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Sample records for academic outcomes results

  1. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  2. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  3. Cognitive and academic outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) results.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, L G; Neighbors, K; Martz, K; Zelko, F; Bucuvalas, J C; Alonso, E M

    2011-02-01

    This multicenter study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). One hundred and forty-four patients ages 5-7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7 ± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7 ± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1 ± 15.4; p < 0001). Twenty-six percent of patients (14% expected) had 'mild to moderate' IQ delays (Full Scale IQ = 71-85) and 4% (2% expected) had 'serious' delays (Full Scale IQ ≤ 70; p < 0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC statistics (p < 0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p < 0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  4. Undergraduate Time Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from the University of California Undergraduate Experiences Survey 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven; Cantwell, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Previous research has established the significance of academic study time on undergraduate students' academic performance. The effects of other uses of time are, however, in dispute. Some researchers have argued that students involved in activities that require initiative and effort also perform better in class, while students…

  5. Institutional Research and Academic Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    The theme of the 8th Annual Forum on Institutional Research was "Institutional Research and Academic Outcomes"--intended as a continuation of the 1966 Forum discussion dealing with academic inputs and the 1967 Forum on the instructional process. After an address by the Associations's president in which he urged his academic colleagues to…

  6. Three-Year Longitudinal Study of School Behavior and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Comprehensive Expanded School Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Brian P.; Sander, Mark A.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Vanden Berk, Eric; Johnson, James

    2014-01-01

    While there has been encouraging growth in the number of expanded school mental health programs (ESMH) across the country, few programs rigorously evaluate long-term academic outcomes associated with receipt of these services. This study examined the effects of services from an ESMH program on school behavior (number of out-of-school suspensions…

  7. The Impact of Children's Social Adjustment on Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Derosier, Melissa E; Lloyd, Stacey W

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether social adjustment added to the prediction of academic outcomes above and beyond prior academic functioning. School records and peer-, teacher-, and self-report measures were collected for 1,255 third grade children in the fall and spring of the school year. Social acceptance by and aggression with peers were included as measures of social adjustment. Academic outcomes included math and reading GPA, classroom behavior, academic self-esteem, and absenteeism. As expected, support for the causal model was found where both forms of social adjustment contributed independently to the prediction of each area of academic adjustment. Gender differences in the patterns of results were present, particularly for the impact of aggression on academic adjustment. Discussion focuses on the implications for social-emotional literacy programs to prevent negative academic outcomes.

  8. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  9. Academic Outcomes for Children Born Preterm: A Summary and Call for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; Dempsey, Allison; Llorens, Ashlie

    2011-01-01

    The developmental outcomes for children born preterm have been examined by many, with results unequivocally indicating that children born preterm tend to have poorer cognitive outcomes and more developmental difficulties. Less attention has been paid to academic outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the academic skills assessment of…

  10. Academic Season Does Not Influence Cardiac Surgical Outcomes at United States Academic Medical Centers

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Mery, Carlos M.; Stukenborg, George J.; Lau, Christine L.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of academic season on outcomes in select surgical populations. However, the influence of academic season has not been evaluated nationwide in cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that cardiac surgical outcomes were not significantly influenced by time of year at both cardiothoracic teaching hospitals (TH) and non-cardiothoracic teaching hospitals (NTH) nationwide. Methods From 2003–2007, a weighted 1,614,394 cardiac operations were evaluated using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Patients undergoing cardiac operations at TH and NTH were identified using the Association of American Medical College’s Graduate Medical Education Tracking System. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to estimate the effect of academic quarter on risk-adjusted outcomes. Results Mean patient age was 65.9±10.9 years. Females accounted for 32.8% of patients. Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting was the most common operation performed (64.7%) followed by isolated valve replacement (19.3%). The overall incidence of operative mortality and composite postoperative complication rate was 2.9% and 27.9%, respectively. After accounting for potentially confounding risk factors, timing of operation by academic quarter did not independently increase risk-adjusted mortality (p=0.12) or morbidity (p=0.24) at academic medical centers. Conclusions Risk-adjusted mortality and morbidity for cardiac operations are not associated with time of year in the United States at teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Patients should be reassured of the safety of performance of cardiac operations at academic medical centers throughout a given academic year. PMID:21481616

  11. Understanding and Enacting Learning Outcomes: The Academic's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbins, Kerry; Brooks, Sara; Scott, Jon J. A.; Rawlinson, Mark; Norman, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a detailed literature exploring the advancement of a learning outcomes approach in higher education, limited evidence exists concerning academics' use of them. This study employed a questionnaire survey and interviews with academic staff in three schools in one institution to explore their views and uses of learning outcomes. Whilst…

  12. Assessing Academic Outcomes at the United States Coast Guard Academy: The Role of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezendes, George J.; Gable, Robert K.

    This paper discusses the efforts of the Department of Mathematics at the United States Coast Guard Academy (USCGA) to determine the degree to which their courses support the published academic outcomes of the institution, and presents the results of a survey of student attitudes toward the academic outcomes. A survey questionnaire was developed…

  13. Measuring Outcomes for Children and Youth in Out-of-School Time Programs: Moving Beyond Measuring Academics. Research-to-Results Fact Sheet. Publication #2006-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Shwalb, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    There is great variation in the content of out-of-school time programs and in the outcomes that these programs may influence. While school success is often the focus, other outcomes related to children's well-being also matter and are the focus of many out-of-school time programs. These outcomes fall within four research-based child outcome…

  14. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  15. The Impact of Children's Social Adjustment on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Lloyd, Stacey W.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether social adjustment added to the prediction of academic outcomes above and beyond prior academic functioning. Researchers collected school records and peer-, teacher-, and self-report measures for 1,255 third-grade children in the fall and spring of the school year. Measures of social adjustment included social acceptance…

  16. Writing Abilities Longitudinally Predict Academic Outcomes of Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear…

  17. Tiered Models of Integrated Academic and Behavioral Support: Effect of Implementation Level on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Sansosti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control…

  18. Holding Back and Holding behind: Grade Retention and Students' Non-Academic and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the implications of grade retention (repeating a grade) and social promotion (automatic promotion to the next grade each year) for high school students' academic and non-academic outcomes. Based on data from 3261 high school students, structural equation modeling demonstrated that, after controlling for interactions with…

  19. Does Youth Psychotherapy Improve Academically Related Outcomes? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Thomas W.; Slaten, Christopher D.; Sorenson, Carey; Glover-Russell, Jaquaye; Merson, David N.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the impact of psychotherapy on youth academic performance, the authors located and examined 83 studies of youth psychotherapy that contained 102 treatment comparisons. Results revealed a d = 0.46 overall effect size, with a d = 0.50 effect size for mental health outcomes, and a d = 0.38 effect size for academically related…

  20. Family Background and Academic Achievement: Does Self-Efficacy Mediate Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiser, Dana A.; Riggio, Heidi R.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates both family background and self-efficacy influence academic outcomes; however, family background also impacts self-efficacy development. The purpose of the current study was to establish whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between family background and academic achievement. Results indicated family background…

  1. Writing abilities longitudinally predict academic outcomes of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W

    2016-09-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (Grades 6-8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student grade point average (GPA) and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Cultural Mistrust, Academic Outcome Expectations, and Outcome Values among African American Adolescent Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the relationship between outcome expectations, outcome value, and cultural mistrust among African American male high school students (N = 75) attending an urban, Southern California school. We hypothesized that a negative perception of the dominant culture would negatively affect academic outcome expectations and academic…

  3. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  4. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: A longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students’ academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  5. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.

  6. Family Meals and Child Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane; Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the link between the frequency of family breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work by examining younger and older children separately and by using information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods to…

  7. Issues and Interventions Influencing the Academic Outcomes for Migrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Gordon D.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; De Alba, Roman Garcia

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the major factors and interventions affecting migrant students' academic performance/outcomes. Factors outside the school, such as poverty, family, and English language proficiency, are discussed. Next, factors inside the school, such as student records, credit accrual, and school curriculum, will be reviewed.…

  8. School Mobility and Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    The study examined estimated effects of school mobility on students' academic and behaviouiral outcomes. Based on data for 2,560 public schools from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2007-2008, the findings indicate that high schools, urban schools, and schools serving a total student population of more than 50 percent minority…

  9. Academic Perspectives on the Outcomes of Outward Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Kath

    2015-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the UK Higher Education International Unit (IU) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA) in June 2014 to explore academic perspectives on the outcomes of outward mobility at undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels for UK domiciled students, and to consider how best to facilitate the take up as well…

  10. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  11. Examination of risk factors for intellectual and academic outcomes following treatment for pediatric medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Jane E.; Gurney, James G.; Palmer, Shawna L.; Bass, Johnnie K.; Wang, Mingjuan; Chen, Si; Zhang, Hui; Swain, Michelle; Chapieski, Mary L.; Bonner, Melanie J.; Mabbott, Donald J.; Knight, Sarah J.; Armstrong, Carol L.; Boyle, Robyn; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the effects of hearing loss and posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), in addition to age at diagnosis and disease risk status, on change in intellectual and academic outcomes following diagnosis and treatment in a large sample of medulloblastoma patients. Methods Data from at least 2 cognitive and academic assessments were available from 165 patients (ages 3–21 years) treated with surgery, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation, and 4 courses of chemotherapy with stem cell support. Patients underwent serial evaluation of cognitive and academic functioning from baseline up to 5 years post diagnosis. Results Serious hearing loss, PFS, younger age at diagnosis, and high-risk status were all significant risk factors for decline in intellectual and academic skills. Serious hearing loss and PFS independently predicted below-average estimated mean intellectual ability at 5 years post diagnosis. Patients with high-risk medulloblastoma and young age at diagnosis (<7 years) exhibited the largest drop in mean scores for intellectual and academic outcomes. Conclusions Despite a significant decline over time, intellectual and academic outcomes remained within the average range at 5 years post diagnosis for the majority of patients. Future studies should determine if scores remain within the average range at time points further out from treatment. Patients at heightened risk should be closely monitored and provided with recommendations for appropriate interventions. PMID:24497405

  12. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Child Academic and Behavior Problems: Co-Occurrence and Distal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Keith C.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify classes of children at entry into first grade with different patterns of academic and behavior problems. A latent class analysis was conducted with a longitudinal community sample of 678 predominantly low-income African American children. Results identified multiple subclasses of children, including a class with co-occurring academic and behavior problems. Gender differences were found in relation to the number of identified classes and the characteristics of academic and behavior problems for children. Several of the identified classes, particularly the co-occurring academic and behavior problems subclass for both genders, predicted negative long-term outcomes in sixth grade, including academic failure, receipt of special education services, affiliation with deviant peers, suspension from school, and elevated risk for conduct problems. The finding that subclasses of academic and behavior problems predict negative long-term outcomes validates the importance of the identified classes and the need to target interventions for children presenting with the associated class characteristics. Implications for early identification, prevention, and intervention for children at risk for academic failure and disruptive behavior problems are discussed. PMID:18205038

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in School-Age Children: Academic and Social Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of a cohort of children and adolescents (N=43) following a traumatic brain injury. Findings reveal that premorbid functions were significant predictors of reading and spelling achievement and adaptive functioning. Discusses implications of results including program development, reintegration…

  14. Evaluating the Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Process in Undergraduate Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Craig M.; Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are increasingly being held more accountable for assessing student learning both in and out of their classrooms along with reporting results to their stakeholders. The purpose of this study, which examined assessment of student learning outcomes in undergraduate park and recreation academic programs, was two-fold:…

  15. School Support, Parental Involvement, and Academic and Social-Emotional Outcomes for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among school support, parental school involvement, and academic and social-emotional outcomes for children who are English language learners (ELLs). The sample included 1,020 third-grade ELLs who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). Results from structural equation modeling showed…

  16. Community (in) Colleges: The Relationship Between Online Network Involvement and Academic Outcomes at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Eliza D.; McFarland, Daniel A.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Deil-Amen, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the relationship between online social network involvement and academic outcomes among community college students. Prior theory hypothesizes that socio-academic moments are especially important for the integration of students into community colleges and that integration is related to academic outcomes. Online social…

  17. MHEC Academic Scheduling Software Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwestern Higher Education Commission Academic Software Committee Research Bulletin, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes the chief quantitative findings of a survey of 264 small and medium sized colleges and universities in the midwest concerning their use of and interest in academic scheduling software. This type of software assists in planning course offerings, assigning instructors and course functions to facilities and time slots, and…

  18. The Relationship between Bible Literacy and Behavioral and Academic Outcomes in Urban Areas: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis is undertaken, including 11 studies, to determine whether there is a relationship between Bible knowledge on one hand and academic and behavioral outcomes on the other among those living in urban areas. The results indicate that increased Bible knowledge is associated with higher levels of student academic achievement and positive…

  19. Children with Co-occurring Academic and Behavior Problems in First grade: Distal Outcomes in Twelfth Grade

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Dana; Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the eleven year longitudinal association between students identified in first grade as having academic and behavior problems and distal outcomes in twelfth grade. The study extends prior research that identified latent classes of academic and behavior problems in a longitudinal community sample of 678 predominately African American first-grade students. The type and number of classes identified in first grade differed by gender, but results indicated that students within the classes of behavior and academic problems had long-term negative outcomes in the twelfth grade. The class with co-occurring academic and behavior problems in first grade had the greatest risk for negative distal outcomes for both boys and girls including higher likelihood of special education placement, mental health service use, poor academic achievement, and school dropout. Implications for prevention, early intervention, and current practices in schools are discussed. PMID:23375176

  20. Latino and Caucasian Students' Academic and Non-Academic Characteristics as Predictors of Educational Outcomes, High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jafeth Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The pathway to a postsecondary education is challenging for many students, including students from the growing Latino population in the United States. This research project focused on Latino and Caucasian students' academic and non-academic characteristics as predictors of educational outcomes, high school and beyond. The introduction to the…

  1. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  2. School Nurse Case Management for Children with Chronic Illness: Health, Academic, and Quality of Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelke, Martha Keehner; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B.; Swanson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with…

  3. Inside Quality Reform: Early Results on Using Outcomes for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This article offers evidence on ways in which assessment of student learning outcomes made a difference for some academic institutions in the United States. It offers perspectives on the internal changes that took place, especially within academic programmes. Even after the capacity for assessment was developed, challenges remained in evaluating…

  4. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  5. Tablet PCs, Academic Results and Educational Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Ferran; Belvis, Esther; Pamies, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This article is the result of a study carried out in 2008 and 2009 by a team from the Autonomous University of Barcelona in order to evaluate the implementation of the Digital Whiteboard Program in public schools in the region of Aragon (Spain). The following pages present some of the results obtained during the study. More specifically, this…

  6. Assessing Educational Outcomes in Middle Childhood: Validation of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Method: Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males,…

  7. The Effect of Systematic Academic Instruction on Behavioural and Academic Outcomes of Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy J.; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of systematic academic instruction on academic progress and behavioural problems of students with emotional and/or behavioural disorders (EBD) in special education. Earlier studies have noted the importance of a systematic approach as well as the significance of focusing on academic instruction instead of on…

  8. Personality predictors of academic outcomes: big five correlates of GPA and SAT scores.

    PubMed

    Noftle, Erik E; Robins, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined relations between the Big Five personality traits and academic outcomes, specifically SAT scores and grade-point average (GPA). Openness was the strongest predictor of SAT verbal scores, and Conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of both high school and college GPA. These relations replicated across 4 independent samples and across 4 different personality inventories. Further analyses showed that Conscientiousness predicted college GPA, even after controlling for high school GPA and SAT scores, and that the relation between Conscientiousness and college GPA was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by increased academic effort and higher levels of perceived academic ability. The relation between Openness and SAT verbal scores was independent of academic achievement and was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by perceived verbal intelligence. Together, these findings show that personality traits have independent and incremental effects on academic outcomes, even after controlling for traditional predictors of those outcomes. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17605593

  9. Impact of Garden-Based Learning on Academic Outcomes in Schools: Synthesis of Research between 1990 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dilafruz R.; Dixon, P. Scott

    2013-01-01

    What is the impact of garden-based learning on academic outcomes in schools? To address this question, findings across 152 articles (1990-2010) were analyzed resulting in 48 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this synthesis. A review template with operational coding framework was developed. The synthesis results showed a preponderance of…

  10. Effect of Retention in First Grade on Parents’ Educational Expectations and Children’s Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Kowk, Oi-man; Im, MyungHee

    2013-01-01

    The effect of retention in first grade (Year 1) on parents’ educational expectations was tested in a sample of 530 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children. Participants attended one of three school districts in Texas. Of the 530 children, 118 were retained in first grade. Retention had a negative effect on parent expectations in Year 2, which was maintained in Year 3. Year 2 parent expectations partially mediated the effect of retention in first grade on Year 3 reading and math achievement and child academic self-efficacy. All effects controlled for Year 1 measures of the outcome. Results were similar across gender, economic adversity, and ethnicity. Implications for minimizing the negative effect of retention on parents’ expectations are suggested. PMID:24357865

  11. Scholarly Networking among Business Students: Structured Discussion Board Activity and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristen; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina; Lammers, H. Bruce; Goldenson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The authors' intent was to show the effect of student discussion board activity on academic outcomes, after accounting for past academic performance. Data were collected from 516 students enrolled in a junior-level required business course. Controlling for students' grade point average, stepwise regression showed a significant…

  12. Birth Outcomes and Academic Achievement in Childhood: A Population Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Felicity; Laurens, Kristin R.; Green, Melissa J.; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Carr, Vaughan J.

    2014-01-01

    Poor academic performance during childhood predicts later adverse outcomes, and could be targeted for improvement if detected early. This study used population-based record linkage to examine the association between early life risk factors and academic achievement at two different stages of development using two different cohorts: a kindergarten…

  13. Teacher (Mis)Perceptions of Preschoolers' Academic Skills: Predictors and Associations with Longitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers.…

  14. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  15. Evaluating the Relationship between Boredom and Academic Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Daniels, Lia M.; Klassen, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of academic boredom among students may be universal; in fact, almost all students complain at least occasionally about being bored in class or while studying. Despite the perceived negative influence of boredom on learning, there has been no synthesis of empirical findings underscoring how boredom relates to academic outcomes.…

  16. Culturally Diverse Undergraduate Researchers’ Academic Outcomes and Perceptions of Their Research Mentoring Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Branchaw, Janet; Pfund, Christine; Leverett, Patrice; Newton, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated the specific factors in mentoring relationships between undergraduate researchers (mentees) and their mentors in the biological and life sciences that account for mentees’ positive academic and career outcomes. Using archival evaluation data from more than 400 mentees gathered over a multi-year period (2005–11) from several undergraduate biology research programs at a large, Midwestern research university, we validated existing evaluation measures of the mentored research experience and the mentor-mentee relationship. We used a subset of data from mentees (77% underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities) to test a hypothesized social cognitive career theory model of associations between mentees’ academic outcomes and perceptions of their research mentoring relationships. Results from path analysis indicate that perceived mentor effectiveness indirectly predicted post-baccalaureate outcomes via research self-efficacy beliefs. Findings are discussed with implications for developing new and refining existing tools to measure this impact, programmatic interventions to increase the success of culturally diverse research mentees and future directions for research. PMID:27065568

  17. Culturally Diverse Undergraduate Researchers' Academic Outcomes and Perceptions of Their Research Mentoring Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Branchaw, Janet; Pfund, Christine; Leverett, Patrice; Newton, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated the specific factors in mentoring relationships between undergraduate researchers (mentees) and their mentors in the biological and life sciences that account for mentees' positive academic and career outcomes. Using archival evaluation data from more than 400 mentees gathered over a multi-year period (2005-2011) from several undergraduate biology research programs at a large, Midwestern research university, we validated existing evaluation measures of the mentored research experience and the mentor-mentee relationship. We used a subset of data from mentees (77% underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities) to test a hypothesized social cognitive career theory model of associations between mentees' academic outcomes and perceptions of their research mentoring relationships. Results from path analysis indicate that perceived mentor effectiveness indirectly predicted post-baccalaureate outcomes via research self-efficacy beliefs. Findings are discussed with implications for developing new and refining existing tools to measure this impact, programmatic interventions to increase the success of culturally diverse research mentees and future directions for research.

  18. School-age adopted Chinese girls' behavioral adjustment, academic performance, and social skills: longitudinal results.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal data on 177 school-age adopted Chinese girls (Time 1: mean age = 8.92 years, SD = 1.76; Time 2: mean age = 11.18 years, SD = 1.79) were analyzed to determine their long-term outcomes in behavioral adjustment, academic performance (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18), and social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and how these outcomes were related to preadoption adversity. More than 90% of the girls were adopted at 24 months or younger (M = 19.25, SD = 21.67). Results revealed that over a 2-year period, there was a moderate to strong stability in the children's behavioral adjustment and academic performance. However, there was a significant increase in the number of children with deviant internalizing problems. At both times, higher degrees of preadoption adversity were related to more internalizing problems and poorer academic performance. Children who were adopted at older ages had poorer academic performance. Children who were older had a lower level of assertion and a higher level of responsibility. Children's attention problems at Time 1 mediated the effect of preadoption adversity on academic performance at Time 2.

  19. Academic Outcomes of Children With Isolated Orofacial Clefts Compared With Children Without a Major Birth Defect

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jessica; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Meyer, Robert E.; Strauss, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare academic outcomes between children with orofacial cleft (OFC) and children without major birth defects. Design and Setting In 2007–2008, we mailed questionnaires to a random sample of mothers of school-aged children with OFC and mothers of children without major birth defects (comparison group). The questionnaire included Likert-scale, closed-ended, and open-ended questions from validated instruments. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses on parent-reported educational outcomes and bivariate analyses on parent-reported presence of related medical conditions between children with isolated OFC and unaffected children. Patients/Participants A random sample of 504 parents of children with OFCs born 1996–2002 (age 5–12 years) were identified by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program. A random sample of 504 parents of children without birth defects born 1996–2002 was selected from North Carolina birth certificates. Of the 289 (28.7%) respondents, we analyzed 112 children with isolated OFC and 138 unaffected children. Main Outcome Measures Letter grades, school days missed, and grade retention. Results Parents of children with isolated OFC reported more developmental disabilities and hearing and speech problems among their children than comparison parents. Children with isolated OFC were more likely to receive lower grades and miss more school days than unaffected children. Because of the low response rate, results should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusion Children with isolated OFC may have poorer academic outcomes during elementary school than their unaffected peers. Future studies are needed to confirm these results and determine whether these differences persist in later grades. PMID:24878348

  20. Which Emotional Profiles Exhibit the Best Learning Outcomes? A Person-Centered Analysis of Students' Academic Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Datu, Jesus Alfonso D.; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on academic emotions have mostly used variable-centered approaches. Although these studies have elucidated the relationships between academic emotions and key academic outcomes, they cannot identify naturally-occurring groups of students defined by distinct academic emotion profiles. In this study, we adopted a person-centered…

  1. A Synthesis of the Effects of Correctional Education on the Academic Outcomes of Incarcerated Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of correctional education use the distal outcomes of recidivism and post-release employment as the dependent variables (e.g., Aos et al., 2006; Davis et al., 2013). This synthesis sought to determine the effectiveness of correctional education at improving proximal academic outcomes among incarcerated adult…

  2. Relationships of objectively measured physical activity and sleep with BMI and academic outcomes in 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Susan Ann

    2013-05-01

    Current guidelines in place for sleep and physical activity in childhood are the result of data collected in the form of self-reports. Exact measurement of activity dimensions and sleep characteristics are essential. The purpose of clearly established parameters is for the intent of verifying health outcomes and evaluating interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationships between the objective dimensions of physical activity, sleep, weight status, academic achievement, and academic behavior. This cross-sectional correlational descriptive design examined the activity and sleep patterns continuously for 24 hours/7 days with triaxial accelerometers in a low income African American sample of 8-year-olds. A qualitative component gathered additional identifiers. This sample was overweight/obese, inactive, and sleep-deprived. Moderate-vigorous activity was correlated with reading scores. Confirmed in this research was the association between sleep duration, physical activity intensities, and academics. Positive health outcomes in children are endorsed by an energy balance.

  3. Online System Adoption and K-12 Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the relationship between K-12 online system adoption (e.g., Blackboard, Edmodo, WordPress) and school-level academic achievement ratings. Utilizing a novel approach to data collection via website data extraction and indexing of all school websites in a target state in the United States (n?=?732) and merging these…

  4. Emotional Reactions toward School Situations: Relationships with Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; MacCann, Carolyn; Bertling, Jonas P.; Naemi, Bobby; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated self-reported positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in high school students (N = 451) within three academic contexts: homework, classwork/tests, and after-school activities. We examined whether context-specific emotions predicted grades, life satisfaction, and discipline records. Our findings revealed that…

  5. Perceived Fit with an Academic Environment: Attitudinal and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.; Friede, Alyssa; Imus, Anna; Merritt, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Because person-organization fit relates to important outcomes, and because fit is a time-dependent process, there exists a need to model longitudinal data related to fit. In a multi-university sample (N=1174), we tested hypotheses concerning person-organization fit and various behavioral and attitudinal outcomes; correlations between changes in…

  6. Peer Relationships and Adolescents' Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes: Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Peer Effects and the Mediating Role of School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. Aims: The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions…

  7. Patterns of time use among low-income urban minority adolescents and associations with academic outcomes and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sharon; Aber, J Lawrence; Morris, Pamela A

    2015-06-01

    Time budgets represent key opportunities for developmental support and contribute to an understanding of achievement gaps and adjustment across populations of youth. This study assessed the connection between out-of-school time use patterns and academic performance outcomes, academic motivations and goals, and problem behaviors for 504 low-income urban African American and Latino adolescents (54% female; M = 16.6 years). Time use patterns were measured across eight activity types using cluster analysis. Four groups of adolescents were identified, based on their different profiles of time use: (1) Academic: those with most time in academic activities; (2) Social: those with most time in social activities; (3) Maintenance/work: those with most time in maintenance and work activities; and (4) TV/computer: those with most time in TV or computer activities. Time use patterns were meaningfully associated with variation in outcomes in this population. Adolescents in the Academic cluster had the highest levels of adjustment across all domains; adolescents in the Social cluster had the lowest academic performance and highest problem behaviors; and adolescents in the TV/computer cluster had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation. Females were more likely to be in the Academic cluster, and less likely to be in the other three clusters compared to males. No differences by race or gender were found in assessing the relationship between time use and outcomes. The study's results indicate that time use patterns are meaningfully associated with within-group variation in adjustment for low-income minority adolescents, and that shared contexts may shape time use more than individual differences in race/ethnicity for this population.

  8. Academic Outcomes for School-Aged Children with Severe-Profound Hearing Loss and Early Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…

  9. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients.

  10. Alterations in Memory and Impact on Academic Outcomes in Children Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lajiness-O'Neill, R; Hoodin, F; Kentor, R; Heinrich, K; Colbert, A; Connelly, J A

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of late effects following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), a curative treatment for pediatric leukemia, is high: 79% of HCT recipients experience chronic medical conditions. The few extant studies of cognitive late effects have focused on intelligence and are equivocal about HCT neurotoxicity. In an archival study of 30 children (mean transplant age = 6 years), we characterize neuropsychological predictors of academic outcomes. Mean intellectual and academic abilities were average, but evidenced extreme variability, particularly on measures of attention and memory: ∼25% of the sample exhibited borderline performance or lower. Medical predictors of outcome revealed paradoxically better memory associated with more severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and associated with steroid treatment. Processing speed and memory accounted for 69% and 61% of variance in mathematics and reading outcomes, respectively. Thus, our findings revealed neurocognitive areas of vulnerability in processing speed and memory following HCT that contribute to subsequent academic difficulties. PMID:26319492

  11. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  12. Parental Monitoring, Association with Externalized Behavior, and Academic Outcomes in Urban African-American Youth: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; LaVome Robinson, W; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-06-01

    African-American adolescents exposed to neighborhood disadvantage are at increased risk for engaging in problem behavior and academic underachievement. It is critical to identify the mechanisms that reduce problem behavior and promote better academic outcomes in this population. Based on social disorganization and socioecological theories, the current prospective study examined pathways from parental monitoring to academic outcomes via externalizing behavior at different levels of neighborhood disadvantage. A moderated mediation model employing maximum likelihood was conducted on 339 African-American students from 9th to 11th grade (49.3% females) with a mean age of 14.8 years (SD ± 0.35). The results indicated that parental monitoring predicted low externalizing behavior, and low externalizing behavior predicted better academic outcomes after controlling for externalizing behavior in 9th grade, intervention status, and gender. Mediation was supported, as the index of mediation was significant. Conversely, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the path from parental monitoring to externalizing behavior. Implications for intervention at both community and individual levels and study limitations are discussed.

  13. Parental Monitoring, Association with Externalized Behavior, and Academic Outcomes in Urban African-American Youth: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; LaVome Robinson, W; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-06-01

    African-American adolescents exposed to neighborhood disadvantage are at increased risk for engaging in problem behavior and academic underachievement. It is critical to identify the mechanisms that reduce problem behavior and promote better academic outcomes in this population. Based on social disorganization and socioecological theories, the current prospective study examined pathways from parental monitoring to academic outcomes via externalizing behavior at different levels of neighborhood disadvantage. A moderated mediation model employing maximum likelihood was conducted on 339 African-American students from 9th to 11th grade (49.3% females) with a mean age of 14.8 years (SD ± 0.35). The results indicated that parental monitoring predicted low externalizing behavior, and low externalizing behavior predicted better academic outcomes after controlling for externalizing behavior in 9th grade, intervention status, and gender. Mediation was supported, as the index of mediation was significant. Conversely, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the path from parental monitoring to externalizing behavior. Implications for intervention at both community and individual levels and study limitations are discussed. PMID:27237941

  14. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, Lowell L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  15. Academic Remediation-Focused Alternative Schools: Impact on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Kimber L.; Afacan, Kemal; Yan, Min-Chi; Justin, Whitney; Datar, Sujata D.

    2016-01-01

    School districts offer specialized programming for secondary students who experience high rates of course failure or low credit accumulation. While these alternative programs are meant to increase student success, little research evaluates outcomes for students attending them. In this study, we used propensity score matching (PSM) to investigate…

  16. School nurse case management for children with chronic illness: health, academic, and quality of life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Keehner Engelke, Martha; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B; Swanson, Melvin

    2008-08-01

    More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with asthma, diabetes, severe allergies, seizures, or sickle-cell anemia in 5 different school districts who were provided case management by school nurses. The children ranged in age from 5 to 19 years. At the end of the school year, children experienced an improvement in quality of life and gained skills and knowledge to manage their illness more effectively. Classroom participation, grades, and participation in extracurricular activities also increased for many children. The study provides evidence of the positive impact school nurses have on children with chronic illness and suggests ways they can measure the outcomes of their interventions. PMID:18757353

  17. Creating High Challenge/High Support Academic Environments through Constructive Alignment: Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Helen; Richardson, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Higher education needs to provide challenging yet supportive learning environments catering for students with diverse academic needs. There is also an emphasis on using student-driven outcome measures to determine teaching effectiveness. How can these measures be used to reflect upon and evaluate teaching initiatives? Using an undergraduate…

  18. Does Preschool Education Exposure Predict Children's Academic and Behavioural Outcomes in China?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanfang; Lv, Ying; Huntsinger, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to preschool education and children's academic and social outcomes have been documented in Western countries. There is a lack of comparable research in China, where preschool education is relatively formal, but rather flexible in arrangement. We conducted research at six public kindergartens in a large Chinese…

  19. Academic Outcome, Anxiety and Attitudes in Early and Late Immersion in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muircheartaigh, Jonathan O.; Hickey, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Differences between early and late Irish-immersion secondary school students are examined, not only in terms of academic outcome and target language ability, but also in terms of attitudes to learning the target language. Participants included a gender-balanced group of 97 students in Irish-immersion in fourth year of secondary school (mean age…

  20. Parent Involvement and Academic Outcomes among Urban Adolescents: Examining the Role of School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…

  1. Social-Emotional Factors and Academic Outcomes among Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M.; Allen, Adelaide; Johnson, Jason K.; Warren-Khot, Heather K.

