study broadens our understanding of conditions that shape faculty composition in higher education. We surveyed academic deans to evaluate their views on the professoriate, values, pressures, and practices pertaining to the use of non-tenure-track faculty (NTTF). We utilized [ordinary-least-squares] OLS regression to test a model for…
Atwater, Christopher Raymond
The purpose of this investigation was to examine faculty attitudes towards the role of college athletics and the academic competency of student-athletes at a NCAA Division-I Institution. By analyzing faculty attitudes, this study contributes to a better understanding of factors associated with how educators view athletics in higher education and…
Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M; Mueller-Johnson, Katrin
The behavioral sciences have come under attack for writings and speech that affront sensitivities. At such times, academic freedom and tenure are invoked to forestall efforts to censure and terminate jobs. We review the history and controversy surrounding academic freedom and tenure, and explore their meaning across different fields, at different institutions, and at different ranks. In a multifactoral experimental survey, 1,004 randomly selected faculty members from top-ranked institutions were asked how colleagues would typically respond when confronted with dilemmas concerning teaching, research, and wrong-doing. Full professors were perceived as being more likely to insist on having the academic freedom to teach unpopular courses, research controversial topics, and whistle-blow wrong-doing than were lower-ranked professors (even associate professors with tenure). Everyone thought that others were more likely to exercise academic freedom than they themselves were, and that promotion to full professor was a better predictor of who would exercise academic freedom than was the awarding of tenure. Few differences emerged related either to gender or type of institution, and behavioral scientists' beliefs were similar to scholars from other fields. In addition, no support was found for glib celebrations of tenure's sanctification of broadly defined academic freedoms. These findings challenge the assumption that tenure can be justified on the basis of fostering academic freedom, suggesting the need for a re-examination of the philosophical foundation and practical implications of tenure in today's academy.
Khodeli, N G; Chkhaidze, Z A; Inauri, E K; Mdivani, N V; Partsakhashvili, D D
Despite the intensive clinical application of the scientific and technological innovations, the effect of the human factor in surgical intervention remains decisive. The existing model of training highly qualified specialists in the residency program does not always render positive results. For this reason, the issue of early orientation and specialization of prospective specialists, starting from the Bachelor's stage, has received considerable attention. The experience of colleagues at the department of human anatomy, topographic anatomy and operative surgery of the medical faculty of Tbilisi State University is based on the example of early professional orientation of the students, and their active attraction in the specialized surgery groups within the department's "student scientific-practical laboratory." The laboratory has united the abdominal, thoracic, microvascular surgery, plastic surgery, anaesthesiology groups and the group of artificial life support. Teaching was carried out on the basic and specialized stages of preparation in the duration of 5 years in conjunction with regular classes at the faculty. The results of this approach included: significantly higher level of knowledge of theoretical foundations and practical skills in various fields of surgical specialty; positive influence on learning process in general, with improved academic performance of students in every surgical discipline; popularisation and promotion of research with active engagement of students in research activities of the department; "painless" adaptation of students in the clinical departments of city hospitals.
Objective To study the extent of Internet addiction (IA) and its association with depression in Thai medical students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital. Participants were first- to fifth-year medical students who agreed to participate in this study. Demographic characteristics and stress-related factors were derived from self-rated questionnaires. Depression was assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total score of five or greater derived from the Thai version of Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction was classified as “possible IA”. Then chi-square test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between possible IA, depression and associated factors. Results From 705 participants, 24.4% had possible IA and 28.8% had depression. There was statistically significant association between possible IA and depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34–2.77, P-value <0.001). Logistic regression analysis illustrated that the odds of depression in possible IA group was 1.58 times of the group of normal Internet use (95% CI: 1.04–2.38, P-value = 0.031). Academic problems were found to be a significant predictor of both possible IA and depression. Conclusion IA was likely to be a common psychiatric problem among Thai medical students. The research has also shown that possible IA was associated with depression and academic problems. We suggest that surveillance of IA should be considered in medical schools. PMID:28319167
The purpose of this study is to identify the level of practicing academic freedom by the faculty members of Al al-Bayt University. The study population included all the faculty members (297) of Al al-Bayt University, during the academic year, 2010/2011. The study sample was randomly selected and included 250 faculty members. To achieve the aims of…
Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann
Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past twenty years. While the academic physician’s triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic medical centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. Here, the authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multi-pronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met 5 times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers. PMID:23425986
Gannon, Sam C.
Academic medical centers are well-known for their emphasis on teaching, research and public service; however, like most large, bureaucratic organizations, they oftentimes suffer from an inability to learn as an organization. The role of the research administrator in the academic medical center has grown over time as the profession itself has…
Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Masiello, Italo
CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance.
Raymond, John R; Layde, Peter M
An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues.
Layde, Peter M.
An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues. PMID:26675192
Abdallah, Bahia; Irani, Jihad; Sailian, Silva Dakessian; Gebran, Vicky George; Rizk, Ursula
Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students’ performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties’ expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students’ skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school. PMID:25419165
Vergara, Claudia E.; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Campa, Henry, III; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Ebert-May, Diane; Fata-Hartley, Cori; Johnston, Kevin
Doctoral granting institutions prepare future faculty members for academic positions at institutions of higher education across the nation. Growing concerns about whether these institutions are adequately preparing students to meet the demands of a changing academic environment have prompted several reform efforts. We describe a professional…
Hylton, Lamar R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student-faculty interactions on academic achievement and college satisfaction among Black males at predominately White institutions. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine if there was a difference in levels of academic achievement and college satisfaction based on how often Black…
HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie
Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…
The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of traditional baccalaureate nursing students, registered nurse baccalaureate students, baccalaureate nursing students holding a previous non-nursing degree, and nursing educators and to determine the effects of teacher/student learning style congruency on academic performance, when controlled for students' previous academic achievement. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and a Descriptive Data Questionnaire were administered to 334 nursing students and their respective nurse educators from two nursing schools in Mississippi. Learning style scores were computed and faculty and student learning style congruency was described as: 1) matched on both abstract-concrete and active-reflective dimensions; 2) matched on only the abstract-concrete dimension; 3) matched on only the active-reflective dimension; or 4) not matched on either dimension. There were no significant differences in learning style among the three groups of nursing students, and learning style congruency between student and faculty did not appear to significantly affect academic performance of students.
Tsang, Alexander; Harris, David M
Patients expect physicians to be lifelong learners who are able to interpret and evaluate diagnostic tests, and most medical schools list the development of lifelong learning in their program objectives. However, lecture is the most often utilized form of teaching in the first two years and is considered passive learning. The current generation of medical students has many characteristics that should support active learning pedagogies. The purpose of this study was to analyze student and faculty perceptions of active learning in an integrated medical curriculum at the second-year mark, where students have been exposed to multiple educational pedagogies. The first hypothesis of the study was that faculty would favor active learning methods. The second hypothesis was that Millennial medical students would favor active learning due to their characteristics. Primary faculty for years 1 and 2 and second-year medical students were recruited for an e-mail survey consisting of 12 questions about active learning and lecture. Students perceived that lecture and passive pedagogies were more effective for learning, whereas faculty felt active and collaborative learning was more effective. Students believed that more content should be covered by lecture than faculty. There were also significant differences in perceptions of what makes a good teacher. Students and faculty both felt that lack of time in the curriculum and preparation time were barriers for faculty. The data suggest that students are not familiar with the process of learning and that more time may be needed to help students develop lifelong learning skills.
Stratton, Terry D; Witzke, Donald B; Freund, Mary Jane; Wilson, Martha T; Jacob, Robert J
As more students from various health professions are combined into integrated courses, evaluating the teaching quality of individual faculty in these typically large, multi-instructor contexts becomes increasingly difficult. Indeed, students who lack sufficient recall of a given faculty member or are not committed to the evaluation process may respond by marking identical responses to all evaluation items (e.g., 3-3-3-3-3), regardless of the specific content of the items on the faculty evaluation questionnaire. These "straight-lining" behaviors-more formally referred to as monotonic response patterns (MRPs)-often reflect students' inattention to the task at hand or lack of motivation to be discriminating, which may result in invalid data. This study examines the prevalence of MRP ratings in relation to indicators reflective of students' lack of attention to evaluating the quality of faculty teaching. Dental and medical students in a required, second-year (medicine) basic science course conducted by the medical school and taught primarily by medical school faculty completed seven-item faculty evaluation forms, along with an anonymous questionnaire measuring their need to evaluate, attitudes toward faculty evaluation, and recall of instructors. MRP ratings failed to correlate significantly with students' need to evaluate or their attitudes toward faculty evaluation. However, among medical students, MRP "straight-line" responses were more prevalent for raters who recalled faculty members "very well" (p=.04). For dental students, MRPs were associated with less accurate recall (p=.01). As such, the validity of faculty evaluations within integrated, multi-instructor courses may vary when students rate distinct aspects of a teacher's performance identically. In this case-in which medical students' greater recall of instructors coincides with MRPs-ratings may suffice as global, holistic assessments of an instructor's teaching. For dental students, similar ratings may be
Lagman, Ruth L; Walsh, Declan; Kunkle, Chad; LeGrand, Susan B; Davis, Mellar P
The number of inpatient deaths in a calendar year in an academic medical center was reviewed from a computerized database. The total number was 1222. The median length of hospital stay for those who died was 7 days (range, 1-190); 404 (33%) were 75 years or older. There were 678 (55%) males and 544 (45%) females. The pulmonary medicine service had the most deaths with 290 (24%) followed by hematology/oncology 230 (18%). The most common primary diagnoses in the decedents were subendocardial infarction 58 (5%), congestive heart failure 57 (5%), and pneumonia 45 (4%). The most common diagnostic-related groups (DRGs) were respiratory system disorders (475), 98 (8%); tracheostomy (483), 75 (6%); and heart surgery (110), 65 (5%). Frequent procedures done prior to death were mechanical ventilation (<96 hours) 101 (8%), and mechanical ventilation (>96 hours) 55 (5%), and tracheostomy 54 (4%). Invasive procedures were common. Forty-five percent of the predeath patient days were spent in intensive care units. Palliative medicine was involved in the care of 20% of all the decedents.
DeCastro, Rochelle; Sambuco, Dana; Ubel, Peter A.; Stewart, Abigail; Jagsi, Reshma
Purpose Career development award programs often require formal establishment of mentoring relationships. The authors sought to gain a nuanced understanding of mentoring from the perspective of a diverse national sample of faculty clinician-researchers who were all members of formal mentoring relationships. Method Between February 2010 and August 2011, the authors conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 100 former recipients of National Institutes of Health mentored career development awards and 28 of their mentors. Purposive sampling ensured a diverse range of viewpoints. Multiple analysts thematically coded verbatim transcripts using qualitative data analysis software. Results Three relevant themes emerged: (1) the numerous roles and behaviors associated with mentoring in academic medicine, (2) the improbability of finding a single person who can fulfill the diverse mentoring needs of another individual, and (3) the importance and composition of mentor networks. Many respondents described the need to cultivate more than one mentor. Several participants discussed the utilization of peer mentors, citing benefits such as pooled resources and mutual learning. Female participants generally acknowledged the importance of having at least one female mentor. Some observed that their portfolio of mentors needed to evolve in order to remain effective. Conclusions Those who seek to promote the careers of faculty in academic medicine should focus upon developing mentoring networks, rather than hierarchical mentoring dyads. The members of each faculty member's mentoring team or network should reflect the protégé's individual needs and preferences, with special attention towards ensuring diversity in terms of area of expertise, academic rank, and gender. PMID:23425990
Hafler, Janet P; Ownby, Allison R; Thompson, Britta M; Fasser, Carl E; Grigsby, Kevin; Haidet, Paul; Kahn, Marc J; Hafferty, Frederic W
Medical student literature has broadly established the importance of differentiating between formal-explicit and hidden-tacit dimensions of the physician education process. The hidden curriculum refers to cultural mores that are transmitted, but not openly acknowledged, through formal and informal educational endeavors. The authors extend the concept of the hidden curriculum from students to faculty, and in so doing, they frame the acquisition by faculty of knowledge, skills, and values as a more global process of identity formation. This process includes a subset of formal, formative activities labeled "faculty development programs" that target specific faculty skills such as teaching effectiveness or leadership; however, it also includes informal, tacit messages that faculty absorb. As faculty members are socialized into faculty life, they often encounter conflicting messages about their role. In this article, the authors examine how faculty development programs have functioned as a source of conflict, and they ask how these programs might be retooled to assist faculty in understanding the tacit institutional culture shaping effective socialization and in managing the inconsistencies that so often dominate faculty life.
Jevitt, Cecilia; Johnson, Peter
The objective of this study was to examine faculty and student liability claims and insurance problems in midwifery education. The American College of Nurse-Midwives Professional Liability Section and Division of Education developed and administered an Internet survey to 45 midwifery programs. Of the 39 programs that responded to the survey, 28 (72%) were previously involved in a liability claim, yielding a maximum claim incidence of 1%. Liability coverage was provided to midwifery faculty and students by a variety of mechanisms, including sovereign immunity, organizational trust funds, and private insurance. The costs of annual liability coverage ranged from $1,500 to $7,000 for faculty and from $1,000 to $1,800 for students. Six of 31 program directors (19%) knew a student who did not enroll because of the cost of liability insurance. Thirty of the 39 directors (77%) reported difficulty with obtaining clinical placements as a result of liability-related preceptor concerns. Midwifery student involvement in liability claims is low; however, liability insurance is required by hospitals for clinical practice and many clinical preceptors. The price of private liability insurance is a disincentive for students to study midwifery and for clinical preceptors to work with students. Midwifery program directors and academic administrators must advocate for affordable liability coverage.
Sarkiss, Christopher A; Riley, Kyle J; Hernandez, Christopher M; Oermann, Eric K; Ladner, Travis R; Bederson, Joshua B; Shrivastava, Raj K
Engagement in research and academic productivity are crucial components in the training of a neurosurgeon. This process typically begins in residency training. In this study, we analyzed individual resident productivity as it correlated to publications across all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited neurosurgery training programs in an attempt to identify how programs have developed and fostered a research culture and environment. We obtained a list of current neurosurgery residents in ACGME-accredited programs from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons database. An expanded PubMed and Scopus search was conducted for each resident through the present time. We tabulated all articles attributed to each resident. We then categorized the publications based on each neurosurgical subspecialty while in residency. A spreadsheet-based statistical analysis was performed. This formulated the average number of resident articles, h-indices, and most common subspecialty categories by training program. We analyzed 1352 current neurosurgery residents in 105 programs. There were a total of 10 645 publications, of which 3985 were resident first-author publications during the period of study. The most common subspecialties among all resident publications were vascular (24.9%), spine (16.9%), oncology (16.1%), pediatric (5.6%), functional (4.9%), and trauma (3.8%). The average resident published 2.9 first-author papers with average of 38.0 first-author publications by total residents at each program (range 0-241). The average h-index per resident is 2.47 ± 3.25. When comparing previously published faculty h-index program rankings against our resident h-index rankings, there is a strong correlation between the 2 datasets with a clear delineation between Top-20 productivity and that of other programs (average h-index 4.2 vs 1.7, respectively, P < .001). Increasing program size leads to a clear increase in academic productivity on both the
Lewis-Stevenson, Sherri; Hueston, William J.; Mainous, Arch G., III; Bazell, Carol; Ye, Xiaobu
Surveyed departments of family medicine to determine workforce composition and rank of women and minority faculty. Found that while faculty were more likely to be female or minority than in other medical disciplines, women and minorities were less likely to be associate or full professors. Found no institutional or departmental characteristics…
The article analyzes the relations between the process of academic modernization at the University of Buenos Aires in the mid-1950s and the individuals who led this process, influenced by innovative views, transformations, and people from the Faculty of Medicine. This reconstruction of the debates, proposals, and actual changes at the Faculty focuses especially on Alfredo Lanari, who, at the First Congress on Medical Education, held by the Argentinean Medical Association in 1957, put forward ideas on clinical research, teaching, and health care that showed how complicated full-time work would be for someone with the professional profile of a clinical researcher.
Academic learning traditionally involves research, and the production of journal papers, books, etc. "Learning in academia" refers to academics becoming more skilful in what they do. It is what legal or medical clinicians would refer to as continuing professional education (or development) (CPE/D) which, by analogy, invokes the notion of CPE in…
Kusche, Kristopher P
The academic medical center is faced with the unique challenge of meeting the multi-faceted needs of both a modern healthcare organization and an academic institution, The need for security to protect patient information must be balanced by the academic freedoms expected in the college setting. The Albany Medical Center, consisting of the Albany Medical College and the Albany Medical Center Hospital, was challenged with implementing a solution that would preserve the availability, integrity and confidentiality of business, patient and research data stored on mobile devices. To solve this problem, Albany Medical Center implemented a mobile encryption suite across the enterprise. Such an implementation comes with complexities, from performance across multiple generations of computers and operating systems, to diversity of application use mode and end user adoption, all of which requires thoughtful policy and standards creation, understanding of regulations, and a willingness and ability to work through such diverse needs.
Sarikaya, Ozlem; Kalaca, Sibel; Yegen, Berrak C; Cali, Sanda
Self-assessment tools have previously been used to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching skills of medical educators. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching performances of faculty members in relation to their medical disciplines and academic positions. A faculty-training program consisted of "training skills" and "student assessment instruments" courses. The impact of the program was evaluated by self-reporting of faculty members (a total of 225 reports) 1-2 yr after the program. Both courses were found to be beneficial by nearly all of the attendants. Clinicians benefited more from some topics in the student assessment course and could apply the structured learning and assessment guides, structured oral examination, and objective structured clinical examination more efficiently than their peers from preclinical departments. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the participants of the faculty development program modified their teaching activities according to the demands of their clinical practice. The correlations between the benefits and behavioral changes were statistically significant.
Yedidia, Michael J; Chou, Jolene; Brownlee, Susan; Flynn, Linda; Tanner, Christine A
The current and projected nurse faculty shortage threatens the capacity to educate sufficient numbers of nurses for meeting demand. As part of an initiative to foster strategies for expanding educational capacity, a survey of a nationally representative sample of 3,120 full-time nurse faculty members in 269 schools and programs that offered at least one prelicensure degree program was conducted. Nearly 4 of 10 participants reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, and one third expressed an intent to leave academic nursing within 5 years. Major contributors to burnout were dissatisfaction with workload and perceived inflexibility to balance work and family life. Intent to leave was explained not only by age but by several potentially modifiable aspects of work, including dissatisfaction with workload, salary, and availability of teaching support. Preparing sufficient numbers of nurses to meet future health needs will require addressing those aspects of work-life that undermine faculty teaching capacity.
Bielska, Dorota; Trofimiuk, Emil; Kurpas, Donata
Within the framework of "Schedule of health care, economic and social policy pursuing to reduction of tobacco consumption" involving numerous institutions including universities, educated persons will be responsible for the treatment and prophylaxis of tobacco smoking-evoked diseases. The aim of this study was assessment of the tobacco smoking prevalence among undergraduates of last-year course of Medical Faculty and Nursing Faculty of Medical University of Bialystok and evaluation of theirs attitude in the face of the nicotinism question after 5 years of occupation. The percentage of tobacco smokers on Medical Faculty average out 27.7% and 17.8% on Nursing Faculty. Students of both faculties opined that nicotinism in Poland was a heavyweight issue (8 points in decagrade scale). Our data shown that about one third of assessed students have not to do with a nicotinism theme and were not acquired sufficient knowledge to help tobacco smoking patients. Thus, continuation of nictonism issue education within the framework of seminaries and classes of family medicine course in both faculties will be purposeful action.
Dakik, H A; Kaidbey, H; Sabra, R
Objective To analyse the quality and quantity of scientific publications of the medical faculty at the American University of Beirut (AUB) during a six year period (1996–2001) Methods The study included all faculty members in the medical school of AUB in the year 2001. A Medline search inclusive of the years 1996–2001 was done for each faculty member and a total number of 881 publications was obtained. Results The faculty consisted of 203 members. Their average productivity rate (mean (SD)) was 1.24 (1.38) publications/faculty member/year (PFY), with a mean impact factor of 2.69 (4.63). Eighteen per cent of the faculty did not have any publication in the six year study period, and only 20% had two or more publications per year. There was a significantly higher publication rate among newly recruited faculty members (0.93 (1.40) PFY for those appointed before 1990, 1.45 (1.24) PFY for those appointed during 1990–1995, and 1.67 (1.43) for those appointed after 1995, p = 0.007), and among those who are younger in age (p<0.01). Collaboration with international investigators resulted in more original publications than work done only at AUB (65% v 35%, p<0.001), and a higher journal impact factor for the publications (3.20 (3.85) v 1.71 (2.36), p<0.05). Conclusions This is one of the first studies that analyse the research productivity of the medical faculty in a university setting in a developing country. It shows a wide variation in the research productivity of the faculty members that seems to be related to individual as well as institutional characteristics. Further analysis is needed to define and characterise these factors. PMID:16822923
McLean, Michelle; Howarth, F. Christopher
While undergraduate research has been part of the learning culture in some disciplines for many years, it is only more recently that it is being included into mainstream medical curricula. Undergraduate medical students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, have several opportunities to undertake research…
Mohammadi, Mehdi; Marzooghi, Rahmatullah; Dehghani, Fatemeh
The following research tries to study the Relationship between key factors of academic innovations and faculties' teaching goals with the mediatory role of their pedagogical, technological and content knowledge. The statistical population in this research included faculty members of Shiraz University. By simple random sampling, 127 faculty members…
Vali, Leila; Izadi, Azar; Jahani, Yunes; Okhovati, Maryam
Introduction Education and research are two major functions of universities, which require proper and systematic exploitation of available knowledge and information. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the knowledge management status in an education system by considering the function of faculty members in creation and dissemination of knowledge. This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge management status among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models in 2015. Methods This was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 165 faculty members at the Kerman University of Medical Sciences, who were selected from seven faculties as weighted using a random stratified sampling method. The Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge management questionnaire consists of 26 questions in four dimensions of socialization, externalization, internalization, and combination. Scoring of questions was conducted using the five-point Likert scale. To analyze data, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were employed. Results The four dimensions in the Nonaka and Takeuchi model are based on optimal indicators (3.5), dimensions of combination, and externalization with an average of 3.3 were found in higher ranks and internalization and socialization had averages of 3.1 and 3. According to the findings of this study, the average knowledge management among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences was estimated to be 3.1, with a bit difference compared to the average. According to the results of t-tests, there was no significant relationship between gender and various dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). The findings of Kruskal-Wallis showed that there is no significant relationship between variables of age, academic rank, and type of faculty with regard to dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). In addition
Menon, Vikas; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Bhat, Ballambhattu Vishnu
Globally, there is increasing recognition about the positive benefits and impact of mentoring on faculty retention rates, career satisfaction and scholarly output. However, emphasis on research and practice of mentoring is comparatively meagre in low and middle income countries. In this commentary, we critically examine two existing models of mentorship for medical faculty and offer few suggestions for an integrated hybrid model that can be adapted for use in low resource settings.
