Karaguven, M. Hulya Unal
The current study evaluated the psychometric evidence of Turkish form of the Academic Motivation Scale. The scale was based on the tenets of self-determination theory. It was designed to assess an individual's academic motivation if intrinsically or extrinsically driven with 28 questions. University form of the scale was translated into Turkish…
The purpose of this study was to adapt the college version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) into Turkish. The participants were 797 college students (437 men, 360 women) with a mean age of 20.1 yr. A seven-factor model of the scale, as well as alternative models (five-, three-, two-, and one-factor models) were investigated and compared through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-factor model demonstrated adequate fit to the data. The fit indices obtained from the five-factor model were acceptable also. Hancock's coefficient H values and test-retest correlation coefficients of the subscales indicated that reliability of the scale was adequate except for the identified regulation subscale. The CFA conducted for the groups of men and women produced more acceptable fit indices values for men than women, but women obtained significantly higher scores from the AMS subscales. Correlations among the seven subscales partially supported the simplex pattern which claims that the neighboring subscales should have stronger positive correlations than the non-neighboring subscales and that the subscales which are the farthest apart should have the strongest negative relationships.
Luna, Alberto D.
Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…
Smith, Kenneth J.; Davy, Jeanette A.; Rosenberg, Donald L.
The purpose of this study was to examine an alternative configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), a psychometric instrument used as a measure of academic motivation in various academic environments. The analyses utilised data from a convenience sample of 2354 business students, broken into two random subsamples of 1177 cases.…
Orsini, Cesar; Binnie, Vivian; Evans, Phillip; Ledezma, Priscilla; Fuentes, Fernando; Villegas, Maria J
The Academic Motivation Scale is one of the most frequently used instruments to assess academic motivation. It relies on the self-determination theory of human motivation. However, motivation has been understudied in dental education. Therefore, to address the lack of valid instruments to assess academic motivation in dental education and contribute to future research in the field, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of this instrument in a sample of dental students. Participants were 989 Chilean undergraduate dental students (86% response rate) who completed a survey containing a Chilean face-valid version of the Spanish Academic Motivation Scale and three other motivation-related instruments to assess the survey's construct and criterion validity. Later, 76 of the students (out of 100 invited) took the survey again to assess its test-retest stability. The instrument's construct validity was supported by the superior goodness of fit of the seven-subscale Academic Motivation Scale over competing models through confirmatory factor analysis and by the expected correlations among its subscales. The concurrent criterion validity was supported by the confirmation of correlations between its subscales and external criteria. Adequate internal consistency and test-retest correlations were also found. The evidence from this study suggests that the Academic Motivation Scale is a preliminarily valid and reliable instrument to assess motivation in the predoctoral dental context. Future research in this area is needed to confirm or refute these results.
Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine
The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades…
Zhang, Bo; Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan
Self-determination theory (SDT) has contributed greatly to our understanding of human motivation. Based on SDT, the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was developed to assess students' motivation to learn. AMS has been successfully applied to the educational context in Western cultures. However, no psychometrically validated version is available in…
Tomik, Rajmund; Berber, Serkan; Düz, Burak; Çivak, Barış; Çalişkan, Uğur; Ogrodnik, Joanna
Abstract Motivation is an important phenomenon in the realm of education, particularly in the university fields connected with physical education and sport, where it is necessary to accommodate and balance intellectual abilities and physical fitness. The present study tested motivation levels among university students in the fields connected with physical education and sport in Poland and Turkey. It was based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985), namely intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation which impact human behaviour. The Academic Motivation Scale was used (Vallerand et al., 1992). The aims of the study were twofold, first, to crossculturally validate Polish and Turkish versions of the Academic Motivation Scale and second, to identify and compare the motivation to study depending on nationality and gender. Both Polish and Turkish versions of the questionnaire were validated and converted to a four-factorial structure. The findings indicated that Polish and Turkish students’ motivation especially differed in amotivation and intrinsic motivation to know and experience stimulation. Moreover, Turkish female students proved to be at the lowest estimate of amotivation. PMID:28031771
Ardeńska, Agnieszka; Tomik, Rajmund; Berber, Serkan; Düz, Burak; Çivak, Barış; Çalişkan, Uğur; Ogrodnik, Joanna
Motivation is an important phenomenon in the realm of education, particularly in the university fields connected with physical education and sport, where it is necessary to accommodate and balance intellectual abilities and physical fitness. The present study tested motivation levels among university students in the fields connected with physical education and sport in Poland and Turkey. It was based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985), namely intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation which impact human behaviour. The Academic Motivation Scale was used (Vallerand et al., 1992). The aims of the study were twofold, first, to crossculturally validate Polish and Turkish versions of the Academic Motivation Scale and second, to identify and compare the motivation to study depending on nationality and gender. Both Polish and Turkish versions of the questionnaire were validated and converted to a four-factorial structure. The findings indicated that Polish and Turkish students' motivation especially differed in amotivation and intrinsic motivation to know and experience stimulation. Moreover, Turkish female students proved to be at the lowest estimate of amotivation.
The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.
Guay, Frédéric; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Litalien, David; Valois, Pierre; Vallerand, Robert J.
In this research, the authors examined the construct validity of scores of the Academic Motivation Scale using exploratory structural equation modeling. Study 1 and Study 2 involved 1,416 college students and 4,498 high school students, respectively. First, results of both studies indicated that the factor structure tested with exploratory…
Deemer, Eric D.; Mahoney, Kevin T.; Ball, Jacqueline Hebert
The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Research Motivation Scale (RMS) in a sample of faculty members (N = 337) in university science departments. It was hypothesized that the RMS would evidence partial measurement invariance across tenure status and noninvariance across gender, given the different sociocultural factors (e.g.,…
Liu, Yujuan; Ferrell, Brent; Barbera, Jack; Lewis, Jennifer E.
Fundamentally concerned with motivation, self-determination theory (SDT) represents a framework of several mini-theories to explore how social context interacts with people's motivational types categorized by degree of regulation internalization. This paper aims to modify an existing theory-based instrument (Academic Motivation Scale, or AMS) and…
Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine
The Academic Motivation Scale ( ams) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades 11 and 12) in Asia. This study adapted the ams for this use and assessed the properties of the adapted instrument with 1610 students from Singapore. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a five-factor structure for the modified instrument (the three original ams intrinsic subscales collapsed into a single factor). Additionally, the modified instrument exhibited good internal consistency (mean α = .88), and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 1-month interval (mean r xx = .73). The validity of the modified ams was further demonstrated through correlational analyses among scores on its subscales, and with scores on other instruments measuring mathematics attitudes, anxiety and achievement.
Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández
The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality. PMID:22888280
Matsushima, Rumi; Ozaki, Hitomi
This study examined university students' academic motivation, focusing on individual differences in their sense of identity. The participants were 109 female Japanese students from two private universities (age range = 19-22 yr., M = 19.3, SD = 0.6). They completed four scales: the Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale, the Scale of Students' Attitude Toward Their Classes, the Academic Motivation Inventory, and the Scale of Lecture Self-Evaluation. Correlational analyses assessed the relationships between subscales. Then, path analysis was conducted to evaluate whether sense of identity affected attitude toward classes, academic motivation, and lecture self-evaluation. Differences particularly in psychosocial identity and self-identity accounted for significant variance in the students' attitudes toward classes, academic motivation, and lecture self-evaluation.
Barkoukis, Vassilis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George; Sideridis, Georgios
Self-determination theory provides an integrated conception of school- and academic motivation. The theory proposes a continuum comprising three types of motivation: intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and amotivation (AM), characterised by seven dimensions (IM = to know, to accomplish and to experience stimulation, EM = external…
The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of implementing different strategies on fifth grade academically gifted students in order to motivate them to perform to their full potential. My research project is based on the motivation of gifted students in the general education classroom. I will study eight academically gifted fifth…
Karabenick, Stuart A.; Bembenutty, Hefer
This study examined motivational determinants of academic delay of gratification (ADOG) with 196 undergraduate college students at a large midwestern university. Students completed the academic delay of gratification scale, in which students are presented with 10 hypothetical situations and they indicate their preference among options offering…
Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Ishii, Akira; Nozaki, Kumi; Urakawa, Ayako; Cho, Yuki; Kataoka, Yosky; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Motivation is an important psychological concept in academic learning. Subjects performed jigsaw puzzle and square puzzle sessions (as difficulty variant task) and 80%, 50%, and 20% completion sessions (as completion variant task). After square puzzle or 20% completion sessions, subjective motivation decreased. Although baseline scores on an academic motivation scale were negatively correlated with changes in subjective motivation for the square puzzle session, a positive correlation was observed for the 20% completion session. These suggest that while continual completion of facile task trials may support the motivation of college students with lower academic motivation, attempting difficult task trials may sustain that of those with higher academic motivation.
Smith, Kenneth J; Davy, Jeanette A; Rosenberg, Donald L
This study examined alternative seven-, five-, and three-factor structures for the Academic Motivation Scale, with data from a large convenience sample of 2,078 students matriculating in various business courses at three AACSB-accredited regional comprehensive universities. In addition, the invariance of the scale's factor structure between male and female students and between undergraduate and Master's of Business Administration students was investigated. Finally, the internal consistency of the items loading on each of the seven AMS subscales was assessed as well as whether the correlations among the subscales supported a continuum of self-determination. Results for the full sample as well as the targeted subpopulations supported the seven factor configuration of the scale with adequate model fit achieved for all but the MBA student group. The data also generated acceptable internal consistency statistics for all of the subscales. However, in line with a number of previous studies, the correlations between subscales failed to fully support the scale's simplex structure as proposed by self-determination theory.
Matthews, Asia R.; Hoessler, Carolyn; Jonker, Leo; Stockley, Denise
Research exists on the role of motivation in student learning, especially with subjects in the humanities and social sciences (e.g., Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991; Vallerand, Pelletier, Blais, Briere, Senecal, & Vallieres, 1992). This body of research would be well served by broadening current understandings of students of the…
Rowell, Lonnie; Hong, Eunsook
Motivation is an important foundation of academic development in students. This article discusses academic motivation; its various component concepts in areas such as beliefs, goals, and values; and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It also presents major, widely studied theoretical perspectives of academic motivation and briefly illustrates…
Ates, Hüseyin; Saylan, Asli
The purpose of this research was to examine pre-service science teachers' academic motivation and academic self-efficacy toward biology. The sample consisted of 369 pre-service science teachers who enrolled in the faculty of education of two universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) (Glynn & Koballa,…
Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Boarding school has been a feature of education systems for centuries. Minimal large-scale quantitative data have been collected to examine its association with important educational and other outcomes. The present study represents one of the largest studies into boarding school conducted to date. It investigates boarding school and students'…
Uyulgan, Melis Arzu; Akkuzu, Nalan
Student teachers' desire to learn is affected by a variety of motivational factors. In this study, the effect of some internal and external variables on Academic Intrinsic Motivation (AIM) was explored. First, the validity and reliability of the scale of AIM was determined, then the effect on AIM of variables such as grade levels, academic grade…
This study examines the academic motivation, in a Turkish context, of Turkish pre-service English teachers to contribute field research. Students (n=287) completed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a one-way ANOVA, independent sample t-test, and Pearson product…
Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes.
Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini; Sturges, Diana
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of undergraduate students enrolled in human anatomy and physiology, physics, and nutrition courses were explored with course discipline-specific adapted versions of the Academic Motivation Scale. Information on students' study habits and efforts, and final course grades were also collected. Results revealed the…
Vaughan, Ellen L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim
This longitudinal study of 1,447 first-time college students tested separate time-varying covariate models of the relations between academic and social motives/behaviors and alcohol use and related problems from senior year of high school through the end of the second year in college. Structural equation models identified small but significant inverse relations between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all time points, with relations of somewhat larger magnitude between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems across all semesters other than senior year in high school. At all time points, there were much larger positive relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all semesters, with smaller but significant relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Multi-group models found considerable consistency in the relations between motives/behaviors and alcohol-related outcomes across gender, race/ethnicity, and family history of alcohol problems, although academic motives/behaviors played a stronger protective role for women, and social motives were a more robust risk factor for Caucasian and Latino students and individuals with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Implications for alcohol prevention efforts among college students are discussed.
Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Bamaca, Mayra Y.
The current study examined the extent to which mothers, fathers, teachers, and teenage friends influenced Latino adolescents' academic motivation. Using path analysis, separate models were tested for 154 Latino boys and 156 Latina girls. Findings indicated that mothers' and teachers' academic support were positively related to adolescent girls'…
Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak
Background Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study. Design and methods An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance. Results Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (P<0.001). Moreover, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (P<0.001). This is related to the enjoyment of passing academic milestones, and a step ahead of autonomous motivation. Amotivation level declined significantly (P<0.001). The change of academic motivational constructs before and after the intervention was altogether significant (P=0.036, multivariate analysis of variance). Conclusion After experiencing a three
The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish and American undergraduate students' academic motivation and academic self-concept scores regarding the years that they spent in university. The analysis was based on 566 (284 Turkish, 282 American) undergraduate students where, Academic Motivation Scale and Academic Self-Concept Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that there was a statistical significant effect of nationality and number of years spent in university on undergraduate students' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-concept scores. Turkish students had higher intrinsic scores whereas American students had higher extrinsic scores and more positive academic-self concept compared to Turkish partners. Regarding grade level, senior students from both cultures had higher intrinsic motivation and academic self-concept scores compared to other grade levels. In terms of extrinsic motivation, there is steady decline in American students' scores as grade level increases. On the other hand, Turkish undergraduates' extrinsic scores decrease in the second year but increase in the third and fourth year of university education. Results were discussed by taking into consideration the social and cultural differences between two nations.
Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting
The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…
Shillingford, Shani; Karlin, Nancy J.
This article examines the role of intrinsic motivation in the academic pursuits of nontraditional students. The Academic Motivational Scale (AMS) was administered to 35 undergraduate students, 6 males and 29 females, aged 25 to 49 to explore their motivational orientations in choosing to attend college. The results of the study show that…
Snow, Richard E.
With respect to the high school student, there has been: (1) a decline over the past 10-15 years in high school student averages in aptitude for learning, in achievement from learning, and in motivation for further learning; (2) an increase in the need for remedial mathematics and reading and writing skill courses for college students; and (3) an…
Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb
Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…
Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo
This study examined changes in academic motivation among elementary and junior high school students. Based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000a), we focused on changes in autonomous and controlled motivation. In Study 1, we examined inter-individual changes in academic motivation among 5th to 9th grade students (N = 1 572) through a cross-sectional study. In Study 2, we examined intra-individual changes in academic motivation among students (N = 128) who were in transition from elementary to junior high school through a longitudinal study. All participants completed the Academic Motivation Scale (Nishimura, Kawamura, & Sakurai, 2011) that measured autonomous and controlled motivation. The results revealed that autonomous motivation decreased in the students from elementary to junior high school, while controlled motivation increased during the same period. This is a unique finding because a prior study conducted in a Western culture suggested that both motivations decrease gradually in school.
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…
The Self Determination Theory has identified various types of motivation along a continuum from weakest to strongest. Yet, until recently, no reliable method existed to measure accurately the strength of motivation along this continuum. Vallerand et al. (1992) developed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) to measure the validity of the Self…
Saglam, Aycan Cicek
This study examined academics' viewpoints according to sex, academic title, and professional seniority to establish how much the university presented to its staff hygiene and motivation factors and to find out the effect of these factors in motivating the staff. The findings show that there is not a statistical difference among the academics'…
Explores a model of student motivation and introduces the concept of academic resilience. Draws together seminal motivation theory, posits constructs that represent these theories, and then repackages them into a model that can be used by educators and understood by students. Discusses strategies for enhancing motivation and academic resilience.…
Pajares, Frank, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.
Academically motivated students engage their schoolwork with confidence and interest, are less likely to drop out of school, suffer fewer disciplinary problems, and are more resilient in the face of setbacks than less motivated students. This book presents the work of numerous scholars of adolescent academic motivation and represents the varied…
Bhagwat, Jui G; Ondategui-Parra, Silvia; Zou, Kelly H; Gogate, Adheet; Intriere, Lisa A; Kelly, Pauline; Seltzer, Steven E; Ros, Pablo R
As radiologists are increasingly faced with the challenges of rising demand for imaging services and staff shortages, the implementation of incentive plans in radiology is gaining importance. A key factor to be considered while developing an incentive plan is the strategic goal of the department. In academic radiology, management should decide whether it will reward research and teaching productivity in addition to clinical productivity. Various models have been suggested for incentive plans based on (1) clinical productivity, (2) multifactor productivity, (3) individual productivity, (4) section productivity, and (5) chair's discretion. Although fiscal rewards are most common, managers should consider other incentives, such as research time, resources for research, vacation time, and recognition awards, because academic radiologists may be motivated by factors other than financial gains.
Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi
Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…
Clark, M. H.; Schroth, Christopher A.
Relationships between personality and academic motivation were examined using 451 first-year college students. Multiple regressions compared three types of intrinsic motivation, three types of extrinsic motivation and amotivation to five personality factors. Results indicated that those who were intrinsically motivated to attend college tended to…
Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini
This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades.
This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…
Alfaro, Edna C; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca, Mayra Y; Zeiders, Katharine H
Guided by the academic resilience perspective, the current longitudinal study examined whether academic motivation mediated the relation between Latino adolescents' (N=221) experiences with discrimination and their academic success. The potential moderating role of gender was also examined. Using multiple group analysis in structural equation modeling, findings indicated that perceived discrimination at Wave 2 significantly predicted academic motivation at Waves 2 and 3 for boys but not girls. Additionally, for boys, academic motivation significantly mediated the relation between perceived discrimination and academic success. Findings underscore the importance of considering the long-term implications of discrimination for Latino boys' academic success. Furthermore, findings encourage moving beyond the examination of gender differences in specific academic outcomes (e.g., academic success) and focusing on how the processes leading to academic success vary by gender.
Alfaro, Edna C.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
This study examined whether longitudinal trajectories of academic support from mothers, fathers, and teachers predicted trajectories of Latino adolescents' (N = 323) academic motivation. Findings indicated those boys' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' academic support and girls' perceptions of mothers' academic support declined throughout high…
Zook, J. M.; Herman, A. P.
This study examined the effects of instructor support and students' global academic motivation on students' course-specific intrinsic motivation. The authors hypothesized, based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), that instructor support for students' psychological needs would enhance intrinsic motivation. Students reported their…
Traces the history of student academic library employees and reviews the related literature on the changing role of library student assistants. Highlights include changes in libraries' organizational structures; and administrative issues concerning recruitment, interviewing, training, motivation, and employee retention. (LRW)
Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N; Fuligni, Andrew J
Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated that ethnic-minority children reported higher stigma awareness than European American children. For all children, stigma awareness was associated with higher academic anxiety and lower intrinsic motivation. Despite these associations, ethnic-minority children reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation than their European American peers. A significant portion of the higher intrinsic motivation among Dominican students was associated with their higher levels of school belonging, suggesting that supportive school environments may be important sources of intrinsic motivation among some ethnic-minority children.
Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…
Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix
Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…
Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Guided by an ecological perspective, two competing models were tested to examine how sibling relationship quality directly predicted or interacted with academic support from siblings to predict Latino adolescents' academic motivation (N = 258). Gender differences were examined utilizing multiple group analysis in structural equation modeling.…
Campbell, Michael M.
This study explored the validity of the Motivational Systems Theory (MST) as a measure of performance of college students pursuing business degrees and the level of academic performance attained across gender and race lines. This goal is achieved by investigating the relationships between motivational strategies, biological factors, responsive…
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen
The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…
Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
Guided by the academic resilience perspective, the current longitudinal study examined whether academic motivation mediated the relation between Latino adolescents' (N = 221) experiences with discrimination and their academic success. The potential moderating role of gender was also examined. Using multiple group analysis in structural equation…
Orosz, Gábor; Farkas, Dávid; Roland-Lévy, Christine
Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes toward self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior.