    2016-01-01

    Social-emotional comprehension involves encoding, interpreting, and reasoning about social-emotional information, and self-regulating. This study examined the mediating pathways through which social-emotional comprehension and social behaviour are related to academic outcomes in two ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous samples totaling…

  2. Coping Power Dissemination Study: Intervention and Special Education Effects on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Powell, Nicole P.; Qu, Lixin; Wells, Karen; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a school-based preventive intervention for children with aggressive behavior affects children's academic outcomes when it is implemented by school counselors in a dissemination field trial. The Coping Power program targets empirical risk factors for aggressive behavior and focuses primarily on teaching social and…

  3. Exploring the Divergent Academic Outcomes of U.S.-Origin and Immigrant-Origin Black Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Liem, Joan H.

    2012-01-01

    To explore the divergent academic experiences and outcomes of U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black Americans, we drew on Tinto's (1993) model of persistence to test a 3-wave longitudinal model of college persistence using path analysis. Our sample comprised 101 ethnically diverse Black students who were randomly selected from 9 public high…

  4. Effects of Early Leader-Member Exchange Perceptions on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Paul H.; Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Vracheva, Veselina

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a series of hypotheses linking college support and quality of student-instructor relations with outcomes including student efficacy, social connectedness with peers, expectancies and academic performance. Early quality of exchanges with the instructor using Leader-Member Exchange theory was found to be a key indicator of academic…

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Academic and Intellectual Outcomes Following Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Ehly, Stewart; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on intellectual and academic outcomes postinjury. A comprehensive assessment of cognition, achievement, learning, and memory was administered to 27 children and adolescents 6 to 8 years post-TBI. Findings revealed that parent ratings of premorbid achievement…

  6. Academic and Language Outcomes in Children after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Jennifer A.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert F .

    2011-01-01

    Expanding on Babikian and Asarnow's (2009) meta-analytic study examining neurocognitive domains, this current meta-analysis examined academic and language outcomes at different time points post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents. Although children with mild TBI exhibited no significant deficits, studies indicate that children…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of School Connectedness and Academic Outcomes across Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students…

  8. Responses to Peer Stress Predict Academic Outcomes across the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Bub, Kristen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined physiological and coping responses to peer-evaluative challenges in early adolescence as predictors of academic outcomes. The sample included 123 young adolescents (X-bar[subscript age]) = 12.03 years) who participated in the summer before (T1) and the spring after (T2) the transition to middle school. At T1, respiratory sinus…

  9. Academic Motivation in Post-Secondary Students: Effects of Career Outcome Expectations and Type of Aspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domene, Jose F.; Socholotiuk, Krista D.; Woitowicz, Lyndsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a social cognitive theory framework, we examined the effects of career outcome expectations (COE) and aspiration to enter a science, technology, or math (STM) career on post-secondary academic motivation. Data were collected online from a sample of 380 post-secondary students in Canada and the United States. Analysis of covariance revealed…

  10. Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…

  11. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  12. Academic Outcomes among a Sample of Learning Support Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between placement in a learning support college program and subsequent academic outcomes. The sample consisted of 275 entering freshmen students who were enrolled in the Learning Support reading courses in the fall of 2005. Data were collected from the Gordon College Office of Institutional Research. The…

  13. Parent-School Relationships and Children's Academic and Social Outcomes in Public School Pre-Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas R.; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear…

  14. Emotional Design in Multimedia: Does Gender and Academic Achievement Influence Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Jeya Amantha; Muniandy, Balakrishnan; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed as a preliminary study (N = 33) to explore the effects of gender and academic achievement (Cumulative Grade Point Average-CGPA) on polytechnic students' learning outcomes when exposed to Multimedia Learning Environments (MLE) designed to induce emotions. Three designs namely positive (PosD), neutral (NeuD) and negative…

  15. Effects of Multidomain Risk Accumulation on Cognitive, Academic, and Behavioural Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Viholainen, Helena; Lyytinen, Heikki; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Ahonen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the predictive associations between cumulative multidomain risk factors and cognitive (IQ), academic (reading fluency), and social adaptive outcomes at 8 to 9 years among 190 children with or without familial risk for dyslexia. Other risk factors included parental and neurocognitive risks assessed when the children…

  16. Academic and Social Outcomes for High-Risk Youths in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Marni D.; Roos, Noralou P.; MacWilliam, Leonard; Leclair, Leanne; Ekuma, Okechukwu; Fransoo, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined academic and social outcomes for high-risk youths in Manitoba, using longitudinal, population-based data. All children born in Manitoba in 1984-1985 who resided in Winnipeg the year they turned 18 were included in analyses (N = 11,703). High risk youths were defined as those involved with child welfare services, living in…

  17. Impact of a Constructivist Career Course on Academic Performance and Graduation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Chahla, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Career planning courses are one of the most effective ways to improve career development, and the benefits to career decision-making are well documented. The research base regarding whether career courses contribute to academic outcomes is less well-developed. Although recent findings suggest that career courses may improve retention in the first-…

  18. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  19. Development of case statements in academic administration: a proactive method for achieving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Mary H

    2005-01-01

    The complex nature of higher education presents academic administrators with unique challenges to communicate vision and strategic direction to a variety of internal and external audiences. The administrator must be prepared to engage in persuasive communication to describe the needs and desired outcomes of the academic unit. This article focuses on the use of the case statement as a communication tool for the nursing academic administrator. The case statement is a form of persuasive communication where a situation or need is presented in the context of the mission, vision, and strategic direction of a group or organization. The aim of the case statement is to enlist support in meeting the identified need. Fundamental assumptions about communicating case statements are described, as well as guidelines for how the academic administrator can prepare themselves for using the case statement method.

  20. School Mental Health Early Interventions and Academic Outcomes for At-Risk High School Students: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Ball, Annahita; Gibson, Jennifer E.; Lize, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The current educational policy context in the United States necessitates that school-based programs prioritize students' academic outcomes. This review examined the quantitative research on school mental health (SMH) early interventions and academic outcomes for at-risk high school students. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this…

  1. Posttraumatic stress, effort regulation, and academic outcomes among college students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Güler; Granda, Rebecca; Baker, Camille N; Tidwell, Lacey Lorehn; Waits, J Brandon

    2016-07-01

    Entering college with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology has been linked to poor academic performance and increased risk for dropping out of college; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which PTSD symptoms have deleterious effects on college outcomes. Drawing from a self-regulated learning (SRL) perspective, which suggests that students' learning behaviors and outcomes can be influenced by contextual and developmental factors, we hypothesized that students who enter college with high PTSD symptomatology may experience difficulties in effort regulation, which in turn, may have deleterious effects on their academic performance and college persistence. These hypothesized relationships, as well as the potential gender differences in these relationships were examined using a longitudinal study design and a multigroup structural equation modeling approach. Of the 928 1st-year students who participated in the study, 484 (52.2%) students who reported lifetime exposure to traumatic events constituted the final sample of the study. The prevalence of PTSD among the trauma-exposed participants was 12.4%. After controlling for participation in on-campus activities and American College Testing (ACT) assessment scores, the relationship between PTSD symptomatology in the 1st semester of college and 2nd-year enrollment was mediated by effort regulation and 1st-year cumulative grade-point average (GPA). Specifically, participants who started college with higher levels of PTSD symptomatology also reported lower levels of effort regulation, which in turn, had a significant indirect effect on 2nd-year enrollment through 1st-year GPA. Results also indicated that the paths in the hypothesized model were not significantly different for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Word processing as an assistive technology tool for enhancing academic outcomes of students with writing disabilities in the general classroom.

    PubMed

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Shrieber, Betty

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the number of reading errors, and the number of words used per text were counted, and the overall structure and organization of text were examined across all in-class materials. The data demonstrated a clear difference between handwritten and computer phases. In traditional paper-and-pencil phases, students produced outcomes that had more spelling mistakes, more reading errors, and lower overall quality of organization and structure in comparison with the phases in which a computer equipped with a word processor was used. The results did not indicate any noticeable difference in the number of words per text. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  3. Academic nursing clinic: impact on health and cost outcomes for vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Badger, Terry A; McArthur, Donna Behler

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected health and cost outcomes of clients who used an academic nursing clinic (ANC) located in a high-rise public housing facility for low-income citizens. Service use, health promotion and screening, quality of care, satisfaction and costs were examined. Health outcomes were improved. Estimated cost savings were about $36,000 during the first year with reduced paramedic and police calls, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Findings show that advanced practice nurses can positively influence health outcomes by providing cost-effective quality health care. PMID:12624864

  4. The Influence of Social Class on Academic Outcomes: A Structural Equation Model Examining the Relationships between Student Dependency Style, Student-Academic Environment Fit, and Satisfaction on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between college students' social class and their academic outcomes. A structural equation model was proposed, hypothesizing that a student's socioeconomic status (SES) is related to their motives for attending college, thus influencing their perception of fit at the university, their…

  5. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients. PMID:26703412

  6. Culture shock and synergy. Academic/managed care/corporate alliances in outcomes management.

    PubMed

    Berman, W H; Darling, H; Hurt, S W; Hunkeler, E M

    1994-01-01

    The Behavioral Health Outcomes Study is a partnership in conducting outcomes measurement involving a corporate healthcare purchaser, five managed behavioral healthcare organizations and academic researchers. The goals of this study are to: evaluate the feasibility of incorporating patient self-reported data in outcomes research; identify factors that may be predictors of outcome; and evaluate the effectiveness of an employee-sponsored aftercare program. The differing perspectives and needs of the three partners have created a number of challenges in the areas of goals, confidentiality, proprietary vs. open access issues and methodology. However, after the study's first year, it is clear not only that outcomes research can be conducted under such a partnership, but that the partnership generates a kind of synergy in problem-solving.

  7. Different Fit Perceptions in an Academic Environment: Attitudinal and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yixuan; Yao, Xiang; Chen, Kun; Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether students perceive three different types of fit in an academic environment (i.e., interest-major [I-M] fit, demands-abilities [D-A] fit, and needs-supplies [N-S] fit) and whether these factors predict important academic and well-being criteria using a Chinese student sample. Results from confirmatory factor analyses…

  8. Using social-emotional and character development to improve academic outcomes: a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial in low-income, urban schools

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD, but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. METHODS The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. RESULTS PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. CONCLUSIONS A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes. PMID:24138347

  9. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  10. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  11. Academic Outcome Measures of a Dedicated Education Unit Over Time: Help or Hinder?

    PubMed

    Smyer, Tish; Gatlin, Tricia; Tan, Rhigel; Tejada, Marianne; Feng, Du

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking, nursing process, quality and safety measures, and standardized RN exit examination scores were compared between students (n = 144) placed in a dedicated education unit (DEU) and those in a traditional clinical model. Standardized test scores showed that differences between the clinical groups were not statistically significant. This study shows that the DEU model is 1 approach to clinical education that can enhance students' academic outcomes.

  12. Exploring the divergent academic outcomes of U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Tauriac, Jesse J; Liem, Joan H

    2012-12-01

    To explore the divergent academic experiences and outcomes of U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black Americans, we drew on Tinto's model of persistence (1993) to test a three-wave longitudinal model of college persistence using path analysis. Our sample was comprised of 101 ethnically-diverse Black students who were randomly selected from nine public high schools in the metropolitan Boston area and went on to matriculate at 32 different, predominantly White colleges and universities. Specifically, we compared U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black undergraduates' reported college social support/social integration and academic integration; and measured the influence of these factors (as well as high school grades and socioeconomic status) on college persistence two years later. As predicted, and consistent with previous studies, immigrant-origin Black students academically outperformed their U.S.-origin Black counterparts, earning significantly higher high school grades and demonstrating greater persistence in college. However, when the effects of high school grades and SES on college persistence were included in a multivariate path model together with immigration status and college social and academic integration, immigration status no longer predicted college persistence. Neither social nor academic integration predicted college persistence, within the path model, as hypothesized, but social integration did predict academic integration as expected. In separate correlational analyses, academic integration and SES were associated with college persistence for U.S.-origin Black students, but this was not the case for immigrant-origin Black students. We discuss the implications of these findings for fostering greater success among diverse Black undergraduates.

  13. Academic and Professional Career Outcomes of Medical School Graduates Who Failed USMLE Step 1 on the First Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…

  14. Learning Outcomes in College Academic Service-Learning Experiences: So Much May Factor into Assessing Such Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Gail Shanley

    2008-01-01

    This essay shows the range to complexity for assessing academic service learning experiences. Corso recommends that instructors understand expectations for cognition, affective response, and communication competence as they place students into academic service learning experiences and as they assess learning outcomes within such contexts. Corso…

  15. Word Processing as an Assistive Technology Tool for Enhancing Academic Outcomes of Students with Writing Disabilities in the General Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Shrieber, B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the…

  16. Capacity building for long-term community-academic health partnership outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M Kathryn; Felix, Holly C; Cottoms, Naomi; Olson, Mary; Shelby, Beatrice; Huff, Anna; Colley, Dianne; Sparks, Carla; McKindra, Freeman

    2014-01-01

    Too often, populations experiencing the greatest burden of disease and disparities in health outcomes are left out of or ineffectively involved in academic-led efforts to address issues that impact them the most. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach increasingly being used to address these issues, but the science of CBPR is still viewed by many as a nascent field. Important to the development of the science of CBPR is documentation of the partnership process, particularly capacity building activities important to establishing the CBPR research infrastructure. This paper uses a CBPR Logic Model as a structure for documenting partnership capacity building activities of a long-term community-academic partnership addressing public health issues in Arkansas, U.S. Illustrative activities, programs, and experiences are described for each of the model’s four constructs: context, group dynamics, interventions, and outcomes. Lessons learned through this process were: capacity building is required by both academic and community partners; shared activities provide a common base of experiences and expectations; and creating a common language facilitates dialogue about difficult issues. Development of community partnerships with one institutional unit promoted community engagement institution-wide, enhanced individual and partnership capacity, and increased opportunity to address priority issues. PMID:25750694

  17. Student learning outcomes and attitudes when biotechnology lab partners are of different academic levels.

    PubMed

    Miller, Heather B; Witherow, D Scott; Carson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina State University Biotechnology Program offers laboratory-intensive courses to both undergraduate and graduate students. In "Manipulation and Expression of Recombinant DNA," students are separated into undergraduate and graduate sections for the laboratory, but not the lecture, component. Evidence has shown that students prefer pairing with someone of the same academic level. However, retention of main ideas in peer learning environments has been shown to be greater when partners have dissimilar abilities. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that there will be enhanced student learning when lab partners are of different academic levels. We found that learning outcomes were met by both levels of student, regardless of pairing. Average undergraduate grades on every assessment method increased when undergraduates were paired with graduate students. Many of the average graduate student grades also increased modestly when graduate students were paired with undergraduates. Attitudes toward working with partners dramatically shifted toward favoring working with students of different academic levels. This work suggests that offering dual-level courses in which different-level partnerships are created does not inhibit learning by students of different academic levels. This format is useful for institutions that wish to offer "boutique" courses in which student enrollment may be low, but specialized equipment and faculty expertise are needed.

  18. Academic Outcomes in High-School Students after a Concussion: A Retrospective Population-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Kelly; Hutchison, Michael G.; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Chateau, Daniel; Ellis, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many concussion symptoms, such as headaches, vision problems, or difficulty remembering or concentrating may deleteriously affect school functioning. Our objective was to determine if academic performance was lower in the academic calendar year that students sustain a concussion compared to the previous year when they did not sustain a concussion. Methods Using Manitoba Health and Manitoba Education data, we conducted a population-based, controlled before-after study from 2005–2006 to 2010–2011 academic years. Grade 9–12 students with an ICD9/10 code for concussion were matched to non-concussed controls. Overall changes in grade point average (GPA) were compared for the academic year prior to the concussion to the academic year the concussion occurred (or could have occurred among non-concussed matched students). Results Overall, 8240 students (1709 concussed, 6531 non-concussed students) were included. Both concussed and non-concussed students exhibited a lower overall GPA from one year to the next. Having sustained a concussion resulted in a -0.90% (95% CI: -1.88, 0.08) reduction in GPA. Over the same period, non-concussed matched students’ GPA reduced by -0.57% (95% CI: -1.32, 0.19). Students who sustained a concussion during high school were just as likely to graduate within four years as their non-concussed peers (ORadj: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.02). Conclusions We found that, at a population level, a concussion had minimal long-term effects on academic performance during high school. While academic accommodations and Return-to-Learn programs are an important component of pediatric concussion management, research is needed to identify risk factors for poor academic performance after a concussion and who should receive these programs. PMID:27764223

  19. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Classroom Management Strategies and Classroom Management Programs on Students' Academic, Behavioral, Emotional, and Motivational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students' academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade (2003-2013). Results showed small but significant…

  20. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.

  1. A meta-analysis of the effects of placement on academic and social skill outcome measures of students with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oh-Young, Conrad; Filler, John

    2015-12-01

    This study involved an investigation of differences between outcome measures of students with disabilities placed in more integrated settings with those of students placed in less integrated settings. A meta-analysis was conducted using the findings from 24 studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 through 2013. Results from the analyses suggest that there were significant differences (p<0.0001) between placement settings with the majority of students with disabilities in more integrated settings outperforming those in less integrated settings on both academic and social outcome measures. Overall these findings, combined with those from two prior meta-analytic studies, provide evidence spanning over 80 years suggesting separate settings are not as beneficial as are more integrated settings. Implications related to practice and policy, as well as avenues for future study, are discussed.

  2. A meta-analysis of the effects of placement on academic and social skill outcome measures of students with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oh-Young, Conrad; Filler, John

    2015-12-01

    This study involved an investigation of differences between outcome measures of students with disabilities placed in more integrated settings with those of students placed in less integrated settings. A meta-analysis was conducted using the findings from 24 studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 through 2013. Results from the analyses suggest that there were significant differences (p<0.0001) between placement settings with the majority of students with disabilities in more integrated settings outperforming those in less integrated settings on both academic and social outcome measures. Overall these findings, combined with those from two prior meta-analytic studies, provide evidence spanning over 80 years suggesting separate settings are not as beneficial as are more integrated settings. Implications related to practice and policy, as well as avenues for future study, are discussed. PMID:26342328

  3. SU-E-P-19: A National Collaborative Academic Medical Physics Network: Structure, Activity and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A national Australian inter-university medical physics (MP) group was formed in 2011/12, supported by Department of Health Better Access to Radiation Oncology BARO) seed funding. Core membership includes the six universities providing postgraduate MP courses. Objectives include increasing capacity, development and efficiency of national academic MP structures/systems and hence supporting education, clinical training and research, for the MP workforce support. Although the BARO scheme focuses on Radiation Oncology, the group has wider MP interests. Methods: Two further BARO seed grants were achieved: 1) for networked academic activities, including shared-resource teaching, eg using virtual reality systems; MP outreach to schools and undergraduates; developing web-based student and registrar education/resources, etc.; and 2) for conjoint ‘translational research’ posts between universities and partner hospitals, to clinically progress advanced RT technologies and to support students and registrars. Each university received 0.5 FTE post from each grant over 2 years (total: $1.75M) and leveraged local additional partner funds. Results: Total funding: $4–5M. Overall there have been 35 (mainly overseas) postholders bringing specific expertise, beginning in early 2013. Periods in Australia have been from 0.25–2 years (median=1). As well as the education activities, research projects include lung/spine SBRT, 4D RT, FFF beams, technology assessment, complex treatment planning, imaging for radiation oncology, DIR, adaptive breast, datamining, radiomics,etc. Observed positive impacts include: increased interest in MP courses, training support, translational research infrastructure and/or clinical practice in the hospitals involved, plus increased collaboration and effectiveness between the universities. Posts are continuing beyond grant end using leveraged funds, providing the basis for sustainability of some posts. Conclusion: The BARO-funded projects have

  4. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.

    2015-01-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  5. Relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes are important indicators of school effectiveness and long-term student outcomes. "Multi-tiered systems of support" (MTSS), such as "School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports" (SWPBIS), have emerged as potentially effective frameworks for addressing student needs and…

  6. Parenting Styles and Practices of Latino Parents and Latino Fifth Graders' Academic, Cognitive, Social, and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabagchourian, John J.; Sorkhabi, Nadia; Quach, Wendy; Strage, Amy

    2014-01-01

    A vast literature documents a host of advantages conferred upon middle class European American children whose parents employ an authoritative style of parenting, including enhanced academic achievement and positive behavioral outcomes. The literature is much less clear about the relationship between parental authority style and child outcomes in…

  7. Financial Health of the Higher Education Sector: Financial Results and TRAC Outcomes 2013-14. Issues Paper 2015/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the financial health of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)-funded higher education sector in England. The analysis covers financial results for the academic year 2013-14, as submitted to HEFCE in December 2014, as well as the outcomes from the sector's Transparent Approach to Costing (TRAC)…

  8. Interlanguage in Undergraduates' Academic English: Preliminary Results from Written Script Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Rosa Munoz

    2010-01-01

    The following article aims to revisit Selinker's theory of Interlanguage by analysing a group of undergraduates' written scripts in L2. The initial outcomes of the study establish a linguistic parallelism between students' Interlingua and English as a lingua franca in the academic world. In the light of this comparison, certain theoretical…

  9. Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths' academic outcomes: exploring the integrative model of parenting.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Katie; Dotterer, Aryn M

    2013-09-01

    Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed. PMID:23456244

  10. Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths' academic outcomes: exploring the integrative model of parenting.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Katie; Dotterer, Aryn M

    2013-09-01

    Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed.

  11. [Engagement and academics results of the grade students].

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, José Juan; Labajos Manzanares, Maria Teresa; Luque, Francisca Fernández

    2013-09-01

    The academic engagement is a three-feature psychological welfare (determination, knowledge absorptive capability and dedication) as an intrinsic commitment towards the studies. The main aim of this study is to know the motivational status in students and to compare this with their academic performance. For the purpose of this paper, it was carried out an observational, correlational, cross-sectional study. The target population is the students carrying out the clinical training in the University of Malaga as part of the Nursing Degree. According to the data achieved, the mean score are the followings: determination 3.46 out of 6 (ST 1.05), dedication 5.16 out of 6 (ST 0.97) and knowledge absorptive capability 3.59 out of 6 (ST 1.18). The engagement global mean score of the nursing students enrolled in this University School of Nursing is 4.1 out of 6. It is worthy to mention the levels for dedication, ranging from almost always and always, which involves a remarkable vocation towards their profession. The marks on Practicum II-III have evidenced an association with the engagement determination (p < 0.008), and knowledge absorption capability (p < 0.036). Marks on Practicum I have not evidenced any association.

  12. Effect of Peer Nominations of Teacher-Student Support at Individual and Classroom Levels on Social and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students’ individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students’ peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students’ peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students’ academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers’ perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children’s social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24930822

  13. Effect of peer nominations of teacher-student support at individual and classroom levels on social and academic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed.

  14. Preparing Academic Medical Centers for the Clinical Learning Environment Review: Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative IV Outcomes and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Markova, Tsveti; Polis, Rachael L.; Peters, Marguerite; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Driven by changes to improve quality in patient care and population health while reducing costs, evolvement of the health system calls for restructuring health professionals' education and aligning it with the healthcare delivery system. In response to these changes, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) encourages the integration of health system leadership, faculty, and residents in restructuring graduate medical education (GME). Innovative approaches to achieving this restructuring and the CLER objectives are essential. Methods: The Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative (NI) IV provided a multiinstitutional learning collaborative focused on supporting GME redesign. From October 2013 through March 2015, participants conducted relevant projects, attended onsite meetings, and participated in teleconferences and webinars addressing the CLER areas. Participants shared best practices, resources, and experiences. We designed a pre/post descriptive study to examine outcomes. Results: Thirty-three institutions completed NI IV, and at its conclusion, the majority reported greater CLER readiness compared with baseline. Twenty-two (88.0%) institutions reported that NI IV had a great impact on advancing their efforts in the CLER area of their project focus, and 15 (62.5%) reported a great impact in other CLER focus areas. Opportunities to share progress with other teams and the national group meetings were reported to contribute to teams' success. Conclusion: The NI IV learning collaborative prepared institutions for CLER, suggesting successful integration of the clinical and educational enterprises. We propose that national learning collaboratives of GME-sponsoring health systems enable advancement of their education mission, leading ultimately to better healthcare outcomes. This learning model may be generalizable to newfound programs for academic medical centers

  15. Building a community-academic partnership to improve health outcomes in an underserved community.

    PubMed

    McCann, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    East Garfield Park, IL, is an impoverished community with 59.7% of residents falling below twice the poverty level and 42.6% of its children in poverty. In 2001, the leading causes of hospitalizations were heart disease (10.3%), diabetes (2%), and asthma (3.9%), all of which occur at frequencies 33% greater than the Chicago average. Finally, a review of the health care facilities in the community suggests that there is a need for accessible primary health care services in the area. The purpose of this project was to improve health outcomes in an impoverished, underserved community with documented health care needs and lack of adequate health care services by creating a community-academic partnership to provide on-site, interdisciplinary, health care services within an established and trusted community-based social service agency, Marillac House. The short-term objectives for this project included creating a community-academic partnership between Marillac House and Colleges of Nursing, Medicine, and Health Sciences; providing comprehensive health care services; and developing an innovative clinical education model for interdisciplinary care across specialties. Long-term objectives included providing preventative services; evidenced-based management of acute and chronic illness; evaluating client's health outcomes; and creating a sustainability plan for the long-term success of the health center. PMID:20055966

  16. An Examination of the Impact of a Freshman Seminar Course on Student Academic Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Lanette; Napoli, Anthony R.

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the correlation between completion of a freshman seminar course at a community college and subsequent persistence and achievement. Indicates that receiving a grade of "C" or better is positively correlated with subsequent academic success. States that the results do not identify which elements of the seminar contributed most to this…

  17. Influence of Perceived Contextual Stress on Self-Esteem and Academic Outcomes in African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Hurley, Megan; Foney, Dana; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2002-01-01

    Studied factors that influence academic success among 84 high-achieving African American students exposed to many stressful life events often associated with life in urban neighborhoods. Results show that adolescent-perceived hassles were indications of parental monitoring, and parental monitoring was positively related to self-esteem. Discusses…

  18. Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore: An Analysis of Its Sociohistorical Roots and Current Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2005-01-01

    Using available data from Singapore's national census and economic reports, national exams, international comparison studies and small-scale studies, this paper examines the sociohistorical circumstances that led to the creation of Singapore's bilingual education policy, the results of this policy on recent academic achievement and implications…

  19. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Child Academic and Behavior Problems: Co-Occurrence and Distal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify classes of children at entry into first grade with different patterns of academic and behavior problems. A latent class analysis was conducted with a longitudinal community sample of 678 predominantly low-income African American children. Results identified multiple subclasses of children, including a class…

  20. Changing Incentives and Time Allocations for Academic Economists: Results from 1995 and 2000 National Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Cynthia L.; Becker, William E.; Watts, Michael

    2004-01-01

    How much time do academic economists allocate to teaching, research, and service, and how much time do their departments want them to allocate to these pursuits? As a result of the decline in economics majors in the early 1990s, was there a change in the reward system and time allocation of academic economists toward teaching? In this study, the…

  1. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity.

  2. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. PMID:27216025

  3. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors.

  4. School and peer influences on the academic outcomes of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J; Jones, Brittni D

    2015-10-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents' beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N = 307, Mage = 16.84) and girls (N = 305, Mage = 16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents.

  5. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  6. Selected engagement factors and academic learning outcomes of undergraduate engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, Patricia J.

    The concept of student engagement and its relationship to successful student performance and learning outcomes has a long history in higher education (Kuh, 2007). Attention to faculty and student engagement has only recently become of interest to the engineering education community. This interest can be attributed to long-standing research by George Kuh's, National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) at the Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. In addition, research projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Academic Pathway Study (APS) at the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE) and the Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education (CASEE), Measuring Student and Faculty Engagement in Engineering Education, at the National Academy of Engineering. These research studies utilized the framework and data from the Engineering Change study by the Center for the Study of Higher Education, Pennsylvania State, that evaluated the impact of the new Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET) EC2000 "3a through k" criteria identify 11 learning outcomes expected of engineering graduates. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent selected engagement factors of 1. institution, 2. social, 3. cognitive, 4. finance, and 5. technology influence undergraduate engineering students and quality student learning outcomes. Through the descriptive statistical analysis indicates that there maybe problems in the engineering program. This researcher would have expected at least 50% of the students to fall in the Strongly Agree and Agree categories. The data indicated that the there maybe problems in the engineering program problems in the data. The problems found ranked in this order: 1). Dissatisfaction with faculty instruction methods and quality of instruction and not a clear understanding of engineering majors , 2). inadequate Engineering faculty and advisors availability especially applicable

  7. Comparative Effectiveness on Cognitive Asthma Outcomes of the SHARP Academic Asthma Health Education and Counseling Program and a Non-Academic Program.

    PubMed

    Kintner, Eileen; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C Nathan; Stoddard, Debbie; Gomes, Melissa; Harmon, Phyllis; Van Egeren, Laurie A

    2015-12-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality is higher among older school-age children and early adolescents than other age groups across the lifespan. NIH recommended expanding asthma education to schools and community settings to meet cognitive outcomes that have an impact on morbidity and mortality. Guided by the acceptance of asthma model, an evidence-guided, comprehensive school-based academic health education and counseling program, Staying Healthy-Asthma Responsible & Prepared™ (SHARP), was developed. The program complements existing school curricula by integrating biology, psychology, and sociology content with related spelling, math, and reading and writing assignments. Feasibility, benefits, and efficacy have been established. We compared the effectiveness of SHARP to a non-academic program, Open Airways for Schools, in improving asthma knowledge and reasoning about symptom management. A two-group, cluster-randomized, single-blinded design was used with a sample of 205 students in grades 4-5 with asthma and their caregivers. Schools were matched prior to randomization. The unit of analysis was the student. Certified elementary school teachers delivered the programs during instructional time. Data were collected from student/caregiver dyads at baseline and at 1, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. In multilevel modeling, students enrolled in the academic SHARP program demonstrated significant (p< .001) improvement in asthma knowledge and reasoning over students enrolled in the non-academic program. Knowledge advantages were retained at 24 months. Findings support delivery in schools of the SHARP academic health education program for students with asthma. PMID:26296595

  8. Comparative Effectiveness on Cognitive Asthma Outcomes of the SHARP Academic Asthma Health Education and Counseling Program and a Non-Academic Program.