Hochberg, Mark S; Seib, Carolyn D; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra R; Pachter, H Leon
Understanding how medical malpractice occurs and is resolved is important to improving patient safety and preserving the viability of a physician's career in academic medicine. Every physician is likely to be sued by a patient, and how the physician responds can change his or her professional life. However, the principles of medical malpractice are rarely taught or addressed during residency training. In fact, many faculty at academic medical centers know little about malpractice.In this article, the authors propose that information about the inciting causes of malpractice claims and their resolution should be incorporated into residency professionalism curricula both to improve patient safety and to decrease physician anxiety about a crucial aspect of medicine that is not well understood. The authors provide information on national trends in malpractice litigation and residents' understanding of malpractice, then share the results of their in-depth review of surgical malpractice claims filed during 2001-2008 against their academic medical center. The authors incorporated those data into an evidence-driven curriculum for residents, which they propose as a model for helping residents better understand the events that lead to malpractice litigation, as well as its process and prevention.
This study examined faculty views on academic writing and writing instruction. Data reported in this article came from ten qualitative interviews with business and engineering faculty members. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed inductively and recursively, and two views on academic writing and writing instruction were identified. One view…
Rupprecht, Stephen M.
The issue of student academic misconduct, most often seen as cheating or plagiarism, has plagued higher education professionals and institutions for decades. Negative faculty member feelings associated with having to deal with incidents of student academic misconduct are well documented, and only serve to support reasons why faculty members might…
DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Bravo, Antonio, Jr.
African American and Latino college students were surveyed to examine the influence of involvement with faculty and mentoring on self-efficacy and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that involvement with faculty and mentoring were related to greater academic achievement. It was suggested that the relationship of these factors was mediated…
Graber, David R.; Bellack, Janis P.; Musham, Catherine; O'Neil, Edward H.
A survey of academic deans (n=100) in universities associated with medical and osteopathy schools found that administrators' attitudes about curriculum content are being influenced by changes in health care delivery and an increasingly generalist orientation. There appears to be support for medical school curricula fostering a broader, more…
Al-Naggar, Redhwan A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.
There is a lack of data about the levels of satisfaction among medical students in regards to their academic activities in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fill the gap in the existing knowledge. A cross sectional study was carried out at the International medical school, the Management and Science University of Malaysia,…
Štourač, Petr; Komenda, Martin; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina; Gregor, Jakub; Hůlek, Richard; Smékalová, Olga; Křikava, Ivo; Štoudek, Roman; Dušek, Ladislav
Background Medical Faculties Network (MEFANET) has established itself as the authority for setting standards for medical educators in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, 2 independent countries with similar languages that once comprised a federation and that still retain the same curricular structure for medical education. One of the basic goals of the network is to advance medical teaching and learning with the use of modern information and communication technologies. Objective We present the education portal AKUTNE.CZ as an important part of the MEFANET’s content. Our focus is primarily on simulation-based tools for teaching and learning acute medicine issues. Methods Three fundamental elements of the MEFANET e-publishing system are described: (1) medical disciplines linker, (2) authentication/authorization framework, and (3) multidimensional quality assessment. A new set of tools for technology-enhanced learning have been introduced recently: Sandbox (works in progress), WikiLectures (collaborative content authoring), Moodle-MEFANET (central learning management system), and Serious Games (virtual casuistics and interactive algorithms). The latest development in MEFANET is designed for indexing metadata about simulation-based learning objects, also known as electronic virtual patients or virtual clinical cases. The simulations assume the form of interactive algorithms for teaching and learning acute medicine. An anonymous questionnaire of 10 items was used to explore students’ attitudes and interests in using the interactive algorithms as part of their medical or health care studies. Data collection was conducted over 10 days in February 2013. Results In total, 25 interactive algorithms in the Czech and English languages have been developed and published on the AKUTNE.CZ education portal to allow the users to test and improve their knowledge and skills in the field of acute medicine. In the feedback survey, 62 participants completed the online questionnaire (13
Fercovic, C; de la Fuente, M; Garrido, S; Mondaca, A; Cid, M
All sick leaves during 1989 among academics and students of a Faculty of Medicine were analyzed. Twenty three percent of academics and 60.5% of students had at least one sick leave during the year. The mean general rate of absenteeism among academics was 3.55% (1.6% among men and 8.09% among women). The mean length of sick leaves was 13.5 days. Eighteen percent of lost working days were due to pregnancy, lactation or care needs of less than one year children. Tumors, trauma, respiratory, digestive and mental illnesses accounted for 72.8% of lost working days. Medical students had a mean general absenteeism rate of 2.66% (ranging between 1.8% among male sixth year and 4.8% among female fourth year students). Mean length of sick leaves was 3.5 days (ranging from 2.98 among female fifth year and 6.7 among male sixth year students). Respiratory, digestive and infectious diseases accounted for 74% of lost days. No sick leaves were observed, due to pregnancy or lactation among students or due to occupational diseases among academics.
Sorg, Heiko; Knobloch, Karsten
Background: First quantitative evaluation of the requirements for the promotion as associate professor (AP) at German Medical Faculties Material and methods: Analysis of the AP-regulations of German Medical Faculties according to a validated scoring system, which has been adapted to this study. Results: The overall scoring for the AP-requirements at 35 German Medical Faculties was 13.5±0.6 of 20 possible scoring points (95% confidence interval 12.2-14.7). More than 88% of the AP-regulations demand sufficient performance in teaching and research with adequate scientific publication. Furthermore, 83% of the faculties expect an expert review of the candidate´s performance. Conference presentations required as an assistant professor as well as the reduction of the minimum time as an assistant professor do only play minor roles. Conclusion: The requirements for assistant professors to get nominated as an associate professor at German Medical Faculties are high with an only small range. In detail, however, it can be seen that there still exists large heterogeneity, which hinders equal opportunities and career possibilities. These data might be used for the ongoing objective discussion. PMID:23255964
Louie, Kem; Campbell, Minnie; Donaghy, Claire P; Rice, Leslie; Sabatini, Michelle
The purpose of this article was to describe a successful academic collaboration of 4 New Jersey state colleges and universities. The aim of the collaborative is to prepare and graduate students in a dual role as advanced clinical/practice nurses and nurse faculty within an innovative master of nursing educational program. This effort was funded by a 4-year grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation NJ Nursing Initiative and the New Jersey Chamber of Commerce. The New Jersey Nursing Education Collaborative (NJNEC) is discussed using E. O'Neil and P. Krauel's (2004) factors for an effective collaborative. The four factors for an effective partnership include a coherent institutional strategy, partners that bring value and assets to the collaborative, mutually beneficial goals, and accountability to each other. The NJNEC is composed of four independent state colleges and universities with separate governing structures and student characteristics. The four schools are located in different geographical locations in the state. Several challenging issues in preparation of faculty and maintaining a collaborative will be presented for future consideration.
Focuses on the University of Toronto (Canada) forestry faculty; university president Robert Falconer's firing of W. N. Millar, an outspoken professor; and the politically sensitive university climate during early 20th century. Dissention over Millar's firing brought focus on limited academic freedom of speech and caused further restriction of…
Minor, Tameika D.
This study investigates the relationships between demographic characteristics, perceptions of the academic climate, and the employment continuation plans of tenured and tenure-track faculty of color in CORE accredited rehabilitation counselor education (RCE) programs. Furthermore, this study aims to identify which factors best predict the…
Wilkin, La Vena
This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…
Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate
This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…
Méndez, Zulma Y.; Rincones, Rodolfo
This case explores the complexity and dilemmas that faculty and academic administrators at Southwestern University (SU) encountered as they engaged in the development and establishment of a partnership with the local city's school districts. The partnership--carried at SU's College of Science but funded and based through a university-based…
Bradford, Jane T.; And Others
Academic Computing Services staff and University librarians at Stetson University (DeLand, Florida) designed and implemented a three-day Internet workshop for interested faculty. The workshop included both hands-on lab sessions and discussions covering e-mail, telnet, ftp, Gopher, and World Wide Web. The planning, preparation of the lab and…
Shochet, Robert B; Cayea, Danelle; Levine, Rachel B; Wright, Scott M
The case presentation is a time-honored tradition in clinical medicine, and medical journals and national conferences have provided a forum for this type of scholarship for more than a century. Case presentations can also be used by educators as a means to understand challenging learner experiences, and by doing so, lead to advances in the practice of medical education. Medical school faculty are asked to serve in student advisor roles, yet best practices for student advising are not known. Unlike clinicians, who often discuss difficult patient cases, medical educators do not typically have opportunities to discuss challenging student cases to learn how best to support trainees. In this commentary, the authors-from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Colleges Advisory Program (CAP), a longitudinal advising program with the goal of promoting personal and professional development of students-describe the novel quarterly Advisory Case Conference, where medical student cases can be confidentially presented and discussed by faculty advisors, along with relevant literature reviews, to enhance faculty advising skills for students. As medical student advising needs often vary, CAP advisors employ adult learning principles and emphasize shared responsibility between advisor and advisee as keys to successful advising. Unlike traditional clinical case conferences, the Advising Case Conference format encourages advisors to share perspectives about the cases by working in small groups to exchange ideas and role-play solutions. This model may be applicable to other schools or training programs wishing to enhance faculty advising skills.
KOHOULAT, NAEIMEH; HAYAT, ALI ASGHAR; DEHGHANI, MOHAMMAD REZA; KOJURI, JAVAD; AMINI, MITRA
Introduction: Research shows that there is a relationship between students’ perceptions of classroom and learning environment and their cognitive, affective, emotional and behavioral outcomes, so, in this study the relationship between medical students’ perception of learning environment and academic emotions was examined. Method: The research method used was descriptive-correlative. The statistical population consisted of medical students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Stratified sampling method was used to select 342 participants. They completed self-report questionnaires of Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) and Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). All descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlations and simultaneous multiple regression were performed using SPSS 14 software. Results: Simultaneous multiple regression of the students’ perceived learning environment on their academic achievement emotions showed that the perceived learning environment predicts the students’ academic emotions. Conclusion: PMID:28367464
HOSSEINI, SEYYED NASROLLAH; MOHSENI BAND PEY, ANOSHIRAVAN; HOSSEINI, SEYYED ALI; KARAMI MATIN, BEHZAD; MIRZAEI ALAVIJEH, MEHDI; JALILIAN, FARZAD
Introduction Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival aims to improve the quality of medical education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and has held since 2008. The present study was performed to determine the satisfaction level of Iranian medical universities’ faculty members about holding Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival during the past six years, from 2008 to 2014. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 473 faculty members (FMs) including deputies and educational administrators, managers, and faculty members of medical education development centers, members of scientific committees, and faculty members who participated in Shahid Motahari Festival from 42 medical sciences universities in Iran. Data collection instruments were two reliable and valid questionnaires on the background and also participants’ satisfaction towards Shahid Motahari Educational Festival. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software, version 14. Results Among all participants, 30 FMs (6.3%) were educational deputies, 36 FMs (7.6%) managers of medical education development centers, 226 FMs (56.2%) members of scientific committees, 29 FMs (6.1%) members of the national committees, 343 FMs (27.5%) attendees, and 264 FMs (55.8%) had participated for retraining. The total satisfaction level of the participants was 73.3% which shows a good satisfaction level. Conclusion The results identified the main important strength points such as “proposals’ review process at the country level” and weakness points such as “organizing the festival”. PMID:26457313
Toker, Asaf; Urkin, Jacob; Bloch, Yuval
The Joyce and Irving Goldman School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences at the Ben Gurion University of the Negev encourages students to take part in the development and evaluation of the teaching experience. These special relations between the school and the students contribute not only to changes in the curriculum but also to increased involvement of faculty and students in the community. This article reviews the special relationship between the Faculty of Health Sciences and its medical students through the Medical Students Association (ASRN). During the last decade, BGU medical students have initiated innovative programmes some of which have recently become integrated into the curriculum. These include: prevention of sexual violence among youth, decreasing white-coat fear in small children ('Teddy Bear hospital') and participation in home-hospice activities. By encouraging students to become equal partners in faculty development and rejecting the traditional paternalistic mode of teacher-student relationships, the faculty has created an improved learning experience, and increased student motivation and levels of communication between the teachers and the future clinicians.
Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Frank, Rachel M.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.
Background: Research productivity is considered an important factor in academic advancement in sports medicine. No study to date has evaluated academic productivity and correlates of academic rank for sports medicine fellowship faculty. Purpose: To describe the academic productivity of American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) fellowship program faculty and to determine the association between academic productivity, fellowship characteristics, and academic rank. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Characteristics of orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs were obtained from the AOSSM and program websites. Metrics of academic productivity (Hirsch index [h index], I-10 index, publications, citations, and number of publications in several journals) were obtained from Scopus. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine whether academic productivity differs with fellowship attributes and academic rank. Results: A total of 90 AOSSM sports medicine fellowship programs with 610 associated faculty members were identified. Faculty were predominantly male (94%), at academic medical centers (74%), members of AOSSM (71%), and sports medicine–fellowship trained (84%). Faculty had a median of 18 (range, 0-684) publications overall, including a median of 3 (range, 0-161) publications since 2012. All measures of academic productivity were significantly higher among faculty employed at academic medical centers compared with those not employed at academic centers (P < .05 in all cases). On multivariate ordinal regression analysis, the best correlates of higher academic rank were higher cumulative h index (1.22; P < .001) and longer time in practice since fellowship (1.14; P < .001), which predicted 63.8% of the variance in academic rank. Fellowships with a larger number of fellows had more publications and citations per faculty member, higher faculty cumulative h index, and more publications in the American Journal of Sports Medicine
This volume is intended as a sourcebook on the negotiated terms of faculty work and as a sociological analysis of the restructuring of faculty as a professional workforce. Two overarching issues are addressed: the balance between faculty self-government and managerial flexibility in contracts, and the internal divisions between faculty that are…
Ismail, Noor Azina; Othman, Azmah
University Malaya enrolls students from all states in Malaysia as well as a small number of students from overseas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of past performance on students at three faculties, namely, Faculty of Economics and Administration(FEA), Faculty of Business and Accounting(FBA) and Faculty of Arts and Social…
Wigton, Robert S.; Waldman, Robert S.
The University of Nebraska Medical Center has developed a system for academic appointments that retains tenure but removes traditional time and promotion requirements. The system is designed to reward all faculty for academic work, reduce stress on new faculty, and improve recruitment, especially of clinicians and allied health professionals. (MSE)
Sklar, David P; Richards, Michael; Shah, Mark; Roth, Paul
Disaster preparedness and disaster response should be a capability of all academic health centers. The authors explore the potential role and impact of academic medical centers (AMC)s in disaster response. The National Disaster Medical System and the evolution of disaster medical assistance teams (DMAT) are described, and the experience at one AMC with DMAT is reviewed. The recent deployment of a DMAT sponsored by an AMC to the Hurricane Katrina disaster is described, and the experience is used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges of future disaster medical training, research, and practice at AMCs. AMCs are encouraged to identify an appropriate academic unit to house and nurture disaster-preparedness activities, participate in education programs for health professionals and the public, and perform research on disaster epidemiology and response. Networks of AMCs offer the potential of acting as a critical resource for those AMCs stricken by a disaster and for communities needing the infusion of highly trained and motivated health care providers. The Association of American Medical Colleges can play a critical role in assisting and coordinating AMC networks through its relationship with all AMCs and the federal government and by increasing the awareness of medical educators and researchers about this important, emerging area of medical knowledge.
Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A
Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.
Whittaker, Joseph A.; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Martinez Acosta, Veronica G.
The student and faculty make-up of academic institutions does not represent national demographics. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately underrepresented nationally, and particularly at predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Although significant efforts and funding have been committed to increasing points of access or recruitment of under-represented minority (URM) students and faculty at PWIs, these individuals have not been recruited and retained at rates that reflect their national proportions. Underrepresentation of URMs is particularly prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. This reality represents a national crisis given a predicted shortage of workers in STEM disciplines based on current rates of training of all individuals, majority and URM, and the intersection of this limitation with persistent challenges in the recruitment, training, retention and advancement of URMs who will soon represent the largest pool of future trainees. An additional compounding factor is the increasingly disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities at higher professorial and administrative ranks, thus limiting the pool of potential mentors who are correlated with successful shepherding of URM students through STEM training and development. We address issues related to improving recruitment and retention of URM faculty that are applicable across a range of academic institutions. We describe challenges with recruitment and retention of URM faculty and their advancement through promotion in the faculty ranks and into leadership positions. We offer specific recommendations, including identifying environmental barriers to diversity and implementing strategies for their amelioration, promoting effective and innovative mentoring, and addressing leadership issues related to constructive change for promoting diversity. PMID:26240521
Whittaker, Joseph A; Montgomery, Beronda L; Martinez Acosta, Veronica G
The student and faculty make-up of academic institutions does not represent national demographics. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately underrepresented nationally, and particularly at predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Although significant efforts and funding have been committed to increasing points of access or recruitment of under-represented minority (URM) students and faculty at PWIs, these individuals have not been recruited and retained at rates that reflect their national proportions. Underrepresentation of URMs is particularly prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. This reality represents a national crisis given a predicted shortage of workers in STEM disciplines based on current rates of training of all individuals, majority and URM, and the intersection of this limitation with persistent challenges in the recruitment, training, retention and advancement of URMs who will soon represent the largest pool of future trainees. An additional compounding factor is the increasingly disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities at higher professorial and administrative ranks, thus limiting the pool of potential mentors who are correlated with successful shepherding of URM students through STEM training and development. We address issues related to improving recruitment and retention of URM faculty that are applicable across a range of academic institutions. We describe challenges with recruitment and retention of URM faculty and their advancement through promotion in the faculty ranks and into leadership positions. We offer specific recommendations, including identifying environmental barriers to diversity and implementing strategies for their amelioration, promoting effective and innovative mentoring, and addressing leadership issues related to constructive change for promoting diversity.
Bourgeois, James A; Hategan, Ana; Azzam, Amin
The competency-based medical education movement has been adopted in several medical education systems across the world. This has the potential to result in a more active involvement of residents in the educational process, inasmuch as scholarship is regarded as a major area of competency. Substantial scholarly activities are well within the reach of motivated residents, especially when faculty members provide sufficient mentoring. These academically empowered residents have the advantage of early experience in the areas of scholarly discovery, integration, application, and teaching. Herein, the authors review the importance of instituting the germinal stages of scholarly productivity in the creation of an active scholarly culture during residency. Clear and consistent institutional and departmental strategies to promote scholarly development during residency are highly encouraged.
Medical school professors and lecturers are often called to be practicing clinicians, researchers in their own field, in addition to executing their education and curricular responsibilities. Some further accumulate healthcare management responsibilities. These areas pose conflicting demands on time and intellectual activity, but despite their apparent differences, knowledge and skills from management, leadership and informatics may prove useful in helping to smooth these conflicts and hence increase personal effectiveness in these areas. This article tries to clarify some concepts and advance why training in management, leadership and health informatics would seem particularly useful for the medical academic. As opposed to the idea of educational dispersion/specialization, the concept of an integrative tetrahedronal education framework is advanced as a way to plan workshops and other faculty development activities which could be implemented transnationally as well as locally.
This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…
Frisse, Mark E.
An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…
Euben, Donna R.; Thornton, Saranna R.
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) entitles many faculty members to 12 weeks of job-protected unpaid leave each year to take care of a serious health condition or a family obligation such as the birth of a child, the arrival of an adoptive or foster child, or the serious health condition of a spouse, child, or parent. This guidebook is a…
Kazley, Abby Swanson; Annan, Dustin L.; Carson, Nancy E.; Freeland, Melissa; Hodge, Ashley B.; Seif, Gretchen A.; Zoller, James S.
A college of health professions at a medical university located in the southeastern United States is striving to increase the use of educational technology among faculty, staff, and students. A strategic planning group was formed and charged with enhancing the use of educational technology within the college. In order to understand the current…
Srinivasan, Malathi; Pratt, Daniel D.; Collins, John; Bowe, Constance M.; Stevenson, Frazier T.; Pinney, Stephen J.; Wilkes, Michael S.
Objective: At the University of California, Davis (UCD), the authors sought to develop an institutional network of reflective educational leaders. The authors wanted to enhance faculty understanding of medical education's complexity, and improve educators' effectiveness as regional/national leaders. Methods: The UCD Teaching Scholars Program is a…
Zayim, Nese; Yildirim, Soner; Saka, Osman
Despite large investments by higher education institutions in technology for faculty and student use, instructional technology is not being integrated into instruction in higher education institutions including medical education institutions. While the diffusion of instructional technologies has reached a saturation point among early adopters of…
Greenberg, Ruth B; Ziegler, Craig H; Borges, Nicole J; Elam, Carol L; Stratton, Terry D; Woods, Sheila
Little is known about how medical students view academic medicine. This multi-institutional study explored student perceptions of this career path. During 2009-2010, third- and fourth-year students at three United States medical schools completed a 30-item online survey. In total, 239 students completed the questionnaire (37 % response rate). Significant predictors of students' desires for academic medical careers included interest in teaching (γ = 0.74), research (γ = 0.53), interprofessional practice (γ = 0.34), administration (γ = 0.27), and community service opportunities (γ = 0.16). A positive correlation existed between accumulated debt and interest in academic medicine (γ = 0.20). Student descriptions of the least and most appealing aspects of academic medicine were classified into five categories: professional, research, personal, teaching and mentoring, and patients/patient care. Students are more likely to be interested in a career in academic medicine if they have participated in research or were influenced by a mentor. Factors that may also influence a medical student's decision to pursue a career in academic medicine include age and debt accumulated prior to medical school. Professional aspects of academic medicine (cutting edge environment, resources) and the opportunity to teach were the most appealing aspects.
Fagan, Mark J.; Reinert, Steven E.; Diaz, Joseph A.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Little is known about the differences in attitudes of medical students, Internal Medicine residents, and faculty Internists toward the physical examination. We sought to investigate these groups’ self-confidence in and perceived utility of physical examination skills. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional survey of third- and fourth-year medical students, Internal Medicine residents, and faculty Internists at an academic teaching hospital. MEASUREMENTS Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, respondents indicated their self-confidence in overall physical examination skill, as well as their ability to perform 14 individual skills, and how useful they felt the overall physical examination, and each skill, to be for yielding clinically important information. RESULTS The response rate was 80% (302/376). The skills with overall mean self-confidence ratings less than “neutral” were interpreting a diastolic murmur (2.9), detecting a thyroid nodule (2.8), and the nondilated fundoscopic examination using an ophthalmoscope to assess retinal vasculature (2.5). No skills had a mean utility rating less than neutral. The skills with the greatest numerical differences between mean self-confidence and perceived utility were distinguishing between a mole and melanoma (1.5), detecting a thyroid nodule (1.4), and interpreting a diastolic murmur (1.3). Regarding overall self-confidence, third-year students’ ratings (3.3) were similar to those of first-year residents (3.4; p = .95) but less than those of fourth-year students (3.8; p = .002), upper-level residents (3.7; p = .01), and faculty Internists (3.9; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS Self-confidence in the physical exam does not necessarily increase at each stage of training. The differences found between self-confidence and perceived utility for a number of skills suggest important areas for educational interventions. PMID:17922165
Background Much of the work of teachers and leaders at academic health centers involves engaging learners and faculty members in shared goals. Strategies to do so, however, are seldom informed by empirically-supported theories of human motivation. Discussion This article summarizes a substantial body of motivational research that yields insights and approaches of importance to academic faculty leaders. After identification of key limitations of traditional rewards-based (i.e., incentives, or 'carrots and sticks’) approaches, key findings are summarized from the science of self-determination theory. These findings demonstrate the importance of fostering autonomous motivation by supporting the fundamental human needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In turn, these considerations lead to specific recommendations about approaches to engaging autonomous motivation, using examples in academic health centers. Summary Since supporting autonomous motivation maximizes both functioning and well-being (i.e., people are both happier and more productive), the approaches recommended will help academic health centers recruit, retain, and foster the success of learners and faculty members. Such goals are particularly important to address the multiple challenges confronting these institutions. PMID:24215369
Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann
Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past 20 years. Although the academic physician's triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic health centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. The authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multipronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met five times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles, and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers.