Orosz, Gábor; Farkas, Dávid; Roland-Lévy, Christine
Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes toward self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior. PMID:23450676
Cialdella, Keri; Herlin, Christine; Hoefler, Alecia
This action research project implemented and evaluated a 12-week program using cooperative learning and Multiple Intelligences to increase student motivation for learning. The targeted population consisted of elementary and middle school students in a low-socioeconomic community in northern Illinois. The problem of motivation was documented in the…
Datu, Jesus Alfonso D
Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p < .05, autonomous motivation β = .48, p < .001, and controlled motivation β = .25, p < .01. As expected, PoM was negatively related to amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.
The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…
Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; Vos, C M P; Westers, P; Croiset, G
Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…
Baker, Ahmad M.; Kanan, Hana M.; Al-Misnad, Sheikha A.
This study examined a host of variables the literature or focus groups showed to influence student motivation to achieve academically. Secondary school teachers in Doha, Qatar were asked to identify the five most and five least motivated students in their classrooms. They also were asked to estimate the degree of involvement the parents had in the…
Komarraju, Meera; Karau, Steven J.; Schmeck, Ronald R.
College students (308 undergraduates) completed the Five Factor Inventory and the Academic Motivations Scale, and reported their college grade point average (GPA). A correlation analysis revealed an interesting pattern of significant relationships. Further, regression analyses indicated that conscientiousness and openness explained 17% of the…
Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Sun, Rachel C. F.; Chow, Stephen Sau-Yan; Chu, Matthew Ho-Tat
This study investigated the relevance of filial piety and the three components of self-determination, namely, competence, autonomy and relatedness, on academic motivation among Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students. A total of 461 students completed the questionnaire which consisted of five scales assessing attitudes towards filial piety,…
Our aim was to determine whether learning approaches and academic motivation together predict academic success of classroom teaching students. The sample of the study included 536 students (386 female, 150 male) studying at the Classroom Teaching Division of Canakkale 18 Mart University. Our research was designed as a prediction study. Data was…
An, Brian P.
I examine whether academic motivation and engagement--conditions that advocates consider mechanisms for the effect of dual enrollment--account for the relationship between dual enrollment and academic performance. Few studies examine the claimed mechanisms that account for the impact of dual enrollment, which leaves the processes through which…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether academic motivation and academic self-regulated learning predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The study participants consisted of 166 early childhood education majors enrolled in the 2014 spring semester at Georgia Southern University, USA. Data were gathered using…
Planchard, Matthew; Daniel, Kristy L.; Maroo, Jill; Mishra, Chandrani; McLean, Tim
We conducted a mixed methods study in an upper-level genetics course exploring the relationships between student motivation, homework completion, and academic achievement at the college level. We used data from an open-ended questionnaire, homework grades and completion reports, and exam scores. We used these data sources to measure self-perceived…
Darby, Alexa; Knight-McKenna, Mary
Success in academic service-learning (AS-L) comes in large measure from the work of faculty dedicated to this pedagogy. The purpose of this study was to examine how faculty who have taught nine or more sections of AS-L courses sustain their motivation despite the pedagogy's inherent challenges. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 faculty…
Collins, Nancy Creighton
The purpose of this study was to develop, refine, and validate a conceptual model of career development to enhance the academic motivation of community college students. To achieve this end, a straw model was built from the theoretical and empirical research literature. The model was then refined and validated through three rounds of a Delphi…
Roquemore, Barbara C.; And Others
This study examined the academic motivation of the first students (25 from each school) in the 1990-91 school year in each of 4 schools in grades 9 through 12 who were suspended from school or placed in in-school suspension programs for repeated offenses (disrupting class, exhibiting aggressive behavior toward school authorities or peers, or…
Bong, Mimi; Hwang, Arum; Noh, Arum; Kim, Sung-il
We examined the nature of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in relation to the motivation and achievement of 306 Korean 7th graders. We also tested the mediating role of domain-specific academic self-efficacy and achievement goals in the relationships between perfectionism and achievement-related outcomes across math and English.…
Klassen, Robert M.; Kuzucu, Elcin
This article presents a study of academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 508 adolescents from a general secondary school in central Turkey. Girls reported higher levels of self-efficacy for self-regulation and predicted higher Turkish grades than boys, but there was no difference in levels of procrastination. Academic…
Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.
Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…
Koegel, Lynn Kern; Singh, Anjileen K.; Koegel, Robert L.
Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of…
Koegel, Lynn Kern; Singh, Anjileen K; Koegel, Robert L
Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of autism and may possibly be effective in academic areas. Using a multiple baseline across children and behaviors design with four pre- and elementary school children with autism, we assessed whether the above variables could be incorporated into academic tasks to improve performance and interest. Results indicated that the intervention decreased the children's latency to begin academic tasks, improved their rate of performance and interest, and decreased their disruptive behavior. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Gaston-Gayles, Joy L.
Academic motivation as a predictor of academic performance for college athletes has been debated in the literature. This study examined the utility of academic and athletic motivation as a key variable in predicting academic performance among 211 college athletes at a Division I institution in the Midwest. After controlling for background…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Ghiasvand, Arezoo Mohamadkhani; Naderi, Manijeh; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Ahmadi, Farzane; Hosseini, Meimanat
Introduction Time management skills are essential for nursing students’ success, and development of clinical competence. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between time management skills and anxiety and academic motivation of nursing students in Tehran medical sciences universities in 2015. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 441 nursing students in three medical universities in Tehran. Random stratified sampling was done to select the samples. Data were collected using demographic Questionnaire, Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which was completed t by self-report. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software with descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, independent t-test, Regression and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results Most participants had a moderate level of time Management skills (49%), State Anxiety (58%), Trait Anxiety (60%) and Academic Motivation (58%). The results also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the students’ TMQ scores and the state anxiety (r= −0.282, p< 0.001) and trait anxiety scores (r= −0.325, p<0.001). Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the students’ TMQ scores and AMS scores (r= 0.279, p< 0.001). Conclusion Regarding the findings, it seems that it is necessary to plan for improving time management skills in order to enhance academic motivation and reduce anxiety rates among nursing students. PMID:28243424
Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Galanaki, Evangelia P.
The aim of this study was to examine differences in intrinsic motivation and perceived academic competence as well as in their association between 5th- and 6th-grade students with learning disabilities (LD) (n = 40) and their typically achieving peers. Participants were 980 Greek elementary students from the metropolitan area of Athens. As…
Carter, Christina Michelle
Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Ballmann, Jodi M; Mueller, Jill J
This study investigated the various reasons that allied health students believe they are currently attending college. The Academic Motivation Scale was administered to a convenience sample of 222 upperclassmen and graduate-level students (162 women, 46 men). The Academic Motivation Scale proposes various reasons for continued engagement in academic pursuits that may be characteristic of personal and current reasons for persistence in a subject's particular academic program. The results showed that students portrayed themselves as currently attending college for both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated reasons. The most frequently endorsed motivational styles were identified (autonomous) extrinsic motivation and externally regulated (nonautonomous) extrinsic motivation. This study showed that this sample of professional-level college students was not completely self-determined in their end-stage academic pursuits. One conclusion that may be drawn from this study is that allied health programs that provide students with an educational context that supports self-determination may encourage future allied health professionals to develop the ability to support the self-determination of their future clients.
Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya
Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…
Berry, James J.; Plecha, Michelle D.
Three pilot studies are used to examine the relationships between academic performance, student ability, and motivation among community college students. The first study analyzed the association between motivation and academic performance in order to test the hypothesis that students who are highly motivated will earn higher grades. Results…
Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily; Smith, Liana; Hirchert, Tyrell
Intrinsic motivation (IM) to learn, if cultivated, can lead to many academic and social/emotional improvements among K-12 students. This article discusses intrinsic motivation to learn as it relates to Self Determination Theory and the trouble with relying solely on extrinsic motivators. The academic benefits of IM in the specific subject areas of…
Wormington, Stephanie V.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Anderson, Kristen G.
This study used a person-centered approach to identify naturally occurring combinations of intrinsic motivation and controlled forms of extrinsic motivation (i.e., introjected and external regulation) and their correlates in an academic context. 1061 high school students completed measures of academic motivation, performance, and school-related…
Lutzke, Steven Ronald
This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…
Nunn, Gary D.; And Others
Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…
Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances
The current study presents a newly developed measurement: the TEMO (Teacher and Motivation) scale, which assesses adolescent students' perception of liked and disliked teachers and the resulting impact on their academic motivation. A total of 1,088 students from secondary schools in Germany participated in this study. To explore the underlying…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…
Martin, Andrew J.; Colmar, Susan H.; Davey, Louise A.; Marsh, Herbert W.
Background: Academic buoyancy is students' ability to successfully deal with setbacks and challenges that are typical of academic life. The present study extends previous preliminary cross-sectional work that tentatively identified five motivational predictors of academic buoyancy--referred to as the "5Cs" of academic buoyancy: confidence…
Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu
The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…
Tan, Christine Nya-Ling; Ramayah, T.
Introduction: This research addresses a primary issue that involves motivating academics to share knowledge. Adapting the theory of reasoned action, this study examines the role of motivation that consists of intrinsic motivators (commitment; enjoyment in helping others) and extrinsic motivators (reputation; organizational rewards) to determine…
Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo
This study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment based on the perspective of self-determination theory. It also examined motivational profiles to reveal individual differences and the characteristic of these profiles for groups with varying levels of autonomous and controlled regulation (autonomous, controlled, high motivation, and low motivation). Data were collected from 442 junior high school students for academic motivation, academic performance, academic competence, meta-cognitive strategy, academic anxiety, apathy, and stress experience. Correlation analyses generally supported the basic hypothesis of self-determination theory that a more autonomous regulation style was strongly related to academic adjustment. The results also showed that persons with a high autonomous regulation and a low controlled regulation style were the most adaptive.
Gottfried, A E; Fleming, J S; Gottfried, A W
The short- and long-term, and direct and indirect, relations between cognitively stimulating home environment and academic intrinsic motivation were investigated in a longitudinal study from childhood through early adolescence. Structural equations modeling was used to test the hypothesis that home environment positively predicts academic intrinsic motivation over this period. It was also hypothesized that home environmental processes would positively predict motivation controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). When children were age 8, home environment (comprising both direct observations and parent report) and SES were measured. Academic intrinsic motivation was assessed at ages 9, 10, and 13. Results supported the hypotheses. Home environment had statistically positive and significant, direct and indirect paths to academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through early adolescence, indicating both short- and long-term effects across these ages. Moreover, home environment was significant above and beyond SES. The findings revealed that children whose homes had a greater emphasis on learning opportunities and activities were more academically intrinsically motivated.
Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.
Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…
Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak
Physical exercise results in an active well-being. It is likely that students' engagement in physical exercise keeps them motivated to perform academic endeavors. This study aimed to assess the relation of time engaged in physical exercise with medical students' motivation for academic work. Prospectively, 296 second-year medical students…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Fleming, James S.; Gottfried, Allen W.
Examines two aspects of continuity, stability of individual differences and means, in a study from the middle elementary through high school years. Two hypotheses were supported: academic intrinsic motivation is a stable construct through these years, and with advancement in age, academic intrinsic motivation becomes increasingly stable. (Contains…
Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry
The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year was investigated. The data were collected 5…
Young, Adena; Johnson, Gail; Hawthorne, Melissa; Pugh, Jeremy
College retention and graduation rates are significantly lower for African American and Hispanic American students. Limited research has been conducted on the relationship between academic motivation and perceived social support. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of social support as a predictor of academic motivation and…
Walker, Christopher O.; Greene, Barbara A.; Mansell, Robert A.
Examined were several theoretically important relations among motivational characteristics of students that are malleable, or changeable with intervention. The motivational construct identification with academics, which includes perceptions of belonging and valuing within an academic context, was investigated along with intrinsic/extrinsic…
Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen
This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…
Fisher, Kelly R.; Marshall, Peter J.; Nanayakkara, Ajantha R.
Previous research suggests that academic motivation orientation relates to students' causal interpretations about academic outcomes and their emotional reactions to those outcomes. The current study examines how student motivation may relate to certain neurophysiological systems that are thought to underlie the processing of successes and…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.
A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children's pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic…
Ginsburg, G S; Bronstein, P
This study examined 3 familial factors--parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades, and general family style--in relation to children's motivational orientation and academic performance. Family, parent, and child measures were obtained in the home from 93 fifth graders and their parents. Teachers provided a measure of classroom motivational orientation, and grades and achievement scores were obtained from school records. Higher parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades that included negative control, uninvolvement, or extrinsic reward, and over- and undercontrolling family styles were found to be related to an extrinsic motivational orientation and to lower academic performance. On the other hand, parental encouragement in response to grades children received was associated with an intrinsic motivational orientation, and autonomy-supporting family styles were associated with intrinsic motivation and higher academic performance. In addition, socioeconomic level was a significant predictor of motivational orientation and academic performance.
Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz
The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence.
McEwan, Lynn; Goldenberg, Dolly
A study of 41 graduate nursing students found they had high achievement motivation and academic ability. Trait anxiety was the only valid predictor of academic success. Academic ability and inherent anxiety had greater potential for predicting students who would succeed. (Author/SK)
de Lourdes Machado-Taylor, Maria; Meira Soares, Virgílio; Brites, Rui; Brites Ferreira, José; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Gouveia, Odília Maria Rocha; Peterson, Marvin
Academic staff is a key resource in higher education institutions (HEIs) and therefore has a major role in the achievement of the objectives of these institutions. Satisfied and well-motivated academic staff can build a national and international reputation for themselves and their institutions. Moreover, the performance of academic staff impacts…
Scheel, Michael J.; Gonzalez, Jaime
A theoretical model of academic motivation consisting of (a) academic self-efficacy, (b) purposefulness and intentionality, and (c) support through school counseling for autonomous learning was explored with 346 high school juniors. Regression analysis indicated academic self-efficacy and utilization of school counseling to be significant…
Deng, Liping; Yuen, Allan H. K.
The success of academic blogs depends on the participation and engagement of students. Taking an exploratory approach, this study aims to develop a better understanding of the perceptions of student teachers towards academic blogging, and the factors that motivate them to write academic blogs voluntarily. Drawing on data gathered from…
Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini
This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…
Bedel, Emine Ferda
This study is designed to explore academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers and to investigate the relationships among those variables. Data were gathered through questionnaires administered to 251 pre-service early childhood education teachers. Results indicated…
Learner motivation is considered a vital factor in second language instruction. An analysis of motivation types and degrees can reveal learners' expectations and learning objectives. The present study analyzes the motivational patterns of a group of English for academic and professional purposes (EAPP) learners while focusing on types and degrees…
In this article, the author examined the relationships of motivation and flow experience to academic procrastination in 262 Korean undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on procrastination, flow, and motivation. The results indicated that high procrastination was associated with lack of self-determined motivation and low incidence of…
Anderman, Eric M.; Young, Allison J.
Recent studies have documented a decline in academic performance and motivation as students move from elementary to middle level schools. This paper expands these studies in three ways: (1) by examining the classroom-level differences among middle school students' motivation to see if motivational constructs vary by classroom; (2) by exploring the…
Olagbami, Abiola Olabisi
The need related behavioral dynamics that are revealed in self-determination and academic motivation research control factors which pinpoint and examine settings that facilitate self-motivation and well-being. This study examined differences in motivational and self-determination behaviors among three ethnic groups of Nigerian university students…
Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole
This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…
The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…
Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor
This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p < .05). Achievement motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p < .05). Also, achievement motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.
Kusurkar, R. A.; Ten Cate, Th. J.; Vos, C. M. P.; Westers, P.; Croiset, G.
Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous…
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Harder, Lana; Silver, Cheryl; Bowers, Daniel C; Stavinoha, Peter L
It has been proposed previously that extrinsic motivation may enable survivors of childhood medulloblastoma to significantly improve aspects of neurocognitive performance. In healthy populations, enhanced motivation has been shown to promote academic fluency, a domain likely more relevant to the educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors than academic skill development. The present study investigates the effect of enhanced extrinsic motivation on fluent (i.e., accurate and efficient) academic performance in pediatric medulloblastoma survivors. Participants were 36 children, ages 7-18, who had completed treatment for medulloblastoma. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery that included administration of equivalent tasks on Forms A and B of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Half were randomly assigned to an incentive condition prior to the administration of Form B. Provision of a performance-based incentive resulted in statistically significant improvement, but not normalization of function, in performance on measures of academic fluency. No demographic, treatment-related, academic, neuropsychological, or self-perception variables predicted response to incentive. Findings suggest that academic performance of survivors may significantly improve under highly motivating conditions. In addition to implications for educational services, this finding raises the novel possibility that decreased motivation represents an inherent neuropsychological deficit in this population and provides a rationale for further investigation of factors affecting individual differences in motivational processes. Further, by examining effort in a context where effort is not inherently suspect, present findings also significantly contribute to the debate regarding the effects of effort and motivation on neuropsychological performance.
Kumar, P.K. Sudheesh; P., Dileep
This study is undertaken to examine the effectiveness of a newly constructed psychometric instrument to assess Academic Life Satisfaction along with the components of Emotional Intelligence. The Academic Life Satisfaction Scale is used to predict the scholastic achievement as an index of Academic success. The investigators found that Academic Life…
Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.
Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…
Wach, F-Sophie; Karbach, Julia; Ruffing, Stephanie; Brünken, Roland; Spinath, Frank M
Although there is consensus about the importance of students' satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement), as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress) assessed approximately 2 years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; M age = 20.77; SD age = 3.22) using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level.
Wach, F.-Sophie; Karbach, Julia; Ruffing, Stephanie; Brünken, Roland; Spinath, Frank M.
Although there is consensus about the importance of students' satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement), as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress) assessed approximately 2 years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; Mage = 20.77; SDage = 3.22) using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level. PMID:26909049
Bexley, Emmaline; Arkoudis, Sophie; James, Richard
The Australian academic profession is more differentiated than is acknowledged in national and institutional policies and academic roles are more diverse than many academics themselves may recognise. However, the evolution of the nature and purposes of the profession and its implicit diversification have been incremental and largely unplanned. A…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
The bicultural work motivations of Asian Americans have not yet been comprehensively captured by contemporary vocational constructs and scales. For this study, we conducted two studies on the initial reliability and validity of the Bicultural Work Motivation Scale (BWMS) by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. First, a pilot study was…
This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.
Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar
We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive.
Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine
A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…
Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.
The researchers explored the relationship between elementary school counselors' motivational orientation, perceptions of importance and levels of implementation of Academic and Personal/Social Standards as a strategy for supporting academic achievement. Responses from 212 elementary school counselors confirm both types of Standards as being highly…
Burt, Tracie D.; Young-Jones, Adena D.; Yadon, Carly A.; Carr, Michael T.
Students learn in and out of a formal classroom, and instructors and academic advisors play key roles in academic motivation and learning. Therefore, through the lens of self-determination theory, we examined the ways perceived support from instructors and advisors relates to satisfaction of college students' basic psychological needs. Advisor and…
FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.
THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…
Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker
This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…
Reeder, Matthew C.; Schmitt, Neal
In this study we investigated whether African American students at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) differ from African American students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in academic motivation and judgment, and whether type of academic institution (HBCU, PWI) moderates relationships between these differences and…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.; Casillas, Alex; Oh, In-Sue
We studied the effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness on third-year retention, transfer, and dropout behavior. To accommodate the three outcome categories and nesting of data within institutions, we fit a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression path model with first-year academic performance as a mediating…
Rowan, Tanyia Perry
Motivation as a factor in academic success is well documented in the literature and an important construct in educational planning. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore motivating factors for at-risk students who successfully graduated from high school. The framework for this study was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs…
Acat, M. Bahaddin; Dereli, Esra
The purpose of this study was to identify problems and motivation sources and strategies of decision-making of the students' attending preschool education teacher department, was to determine the relationship between learning motivation and strategies of decision-making, academic achievement of students, was to determine whether strategies of…
Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Bosker, Roel
Background: Research has shown that the teacher-student interpersonal relationship (TSIR) is important for student motivation. Although TSIR has received a growing interest, there are only few studies that focus on changes and links between TSIR and student academic motivation in a longitudinal fashion in non-Western contexts. Aims: This study…
Bourgeois, Steven James
Recent trends toward globalization have engendered interest in comparative educational systems, pointing toward more fundamental change beyond the current focus upon accountability measures. This phenomenological study considered the effect of extrinsic motivators on the intrinsic motivation of academically gifted students in Germany and the…
Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese
Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…
Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Rahimi, Ali; Rahimi, Masoud
Among the factors influencing learners' learning, instrumental motivation, critical thinking and autonomy are thought to be of crucial importance. The present study, thus, set out to investigate relationships between instrumental motivation, critical thinking, autonomy and academic achievement of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 100 Iranian…
Sewell, Trevor; And Others
Examined the relationship of cognitive and personality variables to achievement in 49 Black junior high school students. Results showed a higher achievement motivation for males. Neither personality nor social reinforcement showed much predictive value. The relationship between achievement motive and academic measures was not significant. (JAC)
Universities are challenged with finding ways to motivate the increasing number of diverse students so that the largest number of students can be expected to succeed. University success is measured by retention and graduation rates, which affect profit. A lack of academic motivation among increasingly diverse students influences student retention,…
Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…
Lee, Pei-Ling; Pang, Vincent
This paper reports on a study of five motivational orientations in continuing education among working adults. The influence of motivational orientations on their academic achievement was identified. The study involved 159 working adults who enrolled into part-time programs in an Open University in Sabah. Boshier's Education Participation Scale…
Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Stephens, Jason M.
To succeed in autonomous online learning environments, it helps to be a highly motivated, self-regulated learner. The present study explored potential differences between undergraduate (n = 87) and graduate students (n = 107) in their levels of academic motivation and self-regulation while learning online. In particular, this study provides a…
Mancil, G. Richmond; Pearl, Cynthia E.
One way to improve engagement and ensure motivation for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during academics is to use restricted interests in instruction and activities. Embedding these interests into the curriculum can motivate the student with ASD to attempt tasks that were previously less preferred or difficult. This article…
Belcher, Gay; Macari, Nancy
This project evaluated a program for enhancing student motivation as evidenced by improved academic growth and increased work completion. The targeted population consisted of fifth graders in a small school in a medium-sized rural community in the Midwest. The problem of lack of achievement motivation and lack of student concern about academic…
Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.
Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…
The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…
Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve
We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve
Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.
Herman, William E.
The variables of class attendance and the institution-wide Early Alert Grading System were employed to predict academic success at the end of the semester. Classroom attendance was found to be statistically and significantly related to final average and accounted for 14-16% of the variance in academic performance. Class attendance was found to…
Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Lokken, K L; Morse, A; Boggiano, M M
The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse college students (mean age: 24.4, BMI: 16-51kg/m(2)) were administered the PEMS along with the Binge-Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to test for convergent and incremental validity and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) for discriminant validity. The PEMS identified four motives for eating tasty food, the same ones found with the DMQ-R for alcohol intake: Social, Conformity, Enhancement, and Coping motives. The scales had good convergent validity with BES and YFAS scores but discriminated from the broader motivational constructs of inhibition and activation measured by the SPSRQ. Of the PEMS motives, Coping (eating tasty food to deal with problems and negative feelings) accounted for unique variance in BMI, and added to variance in BMI contributed by BES scores, showing incremental validity. YFAS scores did not contribute to BMI after controlling for binge-eating. Coping subscale scores were also significantly higher (p<0.001) among the severely obese (BMI>40). Motives behind palatable food intake are not homogenous and should be considered in personalized weight-loss strategies in future studies. In normal weight individuals, knowing one's dominant motive for eating tasty foods may help promote healthier food choices in times and places where they are most vulnerable to do otherwise.
Grunschel, Carola; Schopenhauer, Lena
In light of the drawbacks of academic procrastination, it is surprising that not all students want to decrease academic procrastination. To find out why students are motivated (or not) to change academic procrastination, we investigated the characteristics of 377 German students with different motivations to change based on the Transtheoretical…
Piña-Watson, Brandy; López, Belem; Ojeda, Lizette; Rodriguez, Kimberly M.
This study examined the role of cognitive (i.e., grit, hope, and academic skepticism) and cultural variables (i.e., generational status, familismo, ethnic identity, and bicultural stress) on academic motivation among 181 Mexican American adolescents. Results indicated that hope, grit, and familismo positively predicted academic motivation.…
Imhof, Margarete; Spaeth-Hilbert, Tatjana
Based on a cognitive motivational process model of learning, the impact of studying behavior on learning outcome is investigated. First-year students (N = 488) participated in the study. Two research questions were addressed: (1) Can cognitive-motivational variables and objective study behavior predict individual learning? (2) Which factors drive…
The aim of this study is to determine if approaches to learning and academic motivation together predict grade point averages (GPAs) of students who study at Primary School Education and Preschool Education in Turkey and of students who study at Early Childhood Education in the US. The first group of participants included 166 third- and…
Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar
Objectives This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis). Results Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors’ autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students’ autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students’ academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors’ autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students’ academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students’ academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.042). Conclusions Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students’ educational background, our study shows that tutors’ autonomy support is inconsistent with students’ academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students’ academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students’ educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students’ academic achievement. PMID:28035054
Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur; Gilbert, Kimberly A.; Silva, Rebecca
Although cheating on tests and other forms of academic dishonesty are considered rampant, no standard definition of academic dishonesty exists. The current study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of academic dishonesty in high school students, utilizing an innovative methodology, multidimensional scaling (MDS). Two methods were used to…
Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…
Kauffman, Douglas F.; Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Duke, Bryan
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report psychological instrument assessing pre-service teachers' relative intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to teach. One hundred forty seven undergraduate students taking Educational Psychology courses from a large US University participated in this study completed the 12 item MTS along…
Landau, Mark J; Oyserman, Daphna; Keefer, Lucas A; Smith, George C
People commonly talk about goals metaphorically as destinations on physical paths extending into the future or as contained in future periods. Does metaphor use have consequences for people's motivation to engage in goal-directed action? Three experiments examine the effect of metaphor use on students' engagement with their academic possible identity: their image of themselves as academically successful graduates. Students primed to frame their academic possible identity using the goal-as-journey metaphor reported stronger academic intention, and displayed increased effort on academic tasks, compared to students primed with a nonacademic possible identity, a different metaphoric framing (goal-as-contained-entity), and past academic achievements (Studies 1-2). This motivating effect persisted up to a week later as reflected in final exam performance (Study 3). Four experiments examine the cognitive processes underlying this effect. Conceptual metaphor theory posits that an accessible metaphor transfers knowledge between dissimilar concepts. As predicted in this paradigm, a journey-metaphoric framing of a possible academic identity transferred confidence in the procedure, or action sequence, required to attain that possible identity, which in turn led participants to perceive that possible identity as more connected to their current identity (Study 4). Drawing on identity-based motivation theory, we hypothesized that strengthened current/possible identity connection would mediate the journey framing's motivating effect. This mediational process predicted students' academic engagement (Study 5) and an online sample's engagement with possible identities in other domains (Study 6). Also as predicted, journey framing increased academic engagement particularly among students reporting a weak connection to their academic possible identity (Study 7).
A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.
Elmelid, Andrea; Stickley, Andrew; Lindblad, Frank; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Henrich, Christopher C; Ruchkin, Vladislav
This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.
In this article, the author examined the relationships of motivation and flow experience to academic procrastination in 262 Korean undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on procrastination, flow, and motivation. The results indicated that high procrastination was associated with lack of self-determined motivation and low incidence of flow state. The results also indicated that, although amotivation and intrinsic motivation showed significant unique effects on procrastination, they did not contribute significantly to the variance in procrastination when the effects caused by flow experiences were considered. The author discusses implications for practice and gives suggestions for further research.
Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C
Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or the original 4-factor structure. Some motivators appear to form a unidimensional construct: "to gain attention", "to gain a tangible object", and "to escape". There was evidence that sensory stimulation represents a different construct. Children with intellectual disability were more apt to be motivated by desire to gain a tangible item or attention. Children with the dual diagnoses were more apt to have sensory stimulation or escape from task demand as a motivator for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level.
Liu, Lewis G.
This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Suggests that libraries in general, and academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices. Findings indicate that slight…
Zhang, Lili; Maruno, Shun'ichi
Academic delay of gratification refers to the postponement of immediate rewards by students and the pursuit of more important, temporally remote academic goals. A path model was designed to identify the causal relationships among academic delay of gratification and motivation, self-regulated learning strategies (as specified in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire), and grades among 386 Chinese elementary school children. Academic delay of gratification was found to be positively related to motivation and metacognition. Cognitive strategy, resource management, and grades mediated these two factors and were indirectly related to academic delay of gratification.
Edens, Kellah M.
College students are sleeping less during the week than reported a few years ago. Lack of sleep among college students has been identified as one of the top three health related impediments to academic performance by the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment survey; and it is associated with lower grades,…
Melton, Rebecca Mindigo
Research indicates that students underachieve in college settings, in spite of intellect and other abilities. This research tested the likelihood of self-efficacy for learning, conscientiousness, impulsivity, procrastination and temporal discounting to predict academic achievement in an online competency-based university. Undergraduate students (N…
Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Valle, Antonio; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro
This work examined whether combinations of academic and non-academic goals generated different motivational profiles in high school students. Besides, differences in homework behavioural engagement (i.e. amount of homework, time spent in homework, homework time management), homework emotional engagement (i.e. homework anxiety) and academic achievement were analysed. Participants were 714 high school students (43.4% boys and 56.6% girls). The study of potential motivational profiles was conducted by latent profile analysis, and the differences between the motivational profiles regarding homework variables and academic achievement were analysed using multivariate analysis. The results indicate the existence of five groups of motivational profiles: a group of students with multiple goals, a group of unmotivated students, two groups of students with a predominance of learning goals and, finally, a group comprising students with a high fear of failure. Both the group with multiple goals and the learning goals-oriented groups reported to do more homework, spending more time on homework, making better use of that time and having a higher academic achievement than counterparts. The avoidance-failure group and the group with multiple goals showed higher levels of homework anxiety. Globally, these results provide support for a person-centred approach.
Bailey, Jeffrey G.
One hundred seven faculty at an Australian university completed a survey about motivation and self-efficacy in teaching and research. Differences in faculty self-reported attributions for either teaching or research were related to: faculty of affiliation, level of appointment, gender, qualifications, and research productivity. (DB)
Carrero, Kelly M.
Currently, there is a shortage of professors preparing personnel to teach in high need areas (e.g., special education, English language learners) at institutions of higher education (IHE). The purpose of the present study was to examine the motivations or influencers that impelled individuals to pursue careers in IHEs as professors in personnel…
Jones, Martin H.; McMichael, Stephanie N.
Previous work examines the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. We replicate and extend previous work to examine how personality may relate to achievement goals, efficacious beliefs, and mindset about intelligence. Approximately 200 undergraduates responded to the survey with a 150 participants replicating…
De Feyter, Tim; Caers, Ralf; Vigna, Claudia; Berings, Dries
The main purpose of this study is to unravel the impact of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance. We propose a theoretical model with conditional indirect effects of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance through their impact upon academic motivation. To clarify the mixed results of previous studies concerning…
Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Boiché, Julie; Sarrazin, Philippe
BACKGROUND. Although psychological disengagement is a well-documented phenomenon in the academic setting, the attempts to identify its predictors are scarce. In addition, existing research has mainly focused on chronic disengagement and less is known on the determinants of situational disengagement. AIMS. The purpose of the present study was to identify the predictors of situational disengagement in a physical education (PE) setting. In line with the core postulate of psychological disengagement, it was hypothesized that grades contribute to discounting through a decrease in perceived competence. Drawing upon self-determination theory, it was also expected that devaluing reflects the motivational orientations of individuals. SAMPLE. A total of 120 students who were in seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. METHOD. Students were asked to report their motivation towards PE and their perceived competence at the beginning of a 10-week cycle. Perceived competence in PE and psychological disengagement were assessed at the end of cycle, after grades were communicated individually to each student. RESULTS. The results revealed that grades significantly predicted discounting, through perceived competence, but did not predict devaluing. Devaluing was negatively predicted by integrated and identified regulations, and positively predicted by amotivation, whereas no motivational variables were related to discounting. CONCLUSION. The present study extends the core postulate of psychological disengagement to situational disengagement. It revealed that students may temporarily disengage their self-esteem from performance feedback through discounting, but are less inclined to devalue the academic domain when faced with negative feedback in a particular situation because of their motivational orientations.
Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.
This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…
Strunk, Kamden K.
Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of time-related academic behavior (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) in the academic context. Specifically, this study aimed to build a new model for understanding these behaviors in a motivational framework by using motivational orientation to frame these…
Chen, Jason A.; Pajares, Frank
We investigated: (a) the associations of implicit theories and epistemological beliefs and their effects on the academic motivation and achievement of students in Grade 6 science and (b) the mean differences of implicit theories, epistemological beliefs, and academic motivation and achievement as a function of gender and race/ethnicity (N=508).…
Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.
This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…
In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good performance in mathematics at all levels of schooling. In an effort to achieve this, this study investigated the impact of motivation on students' school academic achievement in mathematics in secondary schools using motivation for academic preference…
Everaert, Patricia; Opdecam, Evelien; Maussen, Sophie
Previous literature calls for further investigation in terms of precedents and consequences of learning approaches (deep learning and surface learning). Motivation as precedent and time spent and academic performance as consequences are addressed in this paper. The study is administered in a first-year undergraduate course. Results show that the…
Darby, Alexa; Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Chenault, Jenna; Haglund, Margot
Academic service-learning (AS-L) pedagogy helps students translate theory into practice, understand issues facing their communities, and enhance personal development (Eyler & Giles, 1999; Hardy & Schaen, 2000; Simons & Clearly, 2006). Students' motivation in AS-L increases when students gain insight into their values and goals (Brody…
Cai, Li; Hall, Christine
This article explores the experiences of non-Chinese academic staff working on an international branch campus in China. The article presents findings from an interview study that explored the expectations of expatriate staff and what motivated them to want to work abroad. The second part of the article reports on whether and how these expectations…
Dykeman, Cass; Wood, Chris; Ingram, Michael; Herr, Edwin L.
The impact of career development interventions on career and technical education (CTE) students' academic self-efficacy and motivation was explored in a pilot study that elicited responses from 293 students at 20 high schools across the United States. The study included a literature review, survey of high school seniors that examined 44…
Muola, J. M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…
Santos, Juan Manuel
The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate and examine the self-reported feelings of school belonging and academic motivation among seventh and eighth grade students in a suburban setting, with a specific focus on the Latino subgroup. A corollary purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between school belonging and…
Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José Carlos; Cabanach, Ramón G.; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro; Inglés, Cándido J.
The aim of the current study was to obtain information from students in higher education on different motivational profiles that resulted from the combination of three academic goals (i.e. learning goals (LG), performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals). Moreover, information related to the relevance of each goal within each…
Trevino, Naomi Noel; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft
Hispanic students are pursuing higher education more than in previous years and they often represent their family as the first member to attend college (Strage in "Coll Stud J" 33:198-205, 1999). Past educational research has studied the influence of intrinsic motivation on academic achievement in various ethnically diverse elementary,…
Dekker, Sonja; Fischer, Ronald
A meta-analysis of academic motivation focused on the relations between students' achievement goal orientations and societal values and human development indicators. The authors analyzed relevant studies using either A. J. Elliot and M. A. Church's (1997) or M. J. Middleton and C. Midgley's (1997) achievement goal instruments separating mastery,…
Rouse, Kimberly A. Gordon
Noting that the impact of the academic environment on motivation among resilient and non-resilient high schoolers has been established, this study sought to determine if the same were true for middle school students. Six resilient and 43 non-resilient students from 4 urban, Midwestern middle schools participated. Subjects' beliefs about the…
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…
As the Latino population increases nationally, educators must develop the work ethic among their Latino students to meet the requirements for student achievement. This case study examined if teachers' perceptions of the Latino population affected the academic motivation of their Latino students at a low-income, primarily Latino high school in…
Kiefer, Sarah M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl; Alley, Kathleen
The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to investigate the ways teachers support young adolescents' academic motivation in one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. Data included individual interviews of 24 participants (18 students, 5 teachers, and 1 middle school assistant principal). Findings suggested that the following…
Lane, Forrest C.; Martin, Georgianna L.; Thompson, Ken
Transfer students make up a significant portion of the student body in higher education today; yet, representation of their college experiences and outcomes in the literature seems sparse. This study explored transfer students to determine whether their level of engagement and belonging in college was related to their academic motivation. We…
Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Guerra, Norma; Sass, Daniel; Hseih, Pei-Hsuan
Theoretical models were tested using structural equation modeling to evaluate the interrelations among cognitive motivational variables and academic achievement using a sample of 128 predominately Hispanic pre-service teachers enrolled in two undergraduate educational psychology classes. Data were gathered using: (1) a quantitative questionnaire…
Domene, Jose F.; Socholotiuk, Krista D.; Woitowicz, Lyndsay A.
Using a social cognitive theory framework, we examined the effects of career outcome expectations (COE) and aspiration to enter a science, technology, or math (STM) career on post-secondary academic motivation. Data were collected online from a sample of 380 post-secondary students in Canada and the United States. Analysis of covariance revealed…
Yang, Chia-Chi; Tsai, I-Chun; Kim, Bosung; Cho, Moon-Heum; Laffey, James M.
This research explicates the construct of social ability and describes the relationship between students' academic motivation and social ability in online learning environments. Findings reveal perceived peers social presence, perceived written communication skills, perceived instructor social presence, comfort with sharing personal information,…
Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Kaymak, Zeliha Demir; Gungoren, Ozlem Canan
The relationship between online learning readiness, academic motivations, and perceived learning was investigated via structural equation modeling in the research. The population of the research consisted of 750 students who studied using the online learning programs of Sakarya University. 420 of the students who volunteered for the research and…
Andrews, Judy A.; And Others
The inverse relation between academic motivation and substance use has been well established, but the direction of the influence remains to be specified; two possible influences are the mediating and moderating effects of family relationships and self-esteem. In this study, investigators used General Estimating Equation (GEE) models based on data…
Strait, Gerald Gill; Smith, Bradley H.; McQuillin, Sam; Terry, John; Swan, Suzanne; Malone, Patrick S.
Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective method of promoting change in adults, but research on adolescents is limited. This study tests the efficacy of MI for promoting academic achievement in middle school students. Participants were 103 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students randomly assigned to either a MI (n = 50) or a waitlist control…
Zhu, Mingjing; Urhahne, Detlef
The present study examines the accuracy of teachers' judgements about students' motivation and emotions in English learning with two different rating methods. A sample of 480 sixth-grade Chinese students reported their academic self-concept, learning effort, enjoyment, and test anxiety via a questionnaire and were rated on these dimensions by…
Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.
The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…
Oredein, Afolakemi; Awodun, Adebisi
The impact of science teachers' motivation on science students' academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo and Ekiti States of Nigeria was investigated in this study. This was a descriptive survey research which was questionnaire based and past WAEC O/L ((May/June 2008 and 2009) student results on the science subjects. The population…
Asoodar, Maryam; Marandi, Seyyedeh Susan; Vaezi, Shahin; Desmet, Piet
In this study we explored the effect of podcasting on the motivation of the students in an online English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course at the university level (N = 179). By using a mixed-method approach, we analyzed the data collected on the learners' impressions about using podcasts as a learning tool. The particular aim of this study was…
This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…
Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.
Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…
Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly
The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…
Aktas, Elif; Yurt, Serap Uzuner
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the learning environment where digital stories are used as a learning material on the motivation, academic success, retention, and students' opinions. The study was carried out with mixed method which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative research approach. The study was implemented…
Darby, Alexa; Newman, Gabrielle
This qualitative study provides a theoretical framework for understanding faculty members' motivation to persist in utilizing academic service-learning pedagogy. Twenty-four faculty members from a private liberal arts university in the southeastern United States were interviewed about the benefits and challenges of teaching academic…
Uwameiye, B. E.; Osho, L. E.
This study investigated attitude and motivation as predictors of academic achievement of students in clothing and textiles. Three colleges of education in Edo and Delta States were randomly selected for use in this study. From each school, 40 students were selected from Year III using simple random technique yielding a total of 240 students. The…
Li, Manyu; Frieze, Irene Hanson; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.; Cheong, Jeewon
Previous studies suggest that social relations can increase one's motivation to learn in school. However, other evidence showed that having more friends may also distract from one's academic involvement. To understand the mechanisms behind this apparent contradiction, this study identified and tested the effects of a potentially important positive…
Rakes, Glenda C.; Dunn, Karee E.
With the rapid growth in online programs come concerns about how best to support student learning in this segment of the university population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of effort regulation, a self-regulatory skill, and intrinsic motivation on online graduate students' levels of academic procrastination, behavior…
Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hutson, Bryant L.; Amundsen, Scott A.; Atwood, Julie A.
This article outlines a motivational/empowerment model for students on academic probation implemented at The University of North Carolina Greensboro (UNCG). The model draws from several theoretical orientations, and includes individual and group interaction as well as discussion in four key topic areas: personal responsibility, positive…
This study uses self-determination theory to explore the mechanisms of filial piety in the academic motivation of eight high-achieving secondary school seniors at an international school in South Korea, resulting in several findings. First, the students attributed their parents' values and expectations as a major source of the students'…
Artino, Anthony R.
This study employed a social-cognitive view of self-regulated learning to examine how several personal factors relate to academic success in an online course. Service academy undergraduates (N = 481) completed a survey that assessed their motivational beliefs (self-efficacy and task value); negative achievement emotions (boredom and frustration);…
Esdar, Wiebke; Gorges, Julia; Wild, Elke
Junior academics at German universities work and qualify in a highly competitive environment. Most of them have to cope with too little time for too many demands in research and teaching. As previous studies have shown, these work conditions may impair well-being due to goal conflicts and may threaten their teaching motivation. How could this be…
Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
Parents play a key role in developing their children's academic motivation, and parents of children with gifts and talents also may face additional parenting challenges that are less commonly faced by parents of average-ability learners whose needs are more readily met in the school setting. School psychologists may be charged with addressing…
Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad
This prospective study using self-determination theory was conducted to predict the students' motivation and academic performance based on their perceived teachers' humanistic vs. authoritarian orientations in the classrooms. The sample consisted of 300 students aged 14-18 years taken from different schools of Multan. The Pupil Control Behavior…
Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon
This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…
Schmidt, Charles P.; Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ballard, Dennis L.
This study is an examination of motivation orientations (mastery, intrinsic, cooperative, individual, competition, ego, approach success, avoid failure, hypercompetition, personal development competition) and musical self-concept in relation to measures of academic achievement and career goals of preservice music teachers. The research questions…
Owen, Steven V.; Froman, Robin D.
This study concentrates on the development and estimation of measurement properties of the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES). Three university faculties in education and psychology developed a pool of routine, frequent academic behaviors of college students. The pool was examined by seven graduate teaching assistants and trimmed and…
Sullivan, Jeremy R.
The purpose of this article is to describe the psychometric characteristics of the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale" (ACSS), which was designed to assess college students' coping strategies within the context of a specific academic stressor. This article will present results of analyses of factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest…
Ho-Tang, Wu; Chin-Tang, Tu; Mei-Ju, Chou; Jing-Fang, Hou; Meng-Shan, Lei
This study aims to develop Taiwan undergraduates' volunteer service motivation scale. To begin with, item pool was proposed on the basis of literature. After discussing with three Taiwan undergraduates, item pool, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (N = 150) was proceeded, where three tests were conducted EFA: 1. Item analysis: comparisons of…
Canivez, Gary L.; Prichard, Karen K.
Developed and cross-validated motivational distortion scales (fake bad and fake good) for the Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). Findings from 12-year-old seventh- and eighth-grade students (n=58) suggest that children are sophisticated enough to respond to the CPQ in a socially desirable and socially undesirable way when asked to do so.…
Kelly, John F; Greene, M Claire
From an addiction treatment and recovery standpoint maladaptive motivational hierarchies lie at the core of the challenge in mobilizing salutary behavior change. Motivation has been conceptualized as dynamic, interactive and modifiable, as well as multidimensional. Measures of recovery motivation have been developed and validated, but are generally only modest and variable predictors of future behavior. A related, but potentially more potent, construct, is that of commitment to sobriety as it denotes a clearer re-ranking of motivational hierarchies such that the recovery task is now given a top priority potentially less susceptible to the risks associated with undulating future circumstance. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a novel commitment to sobriety scale (CSS). Results revealed a coherent, psychometrically valid, and reliable tool that outperformed an existing commitment to abstinence scale (ATAQ; J. Morgenstern, R.M. Frey, B.S. McCrady, E. Labouvie, & C.J. Neighbors, 1996) and a gold standard measure of motivation (SOCRATES; W.R. Miller & J.S. Tonigan, 1996). This study highlights commitment to sobriety as an important addiction construct. Researchers and theoreticians may find the CSS useful in helping to explain how individuals achieve recovery, and practitioners may find clinical utility in the CSS in helping identify patients in need of more intensive or alternative intervention.
Knigge, Michel; Hannover, Bettina
In Germany, according to their prior achievement students are tracked into different types of secondary school that provide profoundly different options for their future educational careers. In this paper we suggest that as a result, school tracks clearly differ in their social status or reputation. This should translate into different collective school-type identities for their students, irrespective of the students' personal academic self-concepts. We examine the extent to which collective school-type identity systematically varies as a function of the school track students are enrolled in, and the extent to which students' collective school-type identity makes a unique contribution beyond academic self-concept and school track in predicting scholastic motivation. In two cross-sectional studies a measure of collective school-type identity is established and applied to explain motivational differences between two school tracks in Berlin. In Study 1 (N = 39 students) the content of the collective school-type identity is explored by means of an open format questionnaire. Based on these findings a structured instrument (semantic differential) to measure collective school-type identity is developed. In Study 2 (N = 1278 students) the assumed structure with four subscales (Stereotype Achievement, Stereotype Motivation, Stereotype Social, and Compensation) is proved with confirmatory factor analysis. This measure is used to compare the collective school-type identity across school tracks and predict motivational outcomes. Results show large differences in collective school-type identity between students of different school tracks. Furthermore, these differences can explain motivational differences between school tracks. Collective school-type identity has incremental predictive power for scholastic motivation, over and above the effects of academic self-concept and school track.
Differences in students' academic self-efficacy and motivation were examined in predicting preferred teacher traits. Undergraduates (261) completed the Teaching Behavior Checklist, Academic Self-Concept scale, and Academic Motivation scale. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation explained…
Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela
BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students.
Isaak, Matthew I.; Graves, Kristy M.; Mayers, Bethlyn O.
This study explored the difficulties that probationary students viewed as obstacles to their academic progress. These difficulties were compared to those identified by regularly matriculated students and to probationary students' deficits on a standardized study skills test. We compared the responses of participants (N = 150) in an intervention…
This mini literature review analyzes research papers from many countries that directly or indirectly test how classrooms' architecture influences academic performance. These papers evaluate and explain specific characteristics of classrooms, with an emphasis on how they affect learning processes and learning outcomes. Factors such as acoustics, light, color, temperature, and seat arrangement are scrutinized to determine whether and by how much they improve or hinder students' academic performance in classrooms. Apter's (1982, 1984, 2014) reversal theory of telic versus paratelic motivation is presented and used to explain these findings. The results show preference for a learning environment that cues a telic motivation state in the students. Therefore, classroom features should not be distracting or arousing. Moreover, it appears the most influential factors affecting the learning process are noise, temperature and seat arrangement. In addition, there is no current agreement on how some particular physical characteristics of classrooms affect learning outcomes. More research is needed to establish stronger conclusions and recommendations.
Ebadi, Setareh; Shakoorzadeh, Reza
The present study was carried out with the aim of Investigation of academic procrastination prevalence and its relationship with academic self-regulation and achievement motivation among high-school students in Tehran city. The sample included 624 high school students (312 Boys & 312 Girls) from different areas and regions that selected using…
Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Gard, David E
Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed.
Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M.; Gard, David E.
Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed. PMID:25454115
Liu, Lewis Guodo
This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Argues that libraries are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices and compares this study with previous…
Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage
The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…
Johnson, Richard W.
The predictive validities of various SVIB academic interest scales were assessed with first semester freshman males at the University of Massachusetts. Both the Rust and Ryan and the Campbell and Johansson scales contributed significantly, albeit modestly, to a multiple correlation coefficient consisting of high school rank and scholastic aptitude…
Creed, Peter A.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dhaliwal, Kamal
We used two studies to evaluate, modify, and provide initial validation for a revised Academic Hardiness scale. First, 16 experts rated scale items for content validity and identified two problematic questions. Second, confirmatory factor analyses with 300 Grade 10 students (46% boys, age range 14-17) identified a 17-item version to be the best…
Webb, John A; Moore, Todd; Rhatigan, Deborah; Stewart, Cynthia; Getz, J Greg
This study utilized structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between alcohol use and academic motivation controlling for potentially mediating variables of deviant behavior, depressive cognitions, family communication, and peer relations. The study also examined the manner in which these relationships were moderated by gender. Results indicated that alcohol use was directly related to deviance for both males and females, but was not associated with depressive cognitions for either males or females. Deviant behavior was directly associated with depressive cognitions for both males and females, but this effect was significantly stronger for females. Deviance was significantly, inversely related to family communication among males, but not females. Depressive cognitions were significantly, inversely related to family communication for both males and females. Family communication and peer relations were directly related to academic motivation for both males and females, and the relationship between family communication and academic motivation was also mediated through peer relations. The necessity of providing information that focuses on minimizing involvement in deviant behaviors for females and the differential importance of family and peer relations is discussed.
Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives.
Gore, Jonathan S; Rogers, Mary Jill
Past research has shown the importance of considering close others' interests when pursuing goals, but no research has examined potential moderators of this effect. Two studies examined how attachment style moderates the association between reasons for studying and academic outcomes. In Study 1, 119 participants reported their attachment style, the reasons why they study, and their study habits. As predicted, the association between relational reasons and studying was positive for secure individuals and negative for avoidant individuals. In Study 2, 195 participants reported their attachment style and reasons for studying, as well as their GPA and academic well-being. As predicted, the association between relational reasons and GPA was positive for secure individuals, whereas the associations between personal reasons for studying and academic well-being were positive for avoidant individuals. These results indicate the importance of considering individual differences as moderators of the association between goal motives and outcomes.
Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia
The purpose of the study was to establish the reliability, the structural and the convergent validity of the "Dimensions of Academic Hardiness Questionnaire" for late elementary school children. A sample of children (N = 1264) aged 10-12 years completed the questionnaire and the "Athens Coping Scale". Multiple fit indices provided support that the 9-factor model had a good fit to the data. Reliability coefficients ranged from .68 to .83. The study provided also preliminary evidence of convergent validity of the "Dimensions of Academic Hardiness" scores with one theoretically related measure, the "Athens Coping Scale". The results enrich the notion of Academic Hardiness in late elementary school children as the role of awareness and the role of children's previous experiences has been distinguished. The relation between the "Dimensions of Academic Hardiness" and achievement goal orientations in children learning is also noted. These findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess work role motivation in school principals: the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP). The WRMS-SP is designed to measure intrinsic motivation, three types of extrinsic motivation (identified, introjected, and external), and amotivation with respect to…
Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A healthy diet has been reported to be associated with physical development, cognition and academic performance, and personality during adolescence. This study was performed to investigate the relationships among milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategies, and personality among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was divided into two parts. The first part was a survey on the relationship between milk consumption and academic performance, in which intakes of milk and milk products and academic scores were examined in percentiles among 630 middle and high school students residing in small and medium-sized cities in 2009. The second part was a survey on the relationships between milk consumption and learning motivation and strategy as well as personality, in which milk consumption habits were collected and Learning Motivation and Strategy Test (L-MOST) for adolescents and Total Personality Inventory for Adolescents (TPI-A) were conducted in 262 high school students in 2011. RESULTS In the 2009 survey, milk and milk product intakes of subjects were divided into a low intake group (LM: ≤ 60.2 g/day), medium intake group (MM: 60.3-150.9 g/day), and high intake group (HM: ≥ 151.0 g/day). Academic performance of each group was expressed as a percentile, and performance in Korean, social science, and mathematics was significantly higher in the HM group (P < 0.05). In the 2011 survey, the group with a higher frequency of everyday milk consumption showed significantly higher "learning strategy total," "testing technique," and "resources management technique" scores (P < 0.05) in all subjects. However, when subjects were divided by gender, milk intake frequency, learning strategy total, class participation technique, and testing technique showed significantly positive correlations (P < 0.05) in boys, whereas no correlation was observed in girls. Correlations between milk intake frequency and each item of
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Zvolensky, Michael J
Sexual motives refer to functions served by sexual behavior. The Sex Motivations Scale (SMS) has frequently been used to assess sexual motives. At its development, the SMS demonstrated good internal consistency; convergent, divergent, and criterion validity; and configural invariance across sex, age, and Caucasians and African Americans. Yet the metric and scalar invariance of the SMS has not been examined, nor has the measurement invariance of the SMS across Hispanic and Asian Americans, sexual minority status, and relationship status been tested. The criterion validity of the SMS also has yet to be examined for nonintercourse sexual behaviors, such as sexting. The present study aimed to address these gaps in a diverse sample of 2,201 college students (77.60% female; Mage = 22.06; 27.84% Caucasian). Results further affirmed the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the SMS. The convergent and divergent validity of the SMS was supported in relation to positive and negative affect and attachment patterns; and specific SMS subscales demonstrated associations with sexual intercourse behaviors and sexting, supporting the criterion validity of the SMS. These findings suggest the relevance of the SMS in assessing sexual motives across diverse populations and behaviors.
Slanger, William D.; Berg, Emily A.; Fisk, Paul S.; Hanson, Mark G.
Ten years of College Student Inventory (CSI) data from one Midwestern public land-grant university were used to study the role of motivational factors in predicting academic success and college student retention. Academic success was defined as cumulative grade point average (GPA), cumulative course load capacity (i.e., the number of credits…
Jones, Meredyth L; Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; White, Brad J
The objectives of this project were to determine the number of school-sanctioned extracurricular opportunities available to veterinary students and characterize the policies of school administrations toward extracurricular involvement and academic standing. Further, we sought to describe the level of extracurricular involvement of veterinary students, determine the association between extracurricular activity involvement and academic performance, and determine the motivation for extracurricular involvement of veterinary students. Survey data were obtained from 18 associate deans of colleges of veterinary medicine regarding the number of extracurricular student organizations within their school and administrative recommendations regarding student involvement. Another survey was administered and responded to by 665 veterinary students enrolled in curricular years 1-3 at Kansas State University and Texas A&M University regarding their extracurricular involvement. Associate deans of 11 schools responded that they make formal or informal recommendations to students about extracurricular activities, workload, and academic priority (61.1%). In a multivariate model, students who participated two times per week or more had a significantly higher overall grade point average (GPA) than students participating once per week (p<.0500). Students for whom the primary reason for participation was networking or social enhancement had a significantly lower overall GPA than students for whom the primary reason was gaining new knowledge and skills (p<.0500). These results indicate that student extracurricular involvement is a consideration for administrators when counseling students in academic difficulty. Moderate levels of extracurricular involvement can contribute to the academic success of students, but students should temper their level of involvement based upon their own motivations.
Komarraju, Meera; Musulkin, Sergey; Bhattacharya, Gargi
Student-faculty interactions can be crucial in developing students' academic self-concept and enhancing their motivation and achievement. Although most interactions with faculty tend to occur within the formal classroom setting, students who experience informal interactions tend to be more motivated, engaged, and actively involved in the learning…
Agbaria, Qutaiba Ali
The purpose of this study is to examine the link between learning motivation among teaching trainees and self-efficacy and the rate of participation in choosing the profession of teaching. The main assumptions: There will be a clear positive link between the rate of self-efficacy of students and academic motivation, with its various elements.…
DiBella, Karen S.
The purpose of this study was to measure the motivation for academic and recreational reading of 6th grade students in a middle school located in southwest Florida using the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS). In this mixed methods study, motivation for both types of reading were measured, individual demographics of the population, such as…
Terry, John; Strait, Gill; McQuillin, Sam; Smith, Bradley H.
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief client-centred intervention that increases intrinsic motivation for change. Little research has been conducted on MI to promote academic behaviours, but two studies found that one session of MI did improve middle-school students' math grades [Strait, G., Smith, B., McQuillin, S., Terry, J., Swan, S., &…
Vanniarajan, Swathi M.
Scholarship in applied linguistics has not sufficiently addressed learner motivation in mandatory writing classes in postsecondary settings. The data collected through short interviews from 20 students enrolled in a mandatory academic writing program at the junior/senior level in a California State University indicated that learner motivation in…
Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin
This study examined the mediator and moderator roles of self-regulation and motivation constructs in the relationship between learning experience and academic success. Self-reported measures of learning experience, self-regulation and motivation were obtained from 384 undergraduate students from a university in Hong Kong. Structural equation…
Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Deci, Edward L.
Examination of motivational dynamics in academic contexts within self-determination theory has centered primarily around both the motives (initially intrinsic vs. extrinsic, later autonomous vs. controlled) that regulate learners' study behavior and the contexts that promote or hinder these regulations. Less attention has been paid to the goal…
Mega, Carolina; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana
The authors propose a theoretical model linking emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation to academic achievement. This model was tested with 5,805 undergraduate students. They completed the Self-Regulated Learning, Emotions, and Motivation Computerized Battery (LEM-B) composed of 3 self-report questionnaires: the Self-Regulated Learning…
Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita; Edlin, Margot
This study is designed to examine how intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning efficacy influence academic achievement of international and domestic community college students. Results show that for both international and domestic students, motivation did not directly affect academic achievement. Self-regulated…
Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew
This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years.
Johnson, Sonya L.
The purpose of this study was to determine how and to what extent single gender science classes affect motivation to learn scientific concepts, interest in science, and college major intent among high school and middle school girls. This study was designed to determine whether students' motivation to learn science changes when they are placed in a single gender science class. The study also measured whether the students' level of interest in science and desire to major in science changes based on their enrollment in a single gender class. Finally, the study investigated the career and college major intentions of the sample population used in the study. Girls in single gender groupings engage in more academic risk taking and participate more than girls in coeducational classes. This benefit alone responds to reform efforts and supports the abolition of gender-based obstacles. Single gender grouping could help encourage more girls to take interest in majoring in science, a field that is considered to be masculine. By increasing students' interest in science while enrolled in single gender classes, students may become more motivated to learn science. This study was conducted using seven, eighth, ninth and tenth grade girls from single sex and coeducational science classes. The students participated in 2 surveys, the Science Motivational Survey and the Test of Science Related Attitudes, at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. In respect to girls in high school single gender science classes, results were contrary to recent studies that state that girls who received science education in a single gender setting have an increase in motivation and attitude towards science. The results did show that middle school girls in single gender science classes did show an increase in motivation.