    PubMed

    Kintner, Eileen; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C Nathan; Stoddard, Debbie; Gomes, Melissa; Harmon, Phyllis; Van Egeren, Laurie A

    2015-12-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality is higher among older school-age children and early adolescents than other age groups across the lifespan. NIH recommended expanding asthma education to schools and community settings to meet cognitive outcomes that have an impact on morbidity and mortality. Guided by the acceptance of asthma model, an evidence-guided, comprehensive school-based academic health education and counseling program, Staying Healthy-Asthma Responsible & Prepared™ (SHARP), was developed. The program complements existing school curricula by integrating biology, psychology, and sociology content with related spelling, math, and reading and writing assignments. Feasibility, benefits, and efficacy have been established. We compared the effectiveness of SHARP to a non-academic program, Open Airways for Schools, in improving asthma knowledge and reasoning about symptom management. A two-group, cluster-randomized, single-blinded design was used with a sample of 205 students in grades 4-5 with asthma and their caregivers. Schools were matched prior to randomization. The unit of analysis was the student. Certified elementary school teachers delivered the programs during instructional time. Data were collected from student/caregiver dyads at baseline and at 1, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. In multilevel modeling, students enrolled in the academic SHARP program demonstrated significant (p< .001) improvement in asthma knowledge and reasoning over students enrolled in the non-academic program. Knowledge advantages were retained at 24 months. Findings support delivery in schools of the SHARP academic health education program for students with asthma.

  9. Institutional Research and Academic Outcomes. Proceedings of the Association for Institutional Research Annual Forum. (8th, San Francisco, California, May 6-9, 1968.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    The theme of the 8th Annual Forum on Institutional Research was "Institutional Research and Academic Outcomes" -- intended as a continuation of the 1966 Forum discussion dealing with academic inputs and the 1967 Forum on the instructional process. After an address by the Association's president in which he urged his academic colleagues to…

  10. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.

  11. Academic Buoyancy and Academic Outcomes: Towards a Further Understanding of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Students without ADHD, and Academic Buoyancy Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Academic buoyancy is students' capacity to successfully overcome setback and challenge that is typical of the ordinary course of everyday academic life. It may represent an important factor on the psycho-educational landscape assisting students who experience difficulties in school and schoolwork. Aims: This study investigated the…

  12. It Takes Two: Sensitive Caregiving across Contexts and Children's Social, Emotional, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesely, Colleen K.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Mahatmya, Duhita

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Using longitudinal survey data from the Welfare, Children, and Families Study: A Three-City Study ("n" = 135), this study examines how congruence in maternal and child care provider sensitivities contributes to young children's social, emotional, and academic outcomes among low-income minority families. Congruence…

  13. Opportunities and Outcomes: The Role of Peers in Developing the Oral Academic English Proficiency of Adolescent English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill-Poza, Avary

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…

  14. What Works after School? The Relationship between After-School Program Quality, Program Attendance, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leos-Urbel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between after-school program quality, program attendance, and academic outcomes for a sample of low-income after-school program participants. Regression and hierarchical linear modeling analyses use a unique longitudinal data set including 29 after-school programs that served 5,108 students in Grades 4 to 8…

  15. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  16. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics and Parenting Practices on Academic Problems and Aggression Outcomes among Moderately to Highly Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tammy D.; Lochman, John E.; Fite, Paula J.; Wells, Karen C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effects of neighborhood and parenting on 120 at-risk children's academic and aggressive outcomes, concurrently and at two later timepoints during the transition to middle school. Random effects regression models were estimated to examine whether neighborhood characteristics and harsh…

  17. The Role of Arts Participation in Students' Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of School, Home, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Mansour, Marianne; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory A. D.; Sudmalis, David

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study draws on positive youth development frameworks and ecological models to examine the role of school-, home- and community-based arts participation in students' academic (e.g., motivation, engagement) and nonacademic (e.g., self-esteem, life satisfaction) outcomes. The study is based on 643 elementary and high school students…

  18. Undergraduate Latina/o Students: A Systematic Review of Research Identifying Factors Contributing to Academic Success Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria; Taggart, Amanda; Nora, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to produce an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of qualitative and quantitative evidence specific to the factors related to undergraduate Latina/o student academic success outcomes during college. The purpose of the study was to make sense of and provide critique to this rapidly growing body of research, as…

  19. The Effect of Comorbid AD/HD and Learning Disabilities on Parent-Reported Behavioral and Academic Outcomes of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.; Adams, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Data from the 2001 National Household Education Survey were examined to estimate the prevalence of comorbid AD/HD and LD among school-aged children in the United States and assess how this comorbidity was associated with selected parent-reported behavioral and academic outcomes. The observed prevalence of comorbidity coincided with estimates in…

  20. Three Year Cumulative Impacts of the 4Rs Program on Children's Social-Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, developmental science has made significant progress in understanding children's trajectories toward social-emotional and academic outcomes. At the same time, there has been dramatic growth in the design, implementation, and rigorous evaluation of school-based interventions to promote positive social-emotional development…

  1. Differences between African American and European American First-Year College Students in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectations, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2012-01-01

    First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…

  2. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  3. An analysis of student academic outcomes in high-poverty schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCargar, Julie P.

    The present study explored the relationships between student performance outcomes in math and reading and school level variables. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between student achievement on the Tennessee Comprehensive Exam and student academic growth as measured by value-added scores and five school-level variables. The sample group was 102 Title I elementary and middle schools in the Memphis City School District. Data from three school years, 2000--2001, 2001--2002, and 2002--2003, were used. The five school level variables were school poverty rate, average class size, teacher mobility rates, percentage of teachers on permit, and percentage of teachers on waiver. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships among the five independent variables and the interrelationships among the four dependent variables. This was to determine whether these relationships were significant and had explanatory power in helping to identify reasons for student academic progress in the schools studied. Four hypotheses were tested using straight correlation, multiple regression, and stepwise regression. For each of the four hypotheses, at least one independent variable was found to be significantly correlated with student achievement and growth at a = .05. The percentage of teachers on permit was found to be significantly correlated with three of the four dependent variables: student achievement in math, student achievement in reading, and student growth in math. Class size was also found to be significantly correlated with math achievement. School poverty rate was the only variable found to be significantly correlated with student growth in reading. School poverty rate was also found to be significantly correlated with reading achievement. The test for relationships among the dependent variables showed that math and reading achievement were significantly correlated with each other. Schools that had higher achievement in reading were also found

  4. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. PMID:26825591

  5. A single unit lymphoma experience: outcome in a Cape Town academic centre.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lucille; Robinson, Rowan; Gavine, Lindsey; Juritz, June; Jacobs, Peter

    2007-08-01

    To document outcome in Hodgkin and other lymphomas from a privately based academic centre the clinical records from 253 consecutive referrals were analysed. Diagnosis was according to World Health Organization criteria, prognosis assigned by the international index and therapy risk-stratified with results subject to appropriate statistical methodology. None of these patients underwent transplantation. For the cohort the median age was 55 years (range 11-94) and 63% were male. Constitutional symptoms were present in 22%; a quarter had previous chemotherapy and a third some form of irradiation prior to referral. Fifty-seven percent were stage I or II and 21% had nodal disease above and below the diaphragm whilst in the remainder cells were present in the circulation and this included the subset of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia -- small lymphocytic lymphoma. Positron emission scanning was not available for these studies. Median survival for the cohort is 3.2 years and reduced to 1.3 years by the presence of unexplained fever, sweating or inappropriate weight loss. Further adverse factors included any prior treatment, intermediate or high-grade histopathology, risk factors defined by the International Prognostic Index as well as late Rai stages. Analysed by disease category Hodgkin lymphoma (n=17) when managed according to the German Study Group protocols and hairy cell leukaemia (n=10) treated with two chlorodeoxyadenosine -- both had a stable plateau in excess of 90%. The corresponding figures for follicular variants (n=31) was 72% in the low risk and 58% in the remainder when treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone. Curves for the aggressive or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=44) fell initially to 48%, but relapse continued in stages III and IV to the current level of 18% when receiving cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine and prednisone on the 21-day schedule. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia -- small lymphocytic lymphoma (n=58) were

  6. Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: results from seven studies of preschool programs.

    PubMed

    Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.

  7. Data Collection Strategies and Measurement Tools for Assessing Academic and Therapeutic Outcomes in Recovery Schools.

    PubMed

    Botzet, Andria M; McIlvaine, Patrick W; Winters, Ken C; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Dittel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Accurate evaluation and documentation of the efficacy of recovery schools can be vital to the continuation and expansion of these beneficial resources. A very limited data set currently exists that examines the value of specific schools established to support adolescents and young adults in recovery; additional research is necessary. The following article outlines the methodology utilized in a current quasi-experimental study evaluating both academic and therapeutic outcomes of adolescents attending recovery high schools as compared to traditional (non-recovery-based) high schools. The developmental considerations in assessing adolescents in recovery and their parents is delineated in this article, which underscores the need for extensive knowledge of adolescent substance abuse and other mental health issues. In addition, sensitivity around privacy among adolescents, parents, schools, and health providers is highlighted, as well as the validity of assessment. Key assessment strategies, including protocol of recruitment and interviewing techniques, are also presented along with a list of parent and adolescent assessment instruments and their corresponding interpretive variables. Protocol recommendations for future research are also outlined.

  8. Data Collection Strategies and Measurement Tools for Assessing Academic and Therapeutic Outcomes in Recovery Schools

    PubMed Central

    Botzet, Andria M.; McIlvaine, Patrick W.; Winters, Ken C.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Dittel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Accurate evaluation and documentation of the efficacy of recovery schools can be vital to the continuation and expansion of these beneficial resources. A very limited data set currently exists that examines the value of specific schools established to support adolescents and young adults in recovery; additional research is necessary. The following article outlines the methodology utilized in a current quasi-experimental study evaluating both academic and therapeutic outcomes of adolescents attending recovery high schools as compared to traditional (non-recovery-based) high schools. The developmental considerations in assessing adolescents in recovery and their parents is delineated in this article, which underscores the need for extensive knowledge of adolescent substance abuse and other mental health issues. In addition, sensitivity around privacy among adolescents, parents, schools, and health providers is highlighted, as well as the validity of assessment. Key assessment strategies, including protocol of recruitment and interviewing techniques, are also presented along with a list of parent and adolescent assessment instruments and their corresponding interpretive variables. Protocol recommendations for future research are also outlined. PMID:25018573

  9. Academic abilities in children and adolescents with a history of autism spectrum disorders who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to as having achieved "optimal outcomes." Performance of 32 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes, 41 high-functioning individuals with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (high-functioning autism), and 34 typically developing peers was compared on measures of decoding, reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and written expression. Groups were matched on age, sex, and nonverbal IQ; however, the high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower than the optimal outcome and typically developing groups on verbal IQ. All three groups performed in the average range on all subtests measured, and no significant differences were found in performance of the optimal outcome and typically developing groups. The high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower on subtests of reading comprehension and mathematical problem solving than the optimal outcome group. These findings suggest that the academic abilities of individuals who achieved optimal outcomes are similar to those of their typically developing peers, even in areas where individuals who have retained their autism spectrum disorder diagnoses exhibit some ongoing difficulty.

  10. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students.

    PubMed

    Walton, Gregory M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2011-03-18

    A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.

  11. Exploring academics' views on designs, methods, characteristics and outcomes of inclusive health research with people with intellectual disabilities: a modified Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Meijering, J V; Leusink, G; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H M J

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Medical Journal's (BMJ's) patient revolution strives for collaboration with patients in healthcare and health research. This paper studies collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in health research, also known as inclusive health research. Currently, transparency and agreement among academics is lacking regarding its main aspects, preventing upscaling of the patient revolution. Objective This study aims to gain agreement among academics on 3 aspects of inclusive health research for people with ID: (1) designs and methods, (2) most important characteristics and (3) outcomes. Design A Delphi study was conducted with academics with experience in inclusive (health) research and on people with ID. The study consisted of 2 sequential questionnaire rounds (n=24; n=17), followed by in-depth interviews (n=10). Results Academics agreed on (1) a collaborative approach to be most suitable to inclusive health research, (2) characteristics regarding the accessibility and facilitation of inclusive health research, and (3) several outcomes of inclusive health research for people with ID and healthcare. Other characteristics agreed on included: atmosphere, relationship, engagement, partnership and power. It was stressed that these characteristics ensure meaningful inclusion. Interviewed academics voiced the need for a tool supporting the facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. There was ambiguity as to what this tool should comprise and the extent to which it was possible to capture the complex process of inclusive health research. Discussion and conclusions This study underlines the need for transparency, facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. The need for in-depth interviews after 2 Delphi rounds underlines its complexity and context dependence. To increase process transparency, future research should focus on gaining insight into inclusive health research in its context. A tool could be developed

  12. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  13. The Status of Academic Libraries in the United States: Results from the 1996 Academic Library Survey with Historical Comparisons. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalan, Maggie; Mansfield, Wendy; Justh, Natalie

    This report describes the status of academic libraries in 1996, based on results of the 1996 Academic Library Survey, a part of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) of the National Center for Education Statistics. The report presents detailed tabulations for 1996 and historical comparisons with previous years. Topics covered…

  14. Identification with Academics and Motivation to Achieve in School: How the Structure of the Self Influences Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Jones, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Authors since William James ("1892/1968") have implied that the structure of the self-concept can influence motivation and outcomes in particular domains. The value or importance an individual places on a domain influences how motivated that individual is to expend effort in that domain, ultimately influencing the positivity or negativity of the…

  15. [Biliary atresias operated with favourable results: predictable outcome].

    PubMed

    Broto, J; Gil Vernet, J M; Ormaechea, M

    2005-01-01

    Since 1975, our experience in the treatment of biliary atresia with Kasai's technique has improved little by little, achieving 65% favourable outcome in the last five years. We define "good results" as the complete restoration of biliary flow and normalization of bilirrubin levels. The long-term evolution of these good results can be diverse. The objective of the present work is to analyze the outcome of patients in our series in whom a favourable initial response was achieved, as well as evaluating their present situation and future perspectives. The authors present a total of 17 patients operated by Kasai's technique since 1985, that constitutes the group with good results in our series. The controls were based on general analysis, liver function and periodic ultrasound explorations. All received a standardized medical treatment consisting of vitamin supplements (A, D3, E, K) minerals (zinc, calcium, phosphate, iron) ursodexoxicolic acid, luminal,as well as close control of calorie intake. In two patients the levels of bilirrubine were progressively increased with time, stabilizing at between 5/6 mgs/100 ml, with progressive hepatic hardening, appearance of splenomegalia, indirect signs of portal hypertension and a slight deterioration of hepatic function. One received a transplant at age 12 with Quick levels below 50%. The other, aged 16, continues with an acceptable hepatic function and good quality of life under recommendation of transplant. Eleven patients with ages ranging from fourteen months to seventeen years presented slight and firm hepatomegalia, moderate portal hypertension, GOT 71 +/- 8 mg/100 ml, GPT 97 +/- 11 mg/100 ml and normal bilirrubine levels. From this group, 3 patients, all under five years of age, experienced bleeding from esophageal varices which were controlled by sclerosis and medical treatment (propanolol and isosorbide dinitrate). Recently, one three year-old patient developed a hepatocarcinoma of rapid, mortal evolution. Since then

  16. Academic Responding during Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…

  17. A Success Course for Freshmen on Academic Probation: Persistence and Graduation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Shelley M.; Burd, Gail D.

    2012-01-01

    Administrators at a large, public university launched a mandatory success course for freshmen placed on academic probation at the end of their first semester. We compared the rates of course participant and nonparticipant return to good academic standing; persistence to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years; and graduation (within 4 to 5 years). The…

  18. How Non-Academic Supports Work: Four Mechanisms for Improving Student Outcomes. CCRC Brief. Number 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2011-01-01

    College success requires more than the ability to master college-level academic skills. Students must learn to navigate an unfamiliar campus, satisfy bureaucratic requirements, meet new expectations (Shields, 2002), and engage in new types of interpersonal relationships (Dickie & Farrell, 1991). Academically vulnerable students--those who are most…

  19. Library Use and Undergraduate Student Outcomes: New Evidence for Students' Retention and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Fransen, Jan; Nackerud, Shane

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries, like other university departments, are being asked to demonstrate their value to the institution. This study discusses the impact library usage has on the retention and academic success of first-time, first-year undergraduate students at a large, public research university. Usage statistics were gathered at the University of…

  20. Attention and Language as Mediators of Academic Outcomes Following Early Psychosocial Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions at older ages are at increased risk of persistent attention problems, lower cognition, and academic difficulties. This study examined cognitive and behavior problems as mediators of the association between early psychosocial deprivation and academic functioning. Participants were 8-17-year-old children adopted…

  1. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  2. Relationship between Past Academic Performance and Results of Specialty In-Training Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronai, Ann K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)

  3. Comparison of College/Career Readiness Outcomes between the Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) Program and the Traditional High School Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sandra K.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared selected college/career readiness outcomes for students attending an urban high school who voluntarily participated in an academic support program, Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), to demographically similar/same school peers who completed the traditional academic program (TAP) of study. Grade point average,…

  4. Evaluation of Counseling Outcomes at a University Counseling Center: The Impact of Clinically Significant Change on Problem Resolution and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Keum-Hyeong; Buskey, Wendy; Johnson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate how receiving personal counseling at a university counseling center helps students deal with their personal problems and facilitates academic functioning. To that end, this study used both clinical and academic outcome measures that are relevant to the practice of counseling provided at a…

  5. Nursing Academic Administrators' Lived Experiences With Incivility and Bullying From Faculty: Consequences and Outcomes Demanding Action.

    PubMed

    LaSala, Kathleen B; Wilson, Vicki; Sprunk, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There are an increasing number of nursing academic administrators who identify themselves as victims of faculty incivility. This study examined experiences that academic administrators encountered with faculty incivility using a phenomenological research design. Three major themes emerged: faculty inappropriate behaviors, consequences of faculty behaviors on administrator targets, and administrators call for action. Findings revealed that incivility had devastating effects on administrators personally and professionally. PMID:26673315

  6. Received ethnic-racial socialization messages and youths' academic and behavioral outcomes: examining the mediating role of ethnic identity and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane; Witherspoon, Dawn; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; West-Bey, Nia

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined relationships between cultural socialization and preparation for bias and youth outcomes. Using data from 805 African American and White early adolescents attending school in an integrated middle-class suburban school district in the northeastern United States, the authors hypothesized that ethnic affirmation and self-esteem would mediate relations between ethnic-racial socialization and more distal academic and behavioral outcomes. Cultural socialization was positively associated with academic and behavioral outcomes, and these associations were partially mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Preparation for bias was associated with more negative academic outcomes, and these relationships were fully mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Relationships of preparation for bias to youth outcomes were generally stronger for White compared with African American youths. The risks and benefits of different socialization messages for youths in various ecological contexts are discussed.

  7. Children's Program Outcome Review Team: 2000 Evaluation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Patricia C.

    In its seventh year of evaluating children's services, the Children's Program Outcome Review Team (CPORT), under the direction of the Tennessee Commission on Children and Youth, continued to collect and analyze data to improve service delivery to children and families involved in state custody. The CPORT evaluation for 2000 collected and organized…

  8. The Children's Performance Outcome Measures: Results after Six Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Tom; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Armstrong, Mary; Shepard, Jennifer; Wir, Liang

    This report describes the implementation and first 6 months of data collection of the required performance outcome measures for children receiving mental health services in Florida, as required under Florida's 1994 Government Performance and Accountability Act. This summary is of data received from August 1996 to January 1997 and includes data for…

  9. Assessment Program Results 1996-1997. Focus on Assessing Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeter, Thomas; Prine, Don

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools continually evaluate the process of teaching for learning in order to provide quality programming for its diverse student body. Different methods of student outcome assessment are used to identify areas for study and analysis. This report provides information about the achievement of district students on: (1)…

  10. Predicting Outcome in Behavioral Parent Training: Expected and Unexpected Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Fite, Paula J.; Bates, John E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among clinical utility and treatment outcome variables in Behavioral Parent Training (BPT). The sample included 21 mothers with 3-8 year-old children with significant externalizing behavior problems who received treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder. The primary aim was to relate two treatment…

  11. Associations of participation in service activities with academic, behavioral, and civic outcomes of adolescents at varying risk levels.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer A; Shumow, Lee; Kackar, Hayal Z

    2012-07-01

    Youth who participate in service activities differ from those who do not on a number of key demographic characteristics like socio-economic status and other indicators of risk; and most studies demonstrating positive outcomes among service participants employ small non-representative samples. Thus, there is little evidence as to whether the outcomes associated with service participation are similar among students with varying levels of risk. The National Household Education Survey of 1999, a large nationally representative cross-sectional data set that focused on community service, was analyzed to investigate associations between the risk status of 4,306 adolescent students (50.2% female; 63.3% European American, M age = 15.9), their participation in community service, and their academic adjustment, behavioral problems, and civic knowledge. Because adolescents who participate in service differ from those who do not with respect to demographic characteristics, propensity score analyses were used to correct for potential selection bias in the examination of these relationships. Analyses tested competing theoretical models of service-protective versus compensatory-among students at varying levels of risk, and suggested that service acts as a compensatory factor with respect to academic, behavioral, and civic outcomes. Propensity score analyses revealed patterns suggesting that, in some cases, students with certain demographic profiles that are themselves related to the likelihood of service participation may benefit from service participation more than others. Findings are discussed in terms of their significance for adolescent development, for planning service programs, and for educational policy.

  12. Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…

  13. Incarceration in the household: academic outcomes of adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker

    2012-11-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration. PMID:22714743

  14. Self-Reflection, Growth Goals, and Academic Outcomes: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew; Travers, Cheryl J.; Morisano, Dominique; Locke, Edwin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Goal-setting theory continues to be among the most popular and influential theories of motivation and performance, although there have been limited academic applications relative to applications in other domains, such as organizational psychology. Aims: This paper summarizes existing quantitative research and then employs a qualitative…

  15. Early Feelings about School and Later Academic Outcomes of Children with Special Needs Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser-Cram, Penny; Durand, Tina M.; Warfield, Marji Erickson

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation we examined the relation of children's reported feelings about school during kindergarten or first grade to their academic achievement at the end of fifth grade. Participants were children (N=103) who lived in poverty during early childhood and who were placed on individualized education programs (IEPs) during their…

  16. The Academic, Personality, and Physical Outcomes of Only Children in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Poston, Dudley L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 4,000 third and sixth graders and their parents and teachers, from 4 Chinese provinces. Found that, although only children scored higher on tests of verbal ability, were taller, and weighed more than firstborn and later born children, other measures of academic and personality development were similar between the groups. (MDM)

  17. Self- Versus Parent-Ratings of Industriousness, Affect, and Life Satisfaction in Relation to Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Davies, Janet E.; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. Aims: This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings…

  18. Trajectories of Discrimination across Adolescence: Associations with Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…

  19. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  20. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  1. The Use of Consultation to Improve Academic and Psychosocial Outcomes for Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotek, Steven E.; Kovac, Megan; Bostwick, Emily

    2011-01-01

    School psychologists can make use of consultation within a prevention and wellness framework to heighten gifted students' academic, social, mental health, and life competencies. The triadic and indirect nature of consultation allows school-based consultants the opportunity to support a larger population of students than they could with traditional…

  2. The Family-Study Interface and Academic Outcomes: Testing a Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding on family-work and work-study models, this article investigated a model for family-study conflict and family-study facilitation. The focus of the study was the relationship of family-study conflict and family-study facilitation with students' effortful behaviors and academic performance among a sample of university students (N = 1,656).…

  3. Interdisciplinary Curricular Conversations Examining Arts and Academics: Teacher Implementation and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angela; Bender-Slack, Delane; Burroughs, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the integration of arts and academic curricula at a performing arts school by focusing on the curriculum as it is understood and perceived by the students. The study centered on five students at a performing arts magnet school who were chosen based upon contrasts in their arts classes in order to represent a range…

  4. Academic Teams Promote Cross-Curricular Applications that Improve Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; Groth, Cori

    2009-01-01

    The middle school team project described in this article was part of a larger district initiative, started in 2001 by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) to create a systemic model of school improvement for increasing student achievement in low-performing schools. Academic teams were established as the conduit for ensuring that…

  5. Self-Assessment of Employability Skill Outcomes among Undergraduates and Alignment with Academic Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the benefits of self-assessment in higher education, disparity between student and academic assessments, with associated trends in overrating and underrating, plagues its meaningful use, particularly as a tool for formal assessment. This study examines self-assessment of capabilities in certain employability skills in…

  6. Seating Arrangements that Promote Positive Academic and Behavioural Outcomes: A Review of Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wannarka, Rachel; Ruhl, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviours that decrease student attention and diminish available instructional time. The purpose of this synthesis of empirical literature is to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioural…

  7. School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…

  8. What Causes Failure and Success? Students' Perceptions of Their Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Donelson R.; Story, Paul A.; Kelley, Karl N.; McMillan, James H.

    2009-01-01

    How do students' conceptualize the causes of their own academic successes and failures? Taking a phenomenological approach, students identified the causes of their performance immediately following return of a graded examination. We then used factor and item analyses to organize causes that were identified by a substantial number of students into…

  9. Evaluating the Effects of Basic Skills Mathematics Placement on Academic Outcomes of Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Bo, Hans; Prather, George; Kim, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the authors' proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness of math placement policies for entering community college students on these students' academic success in math, and their transfer and graduation rates. The main research question that guides the proposed study is: What are the effects of various basic skills…

  10. School-Based Mentoring Programs: Using Volunteers to Improve the Academic Outcomes of Underserved Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Amanda; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; DuBois, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that school-based mentoring programs like those offered by Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) yield small but statistically significant improvements in the academic performance of mentored students and in their beliefs in their own scholastic efficacy. The present study uses data from a randomized control trial…

  11. Improving Social and Academic Outcomes for All Learners through the Use of Teacher Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Michelle; Anderson, Darlene H.

    2012-01-01

    Students who frequently engage in problem behavior tend to disrupt teacher instruction and impede others' learning, and they can seriously limit their own opportunities for academic and social success. The view that negative student-teacher interaction adversely impacts classroom climate is well documented. A positive and engaging classroom…

  12. Academic Outcomes from Between-Class Achievement Grouping: The Australian Primary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Grouping students by academic achievement level has been practised in a wide variety of forms and contexts for over a century. Despite a general consensus in the research that between-class achievement grouping provides no overall benefit for students, the practice has persisted in various guises. Between-class achievement grouping is common in…

  13. The Effects of Mnemonic Interventions on Academic Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Cobb, R. Brian; Alwell, Morgen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between mnemonic instruction and academic performance for secondary-school-age youth with disabilities was explored in this systematic review. A total of 20 studies intervening with 669 youth with learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, and mild developmental disabilities were reviewed. The findings of this…

  14. Outcomes of an Academic Service-Learning Project on Four Urban Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Debra Abston

    2015-01-01

    Service-learning has a rich history in higher education, with a multitude of studies indicating positive learning, community engagement, and moral development outcomes of student participants. The majority of the research findings, however, have represented four-year colleges. And while there are limited outcome studies of service-learning in…

  15. The Effect of School Choice on Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18324

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Neilson, Christopher A.; Zimmerman, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on student outcomes and school choice lotteries from a low-income urban school district, we examine how school choice can affect student outcomes through increased motivation and personal effort as well as through improved school and peer inputs. First we use unique daily data on individual-level student absences and suspensions to show…

  16. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both p<.05), indicating the likelihood of Hawthorne effects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve

  17. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both p<.05), indicating the likelihood of Hawthorne effects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve

  18. Analysis of Academic Results for Informatics Course Improvement Using Association Rule Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    In this chapter we analyze the application of association rule mining for assessing student academic results and extracting recommendations for the improvement of course content. We propose a framework for mining educational data using association rules, and a novel metric for assessing the strength of an association rule, called “cumulative interestingness”. In a case study, we analyze the Informatics course examination results using association rules, rank course topics following their importance for final course marks based on the strength of the association rules, and propose which specific course topic should be improved to achieve higher student learning effectiveness and progress.

  19. Results of a Survey of Illinois Academic Libraries Affiliated with ILLINET. Illinois Libraries Statistical Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhor, Herbert

    This publication reports the results of the first annual survey of those Illinois academic libraries affiliated with the Illinois Library and Information Network (ILLINET). It is noted that responses were received from 132 libraries, a 91 percent response rate. Information is presented on public use of academic library materials and services;…

  20. The write stuff: A proactive approach to increasing academics' writing skills and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Trudy; Friel, Deborah; McAllister, Margaret; Searl, Kerry Reid; Rossi, Dolene

    2015-07-01

    An important way to advance the profession of nursing, to promote best practice and to improve the quality of nursing care, is for nurses to publish. A publication track record is necessary to gain competitive research funding, build knowledge, disseminate new insights and advance the profession. However, academics often experience obstacles in publishing ranging from a pervasive teaching culture, lack of confidence in writing, and lack of strategies to write more strategically. The benefits of writing retreats have been discussed within the nursing and other academic literature but the specifics about the method as well as the unplanned benefits have not been explored. More exploration and discussion is needed about factors assisting writers to complete papers and successfully publish. This paper discusses a novel intervention which aimed to seed the beginnings of a flourishing scholarly community at a regional Queensland University. The paper also presents qualitative and quantitative evaluation data.

  1. The write stuff: A proactive approach to increasing academics' writing skills and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Trudy; Friel, Deborah; McAllister, Margaret; Searl, Kerry Reid; Rossi, Dolene

    2015-07-01

    An important way to advance the profession of nursing, to promote best practice and to improve the quality of nursing care, is for nurses to publish. A publication track record is necessary to gain competitive research funding, build knowledge, disseminate new insights and advance the profession. However, academics often experience obstacles in publishing ranging from a pervasive teaching culture, lack of confidence in writing, and lack of strategies to write more strategically. The benefits of writing retreats have been discussed within the nursing and other academic literature but the specifics about the method as well as the unplanned benefits have not been explored. More exploration and discussion is needed about factors assisting writers to complete papers and successfully publish. This paper discusses a novel intervention which aimed to seed the beginnings of a flourishing scholarly community at a regional Queensland University. The paper also presents qualitative and quantitative evaluation data. PMID:25773450

  2. Trajectories of Discrimination Across Adolescence: Associations With Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R D

    2016-09-01

    The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample included 226 African American, White, Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Chinese adolescents (ages 11-12 at Time 1) recruited in sixth grade from six public schools in New York City. All forms of discrimination increased during middle school and decreased during high school. The frequency with which adolescents reported different sources and types of discrimination varied across ethnicity/race, but not gender. Initial levels and rates of change in discrimination predicted academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades, albeit in complex ways. PMID:27684390

  3. How Chief Academic Officers at Private Hispanic-Serving Institutions Use the National Survey of Student Engagement in Assessing Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Michael Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Five chief academic officers (CAOs) represented their institutions and served as a purposeful sample to qualitatively explore how they used National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) results to facilitate institutional effectiveness and promote undergraduate student success. All these private Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) participated in…

  4. Results of an Institutional LGBT Climate Survey at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Chester, Sean D; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Eckstrand, Kristen L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the climate and culture experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees and students at one large academic medical center. An anonymous, online institutional climate survey was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of LGBT employees and students. There were 42 LGBT and 14 non-LGBT survey participants. Results revealed that a surprisingly large percentage of LGBT individuals experienced pressure to remain "closeted" and were harassed despite medical center policies of non-discrimination. Continuing training, inclusive policies and practices, and the development of mechanisms to address LGBT-specific harassment are necessary for improving institutional climate. PMID:26789861

  5. Results of an Institutional LGBT Climate Survey at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Chester, Sean D; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Eckstrand, Kristen L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the climate and culture experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees and students at one large academic medical center. An anonymous, online institutional climate survey was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of LGBT employees and students. There were 42 LGBT and 14 non-LGBT survey participants. Results revealed that a surprisingly large percentage of LGBT individuals experienced pressure to remain "closeted" and were harassed despite medical center policies of non-discrimination. Continuing training, inclusive policies and practices, and the development of mechanisms to address LGBT-specific harassment are necessary for improving institutional climate.