Olmos, Martin; Corrin, Linda
The developing field of academic analytics seeks to turn data from educational systems into actionable intelligence for the improvement of teaching and learning. This paper reports on the implementation of analytics in a new medical school with an integrated curriculum and clinical focus. Analytics addressed two challenges in the curriculum:…
Waghmare, Lalitbhushan S; Rawekar, Alka; Mishra, Ved Prakash
Introduction Medical education can be enormously benefitted from research. Since clinicians/medical teachers are directly involved in teaching learning processes, they should participate in Educational Research (ER) practices to generate evidence and insights about teaching learning. Faculty Development Program (FDP) has a positive influence amongst health professionals and therefore can prove to be of consequence in instilling a strong educational research culture. Aim Present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a Faculty Development Fellowship Program in Medical Education to foster educational research culture amongst medical teachers. Materials and Methods Study utilized the Kirkpatrick model of program evaluation for evaluating the fellowship program. It aimed to evaluate the third level of the model i.e., “Change in Behaviour” of participants (n=40) after completion of the course. The tool used was a pre-validated survey questionnaire consisting of five items. Results Study population was sparsely aware about educational research and had never attempted the same (100%) before joining the fellowship program. A 32.5% faculty with average professional experience of seven years undertook new educational projects after the fellowship and knowledge gained during fellowship program helped them in guiding educational research (coded into four categories) at their workplaces. Conclusion There is a need, to direct effort towards focused training for educational research through FDPs for medical teachers. This will encourage academicians and clinicians to become active in ER and guide policies in Teaching Learning Practices in Medical Education. PMID:28208883
Dorr, David A.; Kelso, Christine; Bowen, Judith L.
Background The quality of care for diabetes continues to fall short of recommended guidelines and results. Models for improving the care of chronic illnesses advocate a multidisciplinary team approach. Yet little is known about the effectiveness of such models in an academic setting with a diverse patient population and resident physicians participating in clinical care. Objective To implement a chronic illness management (CIM) practice within an academic setting with part-time providers, and evaluate its impact on the completion of diabetes-specific care processes and on the achievement of recommended outcomes for patients with diabetes mellitus. Design Retrospective cohort study Subjects Patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who receive their primary care in an academic general internal medicine resident-faculty practice. Measurements Process and outcomes measures in patients exposed to the CIM practice were compared with non-exposed patients receiving usual care. Main Results Five hundred and sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. Patients in the CIM practice experienced a significant increase in completion of care processes compared to control patients for measurement of annual low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7–5.7), urine microalbumin (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1–5.5), blood pressure (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.8), retinal examination (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7), foot monofilament examination (OR 4.2, 95% CI 3.0–6.1) and administration of pneumococcal vaccination (OR 5.2, 95% CI 3.0–9.3). CIM-exposed patients were also more likely to achieve improvements in clinical outcomes of glycemic and blood pressure control reflected by hemoglobin A1c less than 7.0% (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.02–3) and blood pressure less than 130/80 (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.1–4.5) compared to controls. Conclusions A systematic chronic care model can be successfully integrated into an academic general internal medicine practice and may result in improved
The results of a survey in different medical faculties in Europe, after the distribution of a dedicated questionnaire, are presented and compared with those obtained 10 years ago in a similar manner. In particular, the situation in France, Germany, Italy and Poland shows the decrease of Parasitology Departments in many Faculties, as well as the reduction of the number of hours dedicated to this discipline in independent courses. Additional information is provided from several other countries. European situation is compared with that of North, South America, China and Southeast Asia. Some suggestions are given to improve the scenario.
Houlton, H. R.; Keane, C. M.; Wilson, C. E.
Most Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines have a direct recruiting method of high school science courses to supply their undergraduate majors. However, recruitment and retention of students into geoscience academic programs, who will be the future workforce, remains an important issue. The geoscience community is reaching a critical point in its ability to supply enough geoscientists to meet the current and near-future demand. Previous work done by Houlton (2010) determined that undergraduate geoscience majors follow distinct pathways when pursuing their degree and career. These pathways are comprised of students' interests, experiences, goals and career aspirations, which are depicted in six pathway steps. Three population groups were determined from the original 17 participants, which exhibited differences in pathway trajectories. Continued data collection efforts developed and refined the pathway framework. As part of an informal workshop activity, data were collected from 27 participants who are underrepresented minority early-career and future faculty in the geosciences. In addition, 20 geoscience departments' Heads and Chairs participated in an online survey about their pathway trajectories. Pathways were determined from each of these new sample populations and compared against the original geoscience undergraduate student participants. Several pathway components consistently spanned across sample populations. Identification of these themes have illuminated broad geoscience-related interests, experiences and aspirations that can be used to broadly impact recruitment and retention initiatives for our discipline. Furthermore, fundamental differences between participants' ages, stages in career and racial/ethnic backgrounds have exhibited subtle nuances in their geoscience pathway trajectories. In particular, those who've had research experiences, who think "creativity" is an important aspect of a geoscience career and those who
Wehbe, Firas H; Spickard, Anderson
Many medical schools currently provide electronic access to their medical curriculum. In order to better develop and evaluate online curricular databases, knowledge of the interaction of students and faculty with such systems is required. The KnowledeMap application provides a web interface for students, faculty and administrators to perform NLP-assisted searches for documents from the entire medical curriculum. The pilot implementation of KM in a first year anatomy course was evaluated. Data was collected from the web-server log files over two years, a paper survey at the end of the course, and structured interviews with students and faculty members. The data showed complete adoption of KM. Analysis of usage patterns showed that most of the students chose to browse for current course material rather than to search for related medical concepts in future courses. Analysis of the interviews identified key concepts relating to the students' utilization of KM for their learning tasks. The impact of KM on medical pedagogy is discussed in light of our results.
Newland, Myrna C; Newland, James R; Steele, David J; Lough, Diana R; McCurdy, Fredrick A
The authors describe the faculty development program at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Faculty needs were identified in instructional skill development, academic socialization and mentoring. Committees with campus-wide representation designed the instructional activities. Among the total 749 faculty, 59% attended at least one faculty development offering consisting of one and two-day institutes or two-hour luncheon workshops in the past five years. Evaluations ranked each event highly for quality, relevance, impact on teaching and usefulness. Experiences in creating a successful faculty development program at an academic medical center are reported. Success was measured by attendee numbers and increased participation of faculty in teaching and mentoring. Factors contributing to this success include generous financial support by leadership, broad-based planning and administrative support.
Student-faculty partnerships position students as informants, participants, and change agents in collaboration with faculty members. Enacting one form of such collaboration, Bryn Mawr College's SaLT program pairs faculty members and undergraduate students in explorations of pedagogical practice. The program provides both context and case study for…
Murray, John P.
To better understand the perceptions of new faculty regarding the professional socialization process, a qualitative study of faculty socialization was conducted at a comprehensive state-supported university. Fourteen faculty members hired within the last 3 years, whether inexperienced, experienced, or returning (those who had worked in another…
Kim, Dongbin; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Twombly, Susan
Using the 2003 Survey of Doctoral Recipients, we examined satisfaction and research productivity of international faculty as compared to U.S. faculty. The study found that foreign-born, foreign-educated faculty are significantly more productive than their U.S. counterparts after controlling for personal, professional, and institutional variables.…
Recommendations of the German Society for Medical Education and the German Association of Medical Faculties regarding university-specific assessments during the study of human, dental and veterinary medicine.
Jünger, Jana; Just, Ingo
The practice of assessing student performance in human, dental and veterinary medicine at universities in German-speaking countries has undergone significant changes in the past decade. Turning the focus to practical requirements regarding medical practice during undergraduate study away from an often theory-dominated curriculum, the academic scrutiny of the basics of teaching medical knowledge and skills, and amendments to legislation, all require ongoing adjustments to curricula and the ways in which assessments are done during undergraduate medical education. To establish quality standards, the Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung (GMA German Society for Medical Education) reached a consensus in 2008 on recommendations for administering medical school-specific exams which have now been updated and approved by the GMA assessments committee, together with the Medizinischer Fakultätentag (MFT German Association of Medical Faculties), as recommendations for the administration of high-quality assessments.
Wu, Lijuan; Wang, Youxin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Song, Manshu; Guo, Xiuhua; Nelson, Hugh; Wang, Wei
Context The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. Purpose We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Content Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP). The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. Conclusion The future education reforms might include: 1) a domestic system of ‘credits’ that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2) International – a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to the Bologna Accord
Chung, Stephen W.; Clifton, Joanne S.; Rowe, Andrea J.; Finley, Richard J.; Warnock, Garth L.
Background Research is an important mandate for academic surgical divisions. However, there is widespread concern that the current health care climate is leading to a decline in research activity. A University of British Columbia (UBC) academic surgical division attempted to address this concern by strategically recruiting PhD research scientists to prioritize research and develop collaborative research programs. The objective of our study was to determine whether this strategy resulted in increased research productivity. Methods We reviewed the UBC Department of Surgery database to assess research funding obtained by the Division of General Surgery for the years 1994–2004. We searched MEDLINE for peer-reviewed publications by faculty members during this period. Results Research funding increased from a mean of Can$417 292 per year in the 5 years (1994/95–1998/99) before the recruitment of dedicated PhD scientists to a mean of Can$1.3 million per year in the 5 years following the recruitment strategy (1999/2000–2003/04; p = 0.012). Funding for the initial 5 years was Can$2.1 million, including 1 Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grant. Funding increased to Can$6.8 million, including 22 CIHR grants over the subsequent 5 years (p < 0.001). Collaborative research led to the awarding of multidisciplinary grants exceeding Can$4 million with divisional members as principle or coprinciple investigators. From 1994/05 to 1998/99, the total number of peer-reviewed publications was 116 (mean 23.2, standard deviation [SD] 7 per year), increasing to 144 from 1999/2000 to 2003/04 (mean 28.8, SD 13 per year). The trend was for publications in journals with higher impact factors in the latter 5-year period. Conclusion Strategic recruitment resulted in increased and sustained research productivity. Interactions between research scientists and clinicians resulted in successful program grant funding support. These results have implications for sustaining the
Kosower, E; Berman, N
This article compares resident and faculty learning strategies and styles and considers implications for teaching. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was administered to 17 pediatric residents and 22 faculty in a pediatric department of an urban university-affiliated public medical center in 1991. Four scales--concrete experience (CE), reflective observation (RO), abstract conceptualization (AC), and active experimentation (AE)--are derived from self-ranking groups of words. Combining strategies leads to one of four styles: accommodator, diverger, converger, or assimilator. Analysis of variance and chi-square statistics were used to analyze strongest strategies and styles and to compare groups. It was found that resident and faculty preferred learning strategies and styles were significantly different. Resident strategies were spread primarily between concrete experience (40.5%) and active experimentation (40.5%), whereas faculty clearly preferred abstract conceptualization (77%). Most residents had either an accommodator or diverger learning style (81%), whereas most faculty were either assimilators or convergers (73%). This knowledge of learning strategy preferences and styles may have implications for design and delivery of instruction to residents.
Kaddam, Lamis; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa
The physiology course in our department consists of lectures, laboratory sessions, and tutorials, all of which are teacher centered, as well as student-led seminars. The overall aim of this project was to investigate student perceptions of the value of varying academic activities on their learning of physiology. A faculty-based descriptive study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of Alneelain University (Khartoum, Sudan). Questionnaires (150 total) were distributed to students from the Schools of Medicine, Dentistry, and Physiotherapy; 127 questionnaires were completed and returned. The results showed that 108 students (85%) believed that their absence from different academic activities could affect their performance. Students perceived lectures as the most valuable academic activity (90.7%), whereas seminars presented by students were perceived as the least important activity (18.5%). There was a significant correlation between lectures attendance and their performance in examinations (P = 0.008). Ninety percent of the students thought that teacher involvement in tutorials was essential and that lectures were useful to understand certain topics. These results showed that in our course, students perceived teacher involvement as a key component of the educational process.
Komenda, Martin; Víta, Martin; Vaitsis, Christos; Schwarz, Daniel; Pokorná, Andrea; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav
Background No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution’s curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. Objective We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations. Methods We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom’s taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets. Results We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent
Fay, Jack R.; Stryker, Judson P.
A study was done of higher education faculty members' views of ethics in relation to academics and the use of a professor's own text or a fellow faculty member's text as a course requirement. A questionnaire was sent to 210 accounting professors selected at random of whom 53 percent responded. The response rate alone indicated a widespread…
Kennedy, David W; Kagan, Sarah H; Abramson, Kelly Brennen; Boberick, Cheryl; Kaiser, Larry R
The interface between established values of academic medicine and the trend toward inpatient amenities units requires close examination. Opinions of such units can be polarized, reflecting traditional reservations about the ethical dilemma of offering exclusive services only to an elite patient group. An amenities unit was developed at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in 2007, using an approach that integrated academic medicine values with the benefits of philanthropy and service excellence to make amenities unit services available to all patients. Given inherent internal political concerns, a broadly based steering committee of academic and hospital leadership was developed. An academically appropriate model was conceived, anchored by four principles: (1) integration of academic values, (2) interdisciplinary senior leadership, (3) service excellence, and (4) recalibrated occupancy expectations based on multiple revenue streams. Foremost is ensuring the same health care is afforded all patients throughout the hospital, thereby overcoming ethical challenges and optimizing teaching experiences. Service excellence frames the service ethic for all staff, and this, in addition to luxury hotel-style amenities, differentiates the style and feel of the unit from others in the hospital. Recalibrated occupancy creates program viability given revenue streams redefined to encompass gifts and patient revenue, including both reimbursement and self-pay. The medical-surgical amenities patient-care unit has enjoyed a successful first year and a growing stream of returning patients and admitting physicians. Implications for other academic medical centers include opportunities to extrapolate service excellence throughout the hospital and to cultivate philanthropy to benefit services throughout the medical center.
Stein, Daniel; Chen, Christopher; Ackerly, D Clay
Numerous academic medicine leaders have argued that academic referral centers must prepare for the growing importance of accountability-driven payment models by adopting population health initiatives. Although this shift has merit, execution of this strategy will prove significantly more problematic than most observers have appreciated. The authors describe how successful implementation of an accountable care health strategy within a referral academic medical center (AMC) requires navigating a critical tension: The academic referral business model, driven by tertiary-level care, is fundamentally in conflict with population health. Referral AMCs that create successful value-driven population health systems within their organizations will in effect disrupt their own existing tertiary care businesses. The theory of disruptive innovation suggests that balancing the push and pull of academic and accountable care within a single organization is achievable. However, it will require significant shifts in resource allocation and changes in management structure to enable AMCs to make the inherent difficult choices and trade-offs that will ensue. On the basis of the theories of disruptive innovation, the authors present recommendations for how academic health systems can successfully navigate these issues as they transition toward accountability-driven care.
Novikov, A I; Gudinova, Zh V
The article summarizes innovative activity in Omsk State Medical University (OSMU) and contains the review of innovative developments of staff of dental faculty of OSMU (a line of gels for caries prevetion, the DENTEST diagnostic unit, technology of tooth shape modular restoration, personified therapy.of patients with periodontal disease, caries diagnosis and periodontontal disease prognosis software, a set of the training materials on esthetic modeling of teeth, personification of clinical approaches in oral bioaesthetic rehabilitation, etc.). The analysis of the factors stimulating and complicating innovative detail in medical school, problems of introduction of medical innovations, lack of system of an assessment of medical technologies in Russia, regulations of the organization of innovative activity in medical schools is carried out, the prospects of their solution connected with decision-making at the state level are formulated.
In the course of its history the University of Giessen was threatened several times by closure, due to the University's geographical location, size, or a relative lack of reputation. This paper deals with the policy of the University's Medical Faculty during the Nazi period, when it faced specific demands and opportunities. While the University's restructuring had been initiated by some active National Socialists, this process was pragmatically supported by the Medical Faculty as a whole in order to gain advantages from its location. In particular, the Faculty (1.) institutionalized racial hygiene--a chair for one of the most radical representatives of this subject in Germany was requested--and (2.) established collaboration with the "Wehrmacht". The newly opened up perspectives for research were seen as an opportunity. In fact, from 1940 the University of Giessen was frequented again by many medical students; in 1943, the Berlin Academy for Military Medicine relocated some institutes and scientists to the University of Giessen, as the capital had become too unsafe for them because of increasing air raids.
Daugird, Allen J; Arndt, Jane E; Olson, P Richard
The authors describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a computerized faculty time-management system (FTMS) in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. The FTMS is presented as an integrated set of computerized spreadsheets used annually to allocate faculty time across all mission activities of the department. It was first implemented in 1996 and has been continuously developed since then. An iterative approach has been used to gain consensus among faculty about time resources needed for various tasks of all missions of the department. These time-resource assumptions are used in the computerized system. Faculty time is allocated annually by the department vice chair in negotiation with individual faculty, making sure that the activities planned do not exceed the work time each faculty member has available for the year. During this process, faculty preferences are balanced against department aggregate needs to meet mission commitments and obligations. The authors describe how the computerized FTMS is used for faculty time management and career development, department planning, budget planning, clinical scheduling, and mission cost accounting. They also describe barriers and potential abuses and the challenge of building an organizational culture willing to discuss faculty time openly and committed to developing a system perceived as fair and accurate. The spreadsheet file is available free from the authors for use in other departments.
Rathore, Farooq Azam; Waqas, Ahmed; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha
Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach's alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum.
Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.
Modifications are presented to a 1967 document that contained recommendations concerning academic freedom, academic responsibility, and tenure for faculty members in Texas public community and senior colleges and universities. The recommended standards constitute patterns or guidelines and are not binding on any institution and may be varied in…
Eastman, Nicholas J.; Boyles, Deron
This essay situates John Dewey in the context of the founding of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) in 1915. We argue that the 1915 Declaration of Principles, together with World War I, provides contemporary academics important historical justification for rethinking academic freedom and faculty governance in light of…
Stevens, Tanisha N.
Research reveals that reducing academic misconduct requires an understanding of factors that influence the two key stakeholders in the epidemic: students who engage in academically dishonest behaviors and faculty who are charged with the responsibility of reporting and deterring the behavior (e.g., Prenshaw, Straughan & Albers-Miller, 2000).…
Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students. PMID:26838568
Laden, Berta Vigil; Hagedorn, Linda Serra
Discusses satisfaction and issues pertaining to job retention among college faculty of color. Considers their satisfaction in environments where they are a minority, their perseverance and survival in tenure and promotion, reactions to a nonsupportive environment, and specific factors contributing to job satisfaction. Concludes that faculty of…
Pifer, Meghan J.; Baker, Vicki L.; Lunsford, Laura G.
In this article, we consider the role of departmental contexts and relationships in faculty work within liberal arts colleges. Knowledge about how departmental networks relate to success and satisfaction may inform the work of those who support faculty work in liberal arts colleges, as well as other institution types. Analysis of quantitative and…
Spaniel, Suzann Holland
As the majority of teaching faculty on many community college campuses, adjuncts are accountable for the higher education of an increasing number of college-going students. However, adjunct faculty often are disconnected from the community colleges that depend upon them. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to investigate the…
Lefebvre, Lauryl A.
The increased demand for postsecondary education in the United States and abroad and the availability of new teaching and learning technologies are having an indelible impact on the nature of faculty work. As distance education becomes more prevalent, a growing number of faculty are facing new challenges and opportunities, especially those working…
American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010
Plainly, part-time/adjunct faculty members now play a vital role in educating the nation's college students. Even so, the data and research on part-time/adjunct faculty members have tended to be pretty spotty. This survey, conducted by Hart Research Associates on behalf of the American Federation of Teachers, is one of the first nationwide…
Miller, Michael T.; Murry, John W., Jr.
Having a strong, positive departmental chair is critical to enhancing and assuring faculty performance and student learning. Poor leadership, however, can result in increased faculty turn over, poor teaching and research performance, and even the discouragement of students from enrolling. The current study explored response strategies by faculty…
Sam, Cecile H.
The poor work environment for part-time faculty in higher education is a topic that has been receiving more attention as the professoriate moves away from full-time tenure-track positions. In community colleges, the use of part-time faculty is even more prevalent. However, there are institutions that have been trying to create better work…
Perorazio, Thomas E.
Given the need to compete for sponsored research funding, do university faculty believe they retain the freedom to research what is of most interest to them? The higher education literature frequently asserts that faculty research agendas are being subjugated to the demands of sponsors. An alternate perspective, from the science studies…
Gibson, Shanan G.; Harris, Michael L.; Colaric, Susan M.
The authors surveyed faculty from a college of business and a college of education regarding their attitudes toward online education. Results of the survey were examined to determine the degree to which the technology acceptance model was able to adequately explain faculty acceptance of online education. Results indicate that perceived usefulness…
As a profession, we are failing to socialize newer generations of faculty concerning the professorate's social contract with society and the critical importance of faculty professionalism (our ethical duties as professors) to the social contract. We strongly assume that the apprentice model of graduate education will acculturate the next …
McMillin, Linda A., Ed.; Berberet, William G., Ed.
The chapters of this collection highlight the Associated New American Colleges' Faculty Work Project as they examine the call for redefining faculty roles and institutional relationships. The goal of the Project has been to lay the conceptual groundwork for bringing educational practices into alignment with the institutional mission. In the first…
Galbraith, Quinn; Fry, Leanna; Garrison, Melissa
This study measures job satisfaction, personal fulfillment, work/life balance, and stress levels of male and female librarians. Researchers surveyed 719 librarians at ARL institutions that either offer faculty status and tenure or offer neither. Females at libraries offering faculty status indicated poor work/life balance and high levels of stress…
Mellor, Adrian; Dodds, Naomi; Joshi, Raj; Hall, John; Dhillon, Sundeep; Hollis, Sarah; Davis, Pete; Hillebrandt, David; Howard, Eva; Wilkes, Matthew; Langdana, Burjor; Lee, David; Hinson, Nigel; Williams, Thomas Harcourt; Rowles, Joe; Pynn, Harvey
To support leaders and those involved in providing medical care on expeditions in wilderness environments, the Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care (FPHC) of The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh convened an expert panel of leading healthcare professionals and expedition providers. The aims of this panel were to: (1) provide guidance to ensure the best possible medical care for patients within the geographical, logistical and human factor constraints of an expedition environment. (2) Give aspiring and established expedition medics a 'benchmark' of skills they should meet. (3) Facilitate expedition organisers in selecting the most appropriate medical cover and provider for their planned activity. A system of medical planning is suggested to enable expedition leaders to identify the potential medical risks and their mitigation. It was recognised that the scope of practice for wilderness medicine covers elements of primary healthcare, pre-hospital emergency medicine and preventative medicine. Some unique competencies were also identified. Further to this, the panel recommends the use of a matrix and advisory expedition medic competencies relating to the remoteness and medical threat of the expedition. This advice is aimed at all levels of expedition medic, leader and organiser who may be responsible for delivering or managing the delivery of remote medical care for participants. The expedition medic should be someone equipped with the appropriate medical competencies, scope of practice and capabilities in the expedition environment and need not necessarily be a qualified doctor. In addition to providing guidance regarding the clinical competencies required of the expedition medic, the document provides generic guidance and signposting to the more pertinent aspects of the role of expedition medic.