This study was aimed at assessing the relationships between college students' pre-entry factors, self-efficacy and motivation for learning, and the perceived constructivist learning in traditional lecture-based courses and seminars (SM). The study included 411 undergraduate third-year college students. Several scales were administered to the…
The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…
Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph
Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement.
This mini literature review analyzes research papers from many countries that directly or indirectly test how classrooms’ architecture influences academic performance. These papers evaluate and explain specific characteristics of classrooms, with an emphasis on how they affect learning processes and learning outcomes. Factors such as acoustics, light, color, temperature, and seat arrangement are scrutinized to determine whether and by how much they improve or hinder students’ academic performance in classrooms. Apter’s (1982, 1984, 2014) reversal theory of telic versus paratelic motivation is presented and used to explain these findings. The results show preference for a learning environment that cues a telic motivation state in the students. Therefore, classroom features should not be distracting or arousing. Moreover, it appears the most influential factors affecting the learning process are noise, temperature and seat arrangement. In addition, there is no current agreement on how some particular physical characteristics of classrooms affect learning outcomes. More research is needed to establish stronger conclusions and recommendations. PMID:26089812
Tanaka, A; Yamauchi, H
This study investigated the effect of achievement motive on goal orientation, and that of goal orientation on intrinsic interest in learning and academic achievement, based on the model proposed by Elliot and Church (1997). A sample of 222 fifth and sixth grade students of an elementary school, and another of 307 seventh, eighth and ninth grade students of a junior high school participated in the study. The approach-avoidance framework of Elliot and Harackiewicz (1996) was used to classify goal orientations. With multiple-sample structural equation modeling, the paths in two causal models, one for each of the elementary and junior high school samples, were compared. A path was found from hope for success to mastery orientation, from both hope for success and fear of failure to performance-approach orientation, and from fear of failure to performance-avoidance orientation. Mastery and performance-approach orientations each had a positive effect on intrinsic interest in learning. For elementary school children, performance-approach orientation enhanced academic achievement, and for junior high school students, mastery orientation mainly facilitated it. Performance-avoidance orientation had a negative effect on both intrinsic interest and academic achievement.
Suárez Riveiro, José Manuel
In addition to cognitive and behavioral strategies, students can also use affective-motivational strategies to facilitate their learning process. In this way, the strategies of defensive-pessimism and generation of positive expectations have been widely related to conceptual models of pessimism-optimism. The aim of this study was to describe the use of these strategies in 1753 secondary school students, and to study the motivational and strategic characteristics which differentiated between the student typologies identified as a result of their use. The results indicated a higher use of the generation of positive expectations strategy (optimism) (M = 3.40, SD = .78) than the use of the defensive pessimism strategy (M = 3.00, SD = .78); a positive and significant correlation between the two strategies (r = .372, p = .001); their relationship with adequate academic motivation and with the use of learning strategies. Furthermore, four student typologies were identified based on the use of both strategies. Lastly, we propose a new approach for future work in this line of research.
Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin
Persistent academic achievement gaps exist between university students from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The current research proposes that the extent to which a university is perceived as actively supporting versus passively neglecting students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds can influence low-SES students' academic motivation and self-concepts. In Experiments 1 and 2, low-SES students exposed to cues suggestive of an institution's warmth toward socioeconomic diversity demonstrated greater academic efficacy, expectations, and implicit associations with high academic achievement compared with those exposed to cues indicating institutional chilliness. Exploring the phenomenology underlying these effects, Experiment 3 demonstrated that warmth cues led low-SES students to perceive their socioeconomic background as a better match with the rest of the student body and to perceive the university as more socioeconomically diverse than did chilliness cues. Contributions to our understanding of low-SES students' psychological experiences in academic settings and practical implications for academic institutions are discussed.
Diseth, Age; Martinsen, Øyvind
Theoretical and empirical relations between personality traits and motive dispositions were investigated by comparing scores of 315 undergraduate psychology students on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Achievement Motives Scale. Analyses showed all NEO Personality Inventory-Revised factors except agreeableness were significantly correlated with the motive for success and the motive to avoid failure. A structural equation model showed that motive for success was predicted by Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism (negative relation), and motive to avoid failure was predicted by Neuroticism and Openness (negative relation). Although both achievement motives were predicted by several personality factors, motive for success was most strongly predicted by Openness, and motive to avoid failure was most strongly predicted by neuroticism. These findings extended previous research on the relations of personality traits and achievement motives and provided a basis for the discussion of motive dispositions in personality. The results also added to the construct validity of the Achievement Motives Scale.
Grove, Rachel; Roth, Ilona; Hoekstra, Rosa A
Clinical observations and first person accounts of living with autism suggest that individuals with autism are highly motivated to engage in special interests, and that these interests remain important throughout life. Previous research assessing special interests has mainly focused on parental reports of children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). To better understand the significance of and motivations for engaging in special interests it is essential to use self-report ratings. This paper aims to systematically explore the motivations for engagement in special interests, and whether these differ in adults with ASC, first-degree relatives and general population controls. The Special Interest Motivation Scale (SIMS) was developed to assess motivation to engage in special interests. The internal structure of this scale was evaluated using factor analysis, and mean scores on the SIMS factors were subsequently compared across individuals with autism, parents and general population controls. Factor analysis indicated a 20-item SIMS containing five factors assessing Personal life values and goals; Intrinsic interest and knowledge; Prestige; Engagement and "flow" and Achievement. Individuals with autism were more motivated by Intrinsic interest and knowledge and by Engagement and flow than controls. The 20-item SIMS is a quick to administer measure that provides a reliable description of motivation to engage in special interests. This study indicates that individuals with ASC are highly motivated to engage in their special interest, and are more motivated than controls by intrinsic motivational factors, some of which are associated with positive affect. This has implications for research and clinical practice. Autism Res 2016, 9: 677-688. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne
The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F) is a Dutch 85-item self-report questionnaire for the motivation of forensic outpatients to engage in their treatment and six cognitive and affective determinants of this motivation. Following descriptions of the conceptual basis and construction, the psychometric properties…
Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.
Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of the…
Guay, Frederic; Marsh, Herbert W.; Senecal, Caroline; Dowson, Martin
Background: The literature on the determinants of academic motivation indicates that social and affective processes connected to students' interpersonal relationships are central elements in understanding students' academic motivation and other school-related outcomes. Aims: The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: Does…
Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes
Anderson, Christine Marie
In this study, I examined the relationship that exists among school belonging, achievement motivation, and academic achievement in a sample of student-athletes at UC Berkeley. The goal of the study was to achieve a deeper understanding of how and why achievement motivation and academic achievement is often discrepant between revenue and…
Two research traditions in the study of learning and motivation are integrated for the study of adolescent behavior. One is concerned primarily with the normal functioning of adolescent society, the other with the design of reward structures to foster academic achievement. The literature covering the use of material incentives for motivating…
Akomolafe, Comfort O.; Adesua, Veronica O.
The paper discusses the impact of the classroom environment as a motivating factor in enhancing the academic performance of secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey type. The population of this study comprises all students of senior secondary schools in South West Nigeria which consist of Lagos, Ogun,…
In this research, an experimental study was carried out in social studies 4th grade students to develop students' conceptual achievement and motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. A quasi-experimental research design (pre- and posttest) was used in the…
Dowden, Angel Riddick
Black adolescents are confronted with ongoing social barriers that affect their academic motivation. School counselors can improve the educational landscape for Black adolescents by employing advocacy competencies in their schools. In this article I describe a brief psychoeducational group that can be used to teach self-advocacy skills to Black…
Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Bas, Selda
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, motivation, academic risk-taking, and metacognition explain the mathematical creative ability of high school students. The participants were 217 9th-grade students that were exceptionally high achievers. The participants responded to a set of measures about…
Bailey, Thomas Hamilton; Phillips, Lisa J.
High rates of mental illness among students and discontinuation with university studies are regularly reported. The current study sought to explore relationships between motivation, university adaptation and indicators of mental health and well-being and academic performance of 184 first-year university students (73% female, mean age?=?19.3…
Reynolds, Amy L.; Sneva, Jacob N.; Beehler, Gregory P.
This study examined the effects of racism-related stress on the academic and psychological factors affecting the success of 151 Black and Latino/a college students enrolled at several predominantly White universities in the northeastern United States. Institutional racism-related stress was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation but…
Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John; Diaz-Castillo, Maribel
This study uses narrative analysis to understand the ways in which Mexican university faculty members used their self-motivational resources to persist in an instructional technology training program within adverse work conditions. The methodology included interviews and participant observation. Findings suggest that faculty's academic resilience…
Saeid, Nasim; Eslaminejad, Tahere
Self-directed learning readiness to expand and enhance learning, This is an important goal of higher education, Besides his academic self-efficacy can be improved efficiency and Achievement Motivation, so understanding how to use these strategies by students is very important. Because the purpose this study is determination of relationship between…
Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.
The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…
Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab
The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…
Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.
We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…
Osakwe, Regina N.
This study determined the factors affecting motivation and job satisfaction of non-management academic staff of universities in South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. It employed an expost-facto research design. Three research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. A sample of four hundred and fifty non-management academic…
Gnambs, Timo; Hanfstingl, Barbara
Adolescents typically exhibit a marked decline in academic intrinsic motivation throughout their school careers. Following self-determination theory, it is hypothesised that traditional school environments insufficiently satisfy three basic psychological needs of youths during maturation, namely the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness.…
Nguyen, Quy; Klopper, Christopher; Smith, Calvin
The importance of academics undertaking research and publishing their research results is emphasised by universities. Engagement in research is recognised as an effective means to increase a university's profile. This study applied a qualitative approach to explore affordances, barriers, and motivations towards the engagement in research…
Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Chien-wei
This study aimed to investigate EFL learner language anxiety and learning motivation of high school students. Subjects included 155 students from the same private senior high school in central Taiwan, 60 in academic track and 95 in vocational track. The majority of the participants started taking English lessons either before entering elementary…
Davis, Kelly D.; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael
In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N = 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for…
Yu, Kai; Martin, Andrew J.
Prior research has shown personal best (PB) goals to be significantly related to students' motivation, engagement and achievement. However, research thus far has investigated PB goals only among Western samples and it is unclear to what extent PB goals hold academic merit in the Asian context. It is also unclear whether PB goals explain variance…
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…
This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…
DiPerna, James Clyde
The purpose of this study was to explore the structural and concurrent validity of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales-College (ACES-College; J. C. DiPerna & S. N. Elliott, 2001). Results indicated that the ACES-College is composed of 2 scales--Academic Skills and Academic Enablers--each with multiple subscales. Results also indicated that…
Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…
Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.; Kelsey, Dawn M.
This study tested the notion that the effect of instructor clarity on learning is conditioned upon students' motivation. We randomly assigned 128 participants to a video of a clear or an unclear lecture and asked them to report their motivation to deeply process lecture material. Results indicated that even with clear instruction, test scores were…
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Rosseel, Yves
Research indicates the need to further examine the dimensions of reading motivation. A clear theoretical basis is necessary for conceptualizing reading motivation and considering contextual differences therein. The present study develops and validates the SRQ-Reading Motivation, a questionnaire measuring recreational and academic reading…
Verbeck, Teresa A.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…
Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong
Objective: The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives—specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation—and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. Method: One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Results: Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. Conclusions: These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students’ alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use. PMID:22051210
Burtscher, Johannes; Furtner, Marco; Sachse, Pierre; Burtscher, Martin
This study validated a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and investigated the sex-specific and age-related differences in motivation of competitive mountain runners. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SMS28 was based on translation and back-translation methodology. Acceptable validity of the German version of the SMS28 was indicated by the high correlations (.81 to .98) of scores on the seven subscales for the English and German versions completed by 15 subjects. Motivation analysis was performed with 127 competitive male and female mountain runners. The seven subscales of the German version showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alphas .70 to .85). Findings on motivation of competitive mountain runners were a decline across age groups of Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment for both sexes and an age-related decline of External regulation only for females. These motivational changes might well be associated with the observed diminishing numbers of older participants in mountain running competitions.
Chiang, Wen-Wei; Liu, Chia-Ju
Contemporary research into science education has generally been conducted from the perspective of 'conceptual change' in learning. This study sought to extend previous work by recognizing that human rationality can be influenced by the emotions generated by the learning environment and specific actions related to learning. Methods used in educational psychology were adopted to investigate the emotional experience of science students as affected by gender, teaching methods, feedback, and learning tasks. A multidisciplinary research approach combining brain activation measurement with multivariate psychological data theory was employed in the development of a questionnaire intended to reveal the academic emotions of university students in three situations: attending science class, learning scientific subjects, and problem solving. The reliability and validity of the scale was evaluated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results revealed differences between the genders in positive-activating and positive-deactivating academic emotions in all three situations; however, these differences manifested primarily during preparation for Science tests. In addition, the emotions experienced by male students were more intense than those of female students. Finally, the negative-deactivating emotions associated with participation in Science tests were more intense than those experienced by simply studying science. This study provides a valuable tool with which to evaluate the emotional response of students to a range of educational situations.
Osborne, Jason W.; Jones, Brett D.
Authors since William James ("1892/1968") have implied that the structure of the self-concept can influence motivation and outcomes in particular domains. The value or importance an individual places on a domain influences how motivated that individual is to expend effort in that domain, ultimately influencing the positivity or negativity of the…
Reasinger, Renne; Brownlow, Sheila
This study examined the relative impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and personality variables on procrastination behavior of college students. A total of 96 undergraduates completed the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students, the Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale, the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, the Work…
Research needs innovative ideas, time for design, performance and discussion of projects, and freedom in the daily routine. Integrating the individual working concepts in the given profile of the university hospital and the national research system requires a suitable institutional framework and individual academic mentoring. German university medicine is shaped by a steep hierarchy and high economic pressure - factors that are justified by the medical care system, but which are counterproductive in research. There is a lack of scientific education, time, incentives, and adequate infrastructure - conditions which do not motivate for a scientific career. The increasing interdisciplinary cooperation between medicine and natural sciences, however, has had a positive impact on medical research. Wissenschaftsrat (German Council of Science and Humanities) and DFG (German Research Foundation) analyzed German university medicine and published forward-looking recommendations, which emphasize that university hospitals have to be structurally adjusted to satisfy the needs of medical research and education. Only after the implementation of the recommendations can it be assessed whether the proposed changes solve the designated problems.
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Williams, Terrinieka T; Chavous, Tabbye M
The persistent underachievement among African American boys has led to increased empirical inquiry, yet little research considers within-group variation in achievement nor positive youth characteristics that help explain positive achievement outcomes. This study conceptualized culturally-based factors (racial pride and religiosity) as adolescent assets that would promote African American boys' achievement and also enhance positive effects of other youth assets (positive educational utility beliefs) on achievement. Our sample included 158 adolescent boys (M = 17.08) from a large, socioeconomically diverse suburban community context. Accounting for demographic background variables, educational utility beliefs were positively associated with academic grade performance. A significant educational utility beliefs and racial pride interaction indicated a stronger, positive association of educational utility beliefs with grade performance among boys with higher racial pride relative to those with lower racial pride. Also, there was a stronger positive association between educational utility beliefs and grades for boys reporting lower religious importance, but boys endorsing both lower educational utility beliefs and religious importance were at highest risk for low grade performance. Overall results suggest the importance of considering culturally-based factors in studying achievement motivation processes among ethnic minority adolescents.
Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael
In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.
Winkler, Christa; Sriram, Rishi
This study presents a psychometric instrument that measures academic capital in college students. Academic capital is a set of social processes that aid students in acquiring the knowledge and support necessary to access and navigate higher education. This study establishes the validity and reliability of the Academic Capital Scale. In addition to…
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
A new scale "motivation for return to work" has been constructed to measure depressive patients' motivation to start working again in a stepwise process. The scale showed in 46 patients of a first case management (CM) sample with depressive employees a good correlation with the final social status of the CM. Only the motivated patients were successful returning to work and could be, separated clearly from the most demotivated one. Second, the scale correlated with the duration of sick leave and third showed an inverse correlation with the complete time of CM, suggesting that a successful stepwise return to work requires time. These first results need further examination.
Drieschner, Klaus H; Boomsma, Anne
The validity of the Treatment Motivation Scales for outpatient offender treatment (TMS-F), a self-report questionnaire with scales for the motivation of patients to engage in the treatment and six cognitive and emotional determinants of this motivation, is evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 620), the construct validity of the TMS-F is investigated applying a multitrait-multimethod design with a therapist-rating instrument as the criterion method. All scales were found to have adequate convergent validity and acceptable discriminant validity. In Study 2 (N = 328), the criterion validity of the TMS-F is addressed. Applying covariance structure analysis, the instrument is found to predict therapist ratings of the treatment engagement of patients to a substantial degree. Treatment engagement is best predicted by the scales for Motivation to Engage in the Treatment and Perception of the Suitability of the Treatment and not by the scales for Distress and the Perceived Legal Pressure.
Deemer, Eric D.; Martens, Matthew P.; Buboltz, Walter C.
An instrument designed to measure a 3-factor model of research motivation was developed and psychometrically examined in the present research. Participants were 437 graduate students in biology, chemistry/biochemistry, physics/astronomy, and psychology. A principal components analysis supported the retention of 20 items representing the 3-factor…
Bedewy, Dalia; Gabriel, Adel
The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts (n = 12) participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to (n = 100) students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach's alpha), there was evidence for content validity, and factor analysis resulted in four correlated and theoretically meaningful factors. We developed and tested a scale to measure academic stress and its sources. This scale takes 5 minutes to complete.
The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts (n = 12) participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to (n = 100) students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach’s alpha), there was evidence for content validity, and factor analysis resulted in four correlated and theoretically meaningful factors. We developed and tested a scale to measure academic stress and its sources. This scale takes 5 minutes to complete. PMID:28070363
Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W; McInerney, Dennis
The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation and self-concept positively predicted attitudes toward school; (b) attitudes toward school positively predicted class participation and homework completion and negatively predicted absenteeism; and (c) class participation and homework completion positively predicted test performance whilst absenteeism negatively predicted test performance. Taken together, these findings provide support for the relevance of the self-system model and, particularly, the importance of examining the dynamic relationships amongst engagement factors of the model. The study highlights implications for educational and psychological theory, measurement, and intervention.
Sherman, David K; Hartson, Kimberly A; Binning, Kevin R; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Garcia, Julio; Taborsky-Barba, Suzanne; Tomassetti, Sarah; Nussbaum, A David; Cohen, Geoffrey L
To the extent that stereotype and identity threat undermine academic performance, social psychological interventions that lessen threat could buffer threatened students and improve performance. Two studies, each featuring a longitudinal field experiment in a mixed-ethnicity middle school, examined whether a values affirmation writing exercise could attenuate the achievement gap between Latino American and European American students. In Study 1, students completed multiple self-affirmation (or control) activities as part of their regular class assignments. Latino American students, the identity threatened group, earned higher grades in the affirmation than control condition, whereas White students were unaffected. The effects persisted 3 years and, for many students, continued into high school by lifting their performance trajectory. Study 2 featured daily diaries to examine how the affirmation affected psychology under identity threat, with the expectation that it would shape students' narratives of their ongoing academic experience. By conferring a big-picture focus, affirmation was expected to broaden construals, prevent daily adversity from being experienced as identity threat, and insulate academic motivation from identity threat. Indeed, affirmed Latino American students not only earned higher grades than nonaffirmed Latino American students but also construed events at a more abstract than concrete level and were less likely to have their daily feelings of academic fit and motivation undermined by identity threat. Discussion centers on how social-psychological processes propagate themselves over time and how timely interventions targeting these processes can promote well-being and achievement.
Cochran, John K
Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.