  6. Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

  7. The Relationship between Urban Students Attending Religious Revival Services and Academic and Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of attending religious revival services on the educational and behavioral outcomes of urban students. Specifically, the influence of attending the most recognized revival of the past decade is analyzed. Urban student attendees from throughout the United States attend, are surveyed, and then are randomly selected to…

  8. The Benchmarking Capacity of a General Outcome Measure of Academic Language in Science and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of research evaluating the technical merits of general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement is growing. This study targeted criterion validity for critical content monitoring. Questions addressed the concurrent criterion validity of alternate presentation formats of critical content monitoring and the measure's…

  9. Help or Hindrance? The Effects of College Remediation on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the effect of remediation using a large longitudinal dataset of Texas students. The authors study the effect of being in any remediation, regardless of subject, and also investigate the effect of remediation in different subjects. In particular, they examine whether remediation in math improves student outcomes.…

  10. Negative Racial Encounters and Academic Outcomes of International and Domestic Students in Four Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, J. Paul

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, there has been little systematic inquiry into the nature and extent of discrimination against university students and the potential impact of discrimination on educational outcomes. On the basis of an examination of domestic and international students at the University of British Columbia (Vancouver), York (Toronto), McGill (Montreal),…

  11. What Is a Summer Job Worth? The Impact of Summer Youth Employment on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leos-Urbel, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of New York City's Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP) on school attendance and other educational outcomes in the following school year for a large sample of low-income high school students. The program provides summer jobs and training to youth aged 14 to 21, and due to high demand allocates slots through a…

  12. Organizational Effects on First-Year Students' Academic Outcomes at a New Public Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between organizational behavior and student outcomes has been understudied, especially in less selective public research universities and among students from underrepresented populations. This study draws on Berger and Milem's (2000) framework to examine the relationship between student entry characteristics, organizational…

  13. Genetic Interactions with Prenatal Social Environment: Effects on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Dalton; Rauscher, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies report gene-environment interactions, suggesting that specific alleles have different effects on social outcomes depending on environment. In all these studies, however, environmental conditions are potentially endogenous to unmeasured genetic characteristics. That is, it could be that the observed interaction effects actually…

  14. Learning Behaviors Mediating the Effects of Behavior Problems on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalon, Ximena Dominguez; Greenfield, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between behavior problems, learning behaviors, and educational outcomes for at-risk preschool children. A sample of Head Start children (N = 196) was selected in the southeast United States. Behavior problems were assessed using the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (LeBuffe & Naglieri, 1999) and learning…

  15. Selected Engagement Factors and Academic Learning Outcomes of Undergraduate Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of student engagement and its relationship to successful student performance and learning outcomes has a long history in higher education (Kuh, 2007). Attention to faculty and student engagement has only recently become of interest to the engineering education community. This interest can be attributed to long-standing research by…

  16. School-Based Mentoring Programs: Using Volunteers to Improve the Academic Outcomes of Underserved Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Amanda; Grossman, Jean; DuBois, David

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on mentoring relationships outside of school does point toward relationship closeness and related indicators of the emotional quality of the mentor-protégé tie as important influences on youth outcomes. There is preliminary evidence that this may also be the case for School Based Mentoring (SBM), or at least that closeness promotes…

  17. The Determinants of Academic Outcomes in a Competing Risks Approach: Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerici, Renata; Giraldo, Anna; Meggiolaro, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The literature has suggested that students' progress at university is influenced by their personal characteristics; this article examines whether these factors act differently according to the study fields of degree courses in which students are enrolled. In particular, the factors influencing the various outcomes of the university programme…

  18. How Does Student Peer Review Influence Perceptions, Engagement and Academic Outcomes? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Raoul; Baik, Chi; Naylor, Ryan; Pearce, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Involving students in peer review has many pedagogical benefits, but few studies have explicitly investigated relationships between the content of peer reviews, student perceptions and assessment outcomes. We conducted a case study of peer review within a third-year undergraduate subject at a research-intensive Australian university, in which we…

  19. Beyond Academic Outcomes: Expanding into Comprehensive Assessment while Preserving Faculty Ownership. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    At Northeast Missouri State University, where faculty have directed student outcomes assessment for 20 years, assessment is expanding to include a broader university mission of developing the whole person. As assessment becomes more comprehensive, expanding into out-of-class experiences, there is a risk of losing faculty support. Three fundamental…

  20. Towards a Framework for Aligning Learning Outcomes, Academic Literacies and Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Robert; Goscinski, Andrzej; Coldwell-Neilson, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Although Australian students spend three or more years studying they can seem quite unaware of any of the expected learning outcomes of their course. They are often single unit focused, paying most attention to individual assessment items thus not developing a holistic view of their course. This paper presents a theoretical framework to support…

  1. Parenting of divorced mothers as a link between social status and boys' academic outcomes: unpacking the effects of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    DeGarmo, D S; Forgatch, M S; Martinez, C R

    1999-01-01

    Socialization theories posit parenting practices as mechanisms linking socioeconomic status (SES) and children's academic outcomes. A mediational parenting model was tested examining separate effects of maternal education, occupation, and income for a sample of 238 divorced or recently separated mothers of 6- to 9-year-old sons. For the SEM path models, each indicator of SES was associated with better parenting, and parenting in turn had indirect effects on achievement through home skill-building activities and school behavior. The direct effect of maternal education on achievement was mediated by home skill-building activities, the direct effect of maternal occupation on achievement was not mediated, and income measures had no direct effects on achievement. These findings underscore the importance of unpacking the effects of SES and the relevance of effective parenting practices as a protective factor in the home and school environment for young boys' school success during postdivorce adjustment.

  2. One year outcomes of a mentoring scheme for female academics: a pilot study at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The professional development of under-represented faculty may be enhanced by mentorship, but we understand very little about the mechanisms by which mentoring brings about change. Our study posed the research question, what are the mechanisms by which mentoring may support professional development in under-represented groups? The study aims to: (i) to pilot a mentoring scheme for female academics; (ii) to compare various health-related and attitudinal measures in mentees at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year into the mentoring relationship and, (iii) to compare pre-mentoring expectations to outcomes at 6 months and 1 year follow-up for mentees and mentors. Methods Female academic mentees were matched 1:1 or 2:1 with more senior academic mentors. Online surveys were conducted to compare health-related and attitudinal measures and expectations of mentoring at baseline with outcomes at 6 months and 1 year using paired t-tests and McNemar's test for matched cohort data. Results N = 46 mentoring pairs, 44 (96%) mentees completed the pre-mentoring survey, 37 (80%) at 6 months and 30 (65%) at 1 year. Job-related well-being (anxiety-contentment), self-esteem and self-efficacy all improved significantly and work-family conflict diminished at 1 year. Highest expectations were career progression (39; 89%), increased confidence (38; 87%), development of networking skills (33; 75%), better time-management (29; 66%) and better work-life balance (28; 64%). For mentees, expectations at baseline were higher than perceived achievements at 6 months or 1 year follow-up. For mentors (N = 39), 36 (92%) completed the pre-mentoring survey, 32 (82%) at 6 months and 28 (72%) at 1 year. Mentors' highest expectations were of satisfaction in seeing people progress (26; 69%), seeing junior staff develop and grow (19; 53%), helping solve problems (18; 50%), helping women advance their careers (18; 50%) and helping remove career obstacles (13; 36%). Overall, gains at 6 months and 1 year

  3. Toward a New Understanding of Non-Academic Student Support: Four Mechanisms Encouraging Positive Student Outcomes in the Community College. CCRC Working Paper No. 28. Assessment of Evidence Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which academically vulnerable students benefit from non-academic support. By reviewing theories of student persistence as well as program evaluation literature, the author identifies four mechanisms by which non-academic supports can improve student outcomes, including persistence and degree attainment. Programs…

  4. Extracurricular participation and academic outcomes: testing the over-scheduling hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    There is a growing concern that some youth are overscheduled in extracurricular activities, and that this increasing involvement has negative consequences for youth functioning. This article used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS: 2002), a nationally representative and ethnically diverse longitudinal sample of American high school students, to evaluate this hypothesis (N = 13,130; 50.4% female). On average, 10th graders participated in between 2 and 3 extracurricular activities, for an average of 5 h per week. Only a small percentage of 10th graders reported participating in extracurricular activities at high levels. Moreover, a large percentage of the sample reported no involvement in school-based extracurricular contexts in the after-school hours. Controlling for some demographic factors, prior achievement, and school size, the breadth (i.e., number of extracurricular activities) and the intensity (i.e., time in extracurricular activities) of participation at 10th grade were positively associated with math achievement test scores, grades, and educational expectations at 12th grade. Breadth and intensity of participation at 10th grade also predicted educational status at 2 years post high school. In addition, the non-linear function was significant. At higher breadth and intensity, the academic adjustment of youth declined. Implications of the findings for the over-scheduling hypothesis are discussed.

  5. Fitting in matters: markers of in-group belonging and academic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Oyserman, Daphna; Brickman, Daniel; Bybee, Deborah; Celious, Aaron

    2006-10-01

    Minority boys are at risk of academic disengagement. Prior research documents that an aspect of racial-ethnic identity, in-group connection, can buffer against this risk, but that in-group connection is undermined in high-risk neighborhoods. We examined another way that boys may feel connected to the in-group, by looking like in-group members. We hypothesize that physical markers of in-group membership can serve to improve boys' sense of belongingness, thereby facilitating their engagement in school. We tested our model with low-income, high-risk African American (Study 1, n= 102) and Latino (Study 2, n= 66) teens. Hierarchical regression supported our model; dark skin tone was a protective factor (and light skin tone a risk factor) for African American boys, and feeling that one looks Latino was a protective factor (and feeling that one does not look Latino a risk factor) for Latino boys' grades, in-class behavior, and school engagement. Mediational analyses suggest that markers of belongingness have their impact via peer-group choice.

  6. The Relationship between Low-Income and Minority Children's Physical Activity and Academic-Related Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav

    2011-01-01

    This article explores an innovative strategy for battling the obesity epidemic. The strategy involves demonstrating to policy makers and education leaders the value of promoting physical activity in school as a way of enhancing academic-related outcomes to narrow the current achievement gap. A literature review was conducted to ascertain the…

  7. Graduate Management Admission Test Outcomes and the Academic Achievement: A Study on Masters of Business Administration Students at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Saint Omala; Kakumba, Umar

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the outcomes of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) can predict the academic achievement of enrollees in masters programs. The study is based on administrative data of 516 Masters of Business Administration (MBA) enrollees at the College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University in the 2011…

  8. The Effect of Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, and Gender-Role Identity on Academic Performance Outcomes of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Jade Simone

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the predictive worthiness of the predictor variable indices--locus of control, self-efficacy, and gender identity--to ascertain if elevated levels of the predictors influence academic performance outcomes (individually as well as interactionally). The study theorized that students with increased levels of locus…

  9. Academic and Mental Health Outcomes of Youth Placed in Out-of-Home Care: The Role of School Stability and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Skyler S.; Gudiño, Omar G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth placed in out-of-home care are at significant risk of low academic achievement and poor mental health. Few studies have considered the potential effects of school-related factors, such as school placement stability and school engagement, on youth outcomes. Objective: The current study examined the potential main effects of school…

  10. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Classroom Quality and Child Language and Academic Outcomes in a State-Funded Prekindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Googe, Heather Smith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to evaluate the relationship between classroom process quality and child language and academic outcomes from the beginning of the pre-kindergarten year to the beginning of the kindergarten year for one cohort of children participating in a state-funded pre-kindergarten program in South Carolina. Data for my study were…

  11. The Influence of Negative School Climate Factors on African American Adolescent Males' Academic Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Melvin H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between negative school climate factors (i.e., teacher neglect, peer rejection, discrimination) and academic outcomes amongst a sample of adolescent African American males. Specifically, this study directly examines a) the influence of negative school climate perceptions on the students' academic…

  12. The Direct and Moderating Role of School Interpersonal Climate on Children's Academic Outcomes in the Context of Whole-School, Social-Emotional Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette K.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A positive school climate is characterized by a supportive, orderly, and fair interpersonal climate. Children's perceptions of interpersonal climate and school safety are associated with several academic and behavioral adjustment outcomes. The current study has two goals: (1) to better understand the contribution of school interpersonal climate to…

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Career Expectations and Outcomes of Academically Talented Students 10 and 20 Years Post-High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Tschopp, Molly K.; Snyder, Erin R.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Hyatt, Claudine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career expectations and outcomes for individuals who were identified as academically talented high school students. Data for this study were collected at two different time periods: 10 years and 20 years after participants' high school graduation. A decade after graduation from high school, participants…

  14. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Analyzing the Characteristics of Academically Disengaged Students: Results from UCUES 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven; Cantwell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    We theorize 5 dimensions of academic disengagement based on students' values, motivations, study behaviors, academic interactions, and competing involvements. Using 2010 survey data from the University of California, we find support for this conceptualization. The size of disengaged populations varied between 5% and 25%, depending on the…

  15. Fee-Based Services in Academic Libraries: Preliminary Results of a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, Anne M.; Rasmussen, Lise

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responses of 937 academic library directors who were surveyed to determine whether their libraries provide services to users outside academic community; whether outside users are charged fees; and what services are provided for fee. Extracts of information (services, staff, comments) received from ten universities are highlighted. Survey…

  16. Does Entry Route Really Affect Academic Outcome? Academic Achievement of Traditional versus Non Traditional Entrants to BN(Hons) Pre-Registration Nursing Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimble, Mandy J.

    2015-01-01

    International trends for pre-registration nurse education at degree level alongside "widening access" initiatives mean that academic achievement of students entering via different educational routes is of interest to both higher and further education institutions. This article examines the academic achievement of students undertaking a…

  17. Ability of preoperative falls to predict postsurgical outcomes in non-selected patients undergoing elective surgery at an academic medical centre: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdallah, Arbi; McKinnon, Sherry L; Wildes, Troy S; Avidan, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are increasingly recognised for their ability to herald impending health decline. Despite the likely susceptibility of postsurgical patients to falls, a detailed description of postoperative falls in an unselected surgical population has never been performed. One study suggests that preoperative falls may forecast postoperative complications. However, a larger study with non-selected surgical patients and patient-centred outcomes is needed to provide the generalisability and justification necessary to implement preoperative falls assessment into routine clinical practice. The aims of this study are therefore twofold. First, we aim to describe the main features of postoperative falls in a population of unselected surgical patients. Second, we aim to test the hypothesis that a history of falls in the 6 months prior to surgery predicts postoperative falls, poor quality of life, functional dependence, complications and readmission. Methods and analysis To achieve these goals, we study adult patients who underwent elective surgery at our academic medical centre and were recruited to participate in a prospective, survey-based cohort study called Systematic Assessment and Targeted Improvement of Services Following Yearlong Surgical Outcomes Surveys (SATISFY-SOS) (NCT02032030). Patients who reported falling in the 6 months prior to surgery will be considered ‘exposed.’ The primary outcome of interest is postoperative falls within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes include postoperative functional dependence, quality of life (both physical and mental), in-hospital complications and readmission. Regression models will permit controlling for important confounders. Ethics and dissemination The home institution's Institutional Review Board approved this study (IRB ID number 201505035). The authors will publish the findings, regardless of the results. PMID:27655260

  18. Academic and professional career outcomes of medical school graduates who failed USMLE Step 1 on the first attempt.

    PubMed

    McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E; Jeffe, Donna B; Roberts, Nicole K; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L; Lypson, Monica L; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A

    2013-05-01

    This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and career characteristics of graduates who failed Step 1 on the first attempt were compared to graduates who initially passed. Fifty medical school graduates (2.5 %) initially failed Step 1. Compared to graduates who initially passed Step 1, a higher proportion of graduates who initially failed Step 1 became primary care physicians (26/49 [53 %] vs. 766/1,870 [40.9 %]), were more likely at graduation to report intent to practice in underserved areas (28/50 [56 %] vs. 419/1,939 [ 21.6 %]), and more likely to take 5 or more years to graduate (11/50 [22.0 %] vs. 79/1,953 [4.0 %]). The relative risk of first attempt Step 1 failure for medical school graduates was 13.4 for African Americans, 7.4 for Latinos, 3.6 for matriculants >22 years of age, 3.2 for women, and 2.3 for first generation college graduates. The relative risk of not being specialty board certified for those graduates who initially failed Step 1 was 2.2. Our observations regarding characteristics of graduates in our study cohort who initially failed Step 1 can inform efforts by medical schools to identify and assist students who are at particular risk of failing Step 1.

  19. Long-Term Outcomes of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Eight-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna; Abdu, William A; Zhao, Wenyan; Morgan, Tamara S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Randomized trial with a concurrent observational cohort study Objective To compare 8-year outcomes of surgery to non-operative care for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (SpS) Summary of Background Data Surgery for SpS has been shown to be more effective compared to non-operative treatment over four years, but longer-term data is less clear. Methods Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 U.S. states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging were enrolled in a randomized cohort (RCT) or observational cohort (OBS). Treatment was standard decompressive laminectomy versus standard non-operative care. Primary outcomes were SF-36 bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and yearly up to 8 years. Results 55% of RCT and 52% of OBS participants provided data at the 8-year follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses showed no differences between randomized cohorts; however, 70% of those randomized to surgery and 52% of those randomized to non-operative had undergone surgery by 8 years. As-treated analyses in the RCT showed the early benefit for surgery out to 4 years converged over time with no significant treatment effect of surgery seen in years 6–8 for any of the primary outcomes. In contrast, the OBS group showed a stable advantage for surgery in all outcomes between years 5–8. Patients who were lost to follow-up were older, less well-educated, sicker, and had worse outcomes over the first 2 years in both surgery and non-operative arms. Conclusions Patients with symptomatic spinal stenosis show diminishing benefits of surgery in as-treated analyses of the RCT between 4–8 years while outcomes in the OBS group remained stable. Loss to follow-up of patients with worse early outcomes in both treatment groups could lead to overestimates of long-term outcomes, but likely not bias treatment effect estimates. PMID:25569524

  20. Fitness, fatness, cognition, behavior, and academic achievement among overweight children: Do cross-sectional associations correspond to exercise trial outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Cooper, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined associations of fitness and fatness with cognitive processes, academic achievement, and behavior, independent of demographic factors, at the baseline of an exercise trial. Methods Overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy 7–11 year olds (N=170) participated in a study of health, cognition and achievement in the Augusta, GA area from 2003–2006. Children underwent evaluations of fatness and fitness, psychological assessments of cognition and academic achievement, and behavior ratings by parents and teachers. Partial correlations examined associations of fitness and fatness with cognitive and achievement scores and behavior ratings, controlling for demographic factors. Results Fitness was associated with better cognition, achievement and behavior, and fatness with worse scores. Specifically, executive function, mathematics and reading achievement, and parent ratings of child behavior were related to fitness and fatness. Teacher ratings were related to fitness. Conclusion These results extend prior studies by providing reliable, standardized measures of cognitive processes, achievement, and behavior in relation to detailed measures of fitness and fatness. However, cross-sectional associations do not necessarily indicate that improving one factor, such as fatness or fitness, will result in improvements in factors that were associated with it. Thus, randomized clinical trials are necessary to determine the effects of interventions. PMID:21281668

  1. On being grateful and kind: results of two randomized controlled trials on study-related emotions and academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Ouweneel, Else; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large amount of research attention to engagement as well as positive psychology in a general context, there have been few attempts to increase academic well-being by means of positive psychological interventions. This article tests the potential of positive psychological interventions to enhance study-related positive emotions and academic engagement, and to reduce study-related negative emotions among university students. We modified two existing positive interventions that are aimed at increasing general happiness for use in an academic context. These interventions focused on "thoughts of gratitude" and "acts of kindness," respectively. The present study consisted of two randomized controlled trials with experimental (thoughts of gratitude or acts of kindness) and control conditions in which participants were monitored on a daily basis during the one-week intervention, and additional pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments were carried out. Results revealed that the gratitude intervention had a significant positive effect on daily positive emotions only. The kindness intervention had a positive influence on both positive emotions and academic engagement, though not in the long run. The results showed no effects on negative emotions in either of the two interventions. Positive psychological interventions seem to foster positive emotions and academic engagement, but do not decrease negative emotions.

  2. Feasibility of Using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System in Academic Health Centers: Case Series Design on Pain Reduction After Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test the utility of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) as a resource for collecting data on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) within academic health centers at a chiropractic college; and, to describe changes in PRO following pragmatic chiropractic care incorporating instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) on pain symptoms. Methods This was a pre-post intervention design without a control group (case series) involving 25 patients (14 females and 11 males; 40.5 ± 16.39 years, range 20-70 years) who completed their chiropractic care and their baseline and post-treatment pain assessments. The pragmatic chiropractic care intervention included both spinal manipulation and IASTM to treat pain symptoms. PRO’s were collected using PROMIS to measure pain behavior, pain interference and pain intensity. Results The average pre-post assessment interval was 33 ± 22.5 days (95% CI, 23-42 days). The durations of treatments ranged from one week to 10 weeks. The median number of IASTM treatments was six. Pre-post decreases in T-scores for pain behavior and pain interference were 55.5 to 48.4 and 57.7 to 48.4, respectively (P < .05). Only 12 patients had a baseline T-score for pain intensity greater than 50. The pre-post decrease in pain intensity T-scores for these 12 patients was from 53.4 to 40.9. Conclusion Within the limitations of a case series design, these data provide initial evidence on the utility of PROMIS instruments for clinical and research outcomes in chiropractic patients. PMID:25225465

  3. Standing on the shoulders of giants: Results from the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP)

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Emma B.; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Fuller, Clifton D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze survey information regarding mentorship practices and cross-correlate the results with objective metrics of academic productivity among academic radiation oncologists at U.S. ACGME-accredited residency training programs. Methods and Materials An IRB-approved survey for the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP) was sent to 1031 radiation oncologists employed at an ACGME-accredited residency training program and administered using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). Data collected included demographics, presence of mentorship as well as the nature of specific mentoring activities. Productivity metrics, including number of publications, number of citations, h-index, and date of first publication were collected for each survey respondent from a commercially available online database (Web of Science, Thompson Reuters- v5.9), and m-index was calculated. Results 158 academic RO completed the survey, 96 of whom reported having an academic/scientific mentor. Faculty with a mentor had higher numbers of publications, citations, h- and m-indices. Differences in gender and race/ethnicity were not associated with significant differences in mentorship rates, but those with a mentor were more likely to have a Ph.D. and were more likely to have more time protected for research. Bivariate fit regression modeling showed a positive correlation between a mentor’s h-index and their mentee’s h-index (R2=0.16; p<0.001). Linear regression also showed significant correlates of higher h-index, in addition to having a mentor (p=0.001), included a longer career duration (p<0.001), and having fewer patients on treatment (p=0.02). Conclusions Mentorship is widely believed to be important to career development and academic productivity. These results emphasize the importance of identifying and striving to overcome potential barriers to effective mentorship. PMID:24210670

  4. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Results From the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Fuller, Clifton D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze survey information regarding mentorship practices and cross-correlate the results with objective metrics of academic productivity among academic radiation oncologists at US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited residency training programs. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved survey for the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP) was sent to 1031 radiation oncologists employed at an ACGME-accredited residency training program and administered using an international secure web application designed exclusively to support data capture for research studies. Data collected included demographics, presence of mentorship, and the nature of specific mentoring activities. Productivity metrics, including number of publications, number of citations, h-index, and date of first publication, were collected for each survey respondent from a commercially available online database, and m-index was calculated. Results: A total of 158 academic radiation oncologists completed the survey, 96 of whom reported having an academic/scientific mentor. Faculty with a mentor had higher numbers of publications, citations, and h- and m-indices. Differences in gender and race/ethnicity were not associated with significant differences in mentorship rates, but those with a mentor were more likely to have a PhD degree and were more likely to have more time protected for research. Bivariate fit regression modeling showed a positive correlation between a mentor's h-index and their mentee's h-index (R{sup 2} = 0.16; P<.001). Linear regression also showed significant correlates of higher h-index, in addition to having a mentor (P=.001), included a longer career duration (P<.001) and fewer patients in treatment (P=.02). Conclusions: Mentorship is widely believed to be important to career development and academic productivity. These results emphasize the importance of identifying and

  5. Academic outcomes for students with learning disabilities in consultation and resource programs.

    PubMed

    Schulte, A C; Osborne, S S; McKinney, J D

    1990-01-01

    In this study, pretest and posttest achievement test data were collected for 67 children with learning disabilities assigned to one of four conditions: one period of resource room instruction per day; two periods of resource room instruction per day; consultative services combined with in-class instruction; and consultative services to classroom teachers. Analysis of pretest achievement measures indicated that students assigned to two periods of resource room per day differed significantly from the other groups and results from this group were analyzed separately. Students in the remaining three conditions made gains in standing relative to same-age peers from pretest to posttest. Students receiving a combination of consultation and direct services showed small, but significantly greater overall gains in achievement than did students placed in the resource room. PMID:2249707

  6. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Does Fusion Method Influence Outcome? Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Abdu, William A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Zhao, Wenyan; Tosteson, Tor D.; Herkowitz, Harry; Longely, Michael; Boden, Scott D.; Emery, Sanford; Weinstein, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Clinical trial sub-group analysis Objective To compare outcomes of different fusion techniques treating degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Summary of Background Data Surgery has been shown to be more effective than non-operative treatment out to four years.1,2 Questions remain regarding the differential effect of fusion technique. METHODS Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging showing stenosis and DS were studied. In addition to standard decompressive laminectomy, one of three fusion techniques was employed at the surgeon’s discretion: posterolateral in situ fusion (PLF); posterolateral instrumented fusion with pedicle screws (PPS); or PPS plus interbody fusion (360°). Main outcome measures were the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly to 4 years. The as-treated analysis combined the randomized and observational cohorts using mixed longitudinal models adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Of 380 surgical patients, 21% (N= 80) received a PLF; 56% (N=213) received a PPS; 17% (N=63) received a 360°; and 6% (N=23) had decompression only without fusion. Early outcomes varied, favoring PLF compared to PPS at 6 weeks (PF: 12.73 vs. 6.22, p<0.020) and 3 months (PF: 25.24 vs.18.95, p<0.025) and PPS compared to 360° at 6 weeks (ODI: −14.46 vs. −9.30, p<0.03) and 3 months (ODI: −22.30 vs. −16.78, p<0.02). At two years, 360° had better outcomes: BP: 39.08 vs. 29.17 PLF, p<0.011; and vs. 29.13 PPS, p<0.002; PF; 31.93 vs. 23.27 PLF, p<0.021; and vs. 25.29 PPS, p<0.036. However, these differences were not maintained at 3- and 4-year follow-up, when there were no statistically significant differences between the three fusion groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and associated spinal stenosis, no consistent differences in

  7. Critical Thinking Disposition and Skills in Dental Students: Development and Relationship to Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N

    2016-08-01

    Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school.

  8. Critical Thinking Disposition and Skills in Dental Students: Development and Relationship to Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N

    2016-08-01

    Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school. PMID:27480706

  9. Predicting the STEM outcomes of academically qualified women: A longitudinal examination of social cognitive career theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.

  10. Discordance of Cognitive and Academic Achievement Outcomes in Youth with Perinatal HIV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Garvie, Patricia A.; Zeldow, Bret; Malee, Kathleen; Nichols, Sharon L.; Smith, Renee A.; Wilkins, Megan L.; Williams, Paige L.

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate achievement in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) compared to HIV-exposed uninfected peers (HEU), and to examine differential effects of HIV on cognition-achievement concordance. Methods Cognition and achievement were assessed using standardized measures. IQ-derived predicted achievement scores were subtracted from observed achievement scores to calculate discrepancy values. Linear regression models were used to compare achievement discrepancies between PHIV and HEU, adjusting for demographic covariates. Results Participants: 295 PHIV and 167 HEU youth; 71% black, 48% male, mean age 13.1 and 11.3 years, respectively. PHIV youth were relatively healthy (mean CD4%, 32%; viral load ≤400 copies/mL, 72%). PHIV and HEU youth had cognitive and achievement scores significantly below population norm means (p<0.001), but did not differ in cognition (mean FSIQ=86.7 vs. 89.4, respectively). In unadjusted models, HEU outperformed PHIV youth on Total Achievement (TA; mean=89.2 vs. 86.0, p=0.04) and Numerical Operations (NO; mean=88.8 vs. 82.9, p<0.001); no differences remained after adjustment. Mean observed-predicted achievement discrepancies reflected “underachievement”. History of encephalopathy predicted poorer achievement (p=0.039) and greater underachievement, even after adjustment. PHIV showed greater underachievement than HEU for NO (p<0.001) and TA (p=0.03), but these differences did not persist in adjusted models. Conclusions Both PHIV and HEU youth demonstrated lower achievement than normative samples, and underachieved relative to predicted achievement scores. Observed-predicted achievement discrepancies were associated with prior encephalopathy, older age and other non-HIV factors. PHIV youth with prior encephalopathy had significantly lower achievement and greater underachievement compared to PHIV without encephalopathy and HEU youth, even in adjusted models. PMID:25361033

  11. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  12. How Much Academic Instruction Occurs outside Research Universities in BC? Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2009-01-01

    When British Columbia began establishing community colleges in the mid 1960s, the explicit decision to provide extensive university transfer opportunities for college students had the added benefit of making a wide array of academic courses available to students who were not university-bound. Some of these students had been in applied programs in…

  13. E-Readers on Trial: Qualitative Results from an Academic Library Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jan; Lutz, Ellen; Nurnberger, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries opened a bookless satellite library, the Applied Engineering and Technology (AET) Library. AET librarians wanted to offer a new service: lending e-readers loaded with academic content and other e-books of interest to engineering and science students. Librarians chose three e-readers for the…

  14. Best Practices When Using Student Survey Results in Academic Program Review. SERU Project Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Using the example of responses from civil engineering students at a very highly ranked participating university, this guide demonstrates the importance of comparative data when using student questionnaire data for undergraduate academic program review. It also emphasizes the advantage of using factor structures for better questionnaire-based…

  15. Integrating Academic Content into Business Education: Results from Research in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas S.; And Others

    Illinois State University and University of Illinois faculty collaborated to pilot test and evaluate Applied Academics curricula in Illinois. Three sets of pilot sites included the following: (1) 14 local education agencies that pilot tested Applied Communications and/or Mathematics; (2) 10 sites at which vocational teachers collaborated with…

  16. Perceptions of Graduate Students and Supervisors on the Effectiveness of Chinese EFL Academic Socialization: Interview Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the perceptions of graduate students and supervisors on the effectiveness of Chinese EFL academic socialization through an interview study from the perspective of Discourse System (DS) proposed by Scollon and Scollon (2000). The investigation, which was conducted in one leading Chinese university of foreign studies in 2010, was…

  17. Chat Reference Training after One Decade: The Results of a National Survey of Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Christopher; Paladino, Emily Bounds; Davis, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive national survey of all academic libraries in the United States which were conducting chat reference service was carried out to determine: what practices were being used to prepare personnel for chat reference service, what competencies were being taught, how and why training practices may have changed over time, and what…

  18. Focus on Results: An Academic Impact Analysis of the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Education Policy Institute (EPI) conducted an analysis of recent academic data collected from 24 KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) schools on behalf of the KIPP Foundation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these data to determine whether KIPP schools have had a positive impact on the student learning of 5th-grade students as…

  19. Academic Outcomes of the Chicago School Readiness Project in First Grade: Do Children's Approaches to Learning Mediate Treatment Effects on Academic Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Grining, Christine; Haas, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), a randomized, classroom-based mental health intervention, aimed to improve teachers' behavior management of preschoolers' dysregulated behavior. The current follow-up study examines potential impacts on academic skills of first graders by enhancing their ATL. This investigation seeks to answer three…

  20. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  1. Outpatient Osteopathic SOAP Note Form: preliminary results in osteopathic outcomes-based research.