Recognizing the need to overcome the obstacles of traditional university- and discipline-oriented research approaches, a variety of incentives to promote community-based participatory research (CBPR) are presented. Experiences of existing CBPR researchers are used in outlining how this methodological approach can appeal to faculty: the common ground shared by faculty and community leaders in challenging the status quo; opportunities to have an impact on local, regional, and national policy; and opening doors for new research and funding opportunities. Strategies for promoting CBPR in universities are provided in getting CBPR started, changing institutional practices currently inhibiting CBPR, and institutionalizing CBPR. Among the specific strategies are: development of faculty research networks; team approaches to CBPR; mentoring faculty and students; using existing national CBPR networks; modifying tenure and promotion guidelines; development of appropriate measures of CBPR scholarship; earmarking university resources to support CBPR; using Institutional Review Boards to promote CBPR; making CBPR-oriented faculty appointments; and creating CBPR centers. PMID:12848841
Hale, James B; Reddy, Linda A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole
Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to indirect informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes direct neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment efficacy. Documenting "cool" executive-working memory (EWM) and "hot" self-regulation (SR) neuropsychological impairments could aid in differential diagnosis of ADHD subtypes and determining cognitive and academic MPH response. In this study, children aged 6 to 16 with ADHD inattentive type (IT; n = 19) and combined type (n = 33)/hyperactive-impulsive type (n = 4) (CT) participated in double-blind placebo-controlled MPH trials with baseline and randomized placebo, low MPH dose, and high MPH dose conditions. EWM/ SR measures and behavior ratings/classroom observations were rank ordered separately across conditions, with nonparametric randomization tests conducted to determine individual MPH response. Participants were subsequently grouped according to their level of cool EWM and hot SR circuit dysfunction. Robust cognitive and behavioral MPH response was achieved for children with significant baseline EWM/SR impairment, yet response was poor for those with adequate EWM/ SR baseline performance. Even for strong MPH responders, the best dose for neuropsychological functioning was typically lower than the best dose for behavior. Findings offer one possible explanation for why long-term academic MPH treatment gains in ADHD have not been realized. Implications for academic achievement and medication titration practices for children with behaviorally diagnosed ADHD will be discussed.
Halamka, John D
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC.
Neyazi, Narges; Arab, Prof Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Mahmoudi Majdabadi, Mahmood
Evaluation of higher education is an increasing demand for information on academic quality, which contributes to accountability among authorities and affects universities ranking. In educational institutions, the purpose of education is producing knowledgeable students and improving quality of the university system. Among many evaluation models, the CIPP model or Context, Input, Process, Product model is very beneficial and recommendable method to educational evaluation. This is a descriptive study conducted in four selected faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (Public health, Nursing and Midwifery, Rehabilitation and Allied Medical Sciences), undergraduate educational departments in 2014. This research found out quality level of undergraduates courses in viewpoint of students and graduates and determined their weak points. Data were collected through researcher- made questionnaires. Collected data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed undesirable situation of context, process and product area and undesirable situation for input except for "interest and understanding of students towards field and labor market" factor, which had relatively desirable situation. At the end, researchers recommend some steps to improve goals and mission of programs, allocated budget, curriculum and providing a system for communication with graduates.
Goldberg-Freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Gielen, Andrea; Tracey, Patricia; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Farfel, Mark
Health researchers are increasingly interested in how best to engage communities in their health-related research studies. To help determine how researchers have interacted with community members in their research, we conducted a survey of full-time faculty from the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions regarding researchers' beliefs and experiences with community-based research. Approximately 41% of respondents who conducted human subject studies had enrolled local residents in their research. Researchers whose studies were based in the surrounding community were significantly more likely to involve community members in all stages of their research (e.g., selection of the problem, project planning, data collection, interpretation and dissemination of results, or developing an intervention) than were faculty whose studies enrolled community members as research participants but whose studies were not set in the community. Over 90% of all faculty respondents agree that community involvement improves the relevance of their research, although almost 60% had not done so. Most faculty value community involvement, but they want more institutional support for such activities and they seek better skills to involve community. Few studies have surveyed researchers who enroll community members as research participants to document practices regarding community involvement in the research process. Given that the majority (73.6%) of faculty responded that they intend to include local residents in their upcoming studies, future research to evaluate interventions designed to facilitate community involvement, especially in the inner city, would help stakeholders identify best practices for involving and engaging communities in health research.
Therattil, Paul J.; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S.
Purpose: The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors’ aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Methods: Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. Results: In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P < .01) and multiple fellowships (10.4; P < .01). Craniofacial-trained plastic surgeons demonstrated the next highest h-index (9.8), followed by no fellowship (8.4), microsurgery (8.3), hand (7.7), cosmetic (5.2), and burn (5.1). Conclusion: Plastic surgeons with a research fellowship or at least 2 subspecialty fellowships had increased academic productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery. PMID:26664673
Atlas, Michel C; Garza, Felix; Hinshaw, Ren
Who borrows laptop computers in an academic health sciences library? Why do they choose to check out laptops? In a survey, laptop computer users responded that the laptops were used most frequently to do class-related work. Laptops were most often checked out because they could be taken to a quiet area of the library or to where the user had more room to work. The majority of such borrowers were satisfied or very satisfied with the laptops and the service from the library. The majority of those completing the survey were medical school students and graduate students. The circulation of laptop computers at this academic health sciences library is a very successful and popular program.
Academic Medicine, 1989
Association of American Medical Colleges' reports concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome include "Policy Guidelines for Addressing HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] Infection in the Academic Medical Community" and "The HIV Epidemic and Medical Education." (MSE)
Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman
Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033
Jones, Robert F.
This report presents information about the academic medical centers belonging to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and profiles American medical education generally. Following a brief introduction, a section on institutions and resources offers information on medical schools' financial support, faculties, and faculty practice…
Clark, Cynthia M; Juan, Cao Mei; Allerton, Barbara W; Otterness, Nancy S; Jun, Wu Ya; Wei, Fu
This is the second article of a two-part series regarding nursing faculty and student perceptions of incivility in nursing education in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Nursing faculty from the United States of America (USA) and the PRC collaborated to conduct this empirical study. A sample of 382 Chinese nursing faculty and students responded to 4 open-ended questions on the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) Survey. Both groups reported similar perceptions of uncivil behaviors, contributors to incivility, and ways to address the problem. A conceptual model for fostering civility in nursing education was adapted to illustrate the findings.
Cromartie, Michael Tyrone
The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…
Introduces the issue's Symposium on Academic Freedom and Responsibility. Discusses the current debate on tenure and its role in securing and promoting academic freedom. Proposes a model "Academic Freedom Policy and Procedures," to which subsequent articles in the issue (by Robert M. O'Neil, J. Peter Byrne, and Richard T. De George)…
Boumil, Marcia M; Cutrell, Emily S; Lowney, Kathleen E; Berman, Harris A
Pharmaceutical companies routinely engage physicians, particularly those with prestigious academic credentials, to deliver "educational" talks to groups of physicians in the community to help market the company's brand-name drugs. Although presented as educational, and even though they provide educational content, these events are intended to influence decisions about drug selection in ways that are not based on the suitability and effectiveness of the product, but on the prestige and persuasiveness of the speaker. A number of state legislatures and most academic medical centers have attempted to restrict physician participation in pharmaceutical marketing activities, though most restrictions are not absolute and have proven difficult to enforce. This article reviews the literature on why Speakers' Bureaus have become a lightning rod for academic/industry conflicts of interest and examines the arguments of those who defend physician participation. It considers whether the restrictions on Speakers' Bureaus are consistent with principles of academic freedom and concludes with the legal and institutional efforts to manage industry speaking.
Einbinder, J S; Scully, K W; Pates, R D; Schubart, J R; Reynolds, R E
The clinical data repository (CDR) is a frequently updated relational data warehouse that provides users with direct access to detailed, flexible, and rapid retrospective views of clinical, administrative, and financial patient data for the University of Virginia Health System. This article presents a case study of the CDR, detailing its five-year history and focusing on the unique role of data warehousing in an academic medical center. Specifically, the CDR must support multiple missions, including research and education, in addition to administration and management. Users include not only analysts and administrators but clinicians, researchers, and students.
Mitchell, Christine M.; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D.; Bandini, Julia; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea; Noveroske, Sarah; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy; Balboni, Michael J.
Context Although many studies have addressed the integration of a religion and/or spirituality curriculum into medical school training, few describe the process of curriculum development based on qualitative data from students and faculty. Objectives The aim of this study is to explore the perspectives of medical students and chaplaincy trainees regarding the development of a curriculum to facilitate reflection on moral and spiritual dimensions of caring for the critically ill and to train students in self-care practices that promote professionalism. Methods Research staff conducted semiscripted and one-on-one interviews and focus groups. Respondents also completed a short and self-reported demographic questionnaire. Participants included 44 students and faculty members from Harvard Medical School and Harvard Divinity School, specifically senior medical students and divinity school students who have undergone chaplaincy training. Results Two major qualitative themes emerged: curriculum format and curriculum content. Inter-rater reliability was high (kappa = 0.75). With regard to curriculum format, most participants supported the curriculum being longitudinal, elective, and experiential. With regard to curriculum content, five subthemes emerged: personal religious and/or spiritual (R/S) growth, professional integration of R/S values, addressing patient needs, structural and/or institutional dynamics within the health care system, and controversial social issues. Conclusion Qualitative findings of this study suggest that development of a future medical school curriculum on R/S and wellness should be elective, longitudinal, and experiential and should focus on the impact and integration of R/S values and self-care practices within self, care for patients, and the medical team. Future research is necessary to study the efficacy of these curricula once implemented. PMID:27693904
The Department of Social Medicine at the Medical Faculty of Masaryk University was founded by Prof. Dr František Hamza. Prof. Dr Adolf Žáček, who worked in the World Health Organization in Geneva in 1961-1963, uses his knowledge and experiences to remarkable increasing quality of education and research at this department. Present situation in health care system in the Czech Republic demonstrates that there are great challenges for education and research in the field of Social Medicine.
Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Zarmehr, Fateme; Bahrami, Susan; Ghazavi-Khorasgani, Zahra; Kazempour, Zahra; Shahrzadi, Leila
Introduction: One of the most common anxieties in higher education is research anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the research anxiety level among the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Methods: this was survey- analytical study. The stratified random sampling method was used and a sample of 212 people was selected. For data collection was used a questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical (T Test, ANOVA and LSD) statistics. Findings: The average anxiety research in IUMS was about 3.27 ±0.536. Among factors, highest scores in descending order are related to lack of timely payment of fees (3.97±0.961), the long approval process of proposals and research project reporting (3.86.±0.99) and lack of research efficiency on the part of faculty (3.70±1.00). The lowest scores were related to having insufficient funds to conduct research (2.67±1.08), another’s understanding of inability for researching (2.84±1.192), and unfriendly behavior from journals and research center staffs (2.89±0.802). Conclusion: The mean level of research anxiety among faculty members of IUMS was found higher than average. So it’s essential that authorities pay greater attention to the factors that cause research anxiety. PMID:25685076
Shearer, Barbara S; Nagy, Suzanne P
The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters.
Shearer, Barbara S.; Nagy, Suzanne P.
The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters. PMID:12883565
Russo Martin, Elaine
Objectives: The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. Methods: The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Findings: Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Conclusions: Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams. PMID:16888659
Hostetler, Jeptha R.
This guide, one of a series of publications written for medical faculty to use in designing substance abuse instruction, focuses on the teaching of alcohol and drug abuse intervention in medical and osteopathic schools. Following a brief introducton to the booklet, the career teacher program, which is supported by federal grants, is explained.…
Balboni, Michael J.; Bandini, Julia; Mitchell, Christine; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D.; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea C.; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy
Context Religion and spirituality play an important role in physicians’ medical practice, but little research has examined their influence within the socialization of medical trainees and the hidden curriculum. Objectives The objective is to explore the role of religion and spirituality as they intersect with aspects of medicine’s hidden curriculum. Methods Semiscripted, one-on-one interviews and focus groups (n = 33 respondents) were conducted to assess Harvard Medical School student and faculty experiences of religion/spirituality and the professionalization process during medical training. Using grounded theory, theme extraction was performed with interdisciplinary input (medicine, sociology, and theology), yielding a high inter-rater reliability score (kappa = 0.75). Results Three domains emerged where religion and spirituality appear as a factor in medical training. First, religion/spirituality may present unique challenges and benefits in relation to the hidden curriculum. Religious/spiritual respondents more often reported to struggle with issues of personal identity, increased self-doubt, and perceived medical knowledge inadequacy. However, religious/spiritual participants less often described relationship conflicts within the medical team, work-life imbalance, and emotional stress arising from patient suffering. Second, religion/spirituality may influence coping strategies during encounters with patient suffering. Religious/spiritual trainees described using prayer, faith, and compassion as means for coping whereas nonreligious/nonspiritual trainees discussed compartmentalization and emotional repression. Third, levels of religion/spirituality appear to fluctuate in relation to medical training, with many trainees experiencing an increase in religiousness/spirituality during training. Conclusion Religion/spirituality has a largely unstudied but possibly influential role in medical student socialization. Future study is needed to characterize its
Heffernan, M. W.
Faculty development, particularly that aspect of it concerned with increasing the educational and teaching skills of faculty members, is currently a major issue for medicine in general—and family medicine in particular. This article presents the author's views about what might be aspects of the guiding philosophy and content of such a program of faculty development, where it is concerned with increasing teaching skills. These views have been distilled over several years of personal growth and development, whilst working in this area as an educator within the RACGP's family medicine program, as a participant and facilitator in international workshops examining related topics, and most recently as a visiting professor within the McGill Department of Family Medicine at Jewish General Hospital, Montreal. PMID:21297745
Carmichael, S Thomas
The role of the physician scientist in biomedical research is increasingly threatened. Despite a clear role in clinical advances in translational medicine, the percentage of physicians engaged in research has steadily declined. Several programmatic efforts have been initiated to address this problem by providing time and financial resources to the motivated resident or fellow. However, this decline in physician scientists is due not only to a lack of time and resources but also a reflection of the uncertain path in moving from residency or postdoctoral training toward junior faculty. This article is a practical guide to the milestones and barriers to successful faculty achievement after residency or fellowship training.
Van Hof, Jill
In response to heightened standards and calls for accountability, schools have dramatically intensified their work to meet the growing challenges. Schools require strategies for improvement that will transcend demographic factors such as SES. Research has shown the construct of academic optimism as contributing to student achievement despite a…
Jan Ewangelista Purkynĕ, the founder of the modern physiology and histology, professor of the University in Wrocław (1823-1850), deserve a reward not only to the Czech national culture, but also made much to approach our countries. But what is less known is the fact concerning his cooperation with Annals of the Medical Faculty in Jagiellonian University and his additional office professors Józef Majer and Franciszek Skobel. This first publication on the subject of cardiacl conductional fibres, later caller Purkynĕ's fibres reveals in the second volume of Annals of Medical Faculty in Jagiellonian University AD 1839, six years before the publication in German. Bogusław Palicki was one of the fourteen doctoral students Wrocław Physiological School J.E. Purkynĕ. It is necessary to underline not only Purkynĕ vivid connection with eminent personage in those days of European science-with Cracow colleagues and his research organ-but also a high scientific and additional standard of Annals, which ended their life with the fall of the Cracow Republic AD 1846. Purkynĕ's studies and discoveries also in the present time are of lasting scientific as well as medico-historical values.
Booton, Carol M.
Academic quality in for-profit vocational college programs is a concern for all stakeholders, especially nontraditional college students. The purpose of this study was to expand understanding of how administrators and owners of for-profit (proprietary) colleges influence academic quality in on-ground vocational college programs. A phenomenological…
African higher education has witnessed phenomenal enrollment growth in the last decade--and this trend is expected to continue well into the future owing to the continent's youth bulge. In this "massifying" system, the academic profession faces a paradox: as the academic profession at the senior level is aging it is also concurrently…
Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison
Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…
Academic misconduct by students in higher education is a fact and is a challenge to the integrity of higher education and its reputation. Furthermore such misconduct is counterproductive to the ethics component of higher education. The purpose of this research is to explore, investigate and compile the anecdotal accounts of academic misconduct…
To be a collegiate honors student implies a higher level of academic achievement than other students as well as the more challenging academic experience that comes with smaller class sizes. Collegiate honors teachers have a distinction of their own. Being an honors teacher implies a high level of teaching achievement, and it requires special…
Dieter, Peter Erich
The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International. The traditional teacher and discipline-centred curriculum was replaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum which has been named DIPOL (Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem- Oriented Learning). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany. The students played a very important strategic role in all processes. They were/are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. Students are the only ones who experience all years of the curriculum and are capable of detecting, for example gaps, overlaps, inconsistencies of the curriculum and assessments. Therefore, the in-depth knowledge of students about the medical school's curriculum is a very helpful and essential tool in curriculum reform processes and Quality Management Programs of medical education. The reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification resulted in an improvement of quality and output of medical education and medical research.
Barginere, Cynthia; Franco, Samantha; Wallace, Lynne
Succession planning is of strategic importance in any industry. It ensures the smooth transition from leader to leader and the ability of the organization to maintain the forward momentum as well as meet its operational and financial goals. Health care and nursing are no exception. In the complex and challenging world of health care today, leadership is critical to an organization's success and leadership succession is a key strategy used to ensure continuity of leadership and development of talent from within the organization. At Rush University Medical Center, a 667-bed academic medical center providing tertiary care to adults and children, the need for a focus on succession planning for the nursing leadership team is apparent as key leaders come to the end of their careers and consider retirement. It has become apparent that to secure the legacy and continue the extraordinary history of nursing excellence, care must be taken to grow talent from within and take the opportunity to leverage the mentoring opportunities before the retirement of many key leaders. To ensure a smooth leadership transition, nursing leadership and human resources partner at Rush University Medical Center to implement a systematic approach to leadership succession planning.
Webber, Karen L.
Scrutiny over faculty allocations of time and subsequent outcomes is frequent in postsecondary education, especially at state research universities (those that receive appropriations from the state). Particularly during economic downturns, college officials and legislators must make difficult choices in fund allocation. For this reason, faculty…
Deemer, Eric D.; Mahoney, Kevin T.; Ball, Jacqueline Hebert
The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Research Motivation Scale (RMS) in a sample of faculty members (N = 337) in university science departments. It was hypothesized that the RMS would evidence partial measurement invariance across tenure status and noninvariance across gender, given the different sociocultural factors (e.g.,…
Meyer, Luanna H.; Evans, Ian M.
University contributions to knowledge flow and capacity development depend upon the engagement and productivity of the faculty, who are called upon to meet changing expectations for teaching, research, and service. Escalating accountability demands accompanied by declining resources to support the professoriate could have unknown impact on…
Higher education in Macau, China, is characterized by vocationalization of institutions, lack of faculty professionalization, and little or no shared governance. Using general statistics of higher education in Macau and a case study of one university, this paper illustrates not only the status of the profession but also the structural, cultural,…
Lipset, Seymour Martin
Faculty surveys of the honorific academies and of American professors indicate that the former are more liberal politically than the latter, including those at the most distinguished institutions. Theories of intellectual creativity and political socialization are applied to these findings. Available from Elsevier Publishing, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue,…
Sobrero, Patricia; Jayaratne, K. S. U.
After North Carolina State University developed recommendations for departments and faculty to integrate learning, discovery, and engagement through the scholarship of engagement, the issue was raised: "What do department heads think, and how do they support engagement especially during promotion, tenure, and reappointment of engaged…
Stern, Judy E.; Elliott, Deni
This report summarizes a three-year project to design a graduate level course in ethics and scientific research at Dartmouth College (New Hampshire). The goals of the project were: (1) to train faculty to teach a course in research ethics, (2) to pilot-teach a graduate course in ethics and scientific research, and (3) to develop teaching materials…
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2010
The use of data for making educational decisions and to assess educational outcomes has been legislated by political bodies and codified by accreditation. Faculty have always used data to inform the grading process--data is gathered throughout the term to inform the letter grade assigned at the end. However, in today's educational environment,…
American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges.
Addressed to two-year college professionals responsible for staffing and evaluating mathematics programs and university personnel responsible for programs that prepare college mathematics teachers, this document provides recommendations for training effective community college mathematics faculty adopted by the American Mathematical Association of…
This article presents the results of a case study at a Canadian university that used a combination of surveys and focus groups to explore faculty members' and students' perceptions of plagiarism. The research suggests that the globalization of education and remix culture have contributed to competing and contradictory understandings of plagiarism…
Hopkins, Trish Isabella
Distance education rapidly became the new frontier in higher education as more adults returned to college. Most research studies focused on the satisfaction of faculty members. However, little research reported the lived stories of online adjuncts pioneering a new educational landscape. The primary purpose of the qualitative study was to discover…
MacDonald, R.; Ormand, C.; Manduca, C. A.; Wright-Dunbar, R.; Allen-King, R.