Perreira, Krista M.; Fuligni, Andrew; Potochnick, Stephanie
Using data on 459 Latino 9th graders from the LA-SIAA and the NC-SIAA studies, we evaluate the specific educational values and beliefs that motivate the academic achievement of Latino youth and contrast the school experiences of Latino youth in an emerging Latino community, North Carolina, with the school experiences of youth living in a traditional settlement community, Los Angeles. Despite their greater fears of discrimination, we find that Latino youth in North Carolina are more academically motivated than their peers in Los Angeles. This is partially because they are more likely to be immigrants. Being an immigrant, having a stronger sense of ethnic identification, and having a stronger sense of family obligation were each linked to a more positive view of school environments. Therefore, these factors each partially explained the immigrant advantage in academic motivation and helped to counter the harmful effects of discrimination on academic motivation. PMID:22611286
The purpose of this research is to develop a scale for measuring the level of academics' intellectual leadership, test the scale by examining the influence of their personal and institutional characteristics, and then investigate the relationship of academic intellectual leadership (AIL) to communication, climate, and managerial flexibility…
Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.
Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…
Gilman, Rich; Anderman, Eric M.
Using cluster analysis to combine specific adaptive measures related to mastery motivation (intrinsic motivation, self-adequacy, and locus of control), a total of 654 high school students were placed into distinct adaptive motivation groups. Mean scores on a variety of self-reported and peer-reported measures of interpersonal, intrapersonal, and…
Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Hayenga, Amynta O.
The present study was designed to investigate the nature, timing, and correlates of motivational change among a large sample (N = 1051) of third- through eighth-grade students. Analyses of within-year changes in students' motivational orientations revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations decreased from fall to spring, with declines…
Jungert, Tomas; Alm, Fredrik; Thornberg, Robert
Difficulties in attracting student teachers have resulted in research focusing on student teachers' motives for studying to join the profession. Because previous findings are mixed, the first aim of this study was to explore motives for students to become teachers. A second aim was to explore the relationship between teachers' motives and their…
Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.; Klusmann, Uta; Kunter, Mareike; Beyer, Beate; Trautwein, Ulrich; Baumert, Jurgen
Motivations for preservice teachers' choice of teaching as a career were investigated using the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale (FIT-Choice scale; Watt & Richardson, 2007). This scale was initially developed and validated in the Australian context; our study applied it across international samples from Australia, the United States,…
Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Boiche, Julie; Sarrazin, Philippe
Background: Although psychological disengagement is a well-documented phenomenon in the academic setting, the attempts to identify its predictors are scarce. In addition, existing research has mainly focused on chronic disengagement and less is known on the determinants of situational disengagement. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to…
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of an education-themed movie on the academic motivation of teacher candidates and their attitude towards teaching profession. The study was carried out in the fall term in 2014-2015 academic year with the participation of 89 teacher candidates (53 in experimental group and 36 for control group).…
The present study examined the mediational role of academic motivation in the association between school self-concept and school achievement among 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada and 363 Indian adolescents in India. Surveys were administered among Grades 9-12 students in Canada and India to assess their academic self-concepts, academic…
Rasmussen, Janet M.
As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…
Gray, DeLeon L.; Wichman, Aaron L.
We conducted an investigation into a determinant of academic motivation that has implications for how we respond to school violence and tragedy. We conducted two studies to examine whether exposure to messages related to the salience of one's own mortality cause people to align their own academic beliefs more closely with stereotypical beliefs…
Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.
This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…
Watts-Martinez, Evanda Shentelle
Self-determined Motivation, Emotional Intelligence, Persistence Attitudes, and Persistence Behaviors are non-cognitive factors that influence students' academic progression. This study examined the associations between Self-determined Motivation, EI, Persistence Attitudes, and Persistence Behaviors and the degree to which EI, as a mediating…
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica
This longitudinal study evaluated after-school program (ASP) participation and the development of academic performance (school grades, reading achievement) and teacher-rated motivational attributes (expectancy of success, effectance motivation) over a school year. Participants were 599 boys and girls (6.3 to 10.6 years) from an urban,…
This article reports on a new study which concludes that teachers entering the profession today have higher academic qualifications than their counterparts a decade ago. The report, released this week by the Educational Testing Service, says the finding bodes well for greater student learning because of the evidence that teachers' academic ability…
Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L
This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a Motivational Interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban low-income and minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of training in MI. Two, two-hour booster sessions plus five, two- hour weekly group supervision sessions were conducted with lay advisors over a period of seven months. One-hundred percent of lay advisors (n =17) participated in all training, booster sessions and assessments. Seventy-one percent of lay advisors (n=12) completed all group supervision sessions and submitted tapes for review. MI training was associated with increased knowledge of MI principles among lay service providers; increased proficiency in responding to simulated clients in an MI consistent style; increased use of MI adherent behaviors in sessions with real clients and maintenance of high motivation to use MI from pretest to posttest. Although lay advisors increased their knowledge of MI, further training is required for advisors to increase competence in delivering MI. Overall, Implications for using MI in the context of school-based settings is discussed.
Carpenter, Serena; Grant, August E.; Hoag, Anne
Scientific knowledge should reflect valid, consistent measurement. It is argued research on scale development needs to be more systematic and prevalent. The intent of this article is to address scale development by creating and validating a construct that measures the underlying reasons why undergraduate students seek a degree in journalism, the…
Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Catherine So-Kum
The French items of the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS) were first developed and validated by Chantal and colleagues in 1994. The scale then became one of the most widely used motivational scales in the gambling literature of the West. The present study recruited 932 Chinese university students in order to validate the Chinese version of the Gambling Motivation Scale (C-GMS). The results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the Chinese data supported the 7-factor model as proposed by Chantal et al. (Soc Leis 17:189-212, 1994). This study also found a second-order model with three major factors, which corresponded to three types of gambling motivation including self-determined motivation (for knowledge, for accomplishment, for stimulation, and due to identified regulation), non self-determined motivation (due to introjected regulation and external regulation), and amotivation. All subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, and showed significant correlations with gambling correlates such as problem gambling symptoms and gambling intention. In sum, the C-GMS showed adequate psychometric properties and can be extended for use with Chinese populations.
Introduction: Students are daily exposed to a variety of assessment tasks in the classroom. It has long been recognized that students' perceptions of the assessment tasks may influence student academic achievement. The present study aimed at predicting academic achievement in mathematics from perceptions of the assessment tasks after controlling…
Many researchers have investigated the appropriateness of pay for outperformance, (also called "merit-based pay" and "performance-based pay") for academics, but a review of this body of work shows that the voice of academics themselves is largely absent. This article is a contribution to addressing this gap, summarising the…
Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pumariega, Soledad; Alvarez, Luis; Roces, Cristina; Garcia, Marta
Used the structural equation model approach to test a model hypothesizing the influence of parental involvement on students' academic aptitudes, self-concept, and causal attributions, as well as the influence of these variables on academic achievement. Results for 261 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years suggest that cognitive-affective variables are…
Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Moll, R.; Kotlicki, A.; Bates, F.; Rieger, G.; Nashon, S.
Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE) have been used in the introductory physics course at the University of British Columbia for over two years. During the Fall of 2006 a systematic study was conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS), Force Concept Inventory (FCI), physics open-ended exam problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. FCI and CLASS were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Qualitative data on students’ attitudes was also collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. Preliminary results will be presented with conclusions about the impact of using ILE as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Wolf, Sharon; Godfrey, Erin B.
This study examined the role that Ghanaian caregivers' values toward education play in shaping students' intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for learning, and the ways these values and motivational orientations predict school attendance and achievement. Study participants included 88 students (M?=?11.63 years; 48% female) from two primary…
Baird, Timothy D.; Kniola, David J.; Lewis, Ashley L.; Fowler, Shelli B.
This article describes and analyzes a classroom assignment to promote intrinsic motivation for learning in college students. Here, grades and instructor expectations for content are viewed as students' primary motivations for learning, and correspondingly present obstacles for improved critical thinking skills, student autonomy, and engagement.…
Johnson, Sonya L.
The purpose of this study was to determine how and to what extent single gender science classes affect motivation to learn scientific concepts, interest in science, and college major intent among high school and middle school girls. This study was designed to determine whether students' motivation to learn science changes when they are placed in a…
Singh, Shashi; Singh, Ajay; Singh, Kiran
Higher education today is being viewed as a tool to achieve prosperity and high living standards. It is thus looked upon as a service to the society and a powerful weapon to change the society for its betterment. Motivation plays a crucial role in learning. Motivation energizes the behavior of the individual. It also directs the behavior towards…
Otis, Nancy; Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Pelletier, Luc G.
This research examined changes in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation during the transition from junior to senior high school as well as the impact of motivational changes on various educational consequences (i.e., dropout intentions, absenteeism, homework frequency, and educational aspirations). A total of 646 participants completed a…
Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.
This research examined whether various dimensions of parental involvement predicted 10th-grade students' motivation (engagement, self-efficacy towards maths and English, intrinsic motivation towards maths and English) using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS 2002). Results showed that both parents' educational aspiration for…
Eremicheva, Oksana Y.; Yudin, Vladimir V.; Sheptukhina, Inna I.; Zyryanova, Natalia I.; Shevchenko, Valery Y.; Komarova, Yuliya G.; Simonova, Marina V.
The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the society requirement to form and implement educational and creative potential of a student as a conductor of changes that set a high level of motivational behavior. The aim of this article is to develop a structural model of motivational behavior of students that allow carrying out modeling…
Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee
Chinese students are well-known for their academic excellence. However, studies that explore the underlying mechanism of how cultural factors relate to the motivational process and academic achievement of Chinese students have been limited. This study aimed to examine the role of filial piety in shaping Chinese students' theories of intelligence so as to obtain a clearer understanding of the process by which parent-child connectedness is linked to Chinese students' academic achievement. A sample of 312 university students in Hong Kong were assessed concerning their filial piety beliefs, theories of intelligence and academic achievement. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that different filial piety beliefs relate to students' academic achievement by shaping different theories of intelligence. Reciprocal filial piety beliefs were found to facilitate an incremental view of intelligence, which in turn contributes to students' academic achievement. Authoritarian filial piety beliefs were shown to be associated with an entity view of intelligence, which consequently deteriorates students' academic achievement. Cultural views of motivational processes can shed light on how motivational beliefs are developed as a product of cultural or socialization processes, which, in turn, contribute to students' academic success.
Thompson, Blair; Mazer, Joseph P.
Parent-teacher communication represents a primary form of parental support, a phenomenon meriting significant attention given the connections between support and academic achievement (Thompson, 2008b). A series of studies advance the Parental Academic Support Scale (PASS) to assess the frequency, importance, and modes parents use to communicate…
Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Simpson, Helen B; Herman, Daniel B; Stroup, T Scott; Skrobala, Anne M; Sederer, Lloyd I; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M
To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research.
Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William
Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…
Loera, Gustavo; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Oh, Youn Joo; Rueda, Robert
Drawing on social cognitive theory, this study examined the relationship between student and school-based factors (e.g., educational aspirations, quality of the program of study, and adults' impact on college enrollment) and students' academic engagement and satisfaction with student life in a career technical education (CTE) setting. This study…
Willems, Patricia P.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.
The opportunities school-community partnerships pose for students' learning continue to generate the attention of educational stakeholders. Children learn through a variety of social and educational contexts, and the goals for student academic success are best achieved through the cooperation and support of schools, families, and communities. The…
Harris, Jennifer L.; Al-Bataineh, Mohammed T.; Al-Bataineh, Adel
This research was a quantitative study using 4th grade participants from a Title 1 elementary school in Central Illinois. This study set out to determine whether one to one technology (1:1 will be used hereafter) truly impacts and effects the academic achievement of students. This study's second goal was to determine whether 1:1 Technology also…
Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia
The purpose of the study was to establish the reliability, the structural and the convergent validity of the “Dimensions of Academic Hardiness Questionnaire” for late elementary school children. A sample of children (N = 1264) aged 10-12 years completed the questionnaire and the “Athens Coping Scale”. Multiple fit indices provided support that the 9-factor model had a good fit to the data. Reliability coefficients ranged from .68 to .83. The study provided also preliminary evidence of convergent validity of the “Dimensions of Academic Hardiness” scores with one theoretically related measure, the “Athens Coping Scale”. The results enrich the notion of Academic Hardiness in late elementary school children as the role of awareness and the role of children’s previous experiences has been distinguished. The relation between the “Dimensions of Academic Hardiness” and achievement goal orientations in children learning is also noted. These findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature. PMID:27247692
Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul; Rudolph, Erin
The present study investigates links between early adolescents' subjective experiences of stress associated with the middle school transition and their academic outcomes. Seventh and eighth grade students (N?=?774) were surveyed about their experiences during their transition to middle school. Students answered questions about stress…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Rulison, Kelly L.
The present study examines the relative role of three distinct types of peer relationships (reciprocated friendships, frequent interactions, and shared group membership) in within-year changes in academic self-concept and engagement before and after the transition to middle school (fifth and seventh grade). In a series of linear regression…
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Harris, Julie Russ; Sloane, Phoebe
In a large urban district's ELA classrooms, an academic vocabulary intervention designed to improve linguistically diverse 6th-graders' reading and language skills was implemented and evaluated. These classrooms were characterized by high numbers of struggling readers, and linguistic diversity was the norm. As part of the evaluation, this study…
You, Chenjing; Dörnyei, Zoltán
This article reports on the findings of a large-scale cross-sectional survey of the motivational disposition of English language learners in secondary schools and universities in China. The total sample involved over 10,000 students and was stratified according to geographical region and teaching contexts, selecting participants both from urban…
McGee, Carl Dean
The purposes of this mixed method study were to examine the relationship between student motivation and performance on large-scale, low- and high-stakes examinations and identify the types of incentive programs used by principals to promote test performance among high school students. The study took take place in California's Southern San Joaquin…
Garst, William C.; Ried, L. Douglas
Evaluated the Education Participation Scale (EPS) in determining motivational orientations of nontraditional doctor of pharmacy students (n=17) compared to continuing education pharmacists (n=83). Nontraditional pharmacy students were significantly different from the continuing education pharmacists on the "professional advancement" and…
Bruni, Coral M.; Chance, Randie C.; Schultz, P. Wesley
The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report…
This study was conducted to determine whether or not a student's focus and motivation during a lesson is a contributor in their educational success rate. Six fifth grade students in an enrichment room from Cambria Elementary School, in Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, participated in the study that spanned through April to June of 2011. These students…
Spada, Marcantonio M.; Moneta, Giovanni B.
The objective of this study was to verify the structure of a model of how surface approach to studying is influenced by the trait variables of motivation and metacognition and the state variables of avoidance coping and evaluation anxiety. We extended the model to include: (1) the investigation of the relative contribution of the five…
Koukounas, Susan M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high student accountability and formative assessment affected student motivation, learning and resource management strategies, and achievement in developmental algebra I. The setting was a fifteen-week semester at a community college in suburban New York. Two sections of developmental algebra I…
Mucherah, Winnie; Herendeen, Abbey
This study examined primary school students' reading motivation and performance on the standardized exam. Participants included 901 seventh and eighth grade students from Kenya. There were 468 females and 433 males. Contrary to previous studies, results showed reading challenge and aesthetics, but not efficacy, predicted reading achievement,…
The aim of this study was to discover possible relationships between self-regulated learning dimensions and students' success in a distance-learning programme. The sample consisted of 319 students: 83 males and 236 females. They completed the "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia & McKeachie,…
Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, Chee Keng John; Kee, Ying Hwa; Koh, Caroline; Lim, Boon San Coral; Chua, Lilian
The development of effective self-regulated learning strategies is of interest to educationalists. In this paper, we examine inherent individual difference in self-regulated learning based on Motivated Learning for Learning Questionnaire (MLSQ) using the cluster analytic approach and examine cluster difference in terms of self-determination theory…
Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Stroet, Kim; Bosker, Roel
Research consistently shows that the learning environment plays an important role for early adolescents' learning and outcomes and suggests that good teacher-student relationships can serve as a protective factor for maintaining young adolescents' interest and active engagement in learning. However, less is known about the dynamic nature of teacher-student relationships and how they link with academic motivation development. Furthermore, little is known about the nature and the effects of teacher-student relationships in a cross-national context. The present study investigated changes in two components of teacher-student relationships (teachers' involvement vs. rejection) and examined links with students' academic motivation during the first grade of secondary school. Ten Dutch and ten Indonesian teachers (65 % female) from 24 classes were videoed 12 times across the school year, and four videos for each class were selected randomly and coded on teachers' involvement versus rejection. A total of 713 students (52 % girls) completed four-wave measures of their academic motivation after each video observation. Multilevel growth curve modeling revealed that the teacher's involvement changed in a curvilinear way and decreased across the first year of secondary education, while changes in the teacher's rejection did not follow a linear time function. Academic motivation changed in an undesirable way: controlled motivation increased, while autonomous motivation decreased over time. Teachers' involvement had a unique contribution in preventing high levels of controlled motivation in both countries. Findings suggest that teacher-student relationships (teachers' involvement) play an essential role in early adolescents' motivation regardless of the nations and should be a priority for schools.
Resnick, B; Zimmerman, S I; Magaziner, J; Adelman, A
Motivation plays an important part in an elderly individual's ability to recover from a disabling event. On the other hand, apathy is a lack of motivation. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is an 18-item instrument that rates a person's thoughts, actions, and emotions over the previous 4 weeks. The purpose of this study was to use the AES with 102 patients in a geriatric rehabilitation program to determine if it predicted improved function after rehabilitation. In addition, a short 7-item version of the AES was tested. A strong correlation was demonstrated between the 18-item AES and the 7-item AES, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. In separate regression analyses, we found that admission function and both the 18-item and 7-item AES were significant predictors of discharge function, and that functional level at admission to rehabilitation accounted for 31% of the variance in function after rehabilitation. The findings suggest that the AES might be an appropriate measure of motivation in older adults and might predict success in rehabilitation. Moreover, the ability to identify patients with low motivation can alert healthcare providers to develop interventions to improve older adults' motivation and help them attain and maintain their highest functional level.
The objective of this study is to develop a scale in order to determine the reasons why students delay academic tasks and the levels that they are affected from these reasons. The study group was composed of a total of 447 students from the faculty of education. The KMO value of this scale composed of 43 items collected under six factors was…
Mikkonen, Johanna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja
The aim of the present study was to explore the factors associated with veterinary students' study success. All veterinary students who began their studies at the University of Helsinki in 2005 participated in this qualitative longitudinal study (N=52). The data consisted of assignments that the students completed at the beginning of their studies and again after three years of studying. The focus was on differences in motivation and study practices as well as possible changes in these over the three-year period. The students were divided into three groups according to their study success (grade point average and study progress). These groups were compared according to group-level differences in the categorized data. The most successful students already described themselves using more positive words than other students at the beginning of their veterinary studies. In addition, they seemed more adaptive in relation to the study's demands. However, there were drops in both the most and least successful students' motivation during their studies. The findings suggest that it is possible to predict forthcoming study problems by analyzing students' study practices and their own descriptions of themselves as learners. In addition, the results show that veterinary students' high motivation cannot be taken for granted. The comparative and longitudinal perspective of the present study can be useful in the development of curricula and in student support.
Gareau, Alexandre; Gaudreau, Patrick
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i.e., implicit AM) and efficient executive functioning. A sample of 272 university students completed a questionnaire and a lexical decision task to assess their explicit and implicit AM, respectively, and they also completed working memory capacity measures. Grades were obtained at the end of the semester to examine the short-term prospective effect of implicit and explicit AM, working memory, and their interaction. Results of moderation analyses have provided support for a synergistic interaction in which the association between explicit AM and academic achievement was positive and significant only for individuals with high level of implicit AM. Moreover, working memory was moderating the synergistic effect of explicit and implicit AM. Explicit AM was positively associated with academic achievement for students with average-to-high levels of working memory capacity, but only if their motivation operated synergistically with high implicit AM. The integrative process thus seems to hold better proprieties for achievement than the sole effect of explicit AM. Implications for SDT are outlined.
Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; González, Víctor M
The Sport Motivation Scale was developed in French and later translated into English and validated by Pelletier, et al. in 1995. It is based on the principles of self-determination theory. In this study the scale was translated into Spanish to assess and validate it for a sample of 275 athletes (78 women and 197 men) whose mean age was 21.3 yr. (SD=3.8) and who represented eight sports (track and field, tennis, swimming, waterpolo, soccer, basketball, handball, and volleyball). The Spanish version showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach alpha of .70 to .80) and temporal stability (test-retest r = .69 to .74) over a 4-wk. period. A confirmatory factor analysis partially supported the seven-factor structure. Correlations among the subscales indicated a simplex pattern supporting the construct validity of the scale. Sex differences were found. Taken together, these findings support use of the Spanish version for assessment of motivation in sport.
Supriadi, Eddi; Yusof, Hj. Abdul Raheem Bin Mohamad
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership of the headmaster and the work discipline of teachers and the work motivation and the academic achievement of primary school students from Special Province of Central Jakarta. The research method will be done with quantitative research methods. The study uses data…
Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone
This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students' academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade (2003-2013). Results showed small but significant…
Carpenter, Serena; Hoag, Anne; Grant, August E.; Bowe, Brian J.
The newsroom is a powerful influence in a journalist's identity formation. Research has yet to verify the socializing impact of academia. This research utilized the quantitative survey method applying it to undergraduate journalism students (n = 798) to assess how academic status relates to students' degree motivations, life values, and technology…
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Vaz, Joao Machado
There is a growing need for the integration of various theoretical perspectives on academic performance, especially the theories on educational persistence, and motivational theories. Recent models of students' engagement with school incorporate different dimensions of students, family and school. However, some authors are arguing that academic…
Akomolafe, Comfort Olufunke; Adesua, Veronica Olubunmi
The paper examines the relevance of physical facilities in enhancing the level of motivation and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The population consists of all senior secondary students in South West Nigeria. The sample for the study include one thousand…
This study aimed to analyze the relationship between high school students' self-efficacy perceptions regarding biology, the metacognitive strategies they use in this course and their academic motivation for learn biology. The sample of the study included 286 high school students enrolled in three high schools who attended a biology course in Kars,…
Dupree, Jeffrey J.; Morote, Elsa Sofia
This study examines differences, if any, between gender, level of motivation, and students' classification (typical learners, academic intervention services learners, and gifted) in scores upon DBQ (document-based questions) among the sixth grade students. 64 grade students were given a DBQ as part of their final examination. Students' scores were…
Barrera, Douglas Stuart
While the literature on institutional civic engagement is quite extensive, the community perspective on such endeavors remains an under-developed area of study. This is particularly true of academic outreach programs meant to support the college preparation of underrepresented students. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations of…
Skinner, Ellen A.; Pitzer, Jennifer R.; Steele, Joel S.
How children and youth deal with academic challenges and setbacks can make a material difference to their learning and school success. Hence, it is important to investigate the factors that allow students to cope constructively. A process model focused on students' motivational resources was used to frame a study examining whether engagement in…
This study has been conducted to show that there is a recent trend in engineering colleges in India that students who are considered to be highly intelligent show poor academic performance during their 1st year. This article is proposed to examine the role of motivation factors such as teaching methods and learning material in the academic…
Effects of Relevance- and Confidence-Enhancing Motivational Strategies, Suggested Strategies, and Statements on Academic Performance and Course Satisfaction in Undergraduate Students of a Blended Public Speaking Course
The study was conducted to examine whether the components of Relevance and Confidence from the ARCS motivational model affect academic performance and course satisfaction differently. The participants were students of an online public speaking course at a southern U.S. public university. They were divided into three groups, Relevance, Confidence,…
Shanahan, Kevin J.; Hopkins, Christopher D.; Carlson, Les; Raymond, Mary Anne
Employing and testing shoplifting-based constructs, we develop and validate a new multifaceted cheating behavior scale that allows educators to segment cheating behavior into what students perceive as trivial versus serious cheating. Results confirm that shoplifting-based scales perform well as predictors of cheating and also suggest that from…
Stone, Thomas H; Kisamore, Jennifer L; Jawahar, I M
Interest and research on academic misconduct has become more salient in part due to recent publicized academic and organizational scandals. The current study investigated a possible interaction between perception of the university's academic culture and personality, conceptualized as Reliability, on students' perceptions of academic misconduct. A convenience sample of 217 university business students (91 men, 126 women), whose average age was 22.3 yr. (SD = 4.4) was tested. Reliability was measured with an occupational scale included in the Hogan Personality Inventory. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using Cheating Intentions and Likelihood of Reporting Cheating as criteria. Age, Reliability, Integrity Culture, and the interaction between scores on Reliability and Integrity Culture were entered as predictors. Only Age and Reliability scores were significant predictors of Cheating Intentions, while all variables were significant predictors for Likelihood of Reporting Cheating. Suggestions for practice and research are provided.
Pomazan, Valentina; Mihalaşcu, Doina; Petcu, Lucian C.; Gîrtu, Mihai A.
We report the results of the student responses to a survey aiming to determine the factors influencing the young generation in choosing a career in science and technology. The goal of the study is twofold: to identify the motives that determine students to enroll in university programs in science and technology and to engage in applied science and engineering careers and to discover the barriers that manifest at different age levels, preventing students from making such choices. The study was conducted at the Ovidius University and the "Energetic" Technical High School, both in Constanta, Romania, with samples of 257 and 106 students respectively, based on a 38 item online questionnaire. The samples selected from the student population allow for a wide range of analyses with respect to gender, family and educational background, field of study, etc. We discuss the role of the raw models, parents, educators, and we comment on ways to increase student enrollment in science and engineering.
Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John
Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731
Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Michael, William B
In the present study, the author replicated earlier research (Paik & Michael, 1999) seeking additional information on the reliability and construct validity of a Japanese academic self-concept scale, a 70-item questionnaire comprising 5 subscales (Aspiration, Anxiety, Academic Interest and Satisfaction, Leadership and Initiative, and Identification vs. Alienation). A sample of 196 Japanese high school students completed the scale. Internal consistency reliability for the 5 subscales ranged from .75 to .87. Confirmatory factor analyses performed on several alternative models showed that the a priori 5-factor model fit the observed data best-a finding consistent with the previous study. Results of Z tests revealed statistically significant score differences between genders and between high and low academic achievers.
Tops, Mattie; Quirin, Markus; Boksem, Maarten A S; Koole, Sander L
Several lines of research in animals and humans converge on the distinction between two basic large-scale brain networks of self-regulation, giving rise to predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS). Predictive (internally-driven) and reactive (externally-guided) control are supported by dorsal versus ventral corticolimbic systems, respectively. Based on extant empirical evidence, we demonstrate how the PARCS produce frontal laterality effects in emotion and motivation. In addition, we explain how this framework gives rise to individual differences in appraising and coping with challenges. PARCS theory integrates separate fields of research, such as research on the motivational correlates of affect, EEG frontal alpha power asymmetry and implicit affective priming effects on cardiovascular indicators of effort during cognitive task performance. Across these different paradigms, converging evidence points to a qualitative motivational division between, on the one hand, angry and happy emotions, and, on the other hand, sad and fearful emotions. PARCS suggests that those two pairs of emotions are associated with predictive and reactive control, respectively. PARCS theory may thus generate important new insights on the motivational and emotional dynamics that drive autonomic and homeostatic control processes.
Martin, Andrew J.
From a developmental construct validity perspective, this study examines motivation and engagement across elementary school, high school, and university/college, with particular focus on the Motivation and Engagement Scale (comprising adaptive, impeding/maladaptive, and maladaptive factors). Findings demonstrated developmental construct validity…
Wang, Kenneth T
An increasing number of perfectionism studies have been conducted across different countries outside of the Western framework. Using an international egalitarian approach that adopts indigenous frameworks and concepts from the cultural context of the population studied is imperative. This study examines different groups of perfectionists with a sample of 348 Taiwanese college students, emphasizing the collectivistic culture. In particular, this is a follow-up study to further explore characteristics of a group with low standards/high discrepancy--a feeling that they are not good enough despite having low standards--found in a previous study with Taiwanese students. More specifically, this study investigates whether the source of the high discrepancy scores among this group is related to having higher perfectionistic standards from their family. Perfectionism was examined not only from a personal/individualistic perspective, but also from a familistic dimension to reflect Taiwanese collectivistic cultural values. Results partially supported the hypotheses--this group reported having higher family discrepancy, but not family standards, than nonperfectionists. However, this group of participants reported lower academic grades, which implies the possibility of their discrepancy being associated with poorer performance. Four cluster groups--adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, nonperfectionists, and those with low standards/high discrepancy--were compared on their levels of depression, self-esteem, achievement motivation, and academic grades. Maladaptive perfectionists reported the highest depression level, while adaptive perfectionists reported the highest self-esteem. Results also show that aspects of personal perfectionism and family perfectionism related to self-esteem differently among this sample. Findings and implications are discussed with consideration of the collectivistic cultural context in Taiwan.
Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang
This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict.
Bates, Samantha; Ball, Annahita; Wilks, Scott
Objective: Psychometric details of the Parental Press for Academic Achievement and Postsecondary Planning Scale (PPS), developed by Chicago Consortium of Chicago School Research, are scarce. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the properties of this 7-item measure. Method: The study utilized cross-sectional, self-reported data from 100…
Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Aim: Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Method: Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males,…
Visher, Mary G.; Mayer, Alexander K.; Johns, Michael; Rudd, Timothy; Levine, Andrew; Rauner, Mary
Community college students often lack an academic plan to guide their choices of coursework to achieve their educational goals, in part because counseling departments typically lack the capacity to advise students at scale. This randomized controlled trial tests the impact of guaranteed access to one of two alternative counseling sessions (group…
Yen, Wendy M.; Lall, Venessa F.; Monfils, Lora
Alternatives to vertical scales are compared for measuring longitudinal academic growth and for producing school-level growth measures. The alternatives examined were empirical cross-grade regression, ordinary least squares and logistic regression, and multilevel models. The student data used for the comparisons were Arabic Grades 4 to 10 in…
The present study aims to determine the validity and reliability of the academic resilience scale in Turkish high school. The participances of the study includes 378 high school students in total (192 female and 186 male). A set of analyses were conducted in order to determine the validity and reliability of the study. Firstly, both exploratory…
Karama, Sherif; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Schwartz, George; Joober, Ridha
Background: To study the factor structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS), a psychometric tool used to assess behavior in children with ADHD, 117 boys and 21 girls meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") criteria for ADHD and aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited. Assessments were…
Resilience is a psychological construct observed in some individuals that accounts for success despite adversity. Resilience reflects the ability to bounce back, to beat the odds and is considered an asset in human characteristic terms. Academic resilience contextualizes the resilience construct and reflects an increased likelihood of educational success despite adversity. The paper provides an account of the development of a new multidimensional construct measure of academic resilience. The 30 item Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30) explores process-as opposed to outcome-aspects of resilience, providing a measure of academic resilience based on students' specific adaptive cognitive-affective and behavioral responses to academic adversity. Findings from the study involving a sample of undergraduate students (N = 532) demonstrate that the ARS-30 has good internal reliability and construct validity. It is suggested that a measure such as the ARS-30, which is based on adaptive responses, aligns more closely with the conceptualisation of resilience and provides a valid construct measure of academic resilience relevant for research and practice in university student populations.
Resilience is a psychological construct observed in some individuals that accounts for success despite adversity. Resilience reflects the ability to bounce back, to beat the odds and is considered an asset in human characteristic terms. Academic resilience contextualizes the resilience construct and reflects an increased likelihood of educational success despite adversity. The paper provides an account of the development of a new multidimensional construct measure of academic resilience. The 30 item Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30) explores process—as opposed to outcome—aspects of resilience, providing a measure of academic resilience based on students’ specific adaptive cognitive-affective and behavioral responses to academic adversity. Findings from the study involving a sample of undergraduate students (N = 532) demonstrate that the ARS-30 has good internal reliability and construct validity. It is suggested that a measure such as the ARS-30, which is based on adaptive responses, aligns more closely with the conceptualisation of resilience and provides a valid construct measure of academic resilience relevant for research and practice in university student populations. PMID:27917137
Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J. Arturo
The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key Points Physical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported. Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish. Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772
Martín-Albo, José; Núñez, Juan L; Navarro, José G
The purpose of the present research was to translate into Spanish and analyze the psychometricA properties of the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). The participants were 373 undergraduate students (126 males and 247 females). Factor validity was tested via confirmatory factor analysis. Based on factor loadings and modification indexes, the SIMS was reduced to a 14-item model. This respecification showed adequate internal consistency and construct validity. The multistep analysis of invariance revealed that the factor structure of the SIMS is invariant across gender. Likewise, MANOVA revealed that amotivation was the only significant variable across gender. Predictive validity was assessed through path analysis. The results support the preliminary use of the Spanish version of the SIMS for the assessment of situational motivation in education.
Oriol, Xavier; Amutio, Alberto; Mendoza, Michelle; Da Costa, Silvia; Miranda, Rafael
Objective: Emotional creativity (EC) implies experiencing a complex emotional life, which is becoming increasingly necessary in societies that demand innovation and constant changes. This research studies the relation of EC as a dispositional trait with intrinsic motivation (IM) and academic engagement (AE). Methods: A sample of 428 university Chilean students, 36.5% men and 63.5% women, with ages from 18 to 45 years-old (M = 20.37; DT = 2.71). Additionally, the mediating function of class-related positive emotions in this relation is explored. Results: The obtained data indicate that developing high levels of dispositional EC enhances the activation of positive emotions, such as gratitude, love and hope, in the classroom. Furthermore, EC predicts IM and AE of university students by the experience of positive emotions. Conclusion: These results compel us to be aware of the importance that university students can understand the complexity of the emotional processes they undergo. A greater control of these emotions would allow students to maintain higher levels of interest in their studies at the different educational stages and to avoid the risk of school failure. PMID:27610091
Matthews, Jamaal S; Banerjee, Meeta; Lauermann, Fani
Identity is often studied as a motivational construct within research on adolescent development and education. However, differential dimensions of identity, as a set of internal values versus external perceptions of social belonging, may relate to motivation in distinct ways. Utilizing a sample of 600 African American and Latino adolescents (43% female; mean age = 13.9), the present study examines whether self-regulated learning (SRL) mediates two distinct dimensions of academic identity (i.e., value and belonging) and mastery orientation. This study also examines whether self-efficacy moderates the mediating role of SRL between identity and mastery. Results show evidence for moderated mediation between SRL and academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning played its strongest mediating role between belonging and mastery and for low-efficacy students specifically.
Williams, Angela W.
This study involved examination of the processes employed in tailoring fourth-grade reading instruction to increase levels of student motivation. A participatory action research approach was utilized to design and conduct reading instruction that fourth-grade students perceived to be motivating. The reading instructional program was designed using…
Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W.; McInerney, Dennis
The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation…
Mahoney, Michelle L.
Student-athletes' academic and athletic roles both require commitment, time, energy, and effort. Managing and balancing these multiple roles not only impacts student-athletes' use of time, but also their overall college experience. The purpose of this study was to explore how collegiate student-athletes perceive their academic and athletic roles.…
Ng, Chi-hung Clarence
Academic self-schemas are important cognitive frames capable of guiding students' learning engagement. Using a cohort of Year 10 Australian students, this longitudinal study examined the self-congruence engagement hypothesis which maintains that there is a close relationship among academic self-schemas, achievement goals, learning approaches,…
Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E; Burgess, Emilee E
Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills.
Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…
Engqvist, Jonas; Wallin, Mathias; Ristinmaa, Matti; Hall, Stephen A.; Plivelic, Tomás S.
Novel experimental data, obtained recently using advanced multi-scale experiments, have been used to develop a micro-mechanically motivated constitutive model for amorphous glassy polymers. Taking advantage of the experiments, the model makes use of a microstructural deformation gradient to incorporate the experimentally obtained deformation of the microstructure, as well as its evolving orientation. By comparing results from the model to experimental data, it is shown that the proposed approach is able to accurately predict glassy polymer deformation over a wide range of length-scales, from the macroscopic response (mm range) down to the deformation of the microstructure (nm range). The proposed model is evaluated by comparing the numerical response to experimental results on multiple scales from an inhomogeneous cold drawing experiment of glassy polycarbonate. Besides the macroscopic force-displacement response, a qualitative comparison of the deformation field at the surface of the specimen is performed. Furthermore, the predicted evolution of the fabric orientation is compared to experimental results obtained from X-ray scattering experiments. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of length scales.
Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E.
The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the…
Norozi, Ensiyeh; Miri, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Harivandi, Ali Reza; Dastjerdi, Reza
Background Treatment motivation has always been an important issue in substance abuse treatment. In recent decades, several instruments have been developed to measure this concept. Objectives In this study, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the circumstances, motivation and readiness scale (CMR) are illustrated in a sample of Iranian addicts. Materials and Methods The translation process followed Beaton et al.’s (2000) guideline for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered questionnaires, including the steps of translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The final version of the Persian CMR was assessed for internal consistency and construct validity (n = 203). Results There was one eliminated item in the cross-cultural adaptation process. Also, four items that had low correlation with the total score were excluded from the questionnaire during the initial analysis. Using the remaining items, Principle axis factoring with Promax rotation was performed and three factors, circumstance, motivation, and readiness, were identified. The secondary order three factor model provided a good statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal consistency met the criterion for a reliable measure (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.840). The α range for these identified factors was 0.597 to 0.837. Conclusions Although the CMR was originally designed for use in TC treatment, this study suggests that it is also applicable, with some modifications, in short-term residential camps. Also, it is concluded that the Persian translation of the CMR can be applied for studies among Persian addicts. PMID:27622165
Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility
Pisarik, Christopher T.
This study examined the relationships among motivational orientations based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000b) and burnout among undergraduate college students. A sample of 191 university students was administered the "Academic Motivation Scale" (Vallerand et al., 1992) and the "Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student…
Soyez, Veerle; De Leon, George; Rosseel, Yves; Broekaert, Eric
There is empirical evidence that treatment motivation and readiness are closely linked to retention. Several instruments have been developed to measure these concepts; such instruments can reliably assess the stages of motivation and readiness, and predict treatment retention and outcome. However, limited efforts have been undertaken in Europe to translate those instruments and to determine their reliability and validity. In this study, the psychometric properties of a Dutch translation of the Circumstances, Motivation, Readiness, and Suitability (CMRS) scales by De Leon and Jainchill and the shortened CMR Intake Version are illustrated in a Flemish sample of therapeutic community residents (n = 207). Exploratory factor analyses confirm three CMR subscales, although confirmatory factor analysis reveals only a moderate fit for both the CMRS and the CMR. In contrast, the predictive power of the instrument is strong, specifically for 1-year retention. Significant correlations were found between CMRS measures and age, drug severity, legal referral, and social problems. It is concluded that the Dutch translation of the CMRS and the CMR can be employed as a valid indicator of treatment motivation and readiness, although additional research concerning factorial structures is needed.
Struck by his students' often hostile and apathetic responses to assignments and instruction and hoping to contribute to the knowledge of motivation, Dan LaSalle began to take an inquiry stance on his own practice. He studied his practice on three fronts with the help of an off-site teacher research group: (1) how his inquiry question changes as a…
Background Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people’s health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors’ communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. Methods/Design The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. –Scope: Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change
Williamson, G. L.
Individual growth curves yield insights about growth that are not available from any other methodology; and, developmental scales based on conjoint measurement models provide unique interpretive advantages for investigations of academic growth. Benefits are demonstrated in three examples. First, a series of fifteen statewide reading growth curves is annotated with historical policy actions related to assessment, accountability and early interventions. Second, a common measurement framework simultaneously addresses five interpretive perspectives—student reading growth; achievement level standards; K-12 text complexity standards; postsecondary reading demands; and, occupational reading demands. Third, incremental velocity norms are introduced for average reading growth based on a parametric mathematical model for individual growth curves.
Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D
A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called "game addiction"). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.
Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.
A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called “game addiction”). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use. PMID:24058355
Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong
Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…
Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Behzadi, Somayeh; Sabouri, Farhad; Alavi, Mousa
Background: Motivation to academic achievement is critical for students of medical sciences, particularly nursing students. It is directly related to high levels of achievement and quality of life. Accordingly, diminished motivation would result in academic decline, study and work desertion and exhaustion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioural intervention on the motivation for academic achievement of the nursing students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 64 female nursing students who were recruited to study based on the inclusion criteria. After sampling, the subjects were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Then, cognitive behavioural intervention was administered in study group during 60 days. Academic motivation scale was filled before, after and one month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests (Chi-square, t-test). Results: After the intervention, mean scores of academic motivation were significantly increased in study group, compared to control group (P < 0.001). Comparison of the mean scores of academic motivation in two groups revealed a significant increase in mean score of academic motivation 151.50 (20.22) after cognitive behavioural intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings suggested that cognitive behavioural intervention was a valuable psychotherapy technique to improve academic achievement motivation among nursing students. PMID:27095983
Busse, R. T.; Lee, Charlene
Many students who underachieve in schools may not be learning as effectively as they could. Direct assessments such as the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES), School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI), and the Academic Task Attack Checklist System (ATACS) can be used to evaluate students' knowledge and use of…
Plenty, Stephanie; Heubeck, Bernd G.
Most traditional models of academic motivation focus on a small number of specific factors. However, the Student Motivation and Engagement Scale (MES) (Martin, 2007b) includes a fairly comprehensive range of perspectives on general student motivation. The current study set out (a) to provide an independent test of the proposed 11-factor structure…
This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…
de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M.; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore
The Theory of Self- vs. Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes. PMID:28280473
McCammon, William Gavin Lodge, Jr.
Teachers should have access to new and innovative tools in order to engage and motivate their students in the classroom. This is especially important as many students view school as an antiquated and dull environment - which they must seemingly suffer through to advance. School need not be a dreaded environment. The use of music as a tool for learning can be employed by any teacher to create an engaging and exciting atmosphere where students actively participate and learn to value their classroom experience. Through this study, a product and process was developed that is now available for any 8th grade science teacher interested in using music to enhance their content. In this study 8th grade students (n=41) in a public school classroom actively interacted with modern songs created to enhance the teaching of chemistry. Data were collected and analyzed in order to determine the effects that the music treatment had on student achievement and motivation, compared to a control group (n=35). Current literature provides a foundation for the benefits for music listening and training, but academic research in the area of using music as a tool for teaching content was noticeably absent. This study identifies a new area of research called "Music-based Teaching" which results in increases in motivation for 8th grade students learning chemistry. The unintended results of the study are additionally significant as the teacher conducting the treatment experienced newfound enthusiasm, passion, and excitement for her profession.
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Mulder, Shambra; Hughes, Travonia; Stevens-Morgan, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya
The current study examined the association between home-school dissonance and academic cheating among 344 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Analyses revealed that home-school…
Ellis, Keyana Chamere
The Virginia Tech Summer Academy (VTSA) Program, developed by through a collaborative partnership between faculty, administrators and staff concerned by attrition among first year students, was introduced in summer 2012 as a campus initiative to assist first-year college students transition and acclimate to the academic and social systems of the…
Filippatou, Diamanto; Kaldi, Stavroula
This study focuses upon the effectiveness of project-based learning on primary school pupils with learning difficulties regarding their academic performance and attitudes towards self efficacy, task value, group work and teaching methods applied. The present study is a part of a larger one that included six Greek fourth-grade primary school…
Gibson, Barbara A.; Bruno, Barbara C.
Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs have been shown to be effective mechanisms to recruit undergraduate students into the sciences and also to retain them, especially as related to underrepresented students. Academic-year REU programs have numerous benefits, including participation in longer-term research projects that allow…
Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.
Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…
Very little research has been conducted into teaching advanced learners of German as a foreign language (GFL), and the few publications that exist describe such learners as very heterogeneous in respect of their learning needs, motivations, prior knowledge and expectations. Not surprisingly, didactic suggestions for teaching GFL at an advanced…
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry,…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
There is little question that the fundamental purpose of education--what the ancient Greeks referred to as the "telos"--is to promote student learning. For decades, both experts and the general public have agreed that any effort to improve the education system must focus squarely on optimizing student learning, motivating students to achieve, and…
Salimi, Asghar; Larsari, Vahid Nowrozi
Nowadays, the function of language teaching and testing has been paid much attention by researchers. There is an overall notion in the literature that motivation, as driving force, is one of the likely learners' traits. The aim of this study was to examine the comparative impact of self-assessment and teacher-assessment on learners' academic…
Leana-Tascilar, Marilena Z.
The Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) focuses on person-environment interactions instead of on the personality traits associated with actions. Motivation is a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic forces that are fundamental to the production of actions. Therefore, the resources provided by the environment or person are important for the…
Ozdemir, Muzaffer; Izmirli, Serkan; Sahin-Izmirli, Ozden
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of captioned vs. non-captioned instructional videos on the motivation and achievement. To this end, a pre-test and post-test experimental design was used on 109 sophomores from a Turkish state university. Videos with and without captions of the unit in question were prepared by the…
Burlison, Jonathan D.; Murphy, Chanda S.; Dwyer, William O.
All 15 subscales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1993) were administered to 352 undergraduate students taking Introductory Psychology. Their scores were evaluated with respect to incremental validity (in addition to ACT scores) they provided for predicting course grades. Results…
Yang, C.; Chang, Y. -S.
Blogs have been increasingly used to supplement traditional classroom lectures in higher education. This paper explores the use of blogs, and how student attitudes towards online peer interaction and peer learning, as well as motivation to learn from peers, may differ when using the blog comments feature, and when students are encouraged to read…
Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto
The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university.
This study assessed the relation between school-social motivation and student academic achievement. A factor analysis was performed on a set of school-social items selected a priori from three measures of school motivation: the Inventory of School Motivation, the General Achievement Goals Orientation Scale, and the Facilitating Conditions Scale. Three factors with fewer items represented Global Motivation, Peer Help, and Social Power. Hierarchical regression analysis showed social motivation measures were weak predictors of achievement scores in the various content areas. Findings are discussed in the context of Qatari education and culture.
Gribbons, Barry C.; And Others
A study involving 174 at-risk undergraduate students provided evidence of the construct validity of 5 factors corresponding to scales of the Dimensions of Self-Concept measure. Evidence was obtained for a higher order general academic self-concept, but the anxiety factor was not related to this higher order factor. (SLD)
Huang, Chiungjung; Michael, William B.
Examined the construct validity of scores on a Chinese version of an academic self-concept measure, Dimensions of Self-Concept (W. Michael and R. Smith, 1976), using Composite Direct Product models. Results for 769 junior high school students in China reveal concerns about the discriminate validity of scores on three trait scales. (SLD)
Yu, Chong Ho
Many American authors expressed their concern that US competitiveness in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is losing ground. Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data, this study investigated how academic self-concept and instrumental motivation influence science test performance among…
Validation Evidence for the Elementary School Version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (Pruebas de validación para el Modelo MUSIC® de Inventario de Motivación Educativa para Escuela Primaria)
Jones, Brett D.; Sigmon, Miranda L.
Introduction: The purpose of our study was to assess whether the Elementary School version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory was valid for use with elementary students in classrooms with regular classroom teachers and student teachers enrolled in a university teacher preparation program. Method: The participants included 535…
Francois, Emmanuel Jean
Faculty members are instrumental in internationalising the curriculum in a higher education institution. Their favourable or unfavourable orientation toward global education initiatives might significantly affect their engagement in internationalising the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to develop the Motivation for Internationalizing…
Shapiro, Edward S; Gebhardt, Sarah; Flatley, Katie; Guard, Kirra B; Fu, Qiong; Leichman, Erin S; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Hojnoski, Robin
The development and psychometric qualities of a measure using teacher judgment to rate performance in reading comprehension for narrative text is described-the Rating Scales for Academic Skills-Reading Comprehension Narrative (RSAS-RCN). Sixty-five teachers from the third, fourth, and fifth grades of 8 elementary schools completed the measure on 177 students. Each teacher rated students who had been identified through school-based universal screening to be below the 25th percentile, between the 25th and 74th percentile, and at or above the 75th percentile on national normative standards. Results indicated the RSAS-RCN has strong to moderate evidence of (a) 1-week test-retest reliability, (b) concurrent validity with the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) and end of year state assessment in reading, and (c) significant classification accuracy across student ability levels. Principal component analysis and item response theory (Rasch modeling) indicate the RSAS-RCN is comprised of a single general dimension. Overall, this examination of the RSAS-RCN suggests teacher judgment may be a potentially valuable tool in assessing reading comprehension among upper elementary school students. (PsycINFO Database Record
Volkova, Svitlana; Han, Kyungsik; Corley, Courtney D.
Student resilience and emotional well-being are essential for both academic and social development. Earlier studies on tracking students' happiness in academia showed that many of them struggle with mental health issues. For example, a 2015 study at the University of California Berkeley found that 47% of graduate students suffer from depression, following a 2005 study that showed 10% had considered suicide. This is the first large-scale study that uses signals from social media to evaluate students' emotional well-being in academia. This work presents fine-grained emotion and opinion analysis of 79,329 tweets produced by students from 44 universities. The goal of this study is to qualitatively evaluate and compare emotions and sentiments emanating from students' communications across different academic discourse types and across universities in the U.S. We first build novel predictive models to categorize academic discourse types generated by students into personal, social, and general categories. We then apply emotion and sentiment classification models to annotate each tweet with six Ekman's emotions -- joy, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, and surprise and three opinion types -- positive, negative, and neutral. We found that emotions and opinions expressed by students vary across discourse types and universities, and correlate with survey-based data on student satisfaction, happiness and stress. Moreover, our results provide novel insights on how students use social media to share academic information, emotions, and opinions that would pertain to students academic performance and emotional well-being.
Donaldson, Krista M.; Chen, Helen L.; Toye, George; Clark, Mia; Sheppard, Sheri D.
The Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey (APPLES) was deployed for a second time in spring 2008 to undergraduate engineering students at 21 US universities. The goal of the second deployment of APPLES was to corroborate and extend findings from the Academic Pathways Study (APS; 2003-2007) and the first deployment of APPLES…
Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.
Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373
Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.
Data from 1,142 adult students confirmed the seven-factor typology of the Educational Participation Scale. Reliability of scales was acceptable. Construct validity was tested by predicting membership in three curricular groups: arts/leisure, personal development, and professional development. Results revealed distinctive characteristics and…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Fefer, Sarah A.; Ferron, John
Successful coping with academic demands is important given the inverse relationship between stress and positive adjustment in adolescents. The Coping With Academic Demands Scale (CADS) is a new measure of coping appropriate for students pursuing advanced high school curricula, specifically Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the International…
Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E
The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the validity and reliability of using the Stanford for this special student population still require extensive scrutiny. Recent shifts in educational policy environment, which require that schools enable all children to achieve proficiency through accountability testing, warrants a close examination of the adequacy and relevance of the current large-scale testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. This study has three objectives: (a) it will summarize the historical data over the last three decades to indicate trends in academic achievement for this special population, (b) it will analyze the current federal laws and regulations related to educational testing and special education, thereby identifying gaps between policy and practice in the field, especially identifying the limitations of current testing programs in assessing what deaf and hard-of-hearing students know, and (c) it will offer some insights and suggestions for future testing programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
MANY OF THE 150 ITEMS FORMING THE PACE COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT SCALES (CUES), AN INSTRUMENT FOR ASSESSING COLLEGE STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT, FALL WITHIN THE CATEGORY OF HIGH RESPONSE VARIABILITY (50 PERCENT TRUE AND 50 PERCENT FALSE RESPONSES). THE AUTHOR HYPOTHESIZED THAT THIS VARIABILITY IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO CERTAIN…
Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle
The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…
Chemolli, Emanuela; Gagné, Marylène
Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation in which the different regulations are said to fall along a continuum of self-determination. The continuum has been used as a basis for using a relative autonomy index as a means to create motivational scores. Rasch analysis was used to verify the continuum structure of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and of the Academic Motivation Scale. We discuss the concept of continuum against SDT's conceptualization of motivation and argue against the use of the relative autonomy index on the grounds that evidence for a continuum structure underlying the regulations is weak and because the index is statistically problematic. We suggest exploiting the full richness of SDT's multidimensional conceptualization of motivation through the use of alternative scoring methods when investigating motivational dynamics across life domains.
van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle
Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…
Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter
The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Amorose, Anthony; Iachini, Aidyn; Ball, Annahita
Objectives: This article describes two studies related to the development of the Perceived School Experiences Scale (PSES). The PSES may be used by social workers to assess youths' perceptions of three school-related protective factors, including school connectedness, academic press, and academic motivation. Method: In Study 1, exploratory and…
Lian, Penghu; Sun, Yunfeng; Ji, Zhigang; Li, Hanzhong; Peng, Jiaxi
Background Academic burnout refers to students who have low interest, lack of motivation, and tiredness in studying. Studies concerning how to prevent academic burnout are rare. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the impact of core self-evaluations on the academic burnout of university students, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of life satisfaction. Methods A total of 470 university students accomplished the core self-evaluation scale, Satisfaction with Life, and academic burnout scale. Results Both core self-evaluations and life satisfaction were significantly correlated with academic burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that life satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between core self-evaluations and academic burnout. Conclusions Core self-evaluations significantly influence academic burnout and are partially mediated by life satisfaction. PMID:24489857
Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Michael, William B.
The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and construct validity of scores on the Japanese version of an academic self-concept scale titled the Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC) Form H and ascertain any relationships between scores on the DOSC scale and selected demographic variables, including class, gender, and…
Akbulut, Yavuz; Sendag, Serkan; Birinci, Gurkay; Kilicer, Kerem; Sahin, Mehmet C.; Odabasi, Hatice F.
Internet contributes to the development of science and facilitates scientific demeanors while it also serves as a ground for academic misdemeanors. Recent studies indicate that Internet facilitates and spreads academic dishonesty. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the extent of involvement of Turkish university students in…
Martin, Andrew J.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the domain specificity (or otherwise) of motivation and engagement across academic, sport, and music domains using a survey-based methodology with parallel forms of the Motivation and Engagement Scale. The secondary purpose of the study was a methodological one seeking to test the most appropriate…
Johnson, Ruth; Stewart, Cindy; Bachman, Christine
Although online student enrollment has shown double digit growth for almost a decade and academic leaders recognize that online education is necessary for enrollment growth, little is known about what motivates students to enroll in or faculty to teach face-to-face (F2F) versus online courses. The psychometric properties of a motivation scale were…
The call for standards-based reform and educational accountability has led to increased attention to large-scale assessments. Over the past two decades, large-scale assessments have been providing policymakers and educators with timely information about student learning and achievement to facilitate their decisions regarding schools, teachers and…
Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.
The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…
Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve
Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)
Thompson, Jolinda L; Obrig, Kathe S; Abate, Laura E
Funds made available at the close of the 2010-11 fiscal year allowed purchase of the EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) for a year-long trial. The appeal of this web-scale discovery product that offers a Google-like interface to library resources was counter-balanced by concerns about quality of search results in an academic health science setting and the challenge of configuring an interface that serves the needs of a diverse group of library users. After initial configuration, usability testing with library users revealed the need for further work before general release. Of greatest concern were continuing issues with the relevance of items retrieved, appropriateness of system-supplied facet terms, and user difficulties with navigating the interface. EBSCO has worked with the library to better understand and identify problems and solutions. External roll-out to users occurred in June 2012.
Ghanbar, Batoul; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad
Along with a more humanitarian movement in language testing, accountability to contextual variables in the design and development of any assessment enterprise is emphasized. However, when it comes to writing assessment, it is found that multiplicity of rating scales developed to fit diverse contexts is mainly headed by well-known native testing…
This study, in which a descriptive scanning model is used, aims to determine the effects of motivational sources on teachers' motivation levels. The population sample for this study consists of teachers working in the Elazig city center in 2006-2007 academic year. A sample of 225 teachers was randomly selected from this population. Data obtained…
A case study of an autistic child (now a successfully employed graduate student and author of the article) whose parents and teachers capitalized on her fixations and compulsions by using them in learning activities illustrates how the needs of drive of autistic children can be redirected to motivate successful academic achievement. (CB)
Koth, Laurie J.
This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…
Vorholt, Julie; Harris, Erica
This article describes a three-week project-based unit on entrepreneurship conducted with students in communications classes in an Academic English context. A detailed road map of the project is given, starting with an introduction and ending with final presentations and poster sessions. Students were motivated by their own interests in business…
Yukhymenko, Mariya A.
This study explored patterns of the ethical conduct of collegiate students in academic and athletic domains employing social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997) using non-experimental, comparative and correlational designs. The study explored response patterns on anonymous surveys between varsity (N = 1151) and non-varsity (N = 227)…
Washington, Brad Demetrius
There is limited research addressing how graduate students from the People's Republic of China (PRC) are supported academically or socially while studying in the United States of America (U.S.). The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by utilizing a participatory action research model in order to collaborate with…
Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…
Abdul Cader, Akram
Researchers have suggested that faculty motivation influences profitability of academic programs. The problem researched in this mixed method study was the motivational factors that reduce faculty member effectiveness in improving the profitability of their universities' academic programs. Based on Maslow's theory of needs, the purpose of the…
Paige, David D.
Reading ability and motivation among adolescents across the country continues to be problematic, as only slightly more than one-third read at a proficient level (Grigg, Donahue, & Dion, 2007; Unrau & Schlackman, 2006). Hidi and Renninger (2006) have proposed a four-phase model of situational interest that suggests how activities involving…
Carpenter, Julia Kathryn
Virtual K-12 schools are growing rapidly in the U.S., providing students the opportunity to learn at their own pace. Lack of motivation has been cited as a major cause of failure to succeed by distance education students (Kim & Keller, 2008; Moore & Kearsley, 1996). To address this issue, distance educators need to identify what specific…
Berger, Roland; Hanze, Martin
Twelfth-grade physics classes with 344 students participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing two small-group learning settings. In the jigsaw classroom, in contrast to the cyclical rotation method, teaching expectancy as well as resource interdependence is established. The study is based on the self-determination theory of motivation,…
Zappe, Stephen M.; Sonak, Brian C.; Hunter, Maxwell W.; Suen, Hoi K.
Information feedback is widely believed to play an important role in cognitive processes such as monitoring and self-regulation. It has been linked to enhanced motivation and increased performance. Assisted by feedback, students confirm or change knowledge and modify cognitive processes for better performance. This study investigated self-selected…
Schaffner, Ellen; Philipp, Maik; Schiefele, Ulrich
Previous research has demonstrated positive relations between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence. However, the causal direction of these relations and the moderating role of relevant background variables (e.g., students' achievement level) are not well understood. In the present study, a cross-lagged panel model was applied to…
Gaudreau, Patrick; Franche, Véronique; Gareau, Alexandre
The 2 × 2 model of perfectionism conceptualizes perfectionism as the within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism to define four subtypes of perfectionism. This model posits that each subtype is distinctively associated with self-determined motivation and psychological adjustment. Results of latent moderated…
Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; McClain, Shannon; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren A.; Hong, KyongJoo
In this mixed-methods study, we used an explanatory sequential design to investigate the processes through which parental involvement influences adolescents' achievement motivation. One hundred twenty low-income urban parents and their sixth-grade adolescents completed questionnaires, and a subsample of 11 mothers and 11 adolescents were…