    PubMed

    Sleszynski, Sandra L; Glonek, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    One of the persistent challenges facing the osteopathic medical profession has been the lack of a reliable, easy-to-use, validated system for recording, collecting, and evaluating clinical findings in a format that is suitable for long-term data collection. As a result of the recent emphasis on outcomes-based research in the field of medicine, the creation and use of a standardized tool for the osteopathic profession has been pursued with increased urgency. In this study, the authors used participant-completed and previously validated Outpatient Osteopathic SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan) Note Forms (SNFs) and Outpatient Osteopathic SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan) Note--Follow-up Forms to obtain answers to 17 outcomes-based questions that the profession must address to meet the new challenges and demands of outcomes-based research. A consortium of 10 osteopathic physicians and 196 osteopathic residents and undergraduate fellows submitted a total of 3908 patient SNFs for analysis. Answers to these 17 questions were computed using appropriate statistical determinants (eg, frequencies, correlations). Retrospective analysis indicated that, in addition to the outcomes addressed in this study, use of the SNF could be extended to the following functions: pre- and postdoctoral tracking, outcomes research into the efficacy of osteopathic intervention, medical science research, autonomic correlation with disease entities, etiology of musculoskeletal dysfunction, billing information, and internal comparison studies between osteopathic physicians. A long-term goal of the SNF project is to create an electronic national database for osteopathic outcomes-based research.

  2. Ph.D.'s Spend Big Bucks Hunting for Academic Jobs, with No Guaranteed Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    Ph.D.'s are used to shelling out tens of thousands of dollars in the name of education. But earning the top graduate degree doesn't mean their spending has come to an end. An industry designed to help aspiring academics manage the job-application process and land tenure-track jobs is growing, and reaping the benefits of a tight market in many…

  3. New results from a 3D seismic academic dataset across the west Galicia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lymer, Gaël; Cresswell, Derren; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Sawyer, Dale

    2016-04-01

    The west Galicia margin (western Spain) is a magma-poor margin and has limited sedimentary cover, providing ideal conditions to study the processes of continental extension and break-up through seismic imaging. The margin is characterised by hyper-extended continental crust, well defined rotated faults blocks with associated syn-kinematic sedimentary wedges, and exhumed serpentinized continental mantle. Faulted blocks overlie a bright reflection, the S reflector, generally interpreted as both a detachment and the crust-mantle boundary. But open questions remain concerning the role of the S detachment in extension leading to breakup. To study further the S reflection and its role in continental breakup, a new 3D high-resolution multi-channel seismic dataset has been acquired over the Galicia margin during summer 2013. It consists in 800 inlines and 5000 crosslines distributed on a ~680 km2 areal. This 3D dataset is thus the largest academic one of its kind. It extends across the edge of the continental crust and captures the 3D nature of extension and break-up of the northern Atlantic continental margins. Here we present some results from our interpretations of the 3D volume, which allow various horizons, including the base of the post-rift sedimentary cover, the top basement and the S reflector, to be mapped out in 3D. These maps provide 3D views of the margin structure and also reveal the texture of each horizon. We also focus on the internal structure of some of the faulted blocks through interpretation of the crustal normal faults. The main normal faults are generally connected downward on the S reflector, revealing strong interactions between crustal thinning and the S. The half-grabens and the fault blocks are dominantly N-S oriented, but the crustal structures vary both along strike and cross strike. We particularly observe an intriguingly NW-SE trend, highlighted by a pronounced low within the crest of the fault blocks. We also observe this trend from

  4. An outcome-based learning model to identify emerging threats : experimental and simulation results.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F.; Decision and Information Sciences; SNL; Univ. at Albany

    2007-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model as it applies to the identification of emerging threats. This model integrates judgment, decision making, and learning theories to provide an integrated framework for the behavioral study of emerging threats.

  5. Social cognitive predictors of Mexican American college students' academic and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y; Navarro, Rachel L

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used Lent's (2004) social cognitive model of well being to examine the academic and life satisfaction of 457 Mexican American college students attending a Hispanic-Serving Institution. Using structural equation modeling, results indicated that the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, we found positive relations from positive affect to enculturation, acculturation, college self-efficacy, academic satisfaction, and life satisfaction; from enculturation to college self-efficacy; from acculturation to college self-efficacy and college outcome expectations; from college self-efficacy to college outcome expectations, academic goal progress, academic satisfaction, and life satisfaction; from college outcome expectations to academic satisfaction; from academic goal progress to academic and life satisfaction; and from academic satisfaction to life satisfaction. Findings indicated the model was invariant across gender groups, and overall, 38% and 14% of the variance in academic satisfaction and life satisfaction, respectively, were explained by the predictor variables. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Why Use Learning Outcomes in Higher Education? Exploring the Grounds for Academic Resistance and Reclaiming the Value of Unexpected Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havnes, Anton; Prøitz, Tine Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Learning outcomes are now mandated in higher education courses across Europe. However, their impact on teaching and student learning is both uncertain and an issue for debate. In this paper, we explore (1) what is meant by learning outcomes in diverse contexts and (2) whether policy and practice governing learning outcomes accord with developments…

  7. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: How Teachers' Perceptions Shape the Academic Outcomes of Immigrant and Language-Minority Students

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the students' hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. PMID:25769866

  8. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: how teachers' perceptions shape the academic outcomes of immigrant and language-minority students.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. PMID:25769866

  9. Modeling the Offensive-Defensive Interaction and Resulting Outcomes in Basketball

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Leonardo; Santana, Felipe; Heiner, Matthew; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Fellingham, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed the interaction between offensive (i.e. space creation dynamics -SCDs) and defensive (i.e. space protection dynamics—SPDs) actions in six play outcomes (free shot, contested shot, new SCD, reset, foul, and turnover) in Spanish professional basketball games. Method Data consisted of 1548 SCD-SPD-outcome triples obtained from six play-off games. We used Bayesian methods to compute marginal probabilities of six outcomes following five different SCDs. We also computed probabilities of the six outcomes following the 16 most frequent SCD-SPD combinations. Results The pick action (e.g. pick and roll, pop and pop) was the most prevalent SCD (33%). However, this SCD did not produce the highest probability of a free shot (0.235). The highest probability of a free shot followed the SCD without ball (0.409). The pick was performed not only to attempt scoring but also to initiate offenses, as it produced the highest probability leading to a new SCD (0.403). Additionally, the SPD performed influenced the outcome of the SCD. This reinforces the notion that the opposition (offensive-defensive interaction) should be considered. To the best of our knowledge, in team sports, this is the first study to successfully model the tactical features involved in offense-defense interactions. Our analyses revealed that the high frequency of occurrence of some SCDs may be justified not only by an associated high probability of free shots but also by the possibility of progressively create more space in the defense (i.e. a new SCD as outcome). In the second case, it evidences offensive strategic features of progressive disruption of the defensive system through the concatenation of subsequent offensive actions. PMID:26659134

  10. In-vitro fertilisation treatment: factors affecting its results and outcome.

    PubMed

    Qublan, H S; Malkawi, H Y; Tahat, Y A; Areidah, S; Nusair, B; Khreisat, B M; Al-Quraan, G; Abu-Assaf, A; Hadaddein, M F; Abu-Jassar, H

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting results and outcome of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). In this retrospective study, a total of 891 infertile women underwent IVF/ICSI cycles at the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) between January 2001 and December 2002. Conventional IVF treatment was performed in 64.6% of women and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 35.4%, using a standardised long luteal protocol. Pregnancy rate was analysed according to age, type of infertility, cause of infertility, duration of infertility, number of eggs collected and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. A total of 126 cycles (14.1%) were cancelled. Among 765 cycles continued, fertilisation rate was 73.9%, implantation rate was 15.1% and pregnancy rate was 29.8%. Pregnant women had a multiple pregnancy rate of 28.9%, abortion rate of 13.6% and ectopic pregnancy rate of 1.3%. Duration and type of infertility had no significant effect on the pregnancy rate. Factors which appear to affect significantly the outcome of treatment include the woman's age, cause of infertility, basal concentrations of FSH, adequate ovarian responsiveness and the number of eggs collected. In some cases with poor outcome, the understanding of these factors may predict the results and lead to the development of new strategies to improve the outcome of IVF treatment.

  11. Evaluating outcomes of palliative photodynamic therapy: instrument development and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodell, Teresa T.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2002-06-01

    Background: Subjective measures are considered the gold standard in palliative care evaluation, but no studies have evaluated palliative photodynamic therapy (PDT) subjectively. If PDT is to be accepted as a palliative therapy for later-stage obstructing esophageal and lung cancer, evidence of its effectiveness and acceptability to patients must be made known. Study Design/Materials and Methods: This ongoing study's major aim is to evaluate subjective outcomes of PDT in patients with obstructing esophageal and lung cancer. Existing measures of health status, dysphagia and performance status were supplemented with an instrument developed to evaluate PDT symptom relief and side effect burden, the PDT Side Effects Survey (PSES). Results: PDT patients treated with porfimer sodium (Photofrin) and 630-nm light experienced reduced dysphagia grade and stable performance status for at least one month after PDT (N= 10-17), but these effects did not necessarily persist at three months. Fatigue, appetite and quality of life may be the most burdensome issues for these patients. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that the PSES is an acceptable and valid tool for measuring subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. This study is the first attempt to systematically evaluate subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. Multi-center outcomes research is needed to draw generalizable conclusions that will establish PDT's effectiveness in actual clinical practice and enhance the wider adoption of PDT as a cancer symptom relief modality.

  12. Risk of Early Onset Substance Use among Students with and without Mild Academic Disabilities: Results of a Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepper, Annelies; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Monshouwer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the age of onset of substance use among 536 students with mild academic disabilities and 906 students without academic disabilities, and the extent to which emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems explain the differences between these two groups. Using discrete-time survival analysis, the results of this study showed…

  13. Assessing the State of Servant Leadership, Teacher Morale, and Student Academic Performance Outcomes in a Florida Elementary School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EL-Amin, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive research study was conducted to determine the state of perceived teacher morale and student academic performance as measured by fourth-grade reading and math scores among four elementary schools defined by the servant leadership score of each principal in this Florida elementary school district. While related research from other…

  14. Differential Patterns of Change and Stability in Student Learning Outcomes in Holland's Academic Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The findings of this study show wide variation in the learning patterns of college students in the academic environments of Holland's theory and, more importantly, that such variability differs based on the level of "consistency" or "inconsistency" of the environments. Differences in the learning patterns of students in "consistent" academic…

  15. Does Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Context of a Rural School Mental Health Programme Have an Impact on Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Kurt D.; Albright, Abby; Jameson, John Paul; Sale, Rafaella; Massey, Cameron; Kirk, Alex; Egan, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health difficulties among children and adolescents, schools have become a suitable context for providing psychological services to those who may otherwise go untreated. The co-occurrence of mental health impairments and academic problems has been widely cited, and many school mental health (SMH) programmes have begun…

  16. Physical Activity and Sports Team Participation: Associations with Academic Outcomes in Middle School and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…

  17. A Qualitative Study of Self-Esteem, Peer Affiliation, and Academic Outcome among Low Achieving Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-hung; Choi, Eudora

    2010-01-01

    Background: A limited amount of research has been conducted on children and adolescents who are low achievers. In Hong Kong, educators describe low achieving students in terms of academic performance, they seldom focus on socio-emotional aspects, such as self-esteem, peer affiliation, and inter-personal relationships. However, low achieving…

  18. Intimidation in Small Learning Groups: The Roles of Social-Comparison Concern, Comfort, and Individual Characteristics in Student Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micari, Marina; Drane, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of social-comparison concern, comfort, and self-efficacy to course performance and program persistence in a small-group learning environment. As part of the study, 205 undergraduates in a peer-led, small-group science learning program were surveyed at the beginning and end of the academic term; surveys…

  19. The Impact of Pell Grants on Academic Outcomes for Low-Income California Community College Students. MPR Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether financial aid, specifically federal Pell grants, is associated with academic success for low-income community college students in California. Previous studies in this series of MPR Research Briefs have examined transfer patterns and the types of financial aid typically received by students in this sector. This report…

  20. Randomized Trial of Prolonged Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with and without Cognitive Restructuring: Outcome at Academic and Community Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Cahill, Shawn P.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Riggs, David S.; Feeny, Norah C.; Yadin, Elna

    2005-01-01

    Female assault survivors (N = 171) with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to prolonged exposure (PE) alone, PE plus cognitive restructuring (PE/CR), or wait-list (WL). Treatment, which consisted of 9-12 sessions, was conducted at an academic treatment center or at a community clinic for rape survivors. Evaluations…

  1. Exploring the Relationship among Cultural Discontinuity, Psychological Distress, and Academic Outcomes with Low-Income, Culturally Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Blaire; West-Olatunji, Cirecie

    2008-01-01

    School counselors and educators tend to focus on the symptoms of cultural discontinuity and often view these symptoms as root causes for underachievement. In this article we use an ecosystemic paradigm to explore the relationship among cultural discontinuity, psychological distress, and academic achievement. Recommendations include ways in which…

  2. Lib-Value: Values, Outcomes, and Return on Investment of Academic Libraries, Phase III: ROI of the Syracuse University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Bruce; McClure, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the return on investment (ROI) of the Syracuse University library. Faculty and students at Syracuse University were surveyed using contingent valuation methodology to measure their willingness to pay in time and money for the services of the academic library. Their travel time and use of the online library was measured to…

  3. Identifying Mechanisms through Which Preschool Problem Behavior Influences Academic Outcomes: What Is the Mediating Role of Negative Peer Play Interactions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.

    2014-01-01

    Given theoretical and empirical support for the importance of peer play within the preschool classroom to early learning, the present study tested the hypothesis that associations between teacher-reported problem behavior and academic skills were mediated by difficulties in peer play (disruptive and disconnected play), for a representative sample…

  4. Help or Hindrance? The Effects of College Remediation on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes. Working Paper Version with Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Providing remedial (also known as developmental) education is the primary way colleges cope with students who do not have the academic preparation needed to succeed in college-level courses. Remediation is widespread, with nearly one-third of entering freshman taking remedial courses at a cost of at least $1 billion per year. Despite its…

  5. The Relationship between Engagement and Perceived Academic, Personal, and Social Outcomes for Senior International Undergraduate Students in Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irungu, Jane Njeri

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which five engagement benchmarks that encompass educationally purposeful activities namely: (i) level of academic challenge , (ii) active and collaborative learning ,(iii) student-faculty interaction , (iv) enriching educational experiences and (v) supportive campus environment predict various…

  6. The Sustained Effects of a Brief Self-Affirmation Intervention on Students' Academic Outcomes across Middle and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Grigg, Jeffrey; Rozek, Chris; Hanselman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes closing the academic performance gaps between African American and Latino students and their White counterparts particularly in the line of research that concerns the idea of "stereotype threat." Stereotype threat is predicated on the notion that people often fear behaving in a way that fits the negative cultural…

  7. A family-oriented therapy program for youths with substance abuse: long-term outcomes related to relapse and academic or social status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lu, Shing-Fang; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Tsai, Tung-ning; Chen, Ching; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The abuse of illegal substances by youths in Taiwan has become a major public health issue. This study explores the outcomes (relapse rate and academic or social status) of a family-oriented therapy program conducted for substance-using youths who were referred by a judge to participate in it. Methods The present study includes 121 participants categorized into three groups: 36 youths underwent a weekly ten-session outpatient motivational enhancement psychotherapy (MEP) group program; 41 youths participated in a program that combined the aforementioned MEP program with an additional weekly ten-session parenting skill training (PST) program for their guardians (MEP + PST group); and 44 adolescents who received standard supervision by the court served as the control group. All participants were followed-up for a maximum of 2 years. Results Of the 121 participants (mean age: 16.1±1.1 years), 33.1% relapsed into substance use during the follow-up period. The probability of relapse did not differ significantly between the MEP group (36.1%) and the control group (40.9%), but the youths in the MEP + PST group (22.0%) were at a lower risk of relapse than the control group participants (adjusted hazard ratio =0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.21–1.09). By the end of the study follow-up period, participants in both the MEP group and the MEP + PST group were more likely to be attending school (MEP group: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =6.61, 95% CI =1.60–27.35; MEP + PST group: aOR =8.57, 95% CI =1.94–37.82) or employed (MEP group: aOR =7.75, 95% CI =1.95–30.75; MEP + PST group: aOR =7.27, 95% CI =1.76–29.97), when compared to the control group. Conclusion This study revealed that a family-oriented treatment approach may be a more effective option for preventing youths’ relapsing into substance abuse. In comparison to individuals who received standard supervision by the court, those who received MEP experienced a better school attendance or social

  8. Posttraumatic midshaft clavicular shortening does not result in relevant functional outcome changes

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Shoulder function may be changed after healing of a nonoperatively treated clavicular fracture, especially in cases of clavicular shortening or mal-union. We investigated scapular orientations and functional outcome in healed clavicular fractures with and without clavicular shortening. Patients and methods 32 participants with a healed nonoperatively treated midshaft clavicular fracture were investigated. Motions of the thorax, arm, and shoulder were recorded by standardized electromagnetic 3D motion tracking. The DASH score and Constant-Murley score were used to evaluate functional outcome. Orientation of the scapula and humerus at rest and during standardized tasks, and strength and function of the affected shoulders were compared with corresponding values for the uninjured contralateral shoulders. Results Mean clavicular shortening was 25 mm (SD 16). Scapula protraction had increased by mean 4.4° in rest position in the affected shoulders. During abduction, slightly more protraction, slightly more lateral rotation, and slightly less backward tilt was found for the affected shoulders. For anteflexion, the scapular orientations of the affected shoulders also showed slightly increased protraction, slightly increased lateral rotation, and slightly reduced backward tilt. Scapulohumeral kinematics, maximum humerus angles, and strength were not associated with the degree of clavicular shortening. All participants had excellent performance on the Constant-Murley score and DASH score. Interpretation Scapulohumeral kinematics in shoulders with a healed clavicular fracture differ from those in uninjured shoulders, but these changes are small, do not result in clinically relevant changes in outcome, and do not relate to the amount of clavicular shortening. These findings do not support routine operative reduction and fixation of shortened midshaft clavicular fractures based on the argument of functional outcome. PMID:25872962

  9. Implementation of a Classroom Management Program with Urban Elementary Schools in Low-Income Neighborhoods: Does Program Fidelity Affect Student Behavior and Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Raymond V.; Oats, Robert G.; Ringle, Jay L.; Fichtner, Leah O'Neill; DelGaudio, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Students with persistent disruptive behavior problems lose valuable time in academic lessons, are a distraction for classmates, and cause stress for teachers. Recent meta-analyses indicate that 87% to 92% of published studies on school-based interventions targeting student problem behaviors report results from demonstration projects (involving…

  10. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk Youth Following Participation in a Required Ninth-Grade Academic Support Study Center Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…

  11. ReProTool Version 2.0: Re-Engineering Academic Curriculum Using Learning Outcomes, ECTS and Bologna Process Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyioutas, Philippos; Gjermundrod, Harald; Dionysiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present ReProTool Version 2.0, a software tool that is used for the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the Bologna Process re-engineering of academic programmes. The tool is the result of an 18 months project (February 2012-July 2013) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund…

  12. Two-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: results from GARFIELD-AF

    PubMed Central

    Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Accetta, Gabriele; Camm, Alan John; Cools, Frank; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Haas, Sylvia; Hacke, Werner; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G.G.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The relationship between outcomes and time after diagnosis for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is poorly defined, especially beyond the first year. Methods and results GARFIELD-AF is an ongoing, global observational study of adults with newly diagnosed NVAF. Two-year outcomes of 17 162 patients prospectively enrolled in GARFIELD-AF were analysed in light of baseline characteristics, risk profiles for stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and antithrombotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.8 (11.4) years, 43.8% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.3 (1.6); 60.8% of patients were prescribed anticoagulant therapy with/without antiplatelet (AP) therapy, 27.4% AP monotherapy, and 11.8% no antithrombotic therapy. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding had occurred at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 3.83 (3.62; 4.05), 1.25 (1.13; 1.38), and 0.70 (0.62; 0.81) per 100 person-years, respectively. Rates for all three major events were highest during the first 4 months. Congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sudden/unwitnessed death, malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis accounted for 65% of all known causes of death and strokes for <10%. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with a 35% lower risk of death. Conclusion The most frequent of the three major outcome measures was death, whose most common causes are not known to be significantly influenced by anticoagulation. This suggests that a more comprehensive approach to the management of NVAF may be needed to improve outcome. This could include, in addition to anticoagulation, interventions targeting modifiable, cause-specific risk factors for death. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362. PMID:27357359

  13. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on academic outcomes, educational expectations and job aspirations 6 years later: the mediating role of parenting and youth mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-02-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths' educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed. PMID:25052624

  14. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on academic outcomes, educational expectations and job aspirations 6 years later: the mediating role of parenting and youth mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-02-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths' educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed.

  15. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Academic Outcomes, Educational Expectations and Job Aspirations 6 Years Later: The Mediating Role of Parenting and Youth Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths’ educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed. PMID:25052624

  16. Assessing Treatment Options Based on Expected Long-Term Results: Case Report Demonstrates 6-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Douglas E

    2015-05-01

    A patient whose chief concern was the esthetics of her anterior teeth presented for a second opinion after it had been recommended that crowns be placed throughout her mouth. Examination revealed numerous defective and some fractured restorations with recurring caries. With treatment goals including creating and maintaining a healthy periodontal environment, leveling the occlusal plane, and decreasing biomechanical risk, the treatment plan incorporated an interdisciplinary approach that utilized orthodontics, a Kois deprogrammer, and implant therapy. Demonstrating 6-year outcomes, this report discusses use of a method to assess treatment options based on expected long-term results.

  17. Does the Measurement or Magnitude of Academic Entitlement Change over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessoms, John; Finney, Sara J.; Kopp, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Academic entitlement (AE) characterizes students who believe they deserve positive academic outcomes independent of performance. Using the Academic Entitlement Questionnaire, we evaluated the longitudinal stability of the measurement and magnitude of AE. Results indicated partial measurement invariance, slight average increase in AE, and…

  18. Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: a comparison between students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students' academic success. Research findings suggest that it is related to lower levels of self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy and associated with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to assess, regulate, and utilize emotions and has been found to be associated with academic self-efficacy and a variety of better outcomes, including academic performance. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are well acquainted with academic difficulty and maladaptive academic behavior. In comparison to students without LD, they exhibit high levels of learned helplessness, including diminished persistence, lower academic expectations, and negative affect. This study examined the relationships among academic procrastination, EI, and academic performance as mediated by academic self-efficacy in 287 LD and non-LD students. Results indicated that the indirect effect of EI on academic procrastination and GPA was stronger in LD students than in non-LD students. In addition, results indicated that LD students scored lower than non-LD students on both EI and academic self-efficacy and higher on academic procrastination. No difference was found in GPA. PMID:22442254

  19. Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: a comparison between students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students' academic success. Research findings suggest that it is related to lower levels of self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy and associated with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to assess, regulate, and utilize emotions and has been found to be associated with academic self-efficacy and a variety of better outcomes, including academic performance. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are well acquainted with academic difficulty and maladaptive academic behavior. In comparison to students without LD, they exhibit high levels of learned helplessness, including diminished persistence, lower academic expectations, and negative affect. This study examined the relationships among academic procrastination, EI, and academic performance as mediated by academic self-efficacy in 287 LD and non-LD students. Results indicated that the indirect effect of EI on academic procrastination and GPA was stronger in LD students than in non-LD students. In addition, results indicated that LD students scored lower than non-LD students on both EI and academic self-efficacy and higher on academic procrastination. No difference was found in GPA.

  20. [A web-based e-learning tool in academic teaching of trauma surgery. First experiences and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Citak, M; Haasper, C; Behrends, M; Kupka, T; Kendoff, D; Hüfner, T; Matthies, H K; Krettek, C

    2007-04-01

    There are lots of possibilities for universities to offer contents of teaching to students by the Internet. Often the students can download slides or a special lecture note from the intranet of the university. Another way is to make a movie of the lecture and post this lecture movie on the Internet. In the Hanover Medical School we employed an alternative. It was developed by the Trauma Surgery Clinic and the Institute of Medical Informatics at the Hanover Medical School. Our goal was to use just one web-based content resource for the lecture and for the work at home. The Institute of Medical Informatics used a web-based content management system (CMS) Schoolbook to implement this e-learning application.Since October 2005 the Trauma Surgery Schoolbook has been used in the lecture on trauma surgery in all terms, and we evaluated the academic year 2005/2006. The results of the evaluation showed us that the students were very interested in using this e-learning application. The possibility to reinforce the learning material at home is a good chance for the students. Also the organisation of lectures was improved because the materials were all in one place. The lecturer needs to learn several new tasks, but we also got a positive response. Our experiences of the last academic year showed that it was a good way to use one web-based content resource for teaching and learning in the context of a lecture. PMID:17295021

  1. Decisional Outcomes of Maternal Disclosure of BRCA1/2 Genetic Test Results to Children

    PubMed Central

    Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Mays, Darren; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Schneider, Katherine A.; Garber, Judy E.; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas

    2013-01-01

    Background Although BRCA1/2 genetic testing is discouraged in minors, mothers may disclose their own results to their children. Factors affecting patients’ disclosure decisions and patient outcomes of disclosure are largely unknown. Methods Mothers (N = 221) of children ages 8-21 enrolled in this prospective study of family communication about cancer genetic testing. Patients underwent BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing, and completed standardized behavioral assessments prior to and 1-month following receipt of their results. Results Most patients (62.4%) disclosed BRCA1/2 test results to their child. Patients were more likely to disclose if they received negative or uninformative vs. positive results (OR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.11 - 8.71; P = .03), their child was ≥ 13 years of age vs. younger (OR = 5.43; 95% CI = 2.18 - 13.53; P < .001), and as the ratio of patients’ perceived benefits of disclosure outweighed potential risks (OR = 2.40; 95% CI = 1.63 - 3.54; P < .001). Post-decision satisfaction about disclosure was lowest among nondisclosing patients (P < .001) and those reporting greater decisional conflict (P < .001). Conclusions Patients commonly discuss their BRCA1/2 results with their teenage and young adult children, especially if the information is perceived as beneficial. Satisfaction with disclosure decision-making remains lowest among nondisclosing and conflicted patients. Family communication decision support adjuncts to genetic counseling are needed to help ameliorate these effects. Impact This study describes the prevalence of family communication about maternal BRCA1/2 genetic testing with minor children, and decisions and outcomes of disclosure. PMID:23825307

  2. SLEEP AND TREATMENT OUTCOME IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: RESULTS FROM AN EFFECTIVENESS STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Nick; Clark, David M.; Wild, Jennifer; Stott, Richard; Ehlers, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffer from sleep problems. Concerns have been raised about possible detrimental effects of sleep problems on the efficacy of psychological treatments for PTSD. In this study, we investigated the relation of session‐to‐session changes in PTSD symptoms and sleep, and tested whether sleep problems predicted poorer short‐ and long‐term treatment outcome. Methods Self‐reported sleep quality, sleep duration, and PTSD symptoms were assessed weekly in a consecutive sample of 246 patients who received cognitive therapy for PTSD (CT‐PTSD; Ehlers & Clark, 2000), and at follow‐up (mean = 247 days posttreatment). Additionally, moderating effects of medication use and comorbid depression were assessed. Results Sleep and PTSD symptoms improved in parallel. The relation was moderated by depression: Sleep problems at the start of therapy did not predict improvement in PTSD symptoms during treatment for patients without comorbid depression. Patients with comorbid depression, however, showed less rapid decreases in PTSD symptoms, but comparable overall outcome, if their sleep quality was poor. Residual sleep problems at the end of treatment did not predict PTSD symptoms at follow‐up once residual PTSD symptoms were taken into account. Conclusions CT‐PTSD leads to simultaneous improvement in sleep and PTSD symptoms. Sleep problems may reduce the speed of recovery in PTSD patients with comorbid depression. For these patients, additional treatment sessions are indicated to achieve comparable outcomes, and additional interventions targeting sleep may be beneficial. For those without comorbid depression, self‐reported sleep problems did not interfere with response to trauma‐focused psychological treatment. PMID:26393429

  3. Relationships between the Use of Test Results and US Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Fortner, C. Kevin; Lei, Xiaoxuan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined relationships between the use of test results and US students' math, reading, and science performance in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. Based on a literature review, we hypothesized that the 16 items in the PISA school questionnaire, which are related to the use of test results, can be…

  4. Pruritus in hemodialysis patients: Results from the Japanese Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (JDOPPS).

    PubMed

    Kimata, Naoki; Fuller, Douglas S; Saito, Akira; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Akiba, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Pruritus affects many patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this study, pruritus and its relationship to morbidity, quality of life (QoL), sleep quality, and patient laboratory measures were analyzed in a large sample of Japanese patients undergoing HD. Severity of patient-reported pruritus symptoms experienced during a 4-week period was collected from 6480 Japanese patients undergoing HD in three phases of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS; 1996-2008; 60-65 study facilities/phase). Adjusted linear and logistic regressions were used to identify associations of pruritus with treatment parameters and QoL outcomes. Adjusted Cox regressions examined the influence of pruritus severity on mortality. Moderate to extreme pruritus was experienced by 44% of prevalent patients undergoing HD in the Japanese Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Many patient characteristics were significantly associated with pruritus, but this did not explain the large differences in pruritus among facilities (20-70%). Pruritus was slightly less common in patients starting HD than in patients on dialysis >1 year. Patients with moderate to extreme pruritus were more likely to feel drained (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2-5.8, P < 0.0001), have poor sleep quality (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9-3.7, P < 0.0001), and have QoL mental and physical composite scores 2.3-6.7 points lower (P < 0.0001) than patients with no/mild pruritus. Pruritus in patients undergoing HD was associated with a 23% higher mortality risk (P = 0.09). The many poor outcomes associated with pruritus underscore the need for better therapeutic agents to provide relief for the 40-50% of prevalent patients undergoing HD substantially affected by pruritus. Pruritus in new patients with end-stage renal disease likely results from uremia or pre-existing conditions (not HD per se), indicating the need to understand development of pruritus before end-stage renal disease.