The professional development program,'On the Cutting Edge', offers on-line resources and annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Pre- workshop surveys reveal that early career faculty, post-docs, and graduate students have many questions about teaching (e.g., what are effective teaching strategies, how to design a course, how to prepare a syllabus, how to teach large courses), research (e.g., initiate and fund future research, set up and manage a lab, obtain equipment), and career management (e.g., understand tenure requirements, balance all it all). The graduate students and post-docs also have questions about jobs and the job search process. Their questions show a lack of familiarity with the nature of academic positions at different kinds of educational institutions (two-year colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, and research universities). In particular, they are uncertain about what educational setting will best fit their values and career goals and how teaching loads and research expectations vary by institution. Common questions related to the job search process include where to find job listings (the most common question in recent years), when to start the job search process, how to stand out as an applicant, and how to prepare for interviews. Both groups have questions about how to develop new skills: how to develop, plan and prepare a new course (without it taking all of their time), how to expand beyond their PhD (or postdoc) research projects, how to develop a research plan, and where to apply for funding. These are important topics for advisors to discuss with all of their students and postdocs who are planning on careers in academia. On the Cutting Edge offers workshops and web resources to help current and future faculty navigate these critical stages of their careers. The four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your
Miri, Mohammad Reza; Kermani, Tayyebe; Khoshbakht, Hoda; Moodi, Mitra
Background and Aim: Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a view about predicting effective factors in people's lives whether in education or profession. According to earlier studies, people who have higher emotional skills are more successful in many of life aspects :e.g., reaction to stress and controlling stress situations. Since students are the future of society, this study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between EI and education stress in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 260 students were selected by proportional sampling in four faculties: Medicine, Nursing and Midwifery, Paramedical Sciences, and Health. Data were collected using two questionnaires: The standardized EI Shering's (33 questions, five domains) and the Student-Life Stress Inventory (57 questions, nine domains). The obtained data were analyzed by independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear regression at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: Totally, 65.8% of participants were females and 31.1% were males. The educational level of the participants included Associate's degree (44.6%) Bachelor's degree in science (31.2%), and medical science (23.1%). There was no significant correlation between EI scores and educational stress in students. But there was a significant relationship between EI with sex (P = 0.02) and mean of EI scores with three domains of academic stress: Personal favorites (P = 0.004), reaction to stressors (P = 0.002), and performance in stressful situations (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Although EI growth in different individuals can promote their success, it cannot decrease academic stress by itself which was particularly significant in females. Therefore, other causes of stress such as individual differences must be taken into consideration. PMID:24083290
Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane; Clarke, Beth; Norton, Peter
Background As efforts to integrate patient safety into health professional curricula increase, there is growing recognition that the rate of curricular change is very slow, and there is a shortage of research that addresses critical perspectives of faculty who are on the ‘front-lines’ of curricular innovation. This study reports on medical, nursing and pharmacy teaching faculty perspectives about factors that influence curricular integration and the preparation of safe practitioners. Methods Qualitative methods were used to collect data from 20 faculty members (n=6 medical from three universities; n=6 pharmacy from two universities; n=8 nursing from four universities) engaged in medical, nursing and pharmacy education. Thematic analysis generated a comprehensive account of faculty perspectives. Results Faculty perspectives on key challenges to safe practice vary across the three disciplines, and these different perspectives lead to different priorities for curricular innovation. Additionally, accreditation and regulatory requirements are driving curricular change in medicine and pharmacy. Key challenges exist for health professional students in clinical teaching environments where the culture of patient safety may thwart the preparation of safe practitioners. Conclusions Patient safety curricular innovation depends on the interests of individual faculty members and the leveraging of accreditation and regulatory requirements. Building on existing curricular frameworks, opportunities now need to be created for faculty members to act as champions of curricular change, and patient safety educational opportunities need to be harmonises across all health professional training programmes. Faculty champions and practice setting leaders can collaborate to improve the culture of patient safety in clinical teaching and learning settings. PMID:24299734
Genes, Nicholas; Chary, Michael; Chason, Kevin W
As hospitals incorporate information technology (IT), their operations become increasingly vulnerable to technological breakdowns and attacks. Proper emergency management and business continuity planning require an approach to identify, mitigate, and work through IT downtime. Hospitals can prepare for these disasters by reviewing case studies. This case study details the disruption of computer operations at Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC), an urban academic teaching hospital. The events, and MSMC's response, are narrated and the impact on hospital operations is analyzed. MSMC's disaster management strategy prevented computer failure from compromising patient care, although walkouts and time-to-disposition in the emergency department (ED) notably increased. This incident highlights the importance of disaster preparedness and mitigation. It also demonstrates the value of using operational data to evaluate hospital responses to disasters. Quantifying normal hospital functions, just as with a patient's vital signs, may help quantitatively evaluate and improve disaster management and business continuity planning.
Becker, Davida; Garth, Hanna; Hollander, Rachel; Klein, Felice; Klau, Marc
Context: Graduate medical education (GME) programs must develop curriculum to ensure scholarly activity among trainees and faculty to meet accreditation requirements and to support evidence-based medicine. Objective: Test whether research-related needs and interests varied across four groups: primary care trainees, specialty trainees, primary care faculty, and specialty faculty. Design: We surveyed a random sample of trainees and faculty in Kaiser Permanente Southern California’s GME programs. We investigated group differences in outcomes using Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Main Outcome Measures: Research experiences, skills, barriers, motivators, and interests in specific research skills development. Results: Participants included 47 trainees and 26 faculty (response rate = 30%). Among primary care faculty, 12 (71%) reported little or no research experience vs 1 (11%) for specialty faculty, 14 (41%) for primary care trainees, and 1 (8%) for specialty trainees (p < 0.001). Submission of research to the institutional review board, an abstract to a conference, or a manuscript for publication in the previous year varied across groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, and p < 0.001, respectively). Overall self-reported research skills also differed across groups (p < 0.001). Primary care faculty reported the lowest skill level. Research barriers that differed across groups included other work roles taking priority; desire for work-life balance; and lack of managerial support, research equipment, administrative support, and funding. Conclusion: Faculty and trainees in primary care and specialties have differing research-related needs that GME programs should consider when designing curricula to support scholarly activity. Developing research skills of primary care faculty is a priority to support trainees’ scholarly activity. PMID:28333607
Coats, A J
The morale of the medical professional is at an historic low in many countries. The recent case of a UK general practitioner being convicted of being a mass murderer, combined with increasing criticism of medical negligence and malpractice and an excessive influence of the large pharmaceutical companies has lead to the perception that the profession is under siege. Our professional leadership have not had sufficient public awareness to allay these concerns, and the resulting dip in morale is fast turning into a dangerous rout. We must review what has lead to this situation and what we should be doing now to put it right.Clinical research is under attack and the motives and ethics of large pharmaceutical company sponsorships of clinical trials is under increasing question. At this time there is a risk that medicine, and academic medicine in particular, will lose its attractiveness and the pace of achievements we have seen and benefited from in the last 2 decades may slow. The public debate should move on, it should move on to evaluate how much it would cost to reduce medical error rates to an acceptable level (to stop them altogether is impossible). It should move on to how we can get clinical trials designed and paid for by the public purse rather than merely grumbling that pharmaceutical companies take too much control of trials that they almost alone now appear to be sponsoring. And we should move on to debate about the role and status of the medical profession in the modern era. We can no longer do our best in secret and expect the public to trust us unquestioningly. The public wants and needs to be involved in our decision-making problems and errors. Only through informed debate will we improve health for the while population, now and in the future.
Zanteva-Naumoska, Magdalena; Polenakovic, Momir
The Medical Faculty (M.F.) in Skopje was founded on 6th March 1947 by a Decree of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia. Over the past six decades, the Medical Faculty has been and still is a key institution where medical professionals, medical doctors and other medical-health personnel have been educated, as well as an institution where scientific research and applied health activities have been conducted. The first 153 students were enrolled at the Faculty in the autumn of 1947. More than 10000 medical doctors and 350 radiology technicians have graduated at the Medical Faculty. A total of 315 students have finished postgraduate studies and acquired a Master's degree in medical sciences and there are 160 active postgraduates at present. The degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences has been awarded to 463 candidates, while 93 are in the process of preparing their doctoral thesis. Currently the process of introducing three-year doctoral studies is underway. Since 1992, 2,380 have successsfully passed the specialist exam, while 700 specializations are ongoing. The teaching process is being conducted by 233 professors and 215 teaching assistants through 33 departments. The Medical Faculty consists of 12 institutes and 3 teaching bases in the pre-clinical segment. The clinical segment consists of 25 clinics, 3 institutes and 7 teaching bases. The Medical Faculty has published the journal Godishen zbornik na Medicinskiot fakultet, which has been renamed Makedonsko spisanie za medicina. More than 380 monographs and textbooks have been printed in the country or abroad. A total number of 350 scientific projects have been undertaken, 40 with international partners. The Medical Faculty in Skopje has been a founder and "mother" faculty to the Faculty of Dentistry and the Faculty of Pharmacy, also providing, at the same time, interdisciplinary studies at other faculties.
Nejatizadeh, Azim; Sarnayzadeh, Majid; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ghasemi, Rachel; Nakhodaei, Nahid
Introduction In recent decades, the major criteria for development in countries were defined mostly by research position. The first step in organizing the research subject in societies is gaining a correct perception of abilities, available facilities, and finding the strengths and weaknesses of research programs. This research was conducted to determine the constraining factors of research among faculty members. Methods In this cross-sectional study in 2013, the population was Hormozgan Medical Science faculty members, and samples were selected based on the Morgan table (138 individuals). A researcher-made questionnaire after determining validity and confirming reliability was distributed among them. The data were analyzed by SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as Pearson’s product-moment correlation. Results Among organizational factors, lack of data presentation to researchers from organization sections with 81.2% was the most effective factor. The lack of facilitating national and international research exchange with 80.5% and the lack of research workshops based on needs with 77.9% were the next ones. Among the personal constraining factors, 64% of the faculty declared that having inadequate time for research due to the educational activities was the main factor. Conclusions According to the faculty’s comments, research activities encounter different constraining factors. It can be said that, by promoting a data registration system, collaborating on contract agreements and improving national and international research exchange, empowering members’ research (need-based workshops), and decreasing the faculty’s clinical and educational activities can overcome these constraints. PMID:27382451
Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid
Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.
Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid
Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education. PMID:27990467
Vainer, Ben; Mortensen, Niels Werner; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Sørensen, Allan Have; Olsen, Jørgen; Saxild, Hans Henrik; Johansen, Flemming Fryd
Familiarity with the structure and composition of normal tissue and an understanding of the changes that occur during disease is pivotal to the study of the human body. For decades, microscope slides have been central to teaching pathology in medical courses and related subjects at the University of Copenhagen. Students had to learn how to use a microscope and envisage three-dimensional processes that occur in the body from two-dimensional glass slides. Here, we describe how a PathXL virtual microscopy system for teaching pathology and histology at the Faculty has recently been implemented, from an administrative, an economic, and a teaching perspective. This fully automatic digital microscopy system has been received positively by both teachers and students, and a decision was made to convert all courses involving microscopy to the virtual microscopy format. As a result, conventional analog microscopy will be phased out from the fall of 2016. PMID:28382225
Roy, Kimberlee M; Roberts, Michael C; Stewart, Peter K
This study examined the research productivity of graduates of American Psychological Association accredited, clinical psychology doctoral programs who currently hold faculty positions. Normative averages of aggregated publications over the 2000-2004 five-year period were computed. Rankings based on the mean number of publications produced by graduates of each training program and the number of graduates were significantly correlated with U.S. News and World Report rankings, although some important differences were noted. Programs that have produced a larger number of faculty members were also more highly ranked but there was increased variability for the number of publications produced by the larger numbers of graduates. Objective outcome analyses such as graduates' publications may be preferable to more subjective reputation rankings of programs. Particularly for scientist-practitioner and clinical-scientist training programs, outcome data such as graduates' publications is an important aspect of the programs' continued self-study.
Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak
Physical exercise results in an active well-being. It is likely that students' engagement in physical exercise keeps them motivated to perform academic endeavors. This study aimed to assess the relation of time engaged in physical exercise with medical students' motivation for academic work. Prospectively, 296 second-year medical students…
The 2020 Vision of Faculty Development Across the Medical Education Continuum conference, and the resulting articles in this issue, addressed a number of topics related to the future of faculty development. Focusing primarily on the development of faculty members as teachers, conference participants debated issues related to core teaching competencies, barriers to effective teaching, competency-based assessment, relationship-centered care, the hidden curriculum that faculty members encounter, instructional technologies, continuing medical education, and research on faculty development. However, a number of subjects were not addressed. If faculty development is meant to play a leading role in ensuring that academic medicine remains responsive to faculty members and societal needs, additional themes should be considered. Medical educators should broaden the focus of faculty development and target the various roles that clinicians and basic scientists play, including those of leader and scholar. They must also remember that faculty development can play a critical role in curricular and organizational change and thus enlarge the scope of faculty development by moving beyond formal, structured activities, incorporating notions of self-directed learning, peer mentoring, and work-based learning. In addition, medical educators should try to situate faculty development in a more global context and collaborate with international colleagues in the transformation of medical education and health care delivery. It has been said that faculty development can play a critical role in promoting culture change at a number of levels. A broader mandate, innovative programming that takes advantage of communities of practice, and new partnerships can help to achieve this objective.
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The tables present faculty salary data in academic year 1967-68, including for the first time an approximation of the total annual income of geographic full-time faculty. The report is based on the salary information reported by 61 U.S. medical schools, of which 51 reported salaries for strict full-time faculty, 27 reported the base salaries paid…
Hendricson, William D; Anderson, Eugene; Andrieu, Sandra C; Chadwick, D Gregory; Cole, James R; George, Mary C; Glickman, Gerald N; Glover, Joel F; Goldberg, Jerold S; Haden, N Karl; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Neumann, Laura M; Pyle, Marsha; Tedesco, Lisa A; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K
Academic dentists and members of the practice community have been hearing, for more than a decade, that our educational system is in trouble and that the profession has lost its vision and may be wavering in the achievement of its goals. A core of consistently recommended reforms has framed the discussion of future directions for dental education, but as yet, most schools report little movement toward implementation of these reforms in spite of persistent advocacy. Provision of faculty development related to teaching and assessment strategies is widely perceived to be the essential ingredient in efforts to introduce new curricular approaches and modify the educational environment in academic dentistry. Analyses of the outcomes of efforts to revise health professions curricula have identified the availability and effectiveness of faculty development as a predictor of the success or failure of reform initiatives. This article will address faculty development for purposes of enhancing teaching effectiveness and preparing instructors for potential new roles associated with curriculum changes. Its overall purpose is to provide information and insights about faculty development that may be useful to dental schools in designing professional growth opportunities for their faculty. Seven questions are addressed: 1) What is faculty development? 2) How is faculty development accomplished? 3) Why is faculty development particularly important in dental education? 4) What happens when faculty development does not accompany educational reform? 5) Why are teaching attitudes and behaviors so difficult to change? 6) What outcomes can be expected from faculty development? and 7) What does the available evidence tell us about the design of faculty development programs? Evidence from systematic reviews pertaining to the teaching of evidence-based dentistry, strategies for continuing professional education, and the Best Evidence in Medical Education review of faculty development
Drazen, Jeffrey M; Shields, Helen M; Loscalzo, Joseph
Excellent physician communication skills (physician-to-patient and patient-to-physician) have been found to have a positive impact on patient satisfaction and may positively affect patient health behaviors and health outcomes. Such skills are also essential for accurate, succinct, and clear peer-to-peer (physician-to-physician), physician-to-lay-public, and physician-to-media communications. These skills are not innate, however; they must be learned and practiced repeatedly. The Division of Medical Communications (DMC) was created within the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital as an intellectual home for physicians who desire to learn and teach the wide variety of skills needed for effective communication.In this Perspective, the authors provide an overview of the key types of medical communications and share the DMC model as an innovative approach to providing expert guidance to physicians and physicians-in-training as they develop, practice, and refine their communication skills. Current DMC projects and programs include a Volunteer Patient Teaching Corps, which provides feedback to medical students, residents, and faculty on communication skills; a controlled trial of a modified team-based learning method for attending rounds; expert coaching in preparation for presentations of all types (e.g., grand rounds; oral presentations or poster presentations on basic science, clinical, or medical education research); sessions on speaking to the media and running a meeting well; and courses on writing for publication. Objective assessment of the impact of each of these interventions is planned.
Chronicle of Higher Education, 1993
Data presented include a graph comparing College Retirement Equities Fund progress with a major stock price index, 1990-93; a table of median salaries of chief academic and executive officers at public, private, and church-related colleges, by enrollment; and a comparison of faculty salaries and the Consumer Price Index, 1986-87 to 1991-92. (MSE)
Jamestown Community Coll., NY.
This contract between the faculty association of Jamestown Community College and the Board of Trustees of Jamestown Community College covers the academic year 1973-1974. Articles of the agreement cover recognition, association and instructors' rights, rights of the Board, deductions and professional dues, conditions of employment, appointment and…
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty in 27 academic disciplines/major fields for the baseline year 1994-95 and the trend year 1997-98 for 262 public and 387 private institutions. For each discipline/major field surveyed, the report provides a Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) definition, data…
Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide
Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation.
Hirshman, Brian R; Tang, Jessica A; Jones, Laurie A; Proudfoot, James A; Carley, Kathleen M; Marshall, Lawrence; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C
"Academic genealogy" refers to the linking of scientists and scholars based on their dissertation supervisors. We propose that this concept can be applied to medical training and that this "medical academic genealogy" may influence the landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search to identify US authors who have contributed peer-reviewed articles on a neurosurgery topic that remains controversial: the value of maximal resection for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Training information for each key author (defined as the first or last author of an article) was collected (eg, author's medical school, residency, and fellowship training). Authors were recursively linked to faculty mentors to form genealogies. Correlations between genealogy and publication result were examined. Our search identified 108 articles with 160 unique key authors. Authors who were members of 2 genealogies (14% of key authors) contributed to 38% of all articles. If an article contained an authorship contribution from the first genealogy, its results were more likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = 2.74, p < 0.028) relative to articles without such contribution. In contrast, if an article contained an authorship contribution from the second genealogy, it was less likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = -1.74, p < 0.026). We conclude that the literature on surgical resection for HGGs is influenced by medical academic genealogies, and that articles contributed by authors of select genealogies share common results. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of scientific literature, design of medical training, and health care policy.
The chair of internal medicine in Republic of Macedonia was created in 1947. The Department of Internal Medicine (CIM) is the most numerous at Skopje's medical faculty (currently 56 members). According to the archive material from the first session of the Scientific Teaching Council of the Faculty of Medicine (17.03.1947), Mr Mario Krmpotic (Professor of Internal Medicine) was proposed as the first Director of the Internal Clinic (1947). For reasons unknown, Mr Krmpotic never came to Skopje to accept the post. As a consequence of this fact, the real founder of the CIM was the Russian Professor Alexandar Ignjatovski (1875-1955). Mr Ignjatovski was elected as the first Director of the Clinic for Internal Medicine in 1948 for a period of 4 years (1948-1952). At the same time, he was the first Chief of the CIM in Skopje (Macedonia). Dr D. Arsov was elected as the first Assistant Professor of Medicine in 1947, and second (and last) Director of the Clinic for Internal Medicine (1952-1974). For the same period (22 years) he was Head of the CIM. Dr D. Arsov sequentially and successively became first associated and then ordinary professor of medicine in the years 1951 and 1958. The regular activities of the CIM are as follows: 1) Undergraduate education for students (Clinical Investigation, Internal Medicine, Clinical Pharmacy) in general medicine, dentistry, geriatrics, urgent and family medicine (ECKTS); Undergraduate educationfor nurses, speech therapists, physiotherapists, radiologists (high /three year/ nurses School, ECKTS); 2) Postgraduate education (candidates for specialisation in internal medicine, infectology, anaesthesiology, neurology and surgery; 3) Continual medical education (a traditional morning scientific meeting on Thursdays, 08 h; weekly meetings of all internal medicine subspecialists); Scientific meetings, symposiums, congresses of former internal medicine associations (cardiology, pulmoallergology, gastroenterology, nephrology, haematology
Whitfield, Toni Selena; Hickerson, Corey
This study, based on a survey of graduate students seeking employment, examines the categories and levels of preparedness of new professors/instructors as they enter academe. Preparedness was examined in several ways--specifically knowledge about higher education requirements and their preparation for teaching, advising, and service in the field…
Bentley, Peter James; Kyvik, Svein
Sociological institutional theory views universities as model driven organizations. The world's stratification system promotes conformity, imitation and isomorphism towards the "best" university models. Accordingly, academic roles may be locally shaped in minor ways, but are defined and measured explicitly in global terms. We test this proposition…
American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
This book contains volume 2 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Organizing for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Personal Protective Equipment"; (3) "Labeling"; (4) "Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)"; (5) "Preparing for Medical…
How does an academic librarian become embedded in a department or college that is reluctant to accept reference, research or instruction services from the library? In such cases, the would-be embedded librarian may have to settle for "partial" embedding, offering some services where possible and tactfully abstaining from offering others…
Drew, Steve; Klopper, Christopher
An investigation was undertaken into how a process involving peer review and observation of teaching can be used to enhance academics' teaching practices and inform professional development activities at an organization level. We describe an innovative and highly structured approach to gathering evidence of pedagogic practice from academic…
Gabbard, Anita; Mupinga, Davison M.
Community colleges act as the gateway for students to higher education. Many of these colleges realize this mission through open-door policies where students lacking in basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills can enroll. But, this open-access policy often creates challenges when meeting academic standards. Based on data collected from…
Kim, Geun Bae
This paper traces how Koreans of north area became medical doctors in colonial Korea. Most of the past research have focused only on the well-known medical doctors, or even when they discussed a great number of doctors, many research tended to only pay attention to the explicit final results of those doctors. This research, on the other hand, includes ordinary medical doctors as well as the renowed ones, and adjusts the focus to the lifetime period of their growth and activities. As a result, the misunderstanding and obscurity about the Korean medical doctors of north area during this period have been cleared. The new characteristics of the Korean medical doctors of this period have been found, along with their embodiment of historical significance. At the time, Koreans had to get through a number of qualifications in order to become doctors. First is the unique background of origin in which the family held interest in the modern education and was capable of supporting it financially. Second is the long-term status of education that the education from elementary to high school was completed without interruption. Third is the academic qualification that among various institutions of higher education, medical science was chosen as a major. Fourth is the condition of career in which as the career as a doctor had consistently continued. Thus, in oder to become a modern medical doctor, Koreans had to properly complete these multiple steps of process. The group of Korean medical doctors in north area, which was formed after getting through these series of process, possessed a number of characteristics. Firstly, as the upper-middle classes constituted the majority of medical doctors in Korea, the societal status of doctors rose and the foundation for the career as a doctor to be persisted as the family occupation settled. Secondly, the research career and academic degree became the principal method to escape from the discrimination and hierarchy existed between doctors. A
Abikoff, Howard; And Others
Thirty-four stimulant-treated, academically deficient, and attention deficit disordered, hyperactive (ADDH) boys (ages 7-12) participated in a 16-week, intensive cognitive training program focusing on academic skills and tasks. Intervention did not enhance self-esteem and there was poor agreement between teacher ratings of academic competence and…
Loversidge, Jacqueline; Demb, Ada
Embedding interprofessional education (IPE) into academic programs presents structural, curricular and human factor challenges. Nurses and physicians comprise the dominant dyad in healthcare, and therefore nursing and medical faculty are key in guiding future IPE approaches. However, faculty experiences with IPE are rarely reported. This paper presents perceptions of medical and nursing faculty about key factors related to IPE for pre-licensure medical and nursing students. Semi-structured interviews with 32 faculty from three Midwest universities were analyzed thematically in this phenomenological study based on collaboration and cooperation theories. Findings clustered into six categories. Specific subthemes little discussed in the literature are addressed in detail. Study participants felt the most powerful interprofessional student experiences were authentic and faculty-facilitated, that constructive clinical environments were crucial, that curriculum design challenges included disparities between undergraduate and graduate education, and that leadership commitment to full-time and adjunct faculty engagement and development was imperative.