  5. Full- versus Part-Day Kindergarten for Children with Disabilities: Effects on Academic and Social-Emotional Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the vast body of research examining the relationship between full-day kindergarten attendance and children's outcomes, little is known about the effects of full-day kindergarten on children with disabilities (i.e., students with 1 of the 13 categories of disabilities recognized under federal law). This study fills this research void by…

  6. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  7. The Relationship of Self-Concept and Academic Engagement to Each Other and to School Outcomes of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-concept, engagement, and school outcomes for students with educational disabilities in grades 10 to 12. Participants included 105 students in grades 10 to 12 in a large suburban high school who were classified as having an educational disability which qualified them for special education…

  8. Campus Racial Climate and Student Academic Outcomes: A Critique of Prior Research and Recommendations for Future Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascher, Edward L.; Offenstein, Jeremy L.

    2013-01-01

    What explains the persistent gap in college retention between white American college students and those who are members of ethnic minority groups? Some argue that a large part of the answer is campus racial climate: a negative climate disproportionately harms minority students and leads to worse outcomes. Existing theory provides some basis for…

  9. Chemical dependency treatment outcomes of residents in anesthesiology: results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory B; McAllister, Mark S; Jensen, Mark; Gooden, Timothy A

    2005-11-01

    Substance abuse is a potentially lethal occupational hazard confronting anesthesiology residents. We present the results of a survey sent to all United States anesthesiology training programs regarding experience with and outcomes of chemically dependent residents from 1991 to 2001. The response rate was 66%. Eighty percent reported experience with impaired residents and 19% reported at least one pretreatment fatality. Despite this familiarity, few programs required pre-employment drug testing or used substance abuse screening tools during interviews. The majority of impaired residents attempted reentry into anesthesiology after treatment. Only 46% of these were successful in completion of anesthesiology residency. Eventually, 40% of residents who underwent treatment and returned to medical training entered another specialty. The mortality rate for the remaining anesthesiology residents was 9%. Long-term outcome was reported for 93% of all treated residents. Of these, 56% were successful in some specialty of medicine at the end of the survey period. We hypothesize that specialty change afforded substantial improvement in the overall success rate and avoided significant mortality. Redirection of rehabilitated residents into lower-risk specialties may allow a larger number to achieve successful medical careers. PMID:16244010

  10. Influences, usage, and outcomes of Internet health information searching: multivariate results from the Pew surveys.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ronald E

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides results from seven major nationally representative datasets (two in detail) from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to answer two primary questions: (1) what influences people to seek online health information and (2) what influences their perceived outcomes from having access to this information? Cross-tabulations, logistic regressions, and multidimensional scaling are applied to these survey datasets. The strongest and most consistent influences on ever, or more frequently, using the Internet to search for health information were sex (female), employment (not fulltime), engaging in more other Internet activities, more specific health reasons (diagnosed with new health problem, ongoing medical condition, prescribed new medication or treatment), and helping another deal with health issues. Internet health seeking is consistently similar to general Internet activities such as email, news, weather, and sometimes hobbies. A variety of outcomes from or positive assessments of searching for Internet health information are predicted most strongly by sex (female), engaging in other Internet activities, Internet health information seeking including more frequent health seeking, more specific health reasons, belonging to an online support group sharing health interests, and helping another deal with an illness or major health condition.

  11. Are New Technologies Influencing the Academic Results Achieved by Students? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargallo-Castel, Ana; Esteban-Salvador, Luisa; Marzo-Navarro, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) within tertiary education in a Spanish University. We analyze the results of a new initiative developed by the University of Zaragoza through an innovative project for a virtual campus called "Anillo Digital Docente." Data relating to…

  12. Crossing New Uncharted Territory: Shifts in Academic Identity as a Result of Modifying Teaching Practice in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by…

  13. Improving the Academic Achievement of Third and Fourth Grade Underachievers as a Result of Improved Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, Barbara Fairfax

    This study was designed to improve the academic achievement of 35 third- and fourth-grade underachievers through improved self-esteem. Specific goals included focusing on self-concept and learning skills reinforcement, with the ultimate goal of increasing academic performance and motivation. Large group sessions with students focused on…

  14. TU-A-BRD-01: Outcomes of Hypofractionated Treatments - Initial Results of the WGSBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Lee, P; Ohri, N; Joiner, M; Kong, F; Jackson, A

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged in recent decades as a treatment paradigm that is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Clinical outcomes data are rapidly accumulating. Although published relations between outcomes and dose distributions are still sparse, the field has progressed to the point where evidence-based normal tissue dose-volume constraints, prescription strategies, and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) models can be developed. The Working Group on SBRT (WGSBRT), under the Biological Effects Subcommittee of AAPM, is a group of physicists and physicians working in the area of SBRT. It is currently performing critical literature reviews to extract and synthesize usable data and to develop guidelines and models to aid with safe and effective treatment. The group is investigating clinically relevant findings from SBRT in six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session of AAPM 2014, interim results are presented on TCP for lung and liver, NTCP for thoracic organs, and radiobiological foundations:• Lung TCP: Detailed modeling of TCP data from 118 published studies on early stage lung SBRT investigates dose response and hypothesized mechanisms to explain the improved outcomes of SBRT. This is presented from the perspective of a physicist, a physician, and a radiobiologist.• Liver TCP: For primary and metastatic liver tumors, individual patient data were extracted from published reports to examine the effects of biologically effective dose on local control.• Thoracic NTCP: Clinically significant SBRT toxicity of lung, rib / chest wall and other structures are evaluated and compared among published clinical data, in terms of risk, risk factors, and safe practice.• Improving the clinical utility of published toxicity reports from SBRT and Hypofractionated treatments. What do we want, and how do we get it? Methods

  15. Recovery in the outpatient setting: 36-month results from the Schizophrenia Outpatients Health Outcomes (SOHO) study.

    PubMed

    Novick, Diego; Haro, Josep Maria; Suarez, David; Vieta, Eduard; Naber, Dieter

    2009-03-01

    Recovery is an important outcome of schizophrenia that has not been well defined or researched. Using a stringent definition of recovery that included long-lasting symptomatic and functional remission as well as an adequate quality of life for a minimum of 24 months and until the 36-month visit, we determined the frequency and predictors of recovery in patients with schizophrenia during 3 years of antipsychotic treatment in the prospective, observational Schizophrenia Outpatients Health Outcomes (SOHO) study. Of the 6642 patients analysed, 33% achieved long-lasting symptomatic remission, 13% long-lasting functional remission, 27% long-lasting adequate quality of life, and 4% achieved recovery during the 3 year follow-up period. Logistic regression analysis revealed that social functioning at study entry (having good occupational/vocational status, living independently and being socially active) and adherence with medication were factors significantly associated with achieving recovery. Higher negative symptom severity, higher BMI and lack of effectiveness as the reason for change of medication at baseline were baseline factors associated with a lower likelihood of achieving recovery. Treatment with olanzapine was also associated with a higher frequency of recovery compared with risperidone, quetiapine, typical antipsychotics (oral, depot) and patients taking two or more antipsychotic medications. There were no differences among the patients taking olanzapine, clozapine and amisulpride. Predictors of long-lasting symptomatic remission, functional remission and adequate quality of life were also independently analysed. Although the results should be interpreted conservatively due to the observational, non-randomised study design, they indicate that only a small proportion of patients with schizophrenia achieve recovery and suggest that social functioning, medication adherence and type of antipsychotic are important predictors of recovery.

  16. Is consuming yoghurt associated with weight management outcomes? Results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Eales, J; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; King, S; Wood, H; Kok, F J; Shamir, R; Prentice, A; Edwards, M; Glanville, J; Atkinson, R L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Yoghurt is part of the diet of many people worldwide and is commonly recognised as a ‘health food'. Epidemiological studies suggest that yoghurt may be useful as part of weight management programs. In the absence of comprehensive systematic reviews, this systematic review investigated the effect of yoghurt consumption by apparently healthy adults on weight-related outcomes. Methods: An extensive literature search was undertaken, as part of a wider scoping review, to identify yoghurt studies. A total of 13 631 records were assessed for their relevance to weight-related outcomes. Results: Twenty-two publications were eligible according to the review protocol. Cohort studies (n=6) and cross-sectional studies (n=7) all showed a correlation between yoghurt and lower or improved body weight/composition. Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one controlled trial had various limitations, including small size and short duration. One RCT showed significant effects of yoghurt on weight loss, but was confounded by differences in calcium intake. One trial showed nonsignificant weight gain and the remaining five trials showed nonsignificant weight losses that were greater in yoghurt consumers. Conclusions: Yoghurt consumption is associated with lower body mass index, lower body weight/weight gain, smaller waist circumference and lower body fat in epidemiological studies. RCTs suggest weight reduction effects, but do not permit determination of a cause–effect relationship. Well-controlled, adequately powered trials in research and community settings appear likely to identify a modest but beneficial effect of yoghurt consumption for prevention of weight gain and management of obesity. The ready availability of yoghurt (a nutrient-dense food) and its ease of introduction to most diets suggests that educating the public to eat yoghurt as part of a balanced and healthy diet may potentially contribute to improved public health. Future carefully designed RCTs

  17. Identify sequence of events likely to result in severe crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Thor, Craig P; Ardiansyah, Muhammad Nashir

    2016-11-01

    The current practice of crash characterization in highway engineering reduces multiple dimensions of crash contributing factors and their relative sequential connections, crash sequences, into broad definitions, resulting in crash categories such as head-on, sideswipe, rear-end, angle, and fixed-object. As a result, crashes that are classified in the same category may contain many different crash sequences. This makes it difficult to develop effective countermeasures because these crash categorizations are based on the outcomes rather than the preceding events. Consequently, the efficacy of a countermeasure designed for a specific type of crash may not be appropriate due to different pre-crash sequences. This research seeks to explore the use of event sequence to characterize crashes. Additionally, this research seeks to identify crash sequences that are likely to result in severe crash outcomes so that researchers can develop effective countermeasures to reduce severe crashes. This study utilizes the sequence of events from roadway departure crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), and converts the information to form a new categorization called "crash sequences." The similarity distance between each pair of crash sequences were calculated using the Optimal Matching approach. Cluster analysis was applied to group crash sequences that are etiologically similar in terms of the similarity distance. A hybrid model was constructed to mitigate the potential sample selection bias of FARS data, which is biased toward more severe crashes. The major findings include: (1) in terms of a roadway departure crash, the crash sequences that are most likely to result in high crash severity include a vehicle that first crosses the median or centerline, runs-off-road on the left, and then collides with a roadside fixed-object; (2) seat-belt and airbag usage reduces the probability of dying in a roadway departure crash by 90%; and (3) occupants who are seated on the

  18. Identify sequence of events likely to result in severe crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Thor, Craig P; Ardiansyah, Muhammad Nashir

    2016-11-01

    The current practice of crash characterization in highway engineering reduces multiple dimensions of crash contributing factors and their relative sequential connections, crash sequences, into broad definitions, resulting in crash categories such as head-on, sideswipe, rear-end, angle, and fixed-object. As a result, crashes that are classified in the same category may contain many different crash sequences. This makes it difficult to develop effective countermeasures because these crash categorizations are based on the outcomes rather than the preceding events. Consequently, the efficacy of a countermeasure designed for a specific type of crash may not be appropriate due to different pre-crash sequences. This research seeks to explore the use of event sequence to characterize crashes. Additionally, this research seeks to identify crash sequences that are likely to result in severe crash outcomes so that researchers can develop effective countermeasures to reduce severe crashes. This study utilizes the sequence of events from roadway departure crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), and converts the information to form a new categorization called "crash sequences." The similarity distance between each pair of crash sequences were calculated using the Optimal Matching approach. Cluster analysis was applied to group crash sequences that are etiologically similar in terms of the similarity distance. A hybrid model was constructed to mitigate the potential sample selection bias of FARS data, which is biased toward more severe crashes. The major findings include: (1) in terms of a roadway departure crash, the crash sequences that are most likely to result in high crash severity include a vehicle that first crosses the median or centerline, runs-off-road on the left, and then collides with a roadside fixed-object; (2) seat-belt and airbag usage reduces the probability of dying in a roadway departure crash by 90%; and (3) occupants who are seated on the

  19. Higher Chest Wall Dose Results in Improved Locoregional Outcome in Patients Receiving Postmastectomy Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panoff, Joseph E.; Takita, Cristiane; Hurley, Judith; Reis, Isildinha M.; Zhao, Wei; Rodgers, Steven E.; Gunaseelan, Vijayalakshmi; Wright, Jean L.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Randomized trials demonstrating decreased locoregional recurrence (LRR) and improved overall survival (OS) in women receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) used up to 50 Gy to the chest wall (CW), but in practice, many centers boost the CW dose to {>=}60 Gy, despite lack of data supporting this approach. We evaluated the relationship between CW dose and clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 582 consecutively treated patients who received PMRT between January 1999 and December 2009. We collected data on patient, disease, treatment characteristics, and outcomes of LRR, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. Results: Median follow-up from the date of diagnosis was 44.7 months. The cumulative 5-year incidence of LRR as first site of failure was 6.2%. CW dose for 7% (43 patients) was {<=}50.4 Gy (range, 41.4-50.4 Gy) and 93% received >50.4 Gy (range, 52.4-74.4 Gy). A CW dose of >50.4 Gy vs. {<=}50.4 Gy was associated with lower incidence of LRR, a 60-month rate of 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-8.2) vs. 12.7% (95% CI, 4.5-25.3; p = 0.054). Multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for LRR controlling for race, receptor status, and stage was 2.62 (95% CI, 1.02-7.13; p = 0.042). All LRR in the low-dose group occurred in patients receiving 50 to 50.4 Gy. Lower CW dose was associated with worse PFS (multivariate HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.64-4.56; p < 0.001) and OS (multivariate HR, 3.88; 95% CI, 2.16-6.99; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The addition of a CW boost above 50.4 Gy resulted in improved locoregional control and survival in this cohort patients treated with PMRT for stage II-III breast cancer. The addition of a CW boost to standard-dose PMRT is likely to benefit selected high-risk patients. The optimal technique, target volume, and patient selection criteria are unknown. The use of a CW boost should be studied prospectively, as has been done in the setting of breast conservation.

  20. Mercury in fish and adverse reproductive outcomes: results from South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a metal with widespread distribution in aquatic ecosystems and significant neurodevelopmental toxicity in humans. Fish biomonitoring for total mercury has been conducted in South Carolina (SC) since 1976, and consumption advisories have been posted for many SC waterways. However, there is limited information on the potential reproductive impacts of mercury due to recreational or subsistence fish consumption. Methods To address this issue, geocoded residential locations for live births from the Vital Statistics Registry (1995–2005, N = 362,625) were linked with spatially interpolated total mercury concentrations in fish to estimate potential mercury exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the hypothesis that risk of low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) or preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks clinical gestation) was greater among women living in areas with elevated total mercury in fish, after adjustment for confounding. Separate analyses estimated term LBW and PTB risks using residential proximity to rivers with fish consumption advisories to characterize exposure. Results Term LBW was more likely among women residing in areas in the upper quartile of predicted total mercury in fish (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.09) or within 8 kilometers of a river with a ‘do not eat’ fish advisory (1.05; 1.00-1.11) compared to the lowest quartile, or rivers without fish consumption restrictions, respectively. When stratified by race, risks for term LBW or PTB were 10-18% more likely among African-American (AA) mothers living in areas with the highest total fish mercury concentrations. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between fish total mercury concentrations and adverse reproductive outcomes in a large population-based sample that included AA women. The ecologic nature of exposure assessment in this study

  1. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

  2. Skin and soft tissue infection management, outcomes, and follow-up in the emergency department of an urban academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Seeleang, Kanokwan; Manning, Mary Lou; Saks, Mark; Winstead, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common infections treated by emergency department clinicians. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) as the cause of these infections prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Infectious Disease Society of America to publish guidelines for the outpatient management of SSTIs. This study describes the management and outcomes of emergency department patients treated for uncomplicated SSTIs who returned within 30 days of the initial visit. The study found that of 857 eligible patients, only 17.6% returned and of these, 80% had their wound checked or packing removed. The clinicians prescribed antibiotics for the majority of patients, and the selection of antibiotics typically was active against CA-MRSA. Of 91 lesions drained, 24 specimens were obtained for culture and sensitivity. The majority of the initial treatment of patients consisted of incision and drainage with antibiotic prescription. PMID:25356895

  3. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  4. Multiple trauma in children: predicting outcome and long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Letts, Mervyn; Davidson, Darin; Lapner, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze the management of pediatric trauma and the efficacy of the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) in classifying injury severity and predicting prognosis. Design A retrospective case series. Setting The Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, a major pediatric trauma centre. Patients One hundred and forty-nine traumatized children with 2 or more injuries to 1 body system or a single injury to 2 or more body systems. Interventions Use of the PTS and Glasgow Coma Scale score in trauma management. Main outcome measures Types of injuries sustained, complications, missed injuries, psychosocial effects and residual deficiencies. Results The average PTS was 8.5 (range from −3 to 11). The total number of injuries sustained was 494, most commonly closed head injury (86). Forty-two percent of children with an average trauma score of 8.5 were treated surgically. There were 13 missed injuries, and complications were encountered in 57 children, the most common being secondary to fractures. Forty-eight (32%) children had residual long-term deficiency, most commonly neurologic deficiency secondary to head injury. Conclusions Fractures should be stabilized early to decrease long-term complications. A deficiency of the PTS is the weighting of open fractures of a minor bone. For example, metacarpal fracture is given the same weight as an open fracture of the femur. Neuropsychologic difficulties secondary to trauma are a major sequela of trauma in children. PMID:11939656

  5. CT-Guided Lumbar Sympathectomy: Results and Analysis of Factors Influencing the Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, Walter; Ernst, Stefan; Manshausen, Gudrun; Gawenda, Michael; Siemens, Peter; Krahe, Thomas; Walter, Michael; Lackner, Klaus

    1998-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze the effectiveness of computed tomography-guided percutaneous lumbar sympathectomy (CTLS) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease in relation to angiographic findings and vascular risk factors. Methods: Eighty-three patients were treated by CTLS. After clinical evaluation of the risk profile and diagnostic intraarterial digital subtraction arteriography, 14 patients underwent unilateral, and 69 bilateral one-level treatment. Follow-up studies took place on the day following the intervention, after 3 weeks, and after 3 months. Results: A total of 152 interventions were performed in 83 patients. After 3 months, clinical examination of 54 patients (5 patients had died, 24 were lost to follow-up) revealed improvement in 46% (25/54), no change in 39% (21/54), and worsening (amputation) in 15% (8/54). There was no significant statistical correlation among any of the analyzed factors (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, obesity, hyperuricemia, number of risk factors, ankle-arm index, and angiography score) and the outcome after CTLS. Three major complications occurred: one diabetic patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess 2 weeks after CTLS, and in two other patients ureteral strictures were detected 3 months and 2 years after CTLS, respectively. Conclusion: As no predictive criteria for clinical improvement in an individual patient could be identified, CTLS, as a safe procedure, should be employed on a large scale in patients who are unsuitable for treatment by angioplasty or revascularization.

  6. Contemporary results of treatment of acute arterial mesenteric thrombosis: has endovascular treatment improved outcomes?

    PubMed

    Kalra, Manju; Ryer, Evan J; Oderich, Gustavo S; Duncan, Audra A; Bower, Thomas C; Gloviczki, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon but highly complex clinical problem and carries a high mortality. Traditional treatment has yielded only modest improvements in mortality and an endovascular first treatment paradigm has been adopted by selected centers over the past decade. However, the technique does not allow for immediate assessment of intestinal viability and availability of the expertise and equipment is mostly limited to tertiary referral centers. Experience gained with endovascular treatment thus far suggests that careful patient selection, procedure planning, and meticulous technique are the key to further improving results. Most important, prolonged attempts at percutaneous intervention should not be allowed to delay laparotomy and bowel assessment. In patients requiring urgent laparotomy, intraoperative retrograde superior mesenteric artery recanalization remains an attractive option and should be given due consideration. Liberal use of second-look laparotomy is to be encouraged for continued bowel assessment and eventual reestablishment of bowel continuity. Early recognition of the problem with expeditious implementation of the appropriate treatment is likely to improve outcomes of this challenging problem in the future.

  7. Liver function test results and outcomes in children with acute liver failure due to dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Hutagalung, Yanee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective study compared the liver function test results and outcomes between children with acute liver failure (ALF) due to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and due to other causes. We retrospectively reviewed patients less than 15 years old with a diagnosis of ALF admitted to 13 participating centers from different parts of Thailand for the years 2000 and 2001, and those admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital for the year 1997 to 2004. The diagnosis of ALF was based on prothrombin time (PT) prolongation to greater than 2 times the normal control value and the presence of encephalopathy without pre-existing liver disease. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group I (n=16) had DHF with ALF and group II (n=37) had ALF due to other causes. DHF patients had AST levels significantly higher than ALT levels. The mortality rate in group I (50%) was lower than in group II (72.9%), although the difference was not statistically significant. The non-DHF patients who died had a significantly longer duration of jaundice before the onset of encephalopathy and a significantly higher PT ratio compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in the duration of jaundice before the onset of encephalopathy and liver function between dengue patients who died and those who survived.

  8. Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

    2015-01-01

    To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

  9. Endovascular Treatment of Venous Sinus Stenosis in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Complications, Neurological Outcomes, and Radiographic Results

    PubMed Central

    Starke, Robert M.; Wang, Tony; Ding, Dale; Durst, Christopher R.; Crowley, R. Webster; Chalouhi, Nohra; Hasan, David M.; Dumont, Aaron S.; Jabbour, Pascal; Liu, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may result in a chronic debilitating disease. Dural venous sinus stenosis with a physiologic venous pressure gradient has been identified as a potential etiology in a number of IIH patients. Intracranial venous stenting has emerged as a potential treatment alternative. Methods. A systematic review was carried out to identify studies employing venous stenting for IIH. Results. From 2002 to 2014, 17 studies comprising 185 patients who underwent 221 stenting procedures were reported. Mean prestent pressure gradient was 20.1 mmHg (95% CI 19.4–20.7 mmHg) with a mean poststent gradient of 4.4 mmHg (95% CI 3.5–5.2 mmHg). Complications occurred in 10 patients (5.4%; 95% CI 4.7–5.4%) but were major in only 3 (1.6%). At a mean clinical follow-up of 22 months, clinical improvement was noted in 130 of 166 patients with headaches (78.3%; 95% CI 75.8–80.8%), 84 of 89 patients with papilledema (94.4%; 95% CI 92.1–96.6%), and 64 of 74 patients with visual symptoms (86.5%; 95% CI 83.0–89.9%). In-stent stenosis was noted in six patients (3.4%; 95% CI 2.5–4.3%) and stent-adjacent stenosis occurred in 19 patients (11.4%; 95% CI 10.4–12.4), resulting in restenting in 10 patients. Conclusion. In IIH patients with venous sinus stenosis and a physiologic pressure gradient, venous stenting appears to be a safe and effective therapeutic option. Further studies are necessary to determine the long-term outcomes and the optimal management of medically refractory IIH. PMID:26146651

  10. Outcome of Radial Head Arthroplasty in Comminuted Radial Head Fractures: Short and Midterm Results

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Arash; Raven, Tim Friedrich; Dremel, Eike; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Grutzner, Paul Alfred; Biglari, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comminuted radial head fractures are often associated with secondary injuries and elbow instability. Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate how well the modular metallic radial head implant EVOLVE® prosthesis restores functional range of motion (ROM) and stability of the elbow in acute care. Patients and Methods: Eighty-five patients with comminuted radial head fractures and associated injuries received treatment with an EVOLVE® prosthesis between May 2001 and November 2009. Seventy-five patients were available for follow-up. On average, patients were followed for 41.5 months (33.0: 4.0 - 93.0). Outcome assessment was done on the basis of pain, ROM, strength, radiographic findings, and functional rating scores such as Broberg and Morrey, the Mayo elbow performance index (MEPI), and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH). Our study is currently the largest analysis of clinical outcome of a modular radial head replacement in the literature. Results: Overall, there were 2 (2.7%) Mason II fractures, 21 (28%) Mason III fractures, and 52 (69.3%) Mason IV fractures. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification was also determined. Of the 85 patients in our study, 75 were available for follow-up. Follow-up averaged 41.5 months (range, 4 - 93 months). Average scores for the cohort were as follows: Morrey, 85.7 (median 90.2; range 44.4 - 100); MEPI, 83.3 (85.0; 40.0 - 100); and DASH 26.1 points (22.5; 0.0 - 75.8). Mean flexion/extension in the affected joint was 125.7°/16.5°/0° in comparison to the noninjured side 138.5°/0°/1.2°. Mean pronation/supination was 70.5°/0°/67.1° in comparison to the noninjured side 83.6°/0°/84.3°. Handgrip strength of the injured compared to the non-injured arm was 78.8%. The following complications were also documented: 58 patients had periprosthetic radioluceny shown to be neither clinically significant nor relevant according to evaluated scores; 26 patients had

  11. Bridging Differences in Outcomes of Pharmacoepidemiological Studies: Design and First Results of the PROTECT Project

    PubMed Central

    Abbing-Karahagopian, Victoria; Kurz, Xavier; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd P.; Alvarez, Yolanda; Hesse, Ulrik; Hasford, Joerg; Liset van, Dijk; Francisco J. de, Abajo; Weil, John G.; Lamiae Grimaldi, -Bensouda; Egberts, Antoine C.G.; Robert F., Reynolds; Olaf H., Klungel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational pharmacoepidemiological (PE) studies on drug safety have produced discrepant results that may be due to differences in design, conduct and analysis. Purpose: The pharmacoepidemiology work-package (WP2) of the Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European ConsorTium (PROTECT) project aims at developing, testing and disseminating methodological standards for design, conduct and analysis of pharmacoepidemiological studies applicable to different safety issues using different databases across European countries. This article describes the selection of the safety issues and the description of the databases to be systematically studied. Methods: Based on two consensus meetings and a literature search, we selected five drug-adverse event (AE) pairs to be evaluated in different databases. This selection was done according to pre-defined criteria such as regulatory and public health impact, and the potential to investigate a broad range of methodological issues. Results: The selected drug-AE pairs are: 1) inhaled long-acting beta-2 agonists and acute myocardial infarction; 2) antimicrobials and acute liver injury; 3) antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines and hip fracture; 4) anticonvulsants and suicide/suicide attempts; and 5) calcium channel blockers and malignancies. Six European databases, that will be used to evaluate the drug-AE pairs retrospectively, are also described. Conclusion: The selected drug-AE pairs will be evaluated in PE studies using common protocols. Based on consistencies and discrepancies of these studies, a framework for guiding methodological choices will be developed. This will increase the usefulness and reliability of PE studies for benefit-risk assessment and decision-making. PMID:24218995

  12. Duodenal Aspirates for Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: Yield, PPIs, and Outcomes after Treatment at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Franco, Diana L; Disbrow, Molly B; Kahn, Allon; Koepke, Laura M; Harris, Lucinda A; Harrison, M Edwyn; Crowell, Michael D; Ramirez, Francisco C

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal aspirates are not commonly collected, but they can be easily used in detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been proposed to contribute to the development of SIBO. We aimed to determine the yield of SIBO-positive cultures detected in duodenal aspirates, the relationship between SIBO and PPI use, and the clinical outcomes of patients identified by this method. In a retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical records from 1263 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy at a tertiary medical center. Aspirates were collected thought out the third and fourth portions of the duodenum, and cultures were considered to be positive for SIBO if they produced more than 100,000 cfu/mL. Culture analysis of duodenal aspirates identified SIBO in one-third of patients. A significantly higher percentage of patients with SIBO use PPIs than patients without SIBO, indicating a possible association. Similar proportions of patients with SIBO improved whether or not they received antibiotic treatment, calling into question the use of this expensive therapy for this disorder. PMID:25694782

  13. Communicating the results of randomized clinical trials: do patients understand multidimensional patient-reported outcomes?

    PubMed

    McNair, Angus G K; Brookes, Sara T; Davis, Christopher R; Argyropoulos, Miltiadis; Blazeby, Jane M

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Evidence suggests that patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from randomized trials in oncology may not influence clinical decision making and patient choice. Reasons for this are currently unclear and little is known about patients' interpretation of PROs. This study assessed patients' understanding of multidimensional PROs in a graphical format. PATIENTS AND METHODS Semistructured interviews in which patients interpreted a series of graphs depicting simple, then multiple different hypothetical PROs associated with two treatments with identical chances of survival were audio recorded. The interviewer and a blinded observer (listening to audio recordings) scored patients' understanding of the graphs. Logistic regression examined the associations between patient understanding of the graphs and clinical and sociodemographic details. Results One hundred thirty-two patients with esophageal and gastric cancer were interviewed and 115 understood the first two graphs depicting different PROs of two treatments (87%; 95% CI,81 to 93). Simultaneous interpretation of adverse and beneficial treatment effects was achieved by 74 (66%; 95% CI, 57 to 75). Graphs showing complex, longitudinal data were correctly interpreted by 97 (73%; 95% CI, 66 to 81) and 108 (81%; 95% CI, 75 to 88), respectively. Univariable analyses demonstrated associations between patient understanding and patient age, educational level, and cancer site (P < or = .02 for all); however, in a multivariable model each of these associations was attenuated. CONCLUSION Most patients understand graphical multidimensional PROs, although a smaller majority were able to interpret more complex, or simultaneous, presentations. Additional work is needed to define methods for communicating clinical and PRO data from trials to allow patients to make informed treatment choices. PMID:20065187

  14. Impact of Resident Rotations on Critically Ill Patient Outcomes: Results of a French Multicenter Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guidet, Bertrand; Aegerter, Philippe; Mentec, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of resident rotation on patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to address this question using a large ICU database. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the French CUB-REA database. French residents rotate every six months. Two periods were compared: the first (POST) and fifth (PRE) months of the rotation. The primary endpoint was ICU mortality. The secondary endpoints were the length of ICU stay (LOS), the number of organ supports, and the duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV). The impact of resident rotation was explored using multivariate regression, classification tree and random forest models. Results 262,772 patients were included between 1996 and 2010 in the database. The patient characteristics were similar between the PRE (n = 44,431) and POST (n = 49,979) periods. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any impact of resident rotation on ICU mortality (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.94; 1.07, p = 0.91). Based on the classification trees, the SAPS II and the number of organ failures were the strongest predictors of ICU mortality. In the less severe patients (SAPS II<24), the POST period was associated with increased mortality (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.17–2.33, p = 0.004). After adjustment, no significant association was observed between the rotation period and the LOS, the number of organ supports, or the DMV. Conclusion Resident rotation exerts no impact on overall ICU mortality at French teaching hospitals but might affect the prognosis of less severe ICU patients. Surveillance should be reinforced when treating those patients. PMID:27627449

  15. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  16. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  17. Correlates and Economic and Clinical Outcomes of an Adult IV to PO Antimicrobial Conversion Program at an Academic Medical Center in Midwest United States.