Krupat, Edward; Pololi, Linda; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E
The culture of academic medicine has been described as hierarchical, competitive, and not highly supportive of female or minority faculty. In response to this, the authors designed the Learning Action Network (LAN), which was part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C-Change). The LAN is a five-school consortium aimed at changing the organizational culture of its constituent institutions. The authors selected LAN schools to be geographically diverse and representative of U.S. medical schools. Institutional leaders and faculty representatives from constituent schools met twice yearly for four years (2006-2010), forming a cross-institutional learning community. Through their quarterly listing of institutional activities, schools reported a wide array of actions. Most common were increased faculty development and/or mentoring, new approaches to communication, and adoption of new policies and procedures. Other categories included data collection/management, engagement of key stakeholders, education regarding gender/diversity, and new/expanded leadership positions. Through exit interviews, most participants reported feeling optimistic about maintaining the momentum of change. However, some, especially in schools with leadership changes, expressed uncertainty. Participants reported that they felt that the LAN enabled, empowered, facilitated, and/or caused the reported actions.For others who might want to work toward changing the culture of academic medicine, the authors offer several lessons learned from their experiences with C-Change. Most notably, people, structures, policies, and reward systems must be put into place to support cultural values, and broad-based support should be created in order for changes to persist when inevitable transitions in leadership occur.
Despite the fact that the idea of expanding the medical faculties of Budapest and Kolozsvár was formed in the 1870s, it only came true in the 1910s. The XXXVI. Law of 1912 ensured establishing new faculties in Pozsony and Debrecen. The medical faculty of Erzsébet University in Pozsony opened in 1914. The first three professors, i.e. Lajos Bakay, Ferenc Herzog and Dezső Velits, who formerly worked as head physicians for the State Hospital in Pozsony and the Institute for Midwives, were appointed then. The appointment of further professors and launching the 3rd, 4th and 5th forms were delayed by the outbreak of the war until 1918. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy the newly formed Czechoslovakia dissolved the Hungarian university in 1919. The clinics and institutes of the medical faculty were passed to Czechoslovak ownership, the Hungarian lecturers were dismissed. It is worth mentioning though that Albert Szent-Györgyi and Carl Ferdinand Cori (both Nobel Prize winners) started their scientific career in Pozsony.
Kermansaravi, Fatihe; Navidian, Ali; Rigi, Shahindokht Navabi; Yaghoubinia, Fariba
Background: Quality of work life is one of the most important factors for human motivating and improving of job satisfaction. Aim: The current study was carried out aimed to determine the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction in faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Method: In this descriptive-analytic study, 202 faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2012 were entered the study through census. The job satisfaction questionnaire of Smith and Kendall and Walton Quality of Work Life questionnaire were used for data collection. Validity and reliability of questionnaires were confirmed in previous studies. Data analysis was done using SPSS 18. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis. Result: The mean score of quality of work life was 121/30±37/08 and job satisfaction was 135/98±33/78. There was a significant and positive correlation between job satisfaction of faculty members and their quality of work life (P=0.003). In addition, two components of quality of work life “adequate and fair compensation” (β=0.3) and “Social Integration” (β=0.4) can predict job satisfaction of faculty members. Conclusion: According to correlation between job satisfaction and quality of work life in faculty members, job satisfaction can be improved through the changing and manipulating the components of quality of work life and in this way; the suitable environment for organization development should be provided. PMID:25716392
Introduction. The value of tablet computer use in medical education is an area of considerable interest, with preliminary investigations showing that the majority of medical trainees feel that tablet computers added value to the curriculum. This study investigated potential differences in tablet computer use between medical students and resident physicians. Materials & Methods. Data collection for this survey was accomplished with an anonymous online questionnaire shared with the medical students and residents at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIU-SOM) in July and August of 2012. Results. There were 76 medical student responses (26% response rate) and 66 resident/fellow responses to this survey (21% response rate). Residents/fellows were more likely to use tablet computers several times daily than medical students (32% vs. 20%, p = 0.035). The most common reported uses were for accessing medical reference applications (46%), e-Books (45%), and board study (32%). Residents were more likely than students to use a tablet computer to access an electronic medical record (41% vs. 21%, p = 0.010), review radiology images (27% vs. 12%, p = 0.019), and enter patient care orders (26% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). Discussion. This study shows a high prevalence and frequency of tablet computer use among physicians in training at this academic medical center. Most residents and students use tablet computers to access medical references, e-Books, and to study for board exams. Residents were more likely to use tablet computers to complete clinical tasks. Conclusions. Tablet computer use among medical students and resident physicians was common in this survey. All learners used tablet computers for point of care references and board study. Resident physicians were more likely to use tablet computers to access the EMR, enter patient care orders, and review radiology studies. This difference is likely due to the differing educational and professional demands placed on
Introduction. The value of tablet computer use in medical education is an area of considerable interest, with preliminary investigations showing that the majority of medical trainees feel that tablet computers added value to the curriculum. This study investigated potential differences in tablet computer use between medical students and resident physicians. Materials & Methods. Data collection for this survey was accomplished with an anonymous online questionnaire shared with the medical students and residents at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIU-SOM) in July and August of 2012. Results. There were 76 medical student responses (26% response rate) and 66 resident/fellow responses to this survey (21% response rate). Residents/fellows were more likely to use tablet computers several times daily than medical students (32% vs. 20%, p = 0.035). The most common reported uses were for accessing medical reference applications (46%), e-Books (45%), and board study (32%). Residents were more likely than students to use a tablet computer to access an electronic medical record (41% vs. 21%, p = 0.010), review radiology images (27% vs. 12%, p = 0.019), and enter patient care orders (26% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). Discussion. This study shows a high prevalence and frequency of tablet computer use among physicians in training at this academic medical center. Most residents and students use tablet computers to access medical references, e-Books, and to study for board exams. Residents were more likely to use tablet computers to complete clinical tasks. Conclusions. Tablet computer use among medical students and resident physicians was common in this survey. All learners used tablet computers for point of care references and board study. Resident physicians were more likely to use tablet computers to access the EMR, enter patient care orders, and review radiology studies. This difference is likely due to the differing educational and professional demands placed on
Szabadváry, F; Vámos, E
After a short introduction on the development of the medieval universities at Pécs, Obuda, and Pozsony, and mentioning those who lectured in medicine in Hungary, the authors emphasise that modern chemistry was born during the 16th and 17th century. They stress the role of Paracelsus who invented iatro-chemistry, and that the first independent chairs, were founded in Germany in the beginning of 17th century at Altdorf, Marburg, Jéna, but were followed suit by Paris, when the Jardin des Plantes were erected. The first chemical textbook, the Cours de Chimie (Paris 1665), was also the work of a Frenchman, namely Nicolas Lémery (1645-1715). From the 18th century chemistry was also included in the curriculum of medical education in Hungary. Among the chairs of the newly founded medical faculty at Nagyszombat we find the chemical-botanical department in 1769. Its first professor was an Austrian physician Jakab Winterl (1773-1809), who had been a head physician at Selmecbánya, in Northern Hungary. Owing to a rash and premature publication Winterl's international reputation was unfortunately undermined in the last century by a leading German science historian, Hermann Kopp. The authors stress, however, that Winterl indeed played an important role in organizing the chemical department, and purchasing all the necessary equipment needed for up to date researches and analyses. And above all, in his Prolusiones ad chemiam saeculi decimi noni, he foresaw many forthcoming paths and discoveries of 19th century chemistry. After Winterl's retirement the department was divided into two parts. Pál Kitaibel (1757-1817) led the botanica department and János schuster (1777-1838) the other one for chemistry. Kitaibel made a name for himself by depicting Hungarian flora, but he also made discoveries in chemistry. He discovered chlore lime, before Tennant in 1795, a material which might have been used for whitening textiles. Schuster, on the other hand, introduced a system of Hungarian
Rizer, Milisa K; Kaufman, Beth; Sieck, Cynthia J; Hefner, Jennifer L; McAlearney, Ann Scheck
Electronic medical record (EMR) implementation efforts face many challenges, including individual and organizational barriers and concerns about loss of productivity during the process. These issues may be particularly complex in large and diverse settings with multiple specialties providing inpatient and outpatient care. This case report provides an example of a successful EMR implementation that emphasizes the importance of flexibility and adaptability on the part of the implementation team. It also presents the top 10 lessons learned from this EMR implementation in a large midwestern academic medical center. Included are five overarching lessons related to leadership, initial approach, training, support, and optimization as well as five lessons related to the EMR system itself that are particularly important elements of a successful implementation.
Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) at four medical faculties. Part II: Key factors for motivating the faculty during the process
Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria; Giesler, Marianne; Gornostayeva, Maryna; Narciss, Elisabeth; Wosnik, Annette; Zipfel, Stephan; Griewatz, Jan; Fritze, Olaf
Objective: After adoption of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine [Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, NKLM], the German medical faculties are asked to test the learning obejctives recorded in it and evaluate them critically. The faculties require curricular transparency for competence-oriented transition of present curricula, which is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping in comparison to the NKLM. Based on this inventory, curricula can be further developed target-oriented. Considerable resistance has to be expected when a complex existing curriculum is to be mapped for the first time and a faculty must be convinced of its usefulness. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen rose to this task. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping was successful at the locations despite resistance. Part I presented the resources and structures that supported implementation. Part II focuses on factors that motivate individuals and groups of persons to cooperate in the faculties. Method: Both parts used the same method. In short, the joint project was systematically planned following the steps of project and change management and adjusted in the course of the process. From the beginning of the project, a Grounded-Theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on measures and developments at the faculties, to continually analyse them and to draw final conclusions. Results: At all sites, faculties, teachers, students and administrative staff were not per se willing to deal with the NKLM and its contents, and even less to map their present curricula. Analysis of the development reflected a number of factors that had either a negative effect on the willingness to cooperate when missing, or a positive one when present. These were: clear top-down and bottom-up management; continuous information of the faculty; user
Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.
Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…
Bar-El, Yaron; Michaelson, Moshe; Hyames, Gila; Skorecki, Karl; Reisner, Shimon A; Beyar, Rafael
The Rambam Medical Center, the major academic health center in northern Israel, serving a population of two million and providing specialized tertiary care, was exposed to an unprecedented experience during the Second Lebanon War in the summer of 2006. For more than one month, it was subjected to continuous rocket attacks, but it continued to provide emergency and routine medical services to the civilian population and also served the military personnel who were evacuated from the battlefront. To accomplish the goals of serving the population while itself being under fire, the Rambam Medical Center had to undertake major organizational decisions, which included maximizing safety within the hospital by shifting patients and departments, ensuring that the hospital was properly fortified, managing the health professional teams' work schedules, and providing needed services for the families of employees. The Rambam Medical Center's Level I trauma center expertise included multidisciplinary teams and extensive collaborations; modern imaging modalities usually reserved for peacetime medical practice were frequently used. The function of the hospital teams during the war was efficient and smooth, based on the long-term actions taken to prepare for disasters and wartime conditions. Routine hospital services continued, although at 60% of normal occupancy. Financial losses incurred were primarily due to the decrease in revenue-generating activity. The two most important components of managing the hospital under these conditions are (1) the ability to arrive at prompt and meaningful decisions with respect to the organizational and medical hospital operations and (2) the leadership and management of the professional staff and teams.
Berkowitz, Scott A; Pahira, Jennifer J
As academic medical centers (AMCs) consider becoming accountable care organizations (ACOs) under Medicare, they must assess their readiness for this transition. Of the 253 Medicare ACOs prior to 2014, 51 (20%) are AMCs. Three critical components of ACO readiness are institutional and ACO structure, leadership, and governance; robust information technology and analytic systems; and care coordination and management to improve care delivery and health at the population level. All of these must be viewed through the lens of unique AMC mission-driven goals.There is clear benefit to developing and maintaining a centralized internal leadership when it comes to driving change within an ACO, yet there is also the need for broad stakeholder involvement. Other important structural features are an extensive primary care foundation; concomitant operation of a managed care plan or risk-bearing entity; or maintaining a close relationship with post-acute-care or skilled nursing facilities, which provide valuable expertise in coordinating care across the continuum. ACOs also require comprehensive and integrated data and analytic systems that provide meaningful population data to inform care teams in real time, promote quality improvement, and monitor spending trends. AMCs will require proven care coordination and management strategies within a population health framework and deployment of an innovative workforce.AMC core functions of providing high-quality subspecialty and primary care, generating new knowledge, and training future health care leaders can be well aligned with a transition to an ACO model. Further study of results from Medicare-related ACO programs and commercial ACOs will help define best practices.
Paralikar, Swapnil; Shah, Chinmay
Over the past several years, an opinion has emerged in India that the current practical curricula in medical schools fail to meet many of the objectives for which they were instituted. Hence, this study has assessed the perception of physiology faculty members regarding the current experimental physiology curriculum in one Indian state, Gujarat. The faculty were of the opinion that many of the topics currently taught in experimental physiology (amphibian nerve-muscle and heart muscle experiments) were outdated and clinically irrelevant: Therefore, the faculty advocated that duration of teaching time devoted to some of these topics should be reduced and topics with clinical relevance should be introduced at the undergraduate level. The faculty also felt that more emphasis should be laid on highlighting the clinical aspect related to each concept taught in experimental physiology . Moreover, a majority of faculty members were in favour of replacing the current practice in Gujarat of teaching experimental physiology only by explanation of graphs obtained from experiments conducted in the previous years, with computer assisted learning in small groups.
Recent studies have shown that the number of women faculty in academic medicine is much lesser than the number of women that are graduating from medical schools. Many academic institutes face the challenge of retaining talented faculty and this attrition from academic medicine prevents career advancement of women faculty. This case study attempts to identify some of the reasons for dissatisfaction that may be related to the attrition of women medical faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. Data was collected using a job satisfaction survey, which consisted of various constructs that are part of a faculty's job and proxy measures to gather the faculty's intent to leave their current position at the University of Pittsburgh or academic medicine in general. The survey results showed that although women faculty were satisfied with their job at the University of Pittsburgh, there are some important factors that influenced their decision of potentially dropping out. The main reasons cited by the women faculty were related to funding pressures, work-life balance, mentoring of junior faculty and the amount of time spent on clinical responsibilities. The analysis of proxy measures showed that if women faculty decided to leave University of Pittsburgh, it would most probably be due to better opportunity elsewhere followed by pressure to get funding. The results of this study aim to provide the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh with information related to attrition of its women faculty and provide suggestions for implications for policy to retain their women faculty.
Duffy, F Daniel; Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Clancy, Gerard P; Van De Wiele, C Justin; Teague, T Kent; Crow, Sheila; Kollaja, Elizabeth A; Fox, Mark D
Oklahoma's health status has been ranked among the worst in the country. In 1972, the University of Oklahoma established the Tulsa branch of its College of Medicine (COM) to expand the physician workforce for northeastern Oklahoma and to provide care for the uninsured patients of the area. In 2008, the Tulsa branch launched a distinct educational track, the University of Oklahoma COM's School of Community Medicine (SCM), to prepare providers equipped and committed to addressing prevalent health disparities.The authors describe the Tulsa branch's Summer Institute (SI), a signature program of the SCM, and how it is part of SCM's process of institutional transformation to align its education, service, and research missions toward improving the health status of the entire region. The SI is a weeklong, prematriculation immersion experience in community medicine. It brings entering medical and physician assistant students together with students and faculty from other disciplines to develop a shared culture of community medicine. The SI uses an unconventional curriculum, based on Scharmer's Theory U, which emphasizes appreciative inquiry, critical thinking, and collaborative problem solving. Also, the curriculum includes Professional Meaning conversations, small-group sessions to facilitate the integration of students' observations into their professional identities and commitments. Development of prototypes of a better health care system enables participants to learn by doing and to bring community medicine to life.The authors describe these and other curricular elements of the SI, present early evaluation data, and discuss the curriculum's incremental evolution. A longitudinal outcomes evaluation is under way.
Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Dashti, Rezvan; Mokhtari, Saeedeh
Introduction Individual characteristics are important factors influencing organizational commitment. Also, committed human resources can lead organizations to performance improvement as well as personal and organizational achievements. This research aimed to determine the association between organizational commitment and personality traits among faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Methods the research population of this cross-sectional study was the faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Ahvaz, Iran). The sample size was determined to be 83. Data collection instruments were the Allen and Meyer questionnaire for organizational commitment and Neo for characteristics’ features. The data were analyzed through Pearson’s product-moment correlation and the independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and simple linear regression analysis (SLR) by SPSS. Results Continuance commitment showed a significant positive association with neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Normative commitment showed a significant positive association with conscientiousness and a negative association with extroversion (p = 0.001). Openness had a positive association with affective commitment. Openness and agreeableness, among the five characteristics’ features, had the most effect on organizational commitment, as indicated by simple linear regression analysis. Conclusion Faculty members’ characteristics showed a significant association with their organizational commitment. Determining appropriate characteristic criteria for faculty members may lead to employing committed personnel to accomplish the University’s objectives and tasks. PMID:27123222
Shrader, Sarah; Mauldin, Mary; Hammad, Sammar; Mitcham, Maralynee; Blue, Amy
There is an on-going transformation in health professions education to prepare students to function as competent members of an interprofessional team in order to increase patient safety and improve patient care. Various methods of health education and practice directed toward students have been implemented, yet descriptions of faculty development initiatives designed to advance interprofessional education and practice are scarce. This article describes a faculty development program at the Medical University of South Carolina, USA, based on the conceptual framework of adult transformational learning theory. Three components comprise the faculty development program: an institute, fellowship and teaching series. Evaluations of the three components indicate that the faculty development program aided in the sustainability of the university's interprofessional program, and built capacity for improvement and growth in interprofessional endeavors.
Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Camur, Derya; Güler, Cağatay
This study has been carried out to "identify highly sensitive behavior on healthy nutrition (orthorexia nervosa-ON)" in residence medical doctors (MD) in the Faculty of Medicine. Diagnoses of ON was based on the presence of a disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality. The study is a cross-sectional research, which reached out to the entire 318 MD. The ORTO-15 test was used to propose a diagnostic proceeding and to try verify the prevalence of ON. Those subjects who were classified below 40 from the ORTO-15 test are accepted to have ON. Chi-square test, ANOVA (univariate) analysis and logistic regression were used for analyses of the data. Mean score of the participants from the ORTO-15 test is 39.8+/-0.22, and there is no statistical difference between women and men. A total of 45.5% of the residence MD involved in the research scored below 40 in the ORTO-15 test. Those who do their food shopping themselves, skip a meal with a salad/fruit, care about the quality of the things they eat, think that eating outside is healthy, look at the content of what they eat and the content of food is important in selection of a product score lower in their average marks in ORTO-15 and the difference among the groups is statistically significant. Food selection of 20.1% of the male participants and 38.9% of the female participants among the residence MD is influenced by the programs on nutrition/health in mass-media. The difference between the groups is statistically significant (p<0.05). Female medical doctors are more careful than men of their physical appearance and weight control and consume less caloric food, which is statistically significant. Since those who exhibit "healthy fanatic" eating habits may have a risk of ON in the future, it would be useful to conduct studies that identify the prevalence of ON in the public.
Shaker, Genevieve G.
Nontenure-track faculty are an increasingly crucial component of the higher education workforce. Much of what we know about this population remains either quantitative or anecdotal and does little to provide in-depth insights directly from the faculty themselves that can be of use for faculty development. This phenomenological, interview-based…
Hoppe, Astrid; Trowald-Wigh, Gunilla
Surveyed and interviewed first-year students and faculty in veterinary medicine at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences on attitudes toward education and practice. Students placed emphasis on specific knowledge and practical skills, while faculty spoke in favor of basic theory; students also wanted integrated exams. Both agreed that…
Steinberg, H; Schmideler, S
Through Georg Büchner's drama the case of Johann Christian Woyzeck gained worldwide fame. For the first time ever this study presents the testimonial drawn up by the Medical Faculty of Leipzig University, which until now had been regarded as having been lost. Now, however, the first-named author rediscovered it in the files of the Leipzig University Archives. The testimonial proved to be a decisive importance, as it sealed Woyzeck's execution in 1824. Before presenting major passages from the testimonial this study give an overview of the chronology of the Woyzeck case and the other medico-psychiatric testimonials drawn up by Leipzig municipal physician Johann Christian August Clarus. It also reveals which professors of Leipzig Medical Faculty were involved in drawing up the final testimonial which confirmed Clarus's findings and rejected the objections raised by Woyzeck's counsel - remarkably without examining the offender himself first-hand, but merely relying on and evaluating the testimonials drawn up by Clarus.
Hale, James B.; Reddy, Linda A.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A.; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole
Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to "indirect" informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes "direct" neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment…
El Rayess, Fadya; Goldman, Roberta; Furey, Christopher; Chandran, Rabin; Goldberg, Arnold R.; Anandarajah, Gowri
Background The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an accepted framework for delivering high-quality primary care, prompting many residencies to transform their practices into PCMHs. Few studies have assessed the impact of these changes on residents' and faculty members' PCMH attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The family medicine program at Brown University achieved Level 3 PCMH accreditation in 2010, with training relying primarily on situated learning through immersion in PCMH practice, supplemented by didactics and a few focused clinical activities. Objective To assess PCMH knowledge and attitudes after Level 3 PCMH accreditation and to identify additional educational needs. Methods We used a qualitative approach, with semistructured, individual interviews with 12 of the program's 13 postgraduate year 3 residents and 17 of 19 core faculty. Questions assessed PCMH knowledge, attitudes, and preparedness for practicing, teaching, and leading within a PCMH. Interviews were analyzed using the immersion/crystallization method. Results Residents and faculty generally had positive attitudes toward PCMH. However, many expressed concerns that they lacked specific PCMH knowledge, and felt inadequately prepared to implement PCMH principles into their future practice or teaching. Some exceptions were faculty and resident leaders who were actively involved in the PCMH transformation. Barriers included lack of time and central roles in PCMH activities. Conclusions Practicing in a certified PCMH training program, with passive PCMH roles and supplemental didactics, appears inadequate in preparing residents and faculty for practice or teaching in a PCMH. Purposeful curricular design and evaluation, with faculty development, may be needed to prepare the future leaders of primary care. PMID:26692970
Creating and Maintaining a Successful Service Line in an Academic Medical Center at the Dawn of Value-Based Care: Lessons Learned From the Heart and Vascular Service Line at UMass Memorial Health Care.
Phillips, Robert A; Cyr, Jay; Keaney, John F; Messina, Louis M; Meyer, Theo E; Tam, Stanley K C; Korenda, Kathleen; Darrigo, Melinda; Kumar, Pooja; Challapalli, Sailu
The service line (SL) model has been proven to help shift health care toward value-based services, which is characterized by coordinated, multidisciplinary, high-quality, and cost-effective care. However, academic medical centers struggle with how to effectively set up SL structures that overcome the organizational and cultural challenges associated with simultaneously delivering the highest-value care for the patient and advancing the academic mission. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of UMass Memorial Health Care's heart and vascular service line (HVSL) from 2006 to 2011 and describe the impact on its success of multiple strategic decisions. These include key academic physician leadership recruitments and engagement via a matrixed governance and management model; development of multidisciplinary teams; empowerment of SL leadership through direct accountability and authority over programs and budgets; joint educational and training programs; incentives for academic achievement; and co-localization of faculty, personnel, and facilities. The authors also explore the barriers to success, including the need to overcome historical departmental-based silos, cultural and training differences among disciplines, confusion engendered by a matrixed reporting structure, and faculty's unfamiliarity with the financial and organizational skills required to operate a successful SL. Also described here is the impact that successful implementation of the SL has on creating high-quality services, increased profitability, and contribution to the financial stability and academic achievement of the academic medical center.
Drake, Paul B.
While the National Library of Medicine created the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) as a network to provide medical and health information, historically few nonmedical academic libraries have participated. University medical libraries and hospital libraries have been the major focus of the Network. Recently, the NNLM has…
Nierenberg, David W; Carney, Patricia A
In recent years, Dartmouth Medical School has increased its commitment to educational research within the school, and in collaboration with other schools across the country. Passionate faculty members with ideas and expertise in particular curricular areas are one critical component needed for a successful educational research program. Other components include an atmosphere that fosters research collaborations and mentoring, and various types of institutional support structures. This same model has effectively supported basic science and clinical research for decades. Because of the complexities involved in studying medical education, Dartmouth Medical School has invested in support structures for educational grant and manuscript development, financial support for pilot projects and partial salary support for investigators and key staff members, and other support targeted toward specific research projects. Ultimately, the goal is to use the results of the school's educational research projects to improve the curriculum through cycles of hypothesis development and testing, providing evidence for subsequent curricular change. When some research findings are relevant and applicable for use in other medical schools, that is an additional benefit of the educational research process. In this report, the authors describe the development of Dartmouth Medical School's infrastructure for supporting educational research, which has helped to accelerate the educational research productivity teaching faculty now enjoy. The authors also address some of the challenges that they anticipate in the near future.
Hortsch, Michael; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S
Gross anatomy and histology are now often taught as parts of an integrated medical or dental curriculum. Although this puts these foundational basic sciences into a wider educational context, students may not fully appreciate their importance as essential components of their medical education and may not develop a sufficient level of competency, as they are not stand-alone courses. The early identification of medical or dental students who struggle with anatomy or histology and the facilitation of adequate didactic support constitute a significant problem in an integrated curriculum. The timely intervention by an academic review board in combination with an individualized faculty-mediated counseling and remediation process may provide an effective solution to this problem.
Robinson, T N; Kemby, K M
Childhood obesity represents a worldwide medical and public health challenge. Academic medical centers cannot avoid the effects of the obesity epidemic, and must adopt strategies for their academic, clinical and public policy responses to childhood obesity. The Center for Healthy Weight at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford provides an example and model of one such strategy. The design provides both breadth and depth through six cores: Research, Patient Care, Community Programs, Advocating for Public Policy Change, Training and Professional Education, and the Healthy Hospital Initiative. The Center and its cores are designed to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration across the university, medical school, children's hospital and surrounding community. The foci of these cores are likely to be relevant to almost any academic medical center's mission and functions. PMID:25089192
Medical schools and teaching hospitals have been hit particularly hard by the financial crisis affecting health care in the United States. To compete financially, many academic medical centers have recruited wealthy foreign patients and established luxury primary care clinics. At these clinics, patients are offered tests supported by little evidence of their clinical and/or cost effectiveness, which erodes the scientific underpinnings of medical practice. Given widespread disparities in health, wealth, and access to care, as well as growing cynicism and dissatisfaction with medicine among trainees, the promotion by these institutions of an overt, two-tiered system of care, which exacerbates inequities and injustice, erodes professional ethics. Academic medical centers should divert their intellectual and financial resources away from luxury primary care and toward more equitable and just programs designed to promote individual, community, and global health. The public and its legislators should, in turn, provide adequate funds to enable this. Ways for academic medicine to facilitate this largesse are discussed.
Chowdhury, Ranadip; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Mitra, Kaushik; Naskar, Somnath; Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Lahiri, Saibendu Kumar
Recently, there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress among undergraduate medical students and to find out academic factors as determinants. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of R. G. Kar Medical College, India, during July 2011-June 2012. Perceived stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale-14. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess academic sources of stress and their severity. The overall mean perceived stress score was 29.58 (standard deviation [SD] = 6.60), and 46.3% of the participants were in the group of more stressed (perceived stress score ≥28). The academic stressor factors predicted 78% of variability of perceived stress. A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The students should be taught different stress management techniques to improve their ability to cope with a demanding professional course.
Engels, Melanie J.
Background: High-alert medications pose a greater risk of causing significant harm to patients if used in error. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals define institution-specific high-alert medications and implement processes to ensure safe medication use. Method: Nursing, pharmacy, and prescribers were asked to voluntarily complete a 34-question survey to assess their knowledge, experience, and perceptions regarding high-alert medications in an academic hospital. Results: The majority of respondents identified the organization’s high-alert medications, the consequences of an error involving a high-alert medication, and the reversal agent. Most of the risk-reduction strategies within the institution were viewed as being effective by respondents. Forty-five percent of the respondents utilized a high-alert medication in the previous 24 hours. Only 14.2% had experienced an error with a high-alert medication in the previous 12 months, with 46% being near misses. The survey found the 5 rights for medication administration were not being utilized consistently. Respondents indicated that work experience or hospital orientation is the preferred learning experience for high-alert medications. Conclusions: This study assessed all disciplines involved in the medication use process. Perceptions about high-alert medications differ between disciplines. Ongoing discipline-specific education is required to ensure that individuals accept accountability in the medication use process and to close knowledge gaps on high-alert medications and risk-reduction strategies. PMID:26446747
Haizlip, Julie; May, Natalie; Schorling, John; Williams, Anne; Plews-Ogan, Margaret
Despite ongoing efforts to improve working conditions, address well-being of faculty and students, and promote professionalism, many still feel the culture of academic medicine is problematic. Depression and burnout persist among physicians and trainees. The authors propose that culture change is so challenging in part because of an evolutionary construct known as the negativity bias that is reinforced serially in medical education. The negativity bias drives people to attend to and be more greatly affected by the negative aspects of experience. Some common teaching methods such as simulations, pimping, and instruction in clinical reasoning inadvertently reinforce the negativity bias and thereby enhance physicians' focus on the negative. Here, the authors examine the concept of negativity bias in the context of academic medicine, arguing that culture is affected by serially emphasizing the inherent bias to recognize and remember the negative. They explore the potential role of practices rooted in positive psychology as powerful tools to counteract the negativity bias and aid in achieving desired culture change.
Trout, Alexandra L.; Epstein, Michael H.
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for academic failure. Although studies have evaluated the effects of medication on academic outcomes, the literature on non-medication interventions has not received equal attention. This review examined 41 studies that evaluated the impact of non-medication interventions on…
Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley
Objectives To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students’ work-life balance. Methods A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Results Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p< 0.0001), more hours academic study during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, p< 0.01), and involvement in teaching or research. Increased hours of study was associated with lower QoL (rho = -0.13, p<0.01). Conclusions Study skills may be more important than duration spent studying, for academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study. PMID:26385285
Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.
Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…
Developing a library collection is one of the most important pursuits in medical librarianship. A library's collection is its foundation, and the collection is the central information resource upon which most library activities rely. Today's vision of the medical or health sciences collection must incorporate a broader range of materials,…
Rajasingam, Uma; Suat-Cheng, Peh; Aung, Thidar; Dipolog-Ubanan, Genevieve; Wei, Wee Kok
This study examines the association between emotional intelligence and its influence on academic performance on medical students to see if emotional intelligence emerges as a significant influencer of academic achievement. The instrument used is the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure an individual's perceived emotional intelligence (PEI). Participants are required to rate the extent to which they agree with each item on a 5-point Likert scale. The TMMS consists of three subscales - Attention to Feelings (which measures the extent to which individuals notice and think about their feelings, Clarity (which measures the extent to which an individual is able to discriminate among different moods) and Mood Repair (related to an individual's ability to repair/terminate negative moods or maintain pleasant ones). Of special interest is whether high scores in the Clarity and Repair subscales correlate positively with academic performance, and whether high scores on the Attention subscale, without correspondingly high scores in the Clarity and Mood Repair subscales, correlates negatively with academic performance. Sample population includes all medical students (Years 1-5) of the MD program in UCSI University, Malaysia. Preliminary analysis indicates no significant relationship between overall TMMS scores and academic performance; however, the Attention subscale is significantly correlated to academic performance. Therefore even though PEI has to be ruled out as an influencer on academic performance for this particular sample, the fact that Attention has a significant relationship with academic performance may give some insight into the factors that possibly influence medical students' academic performance.
Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar
Objectives This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis). Results Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors’ autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students’ autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students’ academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors’ autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students’ academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students’ academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.042). Conclusions Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students’ educational background, our study shows that tutors’ autonomy support is inconsistent with students’ academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students’ academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students’ educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students’ academic achievement. PMID:28035054
Copious literature is available to provide nascent administrators with guidelines and advice for being a successful administrator. Likewise, faculty new to academia have many available resources both from the literature and from campus-based support services, such as new faculty development programs, mentors, and special internal funding programs.…
Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others
Governing board chairmen of 176 selected postsecondary institutions were surveyed to determine their levels of knowledge, involvement, and satisfaction concerning policies for extra-income-earning activities of the faculty. Such activities provide benefits to the faculty, the university, and to society, but potential conflicts of interest and…
Wood, Richard J.
A random-sample survey of 100 faculty members at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania was made to determine how online reference services and library automation affect the attitude of faculty toward several variables: (1) centralization or decentralization of online reference services; (2) willingness to learn to use and to pay for the…
Welch, Betty Jo
Examines a faculty development program that is based on management by objectives. (Includes forms or outlines for making recommendations for reappointment, promotion, or tenure; a development plan for the academic year; and a faculty performance review and development report.) (PD)
Scharf, Rüdiger E.; Burger, Reinhard
Summary Background As a consequence of the German Transfusion Act and the corresponding Hemotherapeutic Guidelines of the German Medical Association, the National Advisory Committee Blood approved a recommendation (votum 29) in 2003 to specify students’ training in transfusion medicine, hemotherapy, and hemostasis. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of teaching in these fields. Methods A questionnaire-based evaluation was performed at the medical schools in Germany (n = 34). Responses were analyzed by descriptive criteria, except for weekly semester hours of teaching. Results Responses were obtained from 30 medical faculties (88%). Among them, 18 had conducted votum 29 (12 ‘completely’, 6 ‘essentially’), while 7 had done so only ‘in part’ and 5 ‘not at all’. 13 of 30 sites (43%) reported that no faculty-related curriculum in transfusion medicine and hemostasis (hemotherapy) exists. At 28 of 30 medical schools (93%), teaching in transfusion medicine, hemotherapy, and hemostasis is integrated into cross-curricular topics of interdisciplinary programs, including lectures. The corresponding semester hours of teaching per week ranged from 0.5 to 12 h/week. Conclusion Votum 29 is incompletely established. Consequently, academic teaching in transfusion medicine, hemotherapy, and hemostasis requires structural and conceptual improvement to fulfill legal specifications and regulatory constraints. PMID:25254026
Chew, Boon-How; Md Zain, Azhar; Hassan, Faezah
Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p < .0001), and was a predictor of poor result in the overall CA (adjusted OR 1.06 95% CI 1.011-1.105). Negative relationships might exist between emotional social intelligence and academic success in undergraduate medical students. A different collection of social skills and SM EI could be constructive towards academic achievement in medical schools.
Bond, Eleanor F
The University of Washington School of Nursing faculty partnered with leaders of a local community with the shared intention of improving health services for needy populations and preparing nursing students to collaborate with communities in caring for such populations. The resulting clinic has operated for more than a decade and has continually grown, now serving about 1,000 patients per month. More than 300 students have completed clinical or research activities at the clinic. Challenges have included provision of culturally informed, evidence-based care; integration of mental and primary health care services; chronic disease management; leveraging community partnerships in support of needy populations; and fiscal sustainability. A new project uses team-based approaches to implement interprofessional, relationship-centered care for families of newborns.
Konstam, Marvin A; Hill, Joseph A; Kovacs, Richard J; Harrington, Robert A; Arrighi, James A; Khera, Amit
Academic medical centers (AMCs) are presently facing enormous challenges arising from a prospective decline in government funding for research and education, shifting payment models emphasizing efficiency and value, and increasing competition. Left unabated, these challenges will drive many AMCs to de-emphasize or forsake their core missions in an effort to survive. Stemming from a symposium held at the 2015 Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology titled, "The Academic Medical Center of the Future," we propose a series of changes, including internal restructuring, system-wide partnership, and novel approaches to support research and education, that are designed to better position AMCs to compete and face their growing challenges in a manner that preserves their essential missions. In aggregate, these changes will facilitate establishing the academic medical system of the future.
Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Verkarre, Virginie; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Rabant, Marion; Daniliuc, Cristina; Radenen, Brigitte; Harent, Marion; Cassanelli, Lucien; Cherel, Éric; Javaux, Hubert; Tesniere, Antoine; Terris, Benoît; Badoual, Cécile
At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success. To do so, we now propose a short continuous assessment exam at the beginning of each practice session in the form of electronic multi-choice questions. Finally, we now propose a completely computerized final exam, on touchpads, that enhanced its docimologic value.
Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research. Methods: A survey was administered to faculty in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary sciences at The University of the West Indies. The questions covered computer literacy, computer access and location, knowledge and use of electronic resources, and training needs. Results: The response rate was 70%, of whom 97% were computer users. Seventy-three percent used computers daily, and 82% felt that their computer literacy level was average or beyond. Overall, it was found that faculty had high awareness of the electronic resources made available by the MSL but low use of MSL-specific resources supporting the suggested problem of underutilization. Many respondents felt that e-resources were important, and, though many felt that they were competent users, 83% were self-taught and many still expressed a need for training. Over 60% felt that a workshop with a hands-on component was the preferred format for training. It was recommended that there be greater promotion of the library's e-resources. PMID:15685270
Social media networks are a worldwide phenomenon encompassing multiple generations of faculty and students. As the World Wide Web has developed and grown, so has the ability of individuals to communicate across hundreds and thousands of miles via these social media networks. An exploratory survey of members in the Association of Educators in…
Booton, Carol M.
Academic quality in for-profit vocational (Gainful Employment) programs is a concern for all stakeholders. However, academic quality is not easily defined. The Department of Education's Gainful Employment Rule defines academic quality With a few easily measured metrics such as student retention and job placement rate, despite the fact that…
Hiring committees address the glut of highly qualified applicants for faculty positions by experimenting with new evaluation methods and adapting their expectations for today's increasingly competitive academic environment.
Waqas, Ahmed; Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad
Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student's background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P < 0.05). Conclusion. We found a very high prevalence of academic stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students.
Sanders, Lalage; Sander, Paul
Introduction. Sander, Stevenson, King and Coates (2000) identified differences between medical students in a conventional university and psychology students in a post-1992 university in their responses to different styles of learning and teaching. Method. It had been hypothesised that differing levels of confidence explained why the former felt…
Eudes, J A; Divis, K L; Vaughan, D G; Fottler, M D
As a result of recent environmental changes in the health care industry, marketing has become a vital necessity for the survival of most hospitals. Kotler's conceptual framework is used to study and evaluate an innovative program for marketing physician services in a large urban medical center. This program was quite successful in increasing admissions and referrals and won a national award in 1984.
Belanger, April; Devine, Lauren T.; Lane, Aaron; Condren, Michelle E.
This study described discharge prescription medication errors written for emergency department patients. This study used content analysis in a cross-sectional design to systematically categorize prescription errors found in a report of 1000 discharge prescriptions submitted in the electronic medical record in February 2015. Two pharmacy team members reviewed the discharge prescription list for errors. Open-ended data were coded by an additional rater for agreement on coding categories. Coding was based upon majority rule. Descriptive statistics were used to address the study objective. Categories evaluated were patient age, provider type, drug class, and type and time of error. The discharge prescription error rate out of 1000 prescriptions was 13.4%, with “incomplete or inadequate prescription” being the most commonly detected error (58.2%). The adult and pediatric error rates were 11.7% and 22.7%, respectively. The antibiotics reviewed had the highest number of errors. The highest within-class error rates were with antianginal medications, antiparasitic medications, antacids, appetite stimulants, and probiotics. Emergency medicine residents wrote the highest percentage of prescriptions (46.7%) and had an error rate of 9.2%. Residents of other specialties wrote 340 prescriptions and had an error rate of 20.9%. Errors occurred most often between 10:00 am and 6:00 pm.
Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Euathrongchit, Juntima
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3%) participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles. PMID:26165948
Peters, Mary Anne; Boylston, Mary
Rising enrollments in schools of nursing have increased the demand for qualified nursing faculty. In the midst of a nurse faculty shortage, many academic institutions are relying on adjunct faculty to fill the gap. The increasing number of adjunct faculty and their need for orientation to the faculty role presents a challenge to schools and departments of nursing. The authors discuss innovative solutions to these challenges.
Babcock, Christine; Baer, Carolyn; Bayram, Jamil D; Chamberlain, Stacey; Chan, Jennifer L; Galvin, Shannon; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Kysia, Rashid F; Lin, Janet; Malik, Mamta; Murphy, Robert L; Olopade, C Sola; Theodosis, Christian
On January 12, 2010, a major earthquake in Haiti resulted in approximately 212 000 deaths, 300 000 injuries, and more than 1.2 million internally displaced people, making it the most devastating disaster in Haiti's recorded history. Six academic medical centers from the city of Chicago established an interinstitutional collaborative initiative, the Chicago Medical Response, in partnership with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Haiti that provided a sustainable response, sending medical teams to Haiti on a weekly basis for several months. More than 475 medical volunteers were identified, of whom 158 were deployed to Haiti by April 1, 2010. This article presents the shared experiences, observations, and lessons learned by all of the participating institutions. Specifically, it describes the factors that provided the framework for the collaborative initiative, the communication networks that contributed to the ongoing response, the operational aspects of deploying successive medical teams, and the benefits to the institutions as well as to the NGOs and Haitian medical system, along with the challenges facing those institutions individually and collectively. Academic medical institutions can provide a major reservoir of highly qualified volunteer medical personnel that complement the needs of NGOs in disasters for a sustainable medical response. Support of such collaborative initiatives is required to ensure generalizability and sustainability.
Aydın, Nesibe Nur; Ergünay, Koray; Karagül, Aydan; Pınar, Ahmet; Us, Dürdal
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), classified in Hepeviridae family, Hepevirus genus, is a non-enveloped virus with icosahedral capsid containing single-stranded positive sense RNA genome. HEV infections may be asymptomatic especially in children, however it may present as fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, as well as chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. There are four well-known genotypes of HEV that infect humans and many mammalian species. Genotype 1 and 2 are frequently responsible for water-borne infections transmitted by fecal-oral way in developing countries, while genotype 3 and 4 cause zoonotic infections in developed countries. Turkey is considered as an endemic country with a total seroprevalence rate of 6.3% for normal population, showing significant variation (0-73%) according to the regions and study groups. The aims of this study were to investigate the HEV seropositivity in cases admitted to Hacettepe University Medical Faculty Hospital (HUMFH), to evaluate the results according to the demographic features of patients, and to determine the current HEV seroprevalence in our region, contributing seroepidemiological data in Turkey. A total of 1043 serum samples (514 female, 529 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 38.03) obtained from 327 blood donors (32 female, 295 male; age range: 19-59 years, mean age: 31.1) who were admitted to HUMFH Blood Center, and 716 sera (482 female, 234 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 41.7) that were sent to HUMFH Central Laboratory from various outpatient/inpatient clinics, between November 2012 to November 2013, were included in the study. The presence of HEV-IgG antibodies in serum samples was detected by a commercial ELISA method (Euroimmun, Germany), and the presence of HEV-IgM antibodies was also investigated in the sera with IgG-positive results. The overall HEV-IgG seropositivity rate was determined as 4.4% (46/1043), and the seropositivity rates for blood donors and in/outpatients were as 0.92% (3
Richardson, R. M.; Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Dunbar, R. W.; Allen-King, R. M.; Manduca, C. A.
Launching an academic career presents a number of challenges. A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education depicts academia as an “ivory sweatshop,” citing rising standards for tenure. Most graduate programs provide minimal training for life beyond graduate school. The professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” fills this gap by providing workshops and web resources on academic careers for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and early career faculty. These workshops and web resources address a wide range of topics related to teaching, research, and managing one’s career, tailored for each group. The Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences workshop to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows make the transition into an academic career has been offered annually since 2003. It provides a panel on academic careers in different institutional settings, sessions on research on learning, various teaching strategies, design of effective teaching activities, moving research forward to new settings, effective teaching and research statements, the job search process, negotiation, and presenting oneself to others. Complementary online resources (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep/index.html) focus on these topics. The workshops and web resources offer guidance for each step of the job search process, for developing and teaching one’s own courses, and for making the transition from being a research student to being in charge of a research program. Online resources also include case studies of successful dual career couples, documenting their job search strategies. A four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your Career, offered annually since 1999, provides sessions on teaching strategies, course design, developing a strategic plan for research, supervising student researchers, navigating departmental and institutional politics, preparing for tenure, time and
Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh
Background This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson’s bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.25–3.02) and less likely to be delayed, have to re-sit an examination, or be warned (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.77). Conclusion Only 32.8% of the variation in self-reported academic performance was explained by the studied
How the distinctive cultures of osteopathic and allopathic medical schools affect the careers, perceptions, and institutional efforts of their anatomy faculties: A qualitative case study of two schools.
Brokaw, James J; Byram, Jessica N; Traser, Courtney J; Arbor, Tafline C
Anatomy faculties are integral to basic science instruction in medical schools, particularly given the preponderance of anatomic instruction in the preclinical curriculum. Recent years have witnessed major curricular restructuring and other emerging national trends that pose significant challenges to anatomists. An examination of anatomy faculty perceptions at two philosophically distinct medical schools within this shifting climate provides an indicator of how different institutional characteristics may impact anatomy instruction and other faculty responsibilities. Semistructured interviews of anatomy faculty from a large, well-established allopathic medical school (Indiana University School of Medicine) and a small, new osteopathic medical school (Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine) were explored using qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified: (1) Institutional philosophies, such as affiliation with osteopathic versus allopathic medicine, have minimal impact on how the anatomical sciences are taught. (2) Differences in anatomy faculty experiences at these two institutions are largely driven by the institution's size and history. There is a disparity between institutions in the relative importance of teaching and research, but an ability to do research is important for both faculties. (3) Anatomy instruction and research agendas are driven by personal philosophies and interests rather than institutional philosophy. (4) Autonomy is highly valued by anatomists at both institutions. All the participants share a devotion to educating future physicians. In fact, this study identified more similarities than differences in these two faculties. Finally, we argue that shared educational resources and research collaborations can improve anatomy education and faculty development at both institutions. Anat Sci Educ 9: 255-264. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Steinert, Yvonne; Mann, Karen V
Instructors in the health professions today must acquire knowledge and competencies that go beyond disciplinary expertise. It is now generally accepted that educational training as a teacher is essential to a faculty member's effectiveness as an educator. The educational challenges across the health professions share many similarities. In this article, we draw on the medical education literature and focus on faculty development designed to enhance teaching effectiveness. We first address commonly included faculty development topics, including instructional improvement, organizational development, the development of professional academic skills, and the teaching of specific content areas. We then review a variety of educational approaches and formats that are described in the literature. Included in this discussion are commonly used workshops, seminars, short courses, and fellowships, as well as longitudinal programs, peer coaching, mentorship, self-directed learning, and computer-aided instruction. We also briefly explore learning at work and in communities of practice, and we discuss several frequently encountered challenges in designing and implementing faculty development activities, including motivating colleagues and assessing program effectiveness. We conclude the discussion by presenting a set of guidelines for the design of effective faculty development programs.