    PubMed

    Sallach-Ruma, Rory; Nieman, Jennifer; Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Reardon, Tom

    2015-06-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate the correlates and outcomes of a parenteral (IV) to oral (PO) antimicrobial conversion program at a Midwest US Academic Medical Center with the hypothesis that it will be associated with reduced drug costs. Patient-level data (n = 237; sex, race, admission source, admission status, admission severity, risk of mortality [relative expected, admission], and early death) were extracted from the Clinical Data Base/Resource Manager. Medication-level, drug-encounter data (n = 317; antibiotic/dose/route/frequency/duration, conversion status, 10-day IV/PO switch-eligibility criteria) were extracted from patient's hospital medical records. Univariate analyses using chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables showed patients not converted (n = 149) versus converted (n = 88) at some point from IV to PO were more likely to be of white race and had higher risk of relative expected mortality. By applying the unit drug cost (derived from 2010 Thomson Reuters RED BOOK(TM)) and labor costs for IV/PO administration, both per dose, the overall 1-month drug cost-saving estimates in 2010 in US dollars were US$5242 from converting and US$8805 savings missed from not converting 518 and 1387 switch-eligible antibiotic doses, respectively. Despite sample-size limitations, this study demonstrated correlates and missed opportunities to convert antimicrobials from IV to PO, which warrants providers' attention. PMID:24399573

  18. The Applications of Mindfulness with Students of Secondary School: Results on the Academic Performance, Self-concept and Anxiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Gallego, José

    The aim of the present research is to verify the impact of a mindfulness programme on the levels academic performance, self-concept and anxiety, of a group of students in Year 1 at secondary school. The statistical analyses carried out on the variables studied showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group with regard to the control group in all the variables analysed. In the experimental group we can observe a significant increase of academic performance as well as an improvement in all the self-concept dimensions, and a significant decrease in anxiety states and traits. The importance and usefulness of mindfulness techniques in the educative system is discussed.

  19. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Total Health Care Expenditure in Prediction of Patient Satisfaction: Results From a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wei; Bounsanga, Jerry; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Crum, Anthony B; Voss, Maren W; Hon, Shirley D

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care quality is often linked to patient satisfaction. Yet, there is a lack of national studies examining the relationship between patient satisfaction, patient-reported outcomes, and medical expenditure. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of physical health, mental health, general health, and total health care expenditures to patient satisfaction using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample. Methods Using data from the 2010-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, analyses were conducted to predict patient satisfaction from patient-reported outcomes and total health care expenditures. The study sample consisted of adult participants (N=10,157), with sampling weights representative of 233.26 million people in the United States. Results The results indicated that patient-reported outcomes and total health care expenditure were associated with patient satisfaction such that higher physical and mental function, higher general health status, and higher total health care expenditure were associated with higher patient satisfaction. Conclusions We found that patient-reported outcomes and total health care expenditure had a significant relationship with patient satisfaction. As more emphasis is placed on health care value and quality, this area of research will become increasingly needed and critical questions should be asked about what we value in health care and whether we can find a balance between patient satisfaction, outcomes, and expenditures. Future research should apply big data analytics to investigate whether there is a differential effect of patient-reported outcomes and medical expenditures on patient satisfaction across different medical specialties. PMID:27227131

  20. Examining Student Spiritual Outcomes as a Result of a General Education Religion Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Plummer, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which part-time faculty are becoming a higher proportion of the teaching faculty on most campuses, this study addressed the question of whether student learning outcomes in religious education courses are significantly influenced by whether the instructor teaches in a full- or part-time capacity in the Department of Religion. We…

  1. Getting Results: Outcomes Management and the Annie E. Casey Foundations Jobs Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giloth, Robert; Phillips, William

    The Anne E. Casey Foundation (AECF) funded replications of effective jobs projects to achieve better job placement and retention for low-income, young adults. The six projects funded, collectively called the Jobs Initiative (JI), in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Seattle, and St. Louis, used an outcomes framework developed by The…

  2. Relationship Between Upper Respiratory Tract Influenza Test Result and Clinical Outcomes Among Critically Ill Influenza Patients.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna P; Bajwa, Ednan K; Parker, Robert A; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-01-01

    Among critically ill patients with lower respiratory tract (LRT)-confirmed influenza, we retrospectively observed worse 28-day clinical outcomes in upper respiratory tract (URT)-negative versus URT-positive subjects. This finding may reflect disease progression and highlights the need for influenza testing of both URT and LRT specimens to improve diagnostic yield and possibly inform prognosis. PMID:26966696

  3. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie, Rory L. L.; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes when using a personal learning network is…

  4. Predictors of outcomes in outpatients with anorexia nervosa - Results from the ANTOP study.

    PubMed

    Wild, Beate; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Zipfel, Stephan; Resmark, Gaby; Giel, Katrin; Teufel, Martin; Schellberg, Dieter; Löwe, Bernd; de Zwaan, Martina; Zeeck, Almut; Herpertz, Stephan; Burgmer, Markus; von Wietersheim, Jörn; Tagay, Sefik; Dinkel, Andreas; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2016-10-30

    This study aimed to determine predictors of BMI and recovery for outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Patients were participants of the ANTOP (Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of Out-Patients) trial and randomized to focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT), enhanced cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-E), or optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O). N=169 patients participated in the one-year follow-up (T4). Outcomes were the BMI and global outcome (recovery/partial syndrome/full syndrome) at T4. We examined the following baseline variables as possible predictors: age, BMI, duration of illness, subtype of AN, various axis I diagnoses, quality of life, self-esteem, and psychological characteristics relevant to AN. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the predictors of the BMI and global outcome. The strongest positive predictor for BMI and recovery at T4 was a higher baseline BMI of the patients. Negative predictors for BMI and recovery were a duration of illness >6 years and a lifetime depression diagnosis at baseline. Additionally, higher bodily pain was significantly associated with a lower BMI and self-esteem was a positive predictor for recovery at T4. A higher baseline BMI and shorter illness duration led to a better outcome. Further research is necessary to investigate whether or not AN patients with lifetime depression, higher bodily pain, and lower self-esteem may benefit from specific treatment approaches. PMID:27467700

  5. PBL-GIS in Secondary Geography Education: Does It Result in Higher-Order Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lossman, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research on evaluating problem-based learning using GIS technology in a Singapore secondary school. A quasi-experimental research design was carried to test the PBL pedagogy (PBL-GIS) with an experimental group of students and compare their learning outcomes with a control group who were exposed to PBL but not GIS. The…

  6. Action Research: Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes. Results of the Final Phase (2011-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolly, Madina; Jonas, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Action Research on Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes (RAMAA) aims to develop, implement and collaborate on the creation of a methodological approach to measure acquired learning and study the various factors that influence its development. This report examines how RAMAA I has been implemented over the past four years in…

  7. Optimizing healthcare at the population level: results of the improving cardiovascular outcomes in Nova Scotia partnership.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jafna; Johnstone, David; Nemis-White, Joanna; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Disease management is increasingly considered a valid strategy in the chronic care of our aging patient populations with multiple diseases. The Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) project examined whether a community-oriented health management partnership would lead to enhanced care and improved outcomes across an entire healthcare system. ICONS was a prospective cohort study, with baseline and repeated measurements of care and outcomes fed back to all project partners, along with other interventions aimed at optimizing care; preceding interval cohorts served as controls to post-intervention cohorts. The setting was the province of Nova Scotia, whose population is approximately 950,000. All 34,060 consecutive adult patients hospitalized in Nova Scotia with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UA) or congestive heart failure (CHF) October 1997-March 2002 were included. Interventions were a combination of serial audits and feedbacks of practices and outcomes, web-based publication of findings, newsletter-based education and reminders, physician small-group workshops, pharmacy monitoring and compliance programs, care maps, algorithms, discharge forms and patient information cards. Rates of use of evidence-based marker therapies were the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included one-year, all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization. Evidence-based prescription practices, for all target diseases, continuously and markedly improved over time. At the population level, there were no changes in one-year mortality for any disease state, although use of proven therapies predicted survival at the individual level throughout the five-year period for all disease states. Rates of re-hospitalization decreased significantly for all disease states over the course of ICONS; but most traditional positive and negative predictors of this outcome, like advanced age and use of proven therapies, respectively, were not predictive. ICONS

  8. Outcome among community dwelling older adults with schizophrenia: results using five conceptual models.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Carl I; Pathak, Richa; Ramirez, Paul M; Vahia, Ipsit

    2009-04-01

    There have been few studies examining the outcome of schizophrenia in later life. Using five conceptual models, we test two hypotheses with respect to range of outcomes among older schizophrenia outpatients and how they compare to their age peers in the community. We operationalized five outcome measures from the following conceptual models: Remission, adapting criteria of Andreasen et al. (The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162:441-449, 2005); Recovery, adapting the criteria by Liberman et al. (International Review of Psychiatry, 14:256-272, 2002); Community Integration using the model of Wong and Solomon (Mental Health Services Research, 4:13-28, 2002); Subjective and Objective Successful Aging using the model of Rowe and Kahn (Science, 237:143-149, 1987). The schizophrenia (S) group consisted of 198 community-dwelling persons aged 55 and over who developed schizophrenia before age 45 and a community comparison (CC) group (N = 113). Remission and recovery criteria were met by 49 and 17% of the S group, respectively. There were significant differences between the S and CC groups in the distribution of community integration and successful aging scales: 41% of the CC group met at least 10 of 12 criteria versus 23% of the S group on the Community Integration Scale; 19% of the CC group met all six criteria vs. 2% of the S group on the Objective Successful Aging Scale; 27% of the CC group vs. 13% of the S group met all six criteria on the Subjective Successful Aging Scale. Correlations among the five outcome measures ranged from r = .19 to .48 (median value: r = .26 or 7% shared variance). There is wide variability in outcome in later life depending on which measure is used. Rather than one universal indicator, each measure offers a different perspective that can provide useful guidelines for researchers, clinicians, and policy makers. PMID:18787951

  9. Leading the Student Experience: Academic and Professional Services in Partnership Literature Review and Overview of Results. Leading the Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Sarah; Young, Julie Blackwell; Cleaver, Elizabeth; Archibald, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    This research project explored how academic and professional personnel work together in new ways to deliver the best possible student experience. The project analysed why certain models of good working practice seemed to work well. The research investigated: how the change management process was perceived and managed by key stakeholders; the role…

  10. Does Written Emotional Disclosure about Stress Improve College Students' Academic Performance? Results from Three Randomized, Controlled Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Alison M.; Stevenson, Jennifer K.; Lumley, Mark A.; D'Souza, Pamela J.; Kraft, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Several early studies and subsequent reviews suggested that written emotional disclosure (WED)--writing repeatedly about personal stressful experiences--leads to improved academic performance of college students. A critical review of available studies casts some doubt on this conclusion, so we conducted three randomized, controlled experiments of…

  11. Does a postpartum hemorrhage patient safety program result in sustained changes in management and outcomes?

    PubMed

    Einerson, Brett D; Miller, Emily S; Grobman, William A

    2015-02-01

    We sought to determine whether the introduction of a postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) safety program was associated with changes in clinical practice and outcomes, and to examine whether these changes were sustained over time. In August 2008, a multidisciplinary PPH patient safety program was implemented at our single tertiary care hospital. We performed a cohort study of all women with PPH from August 2007 through December 2011. Changes in clinical practice and outcomes were compared before and after the intervention. Shewhart charts were used to examine sustainability of these changes over time. During the study period 52,819 women delivered, and 3105 (5.9%) experienced PPH. After the introduction of the program there was a significant increase in the use of uterotonic medications (P < .001), intrauterine balloon tamponade (P = .002), B-Lynch suture placement (P = .042), uterine artery embolization (P = .050), and cryoprecipitate use (P = .0222). Concomitantly, the number of days between admissions to the intensive care unit for PPH increased.

  12. Comparison of length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood culture results.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Briley, Danielle; Hozhabri, Neda S T; Armstrong, Kris; Puthottile, Jason; Benavides, Raul; Beal, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. The fatality rate for severe sepsis is about 40%, and treatment costs over $16 billion annually. It is critical to identify and treat the source of sepsis. While there are varying guidelines determining when to draw blood for culture, at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, blood cultures are ordered for patients with new onset of fever, immunosuppression, or a suspicion of an underlying infectious etiology. We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had blood cultures after hospital admission or in the emergency department in December 2013. We compared length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood cultures. There was no significant difference for length of stay or outcomes among patients with positive and negative blood cultures. For patients admitted from the emergency department, there was a longer length of stay for patients with positive cultures; however, the overall prognosis was not worse.

  13. Examining the Effects of Displaying Clicker Voting Results on High School Students' Voting Behaviors, Discussion Processes, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Li, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' clicking behaviors, discussion processes, learning outcomes, and a prominent feature of clicker systems--the whole class' response results aggregated by clickers in real time. The results indicate that, while teaching Newton's laws of motion, displaying the real-time responses of the whole…

  14. Social cognitive predictors of first- and non-first-generation college students' academic and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Garriott, Patton O; Hudyma, Aaron; Keene, Chesleigh; Santiago, Dana

    2015-04-01

    The present study tested Lent's (2004) social-cognitive model of normative well-being in a sample (N = 414) of first- and non-first-generation college students. A model depicting relationships between: positive affect, environmental supports, college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, academic progress, academic satisfaction, and life satisfaction was examined using structural equation modeling. The moderating roles of perceived importance of attending college and intrinsic goal motivation were also explored. Results suggested the hypothesized model provided an adequate fit to the data while hypothesized relationships in the model were partially supported. Environmental supports predicted college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, and academic satisfaction. Furthermore, college self-efficacy predicted academic progress while college outcome expectations predicted academic satisfaction. Academic satisfaction, but not academic progress predicted life satisfaction. The structural model explained 44% of the variance in academic progress, 56% of the variance in academic satisfaction, and 28% of the variance in life satisfaction. Mediation analyses indicated several significant indirect effects between variables in the model while moderation analyses revealed a 3-way interaction between academic satisfaction, intrinsic motivation for attending college, and first-generation college student status on life satisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of applying the normative model of well-being to promote first- and non-first-generation college students' academic and life satisfaction.

  15. Factors that Determine Academic Versus Private Practice Career Interest in Radiation Oncology Residents in the United States: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Daniel T.; Shaffer, Jenny L.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wilson, Lynn D.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine what factors US radiation oncology residents consider when choosing academic or nonacademic careers. Methods and Materials: A 20-question online survey was developed and sent to all US radiation oncology residents to assess factors that influence their career interest. Residents were asked to rate their interest in academics (A) versus private practice (PP) on a 0 (strong interest in A) to 100 (strong interest in PP) scale. Responses were classified as A (0-30), undecided (40-60), and PP (70-100). Residents were also asked to rank 10 factors that most strongly influenced their career interest. Results: Three hundred thirty-one responses were collected, of which 264 were complete and form the basis for this analysis. Factors that correlated with interest in A included having a PhD (P=.018), postgraduate year level (P=.0006), research elective time (P=.0003), obtaining grant funding during residency (P=.012), and number of publications before residency (P=.0001), but not number of abstracts accepted in the past year (P=.65) or publications during residency (P=.67). The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in A were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) research opportunities during residency. The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in PP were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) academic pressure and obligations. Conclusions: Interest in A correlated with postgraduate year level, degree, and research time during residency. Publications before but not during residency correlated with academic interest, and baseline interest was the most influential factor. These data can be used by residency program directors to better understand what influences residents' career interest.

  16. Effect of anxiety on treatment presentation and outcome: results from the Marijuana Treatment Project.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2010-08-15

    Despite emerging evidence of the efficacy of psychotherapies for marijuana dependence, variability in outcome exists. This study examined the role of anxiety on treatment involvement and outcome. Four questions were examined: (1) Is greater anxiety associated with greater impairment at baseline? (2) Is baseline anxiety related to greater marijuana use and problems following treatment? (3) Does adding cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to motivation enhancement therapy (MET) reduce anxiety relative to MET alone; (4) Are reductions in anxiety associated with better outcomes? The sample comprised 450 marijuana-dependent patients in the Marijuana Treatment Project. Marijuana use and anxiety were measured at pretreatment and 4- and 9-month follow-ups. At baseline, anxiety was linked to more marijuana-related problems. CBT was associated with less anxiety at follow-up compared to MET alone. Reductions in anxiety were related to less marijuana use. In fact, reduction in anxiety from baseline to 4-month follow-up was associated with less marijuana use at 9 months, but reduction in marijuana use did not predict subsequent anxiety. Data suggest that anxiety is an important variable that deserves further attention in marijuana-dependence treatment. PMID:20537406

  17. Homocysteine-Lowering and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Primary Results from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bostom, Andrew G.; Carpenter, Myra A.; Kusek, John W.; Levey, Andrew S.; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Selhub, Jacob; Jacques, Paul F.; Cole, Edward; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; House, Andrew A.; Kew, Clifton; McKenney, Joyce L.; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Pesavento, Todd; Pirsch, John; Smith, Stephen; Solomon, Scott; Weir, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney transplant recipients, like other patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), experience excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. Observational studies of patients with CKD suggest increased homocysteine is a risk factor for CVD. The impact of lowering total homocysteine (tHcy) levels in kidney transplant recipients is unknown. Methods and Results In a double-blind controlled trial, we randomized 4110 stable kidney transplant recipients to a multivitamin that included either a high dose (n=2056) or low dose (n=2054) of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to determine whether decreasing tHcy concentrations reduced the rate of the primary composite arteriosclerotic CVD outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, CVD death, resuscitated sudden death, coronary artery or renal artery revascularization, lower extremity arterial disease, carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty, or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair). Mean follow-up was 4.0 years. Treatment with the high dose multivitamin reduced homocysteine but did not reduce the rates of the primary outcome (n= 547 total events; hazards ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.99 [0.84–1.17]), or secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (n=431 deaths; 1.04 [0.86–1.26]) or dialysis-dependent kidney failure (n=343 events; 1.15 [0.93–1.43]) compared to the low dose multivitamin. Conclusions Treatment with a high dose folic acid, B6, and B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a composite cardiovascular disease outcome, all-cause mortality, or dialysis-dependent kidney failure despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. PMID:21482964

  18. Planned versus actual outcomes as a result of animal feeding operation decisions for managing phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Perry E; Nowak, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores how decisions made on animal feeding operations (AFOs) influence the management of manure and phosphorus. Variability among these decisions from operation to operation and from field to field can influence the validity of nutrient loss risk assessments. These assessments are based on assumptions that the decision outcomes regarding manure distribution will occur as they are planned. The discrepancy between planned versus actual outcomes in phosphorus management was explored on nine AFOs managing a contiguous set of 210 fields in south-central Wisconsin. A total of 2611 soil samples were collected and multiple interviews conducted to assign phosphorus index (PI) ratings to the fields. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r(S)) indicated that PI ratings were less sensitive to soil test phosphorus (STP) levels (r(S) = 0.378), universal soil loss equation (USLE) (r(S) = 0.261), ratings for chemical fertilizer application (r(S) = 0.185), and runoff class (r(S) = -0.089), and more sensitive to ratings for manure application (r(S) = 0.854). One-way ANOVA indicated that mean field STP levels were more homogenous than field PI ratings between AFOs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests displayed several nonsignificant comparisons for cumulative distribution functions, S(x), of mean STP levels on AFO fields. On the other hand, the K-S tests of S(x) for PI ratings indicated that the majority of these S(x) functions were significantly different between AFOs at or greater than the 0.05 significance level. Interviews suggested multiple reasons for divergence between planned and actual outcomes in managing phosphorus, and that this divergence arises at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of decision-making.

  19. The impact of performance incentives on child health outcomes: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, John W; Shimkhada, Riti; Quimbo, Stella; Solon, Orville; Javier, Xylee; McCulloch, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Improving clinical performance using measurement and payment incentives, including pay for performance (or P4P), has, so far, shown modest to no benefit on patient outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact of a P4P programme on paediatric health outcomes in the Philippines. We used data from the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study. In this study, the P4P intervention, introduced in 2004, was randomly assigned to 10 community district hospitals, which were matched to 10 control sites. At all sites, physician quality was measured using Clinical Performance Vignettes (CPVs) among randomly selected physicians every 6 months over a 36-month period. In the hospitals randomized to the P4P intervention, physicians received bonus payments if they met qualifying scores on the CPV. We measured health outcomes 4–10 weeks after hospital discharge among children 5 years of age and under who had been hospitalized for diarrhoea and pneumonia (the two most common illnesses affecting this age cohort) and had been under the care of physicians participating in the study. Health outcomes data collection was done at baseline/pre-intervention and 2 years post-intervention on the following post-discharge outcomes: (1) age-adjusted wasting, (2) C-reactive protein in blood, (3) haemoglobin level and (4) parental assessment of child’s health using general self-reported health (GSRH) measure. To evaluate changes in health outcomes in the control vs intervention sites over time (baseline vs post-intervention), we used a difference-in-difference logistic regression analysis, controlling for potential confounders. We found an improvement of 7 and 9 percentage points in GSRH and wasting over time (post-intervention vs baseline) in the intervention sites relative to the control sites (P ≤ 0.001). The results from this randomized social experiment indicate that the introduction of a performance-based incentive programme, which included measurement and feedback, led to improvements

  20. The impact of performance incentives on child health outcomes: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Peabody, John W; Shimkhada, Riti; Quimbo, Stella; Solon, Orville; Javier, Xylee; McCulloch, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Improving clinical performance using measurement and payment incentives, including pay for performance (or P4P), has, so far, shown modest to no benefit on patient outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact of a P4P programme on paediatric health outcomes in the Philippines. We used data from the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study. In this study, the P4P intervention, introduced in 2004, was randomly assigned to 10 community district hospitals, which were matched to 10 control sites. At all sites, physician quality was measured using Clinical Performance Vignettes (CPVs) among randomly selected physicians every 6 months over a 36-month period. In the hospitals randomized to the P4P intervention, physicians received bonus payments if they met qualifying scores on the CPV. We measured health outcomes 4-10 weeks after hospital discharge among children 5 years of age and under who had been hospitalized for diarrhoea and pneumonia (the two most common illnesses affecting this age cohort) and had been under the care of physicians participating in the study. Health outcomes data collection was done at baseline/pre-intervention and 2 years post-intervention on the following post-discharge outcomes: (1) age-adjusted wasting, (2) C-reactive protein in blood, (3) haemoglobin level and (4) parental assessment of child's health using general self-reported health (GSRH) measure. To evaluate changes in health outcomes in the control vs intervention sites over time (baseline vs post-intervention), we used a difference-in-difference logistic regression analysis, controlling for potential confounders. We found an improvement of 7 and 9 percentage points in GSRH and wasting over time (post-intervention vs baseline) in the intervention sites relative to the control sites (P ≤ 0.001). The results from this randomized social experiment indicate that the introduction of a performance-based incentive programme, which included measurement and feedback, led to improvements in

  1. Modeling and predicting the Spanish Bachillerato academic results over the next few years using a random network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, J.-C.; Colmenar, J.-M.; Hidalgo, J.-I.; Sánchez-Sánchez, A.; Santonja, F.-J.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance is a concern of paramount importance in Spain, where around of 30 % of the students in the last two courses in high school, before to access to the labor market or to the university, do not achieve the minimum knowledge required according to the Spanish educational law in force. In order to analyze this problem, we propose a random network model to study the dynamics of the academic performance in Spain. Our approach is based on the idea that both, good and bad study habits, are a mixture of personal decisions and influence of classmates. Moreover, in order to consider the uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters, we perform a lot of simulations taking as the model parameters the ones that best fit data returned by the Differential Evolution algorithm. This technique permits to forecast model trends in the next few years using confidence intervals.

  2. Outcome Results from "Yo Veo": A Visual Intervention for Teachers Working with Immigrant Latino/Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Mimi V.; Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study reports results from the outcome evaluation of "Yo Veo," a visual intervention with schoolteachers, which structures conversations about challenges that teachers face teaching Latino/Latina immigrant students. Method: The intervention was delivered to teachers at two middle schools in the southeastern United States,…

  3. Pathways to Results: How Practitioners Address Student Access, Outcomes, and Equity in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickel, Jessica; Bragg, Debra D.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when the nation is focusing so much attention on college completion, what do we know about how students are completing their community college programs? Does the open-access mission of community colleges translate into equitable outcomes? Pathways to Results (PTR) engages practitioners in using data to close equity gaps for student…

  4. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  5. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  6. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  7. A New Model for Student Support in High-Poverty Urban Elementary Schools: Effects on Elementary and Middle School Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary E.; Madaus, George F.; Raczek, Anastasia E.; Dearing, Eric; Foley, Claire; An, Chen; Lee-St. John, Terrence J.; Beaton, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to support children in schools require addressing not only academic issues, but also out-of-school factors that can affect students' ability to succeed. This study examined academic achievement of students participating in City Connects, a student support intervention operating in high-poverty elementary schools. The sample included…

  8. Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

  9. Rates, management, and outcome of rivaroxaban bleeding in daily care: results from the Dresden NOAC registry.

    PubMed

    Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Förster, Kati; Pannach, Sven; Ebertz, Franziska; Gelbricht, Vera; Thieme, Christoph; Michalski, Franziska; Köhler, Christina; Werth, Sebastian; Sahin, Kurtulus; Tittl, Luise; Hänsel, Ulrike; Weiss, Norbert

    2014-08-01

    Worldwide, rivaroxaban is increasingly used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and treatment of venous thromboembolism, but little is known about rivaroxaban-related bleeding complications in daily care. Using data from a prospective, noninterventional oral anticoagulation registry of daily care patients (Dresden NOAC registry), we analyzed rates, management, and outcome of rivaroxaban-related bleeding. Between October 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1776 rivaroxaban patients were enrolled. So far, 762 patients (42.9%) reported 1082 bleeding events during/within 3 days after last intake of rivaroxaban (58.9% minor, 35.0% of nonmajor clinically relevant, and 6.1% major bleeding according to International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition). In case of major bleeding, surgical or interventional treatment was needed in 37.8% and prothrombin complex concentrate in 9.1%. In the time-to-first-event analysis, 100-patient-year rates of major bleeding were 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.2-4.3) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.5-6.4) for venous thromboembolism patients, respectively. In the as-treated analysis, case fatality rates of bleeding leading to hospitalizations were 5.1% and 6.3% at days 30 and 90 after bleeding, respectively. Our data indicate that, in real life, rates of rivaroxaban-related major bleeding may be lower and that the outcome may at least not be worse than that of major vitamin K antagonist bleeding, and probably better. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as identifier #NCT01588119.

  10. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  11. Measures of Progress: 1995 Project Follow-Up, Cosumnes River College. Results of a Survey of 1993-94 Graduates and Non-Returning Students. Volume I of II: Frequencies and Percents by District, College and Academic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith A.; Pagtalunan, Jose

    As part of a districtwide follow-up study, California's Cosumnes River College (CRC) surveyed 1,398 former students from 1993-94 to gather information on student outcomes and characteristics. This report presents findings for the college by academic program. First, a brief discussion of survey methodology is provided, indicating that surveys were…

  12. Measures of Progress: 1995 Project Follow-Up, American River College. Results of a Survey of 1993-94 Graduates and Non-Returning Students. Volume I of II: Frequencies and Percents by District, College and Academic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith A.; Pagtalunan, Jose

    As part of a districtwide follow-up study, California's American River College (ARC) surveyed 2,678 former students from 1993-94 to gather information on student outcomes and characteristics. This report presents findings for the college by academic program. First, a brief discussion of survey methodology is provided, indicating that surveys were…

  13. Measures of Progress: 1995 Project Follow-Up, Sacramento City College. Results of a Survey of 1993-94 Graduates and Non-Returning Students. Volume I of II: Frequencies and Percents by District, College and Academic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith A.; Pagtalunan, Jose

    As part of a districtwide follow-up study, California's Sacramento City College (SCC) surveyed 2,075 former students from 1993-94 to gather information on student outcomes and characteristics. This report presents findings for the college by academic program. First, a brief discussion of survey methodology is provided, indicating that surveys were…

  14. Identifying potential academic leaders

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226

  15. Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103

  16. Clinical outcome after 1 year of cardiac resynchronisation therapy: national results from the European CRT survey.

    PubMed

    Dichtl, Wolfgang; Strohmer, Bernhard; Fruhwald, Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an established treatment option for heart failure patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Between 2008 and 2010, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) initiated the European CRT survey to describe the current practice and short-term clinical outcome associated with CRT implantations in 13 countries. One year follow-up data from 150 patients collected in 10 Austrian centres are presented in comparison to the total 1,969 patients enrolled throughout Europe. In most cases (n = 120), CRT-D devices were implanted, while CRT-P devices were used in only 23 %. After 12 ± 3 months, mortality and hospitalisation rates reached 10 and 37 %, respectively. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes improved significantly: NYHA I/II/III/IV were found before implantation in 2/20/71/7 % and after 1 year follow-up in 35/51/9/5 % of the patients, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 27 ± 8 % to 35 ± 10 %, left ventricular end-diastolic diameters were reduced from 65 ± 10 mm to 59 ± 5 mm. Median NT-proBNP was reduced from 1,886 to 997 pg/ml, QRS duration diminished from 158 ± 34 to 147 ± 27 ms. In conclusion, the Austrian data from the CRT survey confirms the efficacy of CRT in heart failure patients, but outlines that these patients still suffer from a high mortality and cardiovascular (CV) hospitalisation rate.

  17. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  18. Galectin-3, Renal Function, and Clinical Outcomes: Results from the LURIC and 4D Studies.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Christiane; Delgado, Graciela; Wanner, Christoph; Blouin, Katja; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Kleber, Marcus E; Dressel, Alexander; Willmes, Christoph; Krane, Vera; Krämer, Bernhard K; März, Winfried; Ritz, Eberhard; van Gilst, Wiek H; van der Harst, Pim; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2015-09-01

    Galectin-3 has been linked to incident renal disease, experimental renal fibrosis, and nephropathy. However, the association among galectin-3, renal function, and adverse outcomes has not been described. We studied this association in two large cohorts of patients over a broad range of renal function. We measured galectin-3 concentrations in baseline samples from the German Diabetes mellitus Dialysis (4D) study (1168 dialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus) and the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study (2579 patients with coronary angiograms). Patients were stratified into three groups: eGFR of ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). We correlated galectin-3 concentrations with demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters. The association of galectin-3 with clinical end points was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression within 10 years (LURIC) or 4 years (4D) of follow-up. Mean±SD galectin-3 concentrations were 12.8±4.0 ng/ml (eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 15.6±5.4 ng/ml (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 23.1±9.9 ng/ml (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 54.1±19.6 ng/ml (dialysis patients of the 4D study). Galectin-3 concentration was significantly associated with clinical end points in participants with impaired kidney function, but not in participants with normal kidney function. Per SD increase in log-transformed galectin-3 concentration, the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and fatal infection increased significantly. In dialysis patients, galectin-3 was associated with the combined end point of cardiovascular events. In conclusion, galectin-3 concentrations increased with progressive renal impairment and independently associated with cardiovascular end points, infections, and all-cause death in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:25568176

  19. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  20. Reinventing the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D

    2005-11-01

    Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives. PMID:16249294

  1. Reinventing the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D

    2005-11-01

    Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives.