Sarani, Babak; Mehta, Samir; Ashburn, Michael; Nakashima, Koji; Gupta, Rajan; Dombroski, Derek; Schwab, C William
The global response to the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti revealed the ability to mobilise medical teams quickly and effectively when academic medical centres partner non-governmental organisations (NGO) that already have a presence in a zone of devastation. Most established NGOs based in a certain region are accustomed to managing the medical conditions that are common to that area and will need additional and specialised support to treat the flux of myriad injured persons. Furthermore, an NGO with an established presence in a region prior to a disaster appears better positioned to provide sustained recovery and rehabilitation relief. Academic medical centres can supply these essential specialised resources for a prolonged time. This relationship between NGOs and academic medical centres should be further developed prior to another disaster response. This model has great potential with regard to the rapid preparation and worldwide deployment of skilled medical and surgical teams when needed following a disaster, as well as to the subsequent critical recovery phase.
Sugawara, N; Shiozawa, I; Masuda, T; Takei, H; Tsuruta, J; Ogura, N; Hasegawa, S
The number of dental patients who have medical illnesses is increasing at the hospital of the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Although prosthodontic treatments are considered less invasive in all dental treatments, invasive procedures such as tooth extraction may be required occasionally. Therefore, it is necessary to treat patients in consideration of their condition. Under this situation, a clinical survey was conducted by health questionnaires answered by the patients who visited our clinic between October 1992 and March 1997. The number of patients whose illness was heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, nephritic disease, hepatitis, tuberculosis, hemodyscrasia, asthma, epilepsy, and so on during dental treatment was higher than the national average according to the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Dental psychosomatic diseases such as TMD and dental phobia were increased every year. These data reflect the contemporary disease structure in Japan characterized by the spreading of life-style related diseases and increase of neuropsychological and infectious diseases.
McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.
This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…
Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao
Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…
Vander Hart, Robert; Ingrassia, Barbara; Mayotte, Kerry; Palmer, Lisa A.; Powell, Julia
This article details the process of upgrading and expanding an existing academic medical library intranet to include a wiki, blog, discussion forum, and photo collection manager. The first version of the library's intranet from early 2002 was powered by ColdFusion software and existed primarily to allow staff members to author and store minutes of…
DeMonaco, Harold J.; Koski, Greg
The role of new technology in healthcare continues to expand from both the clinical and financial perspectives. Despite the importance of innovation, most academic medical centers do not have a clearly defined process for technology assessment. Recognizing the importance of new drugs, diagnostics and procedures in the care of patients and in the…
Scaturo, Douglas J.; Huszonek, John J.
Objective: The authors review the background and contemporary strengths of Dean's Committee Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the collaborative academic training of psychiatrists and psychologists. Methods: The authors discuss the problems and prospects of the current health care environment as it impacts the behavioral health treatment of…
Dali, Keren; Dilevko, Juris
Although fiction plays a prominent role in the interdisciplinary field of medical humanities (MH), it is physically and intellectually isolated from non-fiction in academic health sciences libraries. Using the Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database (LAMD) as a tool for selection and subject analysis, we suggest a method of integrating fiction…
Faterson, Hanna F.; and others
Drawings of the human figure by applicants to the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, used to spot psychopathological tendencies, were found useful in predicting academic failure or success on the basis of certain graphic criteria. Discusses the potential use of human figure drawings as an adjunct to the admissions process. (WM)
Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi
As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…
Woodard, B; Fottler, M D; Kilpatrick, A O
This article reviews management literature on health care transformation and describes the processes, including restructuring, job redesign, and downsizing, involved in one academic medical center's experience. The article concludes with lessons learned at each of the stages of the transformation process: planning, implementation, and process continuation. Managerial implications for similar transformation efforts in other health care organizations are suggested.
Riggs, Jack E.; Libell, David P.; Brooks, Claudette E.; Hobbs, Gerald R.
Context: Referral bias reflecting the preferential hospital transfer of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been demonstrated as the major contributing factor for an observed high nonrisk-adjusted in-hospital crude acute stroke mortality rate at a rural academic medical center. Purpose: This study was done to assess the impact of a…
Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Hembree, Wylie; Bonner, Julia
This article presents an historical review of the organization known as Student Health Services at Academic Medical Centers (SHSAAMc). The authors discuss characteristics of health service directors as well as the history of meetings, discussion, and leadership. The focus of the group is the healthcare needs of health professions students at…
Joyce, Jeffrey N.
Independent academic medical centers (IAMC) are challenged to develop and support a research enterprise and maintain primary goals of healthcare delivery and financial solvency. Strategies for promoting translational research have been shown to be effective at institutions in the top level of federal funding, but not for smaller IAMCs. The…
Mohl, Paul Cecil; Hendrickse, William; Orsak, Catherine; Vermette, Heidi
Objective: The authors review the more than 30-year history of the academic affiliation between the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and the Mental Health Service at the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System. Methods: The authors interviewed individuals involved at various stages…
Bachrach, D J
While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management, intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development; management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. This article article was prepared by the author from research into and presentation of a thesis entitled. "The Importance of Leadership Training And Development For Physicians In Academic Medical Centers In An Increasingly Complex Healthcare Environment, " prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in the College (ACHE). Part 2 will appear in the next issue of the Journal.
Manuel, R. Stephen; Borges, Nicole J.; Atwood, Thomas C.
Purpose: Despite medical schools having some system in place to review student progress and promote students (referred to hereafter as academic review and promotions; ARP), little research has been done with the purpose of understanding personality characteristics of the students who appear before an ARP committee or governing body. A recent study…
Riggs, Jack E.; Libell, David P.; Brooks, Claudette E.; Hobbs, Gerald R.
Context: Referral bias reflecting the preferential hospital transfer of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been demonstrated as the major contributing factor for an observed high nonrisk-adjusted in-hospital crude acute stroke mortality rate at a rural academic medical center. Purpose: This study was done to assess the impact of a…
Sanfey, Hilary; Gantt, Nancy L
Academic surgeons play an instrumental role in the training of our medical students and surgical residents. Although volunteer faculty often have an important role in the clinical development of surgeons-in-training, the tasks of curricular development, structured didactic sessions, professional advising, research sponsorship, and mentoring at all levels fall to the academic surgeon. Historically, the career advancement path for an academic physician favored grant acquisition and scholarly publication. Broader definitions of scholarship have emerged, along with corresponding modifications in academic award systems that allow advancement in faculty rank based on a surgeon's educational efforts.
Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc
Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the
Woodward, C A; McAuley, R G
Performance ratings were obtained by the clinical supervisors of four graduated classes of McMaster University medical students during internship. The supervisors detected no difference in performance between the graduates who met the "traditional" admissions criteria (both an undergraduate grade point average of 3.1 or greater on a 4-point scale and previous training in biology, general and organic chemistry, and physics) and those who lacked one or both of these prerequisites. These data suggest that medical schools can expand their admissions criteria without fearing that their graduates will perform less well as interns because of a lack of traditional academic preparation for medical school.
Andrew, Lloyd D.
Firm planning objectives, clearly stated relationships to overall institutional objectives, faculty involvement, and active leadership are advocated for successful academic planning. Faculty involvement is dependent on the strength of the technical, marketing, and budgeting staffs, and involvement in the planning process may kindle faculty…
Kezar, Adrianna; Lester, Jaime
Various factors are making faculty leadership challenging including the rise in part-time and non-tenure-track faculty, the increasing pressure to publish and teach more courses and adopt new technologies and pedagogies, increasing standards for tenure and promotion, ascension of academic capitalism, and heavy service roles for women and people of…
Sage, William M
The political battle over trial lawyers and "tort reform" centers on whether or not to reduce incentives to sue for medical malpractice by capping damages in malpractice suits and limiting legal fees. But the current struggle mis-states the case for innovation in medical malpractice policy. Rather than focus exclusively on the financial consequences of legal claims, malpractice reform should move closer to the bedside, emphasizing error prevention, open communication, rapid compensation, and efficient insurance of the costs of injury. Academic health centers are well positioned to lead this effort in each of their three recognized missions: patient care, teaching, and research. Academic health centers enjoy greater institutional cohesiveness and research capacity than most other medical practice settings. Perhaps most important, their high visibility ensures that patients who suffer avoidable harm within their walls become salient to the public as individuals, not merely as dollar entries in a litigation ledger.
Wiener, Charles M; Thompson, Steven J; Wu, Sandford; Chellappa, Mohan; Hasham, Salim
Governments in emerging markets face mounting challenges in managing health spending, building capability and capacity, modernizing ageing infrastructure, and investing in skills and resources. One path to overcoming these challenges is to establish new public-private models of health care development and delivery based on United States academic medical centers, whose missions are to advance medical education and clinical delivery. Johns Hopkins Medicine is a participant in the collaboration developing between the Perdana University Hospital and the Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Malaysia. These two organizations comprise an academic health science center based on the United States model. The Perdana project provides constructive insights into the opportunities and challenges that governments, universities, and the private sector face when introducing new models of patient care that are integrated with medical education, clinical training, and biomedical research.
The author, taking advantage of this meeting between the French Society of Medicine and the Centre for the history of Science and Technology in the city of Liège, provides us with a rectified list of all the Doctors in Medicine in Liège and its province who were promoted to the former Faculty of Medicine in Reims. New controls have been made thanks to the contribution of two registration books which give previous education establishments for the medical doctorate. This research has also been checked on the list established in the masterful work written by Marcel Florkin et Jean Kelecom, namely Kelecom Le monde médical liégeois avant la Révolution (Liège Medical World before the French Revolution).
Ripp, Jonathan A; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin
On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response.
Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniya; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz
Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives.
Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniyal; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz
Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives. PMID:26112353
Ostrovsky, Andrey; Barnett, Michael
Academic medical centers (AMCs) have the potential to be leaders in the era of healthcare delivery reform, but most have yet to display a commitment to delivery innovation on par with their commitment to basic research. Several institutional factors impede delivery innovation including the paucity of adequate training in design and implementation of new delivery models and the lack of established pathways for academic career advancement outside of research. This paper proposes two initiatives to jumpstart disruptive innovation at AMCs: an institutional "innovation incubator" program and a clinician-innovator career track coupled with innovation training programs.
Boruff, Jill T.; Storie, Dale
Objectives: The research investigated the extent to which students, residents, and faculty members in Canadian medical faculties use mobile devices, such as smartphones (e.g., iPhone, Android, Blackberry) and tablet computers (e.g., iPad), to answer clinical questions and find medical information. The results of this study will inform how health libraries can effectively support mobile technology and collections. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed by medical librarians at four Canadian universities to medical students, residents, and faculty members via departmental email discussion lists, personal contacts, and relevant websites. It investigated the types of information sought, facilitators to mobile device use in medical information seeking, barriers to access, support needs, familiarity with institutionally licensed resources, and most frequently used resources. Results: The survey of 1,210 respondents indicated widespread use of smartphones and tablets in clinical settings in 4 Canadian universities. Third- and fourth-year undergraduate students (i.e., those in their clinical clerkships) and medical residents, compared to other graduate students and faculty, used their mobile devices more often, used them for a broader range of activities, and purchased more resources for their devices. Conclusions: Technological and intellectual barriers do not seem to prevent medical trainees and faculty from regularly using mobile devices for their medical information searches; however, barriers to access and lack of awareness might keep them from using reliable, library-licensed resources. Implications: Libraries should focus on providing access to a smaller number of highly used mobile resources instead of a huge collection until library-licensed mobile resources have streamlined authentication processes. PMID:24415916
YAMANI, NIKOO; SHAHABI, MARYAM; HAGHANI, FARIBA
Introduction: health care professionals especially clinicians, undergo lots of job stress (JS). Emotional intelligence (EI) is among the variables that appear to be associated with stress. It is also included among the ways adopted by the individuals in order to resist JS in the workplace. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between EI and JS in the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Methods: This was a correlational study performed on 202 faculty members of IUMS. The data was gathered through two valid and reliable questionnaires (Bradberry EI questionnaire and JS questionnaire), being analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis (α=0.05). Results: 142 individuals (70.30%) filled out the questionnaires. 75% of the respondents were male and 98% were married. There was an inverse correlation between the total score of EI and the level of JS (r=-0.235, p=0.005). Moreover, among the factors of EI, self-awareness and self-management scores had significant inverse relationship with the level of JS. Linear regression analysis showed that the EI factors explained approximately 7% of the variance of JS levels of the teachers. Conclusions: Individuals with high EI have less JS. Since the EI can be taught, it can be expected that the JS of faculty members can be reduced through training them on emotional intelligence. Therefore, it is recommended that short-term training courses be scheduled and designed based on the concepts of EI for teachers, particularly clinicians. PMID:25512914
Braxton, John M.
A study to determine whether faculty conformity to the four norms of science identified by Merton are integrating mechanisms or whether they are forces of fragmentation is discussed. The four norms are identified: universalism, communality, disinterestedness, and organized skepticism. (Author/MLW)
Robson, Sue; Turner, Yvonne
This paper reports on a study that took place in a faculty of humanities and social sciences at a UK university. The institution had recently undergone a radical restructure and the vision for the future presented by the new senior management team highlighted internationalization as one of four major areas for growth. The internationalization…
Moehl, Pamela J.
Education has the opportunity to play an integral role in sustaining the health of our economy in an increasingly competitive, global market. A review of the issues and trends impacting higher education reveals growing pressure placed on faculty to advance instructional outcomes among more diverse populations. Imbedded is the challenge to create…
Sky Lark, Taj'ullah
Classrooms have become increasingly diverse within the last 10 years, and continue to be diversified; however, the majority of Universities and Colleges are operating in a crisis mode when it comes to the diversity of its faculty in particular the representation of underrepresented minorities. There has been abundance of research work done on this…
Burdick, William P
Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) faculty development programs have operated since 2001 and are designed to overcome many of the challenges inherent in global health collaborations, including alignment with local needs, avoiding persistent dependency, and development of trust. FAIMER fellowship programs, developed for midcareer faculty members in all health professions from around the world, share goals of strengthening knowledge and skills in education leadership, education methods, and project management and evaluation. Building community is another explicit goal that allows participants to support and learn from each other.The author recommends several practices for successful international collaborations based on 13 years of experience with FAIMER fellowships. These include using authentic education projects to maintain alignment with local needs and apply newly acquired knowledge and skills, teaching leadership across cultures with careful communication and adaptation of concepts to local environments, cultivating a strong field of health professions education to promote diffusion of ideas and advocate for policy change, intentionally promoting field development and leadership to reduce dependency, giving generously of time and resources, learning from others as much as teaching others, and recognizing that effective partnerships revolve around personal relationships to build trust. These strategies have enabled the FAIMER fellowship programs to stay aligned with local needs, reduce dependency, and maintain trust.
Medical schools and teaching hospitals have been hit particularly hard by the financial crisis affecting health care in the United States. To compete financially, many academic medical centers have recruited wealthy foreign patients and established luxury primary care clinics. At these clinics, patients are offered tests supported by little evidence of their clinical and/or cost effectiveness, which erodes the scientific underpinnings of medical practice. Given widespread disparities in health, wealth, and access to care, as well as growing cynicism and dissatisfaction with medicine among trainees, the promotion by these institutions of an overt, two-tiered system of care, which exacerbates inequities and injustice, erodes professional ethics. Academic medical centers should divert their intellectual and financial resources away from luxury primary care and toward more equitable and just programs designed to promote individual, community, and global health. The public and its legislators should, in turn, provide adequate funds to enable this. Ways for academic medicine to facilitate this largesse are discussed. PMID:14748866
Waugh, Jeff L
The objective of residency training is to produce physicians who can function independently within their chosen subspecialty and practice environment. Skills in the business of medicine, such as clinical billing, are widely applicable in academic and private practices but are not commonly addressed during formal medical education. Residency and fellowship training include limited exposure to medical billing, but our academic department's performance of these skills was inadequate: in 56% of trainee-generated outpatient notes, documentation was insufficient to sustain the chosen billing level. We developed a curriculum to improve the accuracy of documentation and coding and introduced practice changes to address our largest sources of error. In parallel, we developed tools that increased the speed and efficiency of documentation. Over 15 months, we progressively eliminated note devaluation, increased the mean level billed by trainees to nearly match that of attending physicians, and increased outpatient revenue by $34,313/trainee/year. Our experience suggests that inclusion of billing education topics into the formal medical curriculum benefits both academic medical centers and trainees.
Walters, G D
The academic and personality correlates of medical career indecision were investigated in two separate studies. In the first, the effect of career indecision on academic performance was examined in a group of ninety-eight (eighty male, eighteen female) medical students entering Texas Tech University School of Medicine over a 2-year period. These medical students voluntarily completed the Medical Specialty Preference Inventory (MSPI) as part of a routine preadmission test battery. Subjects were assigned to one of three conditions-decided, high-interest undecided and low-interest undecided--based on results from the MSPI. As predicted, 'low-interest undecided' students achieved significantly lower initial medical school grades relative to 'decided' students, whereas 'high-interest undecided' students did not differ from the 'decided' students. The second study investigated the influence of career indecision upon personality. Subjects for this study were eighty-eight (sixty-six male, twenty-two female) medical students entering Texas Tech University School of Medicine over a 1-year period. These students voluntarily completed the MSPI and several personality measures as part of a pre-admission test battery. The results only partially supported the stated hypotheses. Although 'low-interest undecided' students demonstrated less personal integration compared with 'decided' students, they were no more anxious.
In Japan, healthcare professionals and healthcare workers typically practice a culture of self-assessment when it comes to managing their own health. Even where this background leads to instances of mental health disorders or other serious problems within a given organization, such cases are customarily addressed by the psychiatrists or psychiatric departments of the facilities affected. Organized occupational mental health initiatives for professionals and workers within the healthcare system are extremely rare across Japan, and there is little recognition of the need for such initiatives even among those most directly affected. The author has some experience designing and operating a comprehensive health management system to support students and faculty at a university in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area that contains a medical school and university hospital. At this university, various mental health-related problems were routinely being allowed to develop into serious cases, while the fundamental reforms required by the health management center and the mental health management scheme organized through the center had come to represent a challenge for the entire university. From this initial situation, we undertook several successive initiatives, including raising the number of staff in the health management center and its affiliated organizations, revising and drafting new health management rules and regulations, launching an employment support and management system, implementing screenings to identify people with mental ill-health, revamping and expanding a counselling response system, instituting regular collaboration meetings with academic affairs staff, and launching educational and awareness-raising activities. This resulted in the possibility of intervention in all cases of mental health crisis, such as suicidal ideation. We counted more than 2,400 consultations (cumulative total number; more than half of consultations was from the medical school, postgraduate
Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna
Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts.
Titus, Sandra Larsen
This paper examines how well U.S. medical school institutions are doing to promote research integrity. It is an important question to ask in order to determine whether there are sufficient and adequate protections in place to protect the U.S. Public Health Service's (PHS) resources devoted to medical research. This paper focuses on 5,100 medical school researchers' knowledge of what constitutes research misconduct as well as their willingness to report it to the research integrity officer (RIO) and educate their Ph.D. trainees. We learned that 5.6% of researchers could correctly distinguish seven or more of the nine scenarios that depicted likely research misconduct, as defined by the PHS regulations, from scenarios describing other ethical issues. Instead, researchers had expansive definitions and often inappropriately identified infractions such as conflicts of interest, Institutional Review Board (IRB) violations, and other breaches in ethical standards to be research misconduct. In addition, researchers who correctly identified four instances of likely research misconduct in the test items were highly unlikely to report their observations to a RIO. Researchers also provided insight on the factors they believe influence their decision making process of whether to report research misconduct. In addition, this paper also reports on the guidance that faculty said they provided their trainees on research misconduct issues. We conclude with a discussion and recommendations on what institutional leaders might consider doing in order to enhance their research integrity efforts and protect their institution's reputation.
Heaton, G T
New roles for librarians are emerging as a result of rapid changes in information technology. The literature is replete with controversy about nonprofessionals staffing the reference desk, yet such changes in staffing may provide the time librarians need to do other tasks. This paper describes a research project that examined reference desk staffing in academic medical school libraries and its effect on questions received and the provision of a consultation service. A questionnaire was sent to all academic medical school libraries in North America and a 70% return rate was achieved. Results indicated a significant relationship between nonprofessional staffing and both the questions received and the provision of research consultation by appointment. The author suggests that services be reconfigured to make more effective use of both professional and nonprofessional staff. PMID:8938326
Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D
Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) registered on the full-time Medicine and Surgery programme, who successfully completed their medical degree. Main outcome measures Final average at year 4 of the medical programme (represented as a percentage). Results Entry grades were positively associated with final attainment (p<0.001). Students from high-performing schools entered university with higher qualifications than students from low-performing schools (p<0.001), though these differences did not persist at university. Comprehensive school students entered university with higher grades than independent school students (p<0.01), and attained higher averages at university, though differences were not significant after controlling for multiple effects. Associations between school type and achievement differed between sexes. Females attained higher averages than males at university. Significant academic differences were observed between ethnic groups at entry level and university. Neither of the postcode-based measures of disadvantage predicted significant differences in attainment at school or university. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that educational attainment at school is a good, albeit imperfect, predictor of academic attainment at medical school. Most attainment differences observed between students either decreased or disappeared during university. Unlike previous studies, independent school students did not enter university with the highest grades, but achieved the lowest attainment at university
Aronson, Samuel; Mahanta, Lisa; Ros, Lei Lei; Clark, Eugene; Babb, Lawrence; Oates, Michael; Rehm, Heidi; Lebo, Matthew
Academic medical centers require many interconnected systems to fully support genetic testing processes. We provide an overview of the end-to-end support that has been established surrounding a genetic testing laboratory within our environment, including both laboratory and clinician facing infrastructure. We explain key functions that we have found useful in the supporting systems. We also consider ways that this infrastructure could be enhanced to enable deeper assessment of genetic test results in both the laboratory and clinic. PMID:26805890
Nazari, Hedayat; Jariani, Mojgan; Beiranvand, Shorangiz; Saki, Mandana; Aghajeri, Nasrin; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad
Introduction: Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%), depersonalization (81.1%), and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%). Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment. Conclusion: Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members. PMID:26989668
Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.
The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…
Shurtz, Suzanne; Sewell, Robin; Halling, T Derek; McKay, Becky; Pepper, Catherine
An academic medical library expanded its iPad loan service to multiple campus libraries and conducted an assessment of the service. iPads loaded with medical and educational apps were loaned for two-week checkouts from five library campus locations. Device circulation statistics were tracked and users were invited to complete an online survey about their experience. Data were gathered and analyzed for 11 months. The assessment informed the library on how best to adapt the service, including what resources to add to the iPads, and the decision to move devices to campuses with more frequent usage.
Chester, Sean D; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Eckstrand, Kristen L
The purpose of this study was to characterize the climate and culture experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees and students at one large academic medical center. An anonymous, online institutional climate survey was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of LGBT employees and students. There were 42 LGBT and 14 non-LGBT survey participants. Results revealed that a surprisingly large percentage of LGBT individuals experienced pressure to remain "closeted" and were harassed despite medical center policies of non-discrimination. Continuing training, inclusive policies and practices, and the development of mechanisms to address LGBT-specific harassment are necessary for improving institutional climate.