  2. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  3. Measuring Outcomes in a Community Resilience Program: A New Metric for Evaluating Results at the Household Level

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, David P.; Adams, Rachel M.; Rivard, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Community resilience programs require metrics for evaluation but none exist for measuring outcomes at the household and neighborhood level. Objectives: We develop and describe a new index, the LACCDR index of community resilience, to examine how resilience varied across communities at baseline, prior to implementation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR). Methods: We surveyed 4700 adult residents in the sixteen LACCDR communities in English, Spanish and Korean. Each of the survey domains were selected a priori as outcome indicators aligned to the theoretical levers of community resilience. Survey questions were drawn and adapted from published studies and national surveys. Results: Factor analysis demonstrated five separate factors composed from 18 items and explaining 46.7% of the variance. The factors were characterized as community engagement, emergency supplies, communication with neighbors, civic engagement, and collective efficacy. Baseline results for the 16 communities are provided. Conclusions: We conclude that the LACCDR community resilience index can be used to measure resilience program outcomes at the neighborhood and household levels. PMID:27807510

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: Evaluation and Comparison of Results in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ganger, Anita; Vanathi, M.; Mohanty, Sujata; Tandon, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) in children and adults with limbal stem cell deficiency. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Case records of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) who underwent CLET from April 2004 to December 2014 were studied. Outcome measures were compared in terms of anatomical success and visual improvement. Parameters for total anatomical success were avascular, epithelized, and clinically stable corneal surface without conjunctivalization, whereas partial anatomical success was considered when mild vascularization (sparing centre of cornea) and mild conjunctivalization were noted along with complete epithelization. Results. A total of 62 cases underwent the CLET procedure: 38 (61.3%) were children and 24 (38.7%) were adults. Patients with unilateral LSCD (33 children and 21 adults) had autografts and those with bilateral LSCD (5 children and 3 adults) had allografts. Amongst the 54 autografts partial and total anatomical success were noted in 21.2% and 66.6% children, respectively, and 19.0% and 80.9% in adults, respectively (p value 0.23). Visual improvement of 1 line and ≥2 lines was seen in 57.5% and 21.2% children, respectively, and 38% and 38% in adults, respectively (p value 0.31). Conclusion. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation gives good long-term results in patients with LSCD and the outcomes are comparable in children and adults. PMID:26770973

  5. Child welfare outcomes for youth in care as a result of parental death or parental incarceration.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Terry V; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Sharpe, Tanya L

    2015-04-01

    Every day, in the United States, children are removed from their homes and placed into state supervised out-of-home care because of concerns around their safety. These children enter care as a result of child abuse, child neglect, abandonment or some other reasons. Lost in most discussions of out-of-home care is the role that parental incarceration and parental death have on the trajectory of children through the child welfare system. In order to address this gap in the literature, the present study aims to compare youth in foster care as a result of parental death or youth in foster care as a result of parental incarceration with youth in care because of child maltreatment in terms of the length of time to achieve permanency. Holding all other variables constant, entering care as a result of parental death more than doubled the average time to exit (HR=2.32, SE=0.22), and these youth were significantly less likely to exit to permanency when compared to children entering care for other maltreatment reasons (OR=0.35, SE=0.24). Entering care as a result of parental incarceration led to a 24% longer time to exit (HR=1.24, SE=0.09) compared to children entering care for other maltreatment reasons. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to policy and practice may not be useful to identifying permanent placements for children entering care as a result of parental death or incarceration. PMID:25641050

  6. Changes in Weight and Comorbidities among Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: 1-Year Results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, P<0.001). Similar results were found for all other anthropometric changes and comparisons over one year between surgery types (P<0.001). In general, gastric bypass patients reported more improvement versus adjustable gastric band patients in comorbidities one year after surgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199

  7. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  8. A Three-Phase Examination of Academic Comparative Optimism and Perceived Academic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Hanson, Bridget L.; Marino, Joanna M.

    2009-01-01

    Early academic perceptions are critical to undergraduate students' success in college. This 3-phase study examined stability of and links between academic comparative optimism (ACO; positive expectations about future performance) and perceived academic control (PAC; sense of influence over academic outcomes) among 68 undergraduate students. ACO…

  9. Academic and Family Conditions Associated with Intrinsic Academic Motivation in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…

  10. [Does a Turkish migration background influence treatment outcome? Results of a prospective inpatient healthcare study].

    PubMed

    Mösko, Mike; Schneider, Jens; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Study results indicate a higher psycho-social burden for people with a Turkish migration background who live in Germany. The present study researches, if such a burden difference is detectable at the beginning of an inpatient treatment program for patients with psychological/psychosomatic disorders, if different treatment progressions occur and asks which influence the factor migration background plays in terms of the treatment results. At admission patients with a Turkish migration background (N = 99 vs. N = 753) showed a higher psychopathological burden. There was less treatment success for patients with a Turkish migration background und they didn't reach verifiable improvements in some scales. The regression analysis points out the importance of the factor migration background as an independent negative predictor of a positive treatment result.

  11. Outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous equivalent suture bridge double row rotator cuff repair: a prospective study and short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mohamed Abdelnabi; Abdelkafy, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: The transosseous-equivalent cross bridge double row (TESBDR) rotator cuff (RC) repair technique has been developed to optimize healing biology at a repaired RC tendon insertion. It has been shown in the laboratory to improve pressurized contact area and mean foot print pressure when compared with a double row anchor technique. Pressure has been shown to influence healing between tendon and bone, and the tendon compression vector provided by the transosseous-equivalent suture bridges may enhance healing. The purpose was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair. Methods: Single center prospective case series study. Sixty-nine patients were selected to undergo arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair and were included in the current study. Primary outcome measures included the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score, the Constant-Murley (CM) Score and Range of motion (ROM). Secondary outcome measures included a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, another VAS for patient satisfaction from the operative procedure, EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D) for quality of life assessment. Results: At 24 months post-operative, average OSS score was 44, average UCLA score was 31, average CM score was 88, average forward flexion was 145°, average internal rotation was 35°, average external rotation was 79°, average abduction was 150°, average EQ-5D score was 0.73, average VAS for pain was 2.3, and average VAS for patient satisfaction was 9.2. Conclusion: Arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair is a procedure with good post-operative functional outcome and low re-tear rate based on a short term follow-up. PMID:27163096

  12. Academic freedom and academic-industry relationships in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Commercial academic-industry relationships (AIRs) are widespread in biotechnology and have resulted in a wide array of restrictions on academic research. Objections to such restrictions have centered on the charge that they violate academic freedom. I argue that these objections are almost invariably unsuccessful. On a consequentialist understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on unfounded empirical claims about the overall effects that AIRs have on academic research. And on a rights-based understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on excessively lavish assumptions about the kinds of activities that academic freedom protects.

  13. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Do, Sharon; Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  14. Newborn calf vitality: risk factors, characteristics, assessment, resulting outcomes and strategies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christine F; Leslie, Ken E

    2013-11-01

    Dystocia is a stressful and traumatic event for both the cow and calf. As the prevalence of dystocia has increased over time, attention has been focused on maintaining the health and longevity of the cow. Lack of vitality in the newborn calf may go unnoticed and result in short or long-term implications for calf health and performance. A prolonged or assisted delivery may increase birth stress in calves causing a variety of effects including injury, inflammation, hypoxia, acidosis, pain and an inability to maintain homeostasis. Each of these effects can further contribute to a reduced state of vitality in the newborn calf. Newborn vitality is essential to the health, survival and welfare of the calf. If the calf is not vital at birth, it may be unwilling or unable to get up and suckle colostrum in a timely manner. Early colostrum intake improves passive transfer of immunoglobulins, energy uptake and thermoregulation. Intervention may be required to assist these calves such as respiratory and thermal support, manual feeding of colostrum or the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to aid health and long-term survival. However, more research is needed to determine ways in which newborn calf vitality can be assessed and improved in order to reduce the increased risk of morbidity and mortality and long-term effects on performance.

  15. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure and Neonatal and Infant Neurobehavioral Outcome: Results from the IDEAL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiblawi, Zeina N.; Smith, Lynne M.; Diaz, Sabrina D.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. How MA use during pregnancy affects neonatal and infant neurobehavior is unknown. Methods The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study screened 34,833 subjects at 4 clinical centers. 17,961 were eligible and 3,705 were consented, among which 412 were enrolled for longitudinal follow-up. Exposed subjects were identified by self-report and/or GC/MS confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in meconium. Comparison subjects were matched (race, birth weight, maternal education, insurance), denied amphetamine use and had a negative meconium screen. Both groups included prenatal alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, but excluded use of opiates, lysergic acid diethylamide, or phencyclidine. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was administered within the first 5 days of life and again at one month to 380 enrollees (185 exposed, 195 comparison). ANOVA tested exposure effects on NNNS summary scores at birth and one month. GLM repeated measures analysis assessed the effect of MA exposure over time on the NNNS scores with and without covariates. Results By one month of age, both groups demonstrated higher quality of movement (P=.029), less lethargy (P=.001), and fewer asymmetric reflexes (P=.012), with no significant differences in NNNS scores between the exposed and comparison groups. Over the first month of life, arousal increased in exposed infants but decreased in comparison infants (p=.031) and total stress was decreased in exposed infants with no change in comparison infants (p=.026). Conclusions Improvement in total stress and arousal were observed in MA-exposed newborns by one month of age relative to the newborn period. PMID:24588296

  16. Isotonic contraction as a result of cooperation of sarcomeres--a model and simulation outcome.

    PubMed

    Wünsch, Z

    1996-01-01

    The molecular level of the functional structure of the contractile apparatus of cross-striated muscle has been mapped out almost minutely. Most authors accept the basic principles of the theory of sliding filaments and the theory of operation of molecular generators of force which, of course, are progressively updated by integrating new knowledge. The idea of the model delineated below does not contradict these theories, for it refers to another level of the system's hierarchy. The definition of the system, hereafter referred to Ideal Sarcomere (IS), takes into account the fact that, during isotonic contraction, a large number of not wholly independently working sarcomeres and molecular generators of force is active in a synergistic way. The shortening velocity of isotonically contracting IS is determined by the relation between quantities conveying different tasks of active generators of force and the influence of the system parameters. Although IS is derived from simple axiomatic predicates, it has properties which were not premediated in defining the system and which, in spite of this, correspond to some properties of the biological original. The equations of the system allow us to calculate the shortening velocity of 'isotonic contraction' and other variables and parameters and show, inter alia, an alternative way to derive and interpret the relations stated in Hill's force-velocity equation. The simulation results indicate that the macroscopic manifestations of isotonic contraction may be also contingent on the properties of the cooperating system of the multitude of sarcomeres, which also constitutes one part of the functional structure of muscle. PMID:8924648

  17. Lumbar Interbody Fusion Outcomes in Degenerative Lumbar Disease : Comparison of Results between Patients Over and Under 65 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Dae-Jean; Jun, Jae-Kyun; Kim, Ki-Tack

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar interbody fusion and its correlation with various factors (e.g., age, comorbidities, fusion level, bone quality) in patients over and under 65 years of age who underwent lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative lumbar disease. Methods One-hundred-thirty-three patients with lumbar degenerative disease underwent lumbar fusion surgery between June 2006 and June 2007 and were followed for more than one year. Forty-eight (36.1%) were older than 65 years of age (group A) and 85 (63.9%) were under 65 years of age (group B). Diagnosis, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications were recorded. The analysis of clinical outcomes was based on the visual analogue scale (VAS). Radiological results were evaluated using plain radiographs. Clinical outcomes, radiological outcomes, length of hospital stay, and complication rates were analyzed in relation to lumbar fusion level, the number of comorbidities, bone mineral density (BMD), and age. Results The mean age of the patients was 61.2 years (range, 33-86 years) and the mean BMD was -2.2 (range, -4.8 to -2.8). The mean length of hospital stay was 15.0 days (range, 5-60 days) and the mean follow-up was 23.0 months (range, 18-30 months). Eighty-five (64.0%) patients had more than one preoperative comorbidities. Perioperative complications occurred in 27 of 133 patients (20.3%). The incidence of overall complication was 22.9% in group A, and 18.8% in group B but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The mean VAS scores for the back and leg were significantly decreased in both groups (p < 0.05), and bony fusion was achieved in 125 of 133 patients (94.0%). There was no significant difference in bony union rates between groups A and B (91.7% in group A vs. 95.3% in group B, p = 0.398). In group A, perioperative complications were more common with the increase in fusion level (p = 0.027). Perioperative complications in

  18. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Reproductive Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization: Results from the EARTH Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W.; Dodge, Laura E.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Williams, Paige L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse female reproductive outcomes. Objective: We evaluated the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods: This analysis included 256 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2004–2012) who provided one to two urine samples per cycle before oocyte retrieval. We measured 11 urinary phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP)]. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Results: In multivariate models, women in the highest as compared with lowest quartile of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ΣDEHP (MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP), and MCNP had lower oocyte yield. Similarly, the number of mature (MII) oocytes retrieved was lower in the highest versus lowest quartile for these same phthalate metabolites. The adjusted differences (95% CI) in proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth between women in the fourth versus first quartile of ΣDEHP were –0.19 (–0.29, –0.08) and –0.19 (–0.28, –0.08), respectively, and there was also a lower proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth for individual DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy

  19. Faculty Satisfaction in Academic Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Julie G.; Hitchcock, Maurice A.; Teherani, Arianne

    2000-01-01

    Describes the challenges and elements of satisfaction in academic medicine. Proposes a model of academic faculty satisfaction which postulates that organizational, job-related, and personal factors combine to develop self-knowledge, social knowledge, and satisfaction with outcomes of productivity, retention, and learner-patient satisfaction. (DB)

  20. Transnational Academic Mobility and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Heike

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the participation of researchers in transnational academic mobility, their experiences and perceived outcomes vary by gender. Based on longitudinal statistics, original survey data and semi-structured interviews with former visiting researchers in Germany, the paper shows that the academic world of female…

  1. Use and Outcomes of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulation: Results from the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Passman, Rod; Hankey, Graeme J.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Hacke, Werner; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) and anticoagulation are mainstays of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Objective We aimed to study the use and outcomes of AAD therapy in anticoagulated AF patients. Methods Patients in the ROCKET AF trial (n=14,264) were grouped by AAD use at baseline: amiodarone, other AAD, or no AAD. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare stroke, bleeding, and death across groups, as well as across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Results Of 14,264 patients randomized, 1681 (11.8%) were treated with an AAD (1144 [8%] with amiodarone, 537 [3.8%] with other AADs). Amiodarone-treated patients were less-often female (38% vs. 48%), had more persistent AF (64% vs. 40%), and more concomitant heart failure (71% vs. 41%) than patients receiving other AADs. Patients receiving no AAD more closely-resembled amiodarone-treated patients. Time in therapeutic range was significantly lower in warfarin-treated patients receiving amiodarone versus no AAD (50% vs. 58%, p<0.0001). Compared with no AAD, neither amiodarone (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.74–1.31, p=0.9) nor other AADs (adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.37–1.17, p=0.15) were associated with increased mortality. Similar results were observed for embolic and bleeding outcomes. Rivaroxaban treatment effects in patients not on an AAD were consistent with the overall trial (primary endpoint adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–0.98, pinteraction=0.06; safety endpoint adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.90–1.24, pinteraction=0.33). Conclusion Treatment with AADs was not associated with increased morbidity or mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF. The influence of amiodarone on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban requires further study. PMID:24833235

  2. The Academic Consequences of Marijuana Use during College

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on post-secondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college GPA and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting post-secondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  3. The academic consequences of marijuana use during college.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on postsecondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college grade point average (GPA) and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting postsecondary academic achievement.

  4. Too Much of a Good Thing? How Breadth of Extracurricular Participation Relates to School-Related Affect and Academic Outcomes during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear…

  5. Education Funding and Student Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework for Measurement of the Alignment of State Education Finance and Academic Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of education finance equity and adequacy has engaged researchers for more than three decades. At the same time, calls for increased academic accountability and higher student achievement in K-12 public education have reached new levels at both the national and state levels. Aligning these represents an…

  6. Academic Transfer Shock and Social Integration: A Comparison of Outcomes for Traditional and Nontraditional Students Transferring from 2-Year to 4-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahn-Koller, Brooke Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether traditional and nontraditional students who transferred from 2-year to 4-year institutions experienced differences in transfer shock, academic integration, and social integration. A substantial body of knowledge comparing transfer students to native students on transfer shock exists, while only a…

  7. Using Multiple Sources of Data to Gauge Outcome Differences between Academic-Themed and Transition-Themed First-Year Seminars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerr, Ryan J.; Bjerke, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Students in two different types of first-year experience seminar courses at a moderately sized public university were compared using a large variety of measures--both direct and indirect. One of these first-year experience types was a three-credit academic-themed course offered in sections with variable content; the other was a two-credit…

  8. Increasing Awareness and Understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Education to Promote Better Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Chaban, Peter; McInnes, Alison; Ferguson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review three areas of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that have implications for the educational context. These areas are: (a) gender differences in ADHD, (b) inattention symptoms and academic risk, and (c) working memory and ADHD. We highlight the critical role that the school context plays in…

  9. Do Reasons for Attending College Affect Academic Outcomes?: A Test of a Motivational Model from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Lynch, Martin F.; Wall, Andrew F.; Abel, Darlene S.

    2013-01-01

    A survey of 2,520 college students was conducted to test relationships between academic success and college student motivational orientation, conceptualized from a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective, while also considering the moderating effects of background characteristics such as gender, socioeconomic status, race/ ethnicity, and…

  10. Fuel for Success: Academic Momentum as a Mediator between Dual Enrollment and Educational Outcomes of Two-Year Technical College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-yu; Phelps, L. Allen; Washbon, Janet I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fairly substantial body of literature devoted to understanding whether dual enrollment programs are related to academic success in college, less is known regarding how dual enrollment transmits its potentially positive influence, especially among two-year college students. In this study, we fill this gap by delving into the…

  11. Bridging the Gap between Access and Success: A Study of the Impact of an Access and Success Program on Academic Outcomes of Low-Income College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the increasing cost of college, colleges and universities are leveraging financial aid and academic support services to implement access and success programs intended to help financially disadvantaged students afford and persist through a baccalaureate degree program. This research is a study of the efficacy of one such program at a…

  12. From Expectations to Experiences: Using a Structural Typology to Understand First-Year Student Outcomes in Academically Based Living-Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Jessup-Anger, Jody E.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated to what extent noncognitive variables (e.g., expectations for college) and the college environment (i.e., academically based living-learning communities) influence students' college experience. This research goes beyond grouping all living-learning students into one category, which has dominated much of the…

  13. Embracing the Burden of Proof: New Strategies for Determining Predictive Links between Arts Integration Teacher Professional Development, Student Arts Learning, and Student Academic Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scripp, Lawrence; Paradis, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a window into Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education's (CAPE) Partnerships in Arts Integration Research (PAIR) project conducted in Chicago public schools (CPS) (pairresults.org), which statistically demonstrates how a three-year arts integration project can impact treatment versus control students in both academic and…

  14. Comparing academic and community-based hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Malkenson, David; Siegal, Eric M; Leff, Jared A; Weber, Rachel; Struck, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, hospitalist programs were formally introduced at both an academic and community hospital in the same city providing an opportunity to study the similarities and differences in workflows in these two settings. The data were collected using a time-flow methodology allowing the two workflows to be compared quantitatively. The results showed that the hospitalists in the two settings devoted similar proportions of their workday to the task categories studied. Most of the time was spent providing indirect patient care followed by direct patient care, travel, personal, and other. However, after adjusting for patient volumes, the data revealed that academic hospitalists spent significantly more time per patient providing indirect patient care (Academic: 54.7 +/- 11.1 min/patient, Community: 41.9 +/- 9.8 min/patient, p < 0.001). Additionally, we found that nearly half of the hospitalists' time at both settings was spent multitasking. Although we found subtle workflow differences between the academic and community programs, their similarities were more striking as well as greater than their differences. We attribute these small differences to the higher case mix index at the academic program as well greater complexity and additional communication hand-offs inherent to a tertiary academic medical center. It appears that hospitalists, irrespective of their work environment, spend far more time documenting, communicating and coordinating care than they do at the bedside raising the question, is this is a necessary feature of the hospitalist care model or should hospitalists restructure their workflow to improve outcomes?

  15. Reconstructive Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Aneurysms: Long-Term Results and Predictors of Unfavorable Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qing-Hai; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Li, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Min; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Deng, Ben-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies focused on predictors of unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, 2–6) after reconstructive treatment of the ruptured intracranial spontaneous vertebral artery dissection aneurysms (ris-VADAs), which was evaluated based on 57 reconstructed lesions in this study. Methods Results of 57 consecutive patients (M:F = 29∶28; median age, 48 years; range, 27 to 69 years) harboring 57 ris-VADAs, which were treated with coils combined with single stent(n = 32), double overlapping stents (n = 16), and triple overlapping stents (n = 9) between October 2000 to March 2011, were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results The available (n = 54) mean durations of angiographic and clinical follow-ups were 27 months (range, 12 to 78) and 62 months (range, 12 to 132), respectively. The involvement of PICA (p = 0.004), size of lesions (p = 0.000), quantity of stent (p = 0.001), and coil type (p = 0.002) affected the immediate obliteration grade, which was only risk factor for angiographic recurrences (p = 0.031). Although the post-treatment outcomes did not differ between single stent and multiple stents (p = 0.434), 5 angiographic recurrences, 1 rebleeding and 1 suspected rebleeding, all occurred in partial obliteration after single-stent-assisted coiling. Progressive thrombosis and in-stent obliteration were not detected on follow-up angiograms. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.090; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.184; p = 0.040) and unfavorable Hunt-Hess scale (OR = 4.289; 95%CI, 1.232–14.933; p = 0.022) were independent predictors of unfavorable outcomes in the reconstructed ris-VADAs. Conclusions Immediate obliteration grade was only risk factor for angiographic recurrence after reconstructive treatment. Unfavorable Hunt-Hess grade and older age were independent predictors of unfavorable outcomes in ris-VADAs. PMID:23840616

  16. Promoting equal developmental opportunity and outcomes among America's children and youth: results from the National Promises Study.

    PubMed

    Scales, Peter C; Benson, Peter L; Moore, Kristin A; Lippman, Laura; Brown, Brett; Zaff, Jonathan F

    2008-03-01

    Building on a developmental framework positing five types of assets or inputs needed for children's development, referred to as promises, we investigated the extent to which American children and youth experience the five Promises articulated by the America's Promise Alliance. These are: (1) Caring Adults, (2) Safe Places and Constructive Use of Time, (3) A Healthy Start, (4) Effective Education, and (5) Opportunities to Make a Difference. Data came from a nationally representative poll designed to assess these five resources and involved more than 4,000 teenagers and their parents. Results showed that only a minority of young people experienced rich developmental nourishment (having 4-5 of the Promises). Males, older adolescents, adolescents of color, and adolescents from families with less education and lower parental annual incomes were significantly less likely to experience sufficient developmental opportunities and were also less likely to experience desirable developmental outcomes. However, among those young people who reported experiencing 4-5 Promises, the great majority of demographic differences in developmental outcomes were either eliminated or significantly reduced. The results suggest that increasing children's experience of these Promises would reduce developmental inequalities among America's young people. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Longitudinal studies with representative samples will be necessary to further validate this approach and study causal contributions of assets, but this integration of Positive Youth Development frameworks holds great promise for theory, practice, and policy. PMID:18373201

  17. Ultrasound-guided Interdigital Neuroma Injections: Short-term Clinical Outcomes after a Single Percutaneous Injection—Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Ronald S.; Ciavarra, Gina A.; Pavlov, Helene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe the procedure of ultrasound-guided Morton’s neuroma and recurrent stump neuroma injections and early clinical outcomes after a single injection. Materials and Methods Retrospective review of 44 percutaneous ultrasound-guided neuroma injections in 24 patients who had completed clinical outcomes questionnaires. A 10-point pain scale [scale of 1 (no pain) to 10 (severe pain)] in a 7-day pain log format was distributed to patients at the time percutaneous neuroma injection was performed. Results Neuromas were clearly visualized with sonography as hypoechoic nodules and were distinguishable from other causes of forefoot pain, such as metatarsophalangeal joint synovitis and intermetatarsal bursae. The sizes of the neuromas injected ranged between 4 and 19 mm. Postinjection, all neuromas displayed increased echogenicity and/or the appearance of fluid surrounding it, confirming localization of the therapeutic mixture. We arbitrarily subdivided the pain ratings into symptomatic (greater than 4) and asymptomatic (less than or equal to 4) for statistical analysis. Average pain level pre injection was 5.2 and average pain level was 3.7 at 7 days post single injection, with 62% of the initially symptomatic patients asymptomatic on day 7 (p < 0.000001). Overall, 76% of the total number of neuromas injected once were asymptomatic on day 7. Conclusion Ultrasound can be used to accurately target Morton’s neuromas and, therefore, appropriately direct therapeutic interventions, with good short-term clinical results. PMID:18751769

  18. Assessing Students' Understanding of Human Behavior: A Multidisciplinary Outcomes Based Approach for the Design and Assessment of an Academic Program Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Bruce; Meese, Michael J.; Efflandt, Scott; Malinowski, Jon C.; LeBoeuf, Joseph; Gallagher, Martha; Hurley, John; Green, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Presents a strategy for the curricular design and assessment of one multidisciplinary program goal: understanding human behavior. Discusses how to assess a desired outcome based on four specific areas: (1) organizational context; (2) articulation of a learning model; (3) program design and implementation; and (4) outcomes assessment. (Author/KDR)

  19. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Rare and Heavily Pretreated Solid Tumors Treated according to the Results of Tumor Molecular Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Patients with heavily pretreated advanced cancer or with rare tumors are difficult to treat. Molecular profiling (MP) of tumors to identify biomarkers that predict potential outcomes with individual therapies is an emerging strategy to guide treatment decisions. Patients with rare tumors for which standard-of-care therapy was unavailable or more common tumors for which standard-of-care options had been exhausted underwent MP at a single Australian center. Data regarding treating physicians' choice of therapy, MP results and recommendations, and patient outcomes were collected. Seven patients had received prior standard first-line therapy (PST), 16 had rare tumors, and 31 had been heavily pretreated (HPT; ≥2 prior lines). Most treatments suggested by MP (541/594; 91.1%) were common chemotherapy drugs available in generic formulations. MP-guided therapy recommendations differed from physician's recommendations in 48 patients (88.9%). MP-guided therapy produced clinical benefit (improved QOL and/or performance status, symptoms, bodyweight, or RECIST) in 19/31 (61.3%), 11/16 (68.8%), and 3/7 (42.9%) patients with HPTs, rare tumors, and PSTs, respectively, and had a PFS ratio ≥1.3 in 22/37 evaluable patients (59.5%; 95% confidence interval 44–76%). The null hypothesis that ≤15% of these patients would have a PFS ratio ≥1.3 was rejected (one-sided p < 0.0001). In conclusion, using MP to guide therapy selection is feasible in clinical practice and may improve patient outcomes. PMID:27525268

  20. Early-onset glaucoma in Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly: long-term surgical results and visual outcome.

    PubMed

    Mandal, A K; Pehere, N

    2016-07-01

    PurposeTo determine the long-term surgical and visual outcomes in Indian children with early-onset glaucoma associated with Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly (ARA).MethodsThis is a retrospective analysis of 44 eyes of 24 consecutive children with early-onset glaucoma (within 3 years of age) and ARA who underwent glaucoma surgery over a 20-year period (1991-2010) by a single surgeon. Main outcome measures were pre- and postoperative intraocular pressures (IOPs), corneal clarity, visual acuities (VAs), refractive errors, success rate, time of surgical failure, and complications.ResultsThe series consisted of 38 primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy (CTT) and 6 primary trabeculectomy procedures (Schlemm's canal could not be identified in these eyes). There was a statistically significant reduction in IOP postoperatively (27.07±4.88 vs 14.88±3.62 mm Hg; P<0.0001) with a mean reduction of 45.14%. Success probability by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was 93% till 5 years, and then 88.1%, 82.3%, 70.5%, 56.4%, and 42.3% at year 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, respectively. Preoperative corneal edema was present in 43/44 eyes (97.72%) and cleared in 42 eyes (97.67%). There was one case each with intraoperative hyphema and with shallow chamber postoperatively and both were successfully managed successfully. There was no incidence of endophthalmitis or any other sight-threatening complication. Data on VA were available in 34 eyes (77.3%). At final follow-up visit, 15 (44.1%) eyes had best corrected VA ⩾6/18.ConclusionsPrimary CTT is safe and effective for early-onset glaucoma associated with ARA. It leads to excellent IOP control and satisfactory visual outcome.

  1. Distribution and Outcomes of a Phenotype-Based Approach to Guide COPD Management: Results from the CHAIN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cosio, Borja G.; Soriano, Joan B.; López-Campos, Jose Luis; Calle, Myriam; Soler, Juan José; de-Torres, Juan Pablo; Marín, Jose Maria; Martínez, Cristina; de Lucas, Pilar; Mir, Isabel; Peces-Barba, Germán; Feu-Collado, Nuria; Solanes, Ingrid; Alfageme, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The Spanish guideline for COPD (GesEPOC) recommends COPD treatment according to four clinical phenotypes: non-exacerbator phenotype with either chronic bronchitis or emphysema (NE), asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), frequent exacerbator phenotype with emphysema (FEE) or frequent exacerbator phenotype with chronic bronchitis (FECB). However, little is known on the distribution and outcomes of the four suggested phenotypes. Objective We aimed to determine the distribution of these COPD phenotypes, and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes. Methods We followed a cohort of well-characterized patients with COPD up to one-year. Baseline characteristics, health status (CAT), BODE index, rate of exacerbations and mortality up to one year of follow-up were compared between the four phenotypes. Results Overall, 831 stable COPD patients were evaluated. They were distributed as NE, 550 (66.2%); ACOS, 125 (15.0%); FEE, 38 (4.6%); and FECB, 99 (11.9%); additionally 19 (2.3%) COPD patients with frequent exacerbations did not fulfill the criteria for neither FEE nor FECB. At baseline, there were significant differences in symptoms, FEV1 and BODE index (all p<0.05). The FECB phenotype had the highest CAT score (17.1±8.2, p<0.05 compared to the other phenotypes). Frequent exacerbator groups (FEE and FECB) were receiving more pharmacological treatment at baseline, and also experienced more exacerbations the year after (all p<0.05) with no differences in one-year mortality. Most of NE (93%) and half of exacerbators were stable after one year. Conclusions There is an uneven distribution of COPD phenotypes in stable COPD patients, with significant differences in demographics, patient-centered outcomes and health care resources use. PMID:27684372

  2. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Rare and Heavily Pretreated Solid Tumors Treated according to the Results of Tumor Molecular Profiling.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andrew; Byrne, Aisling; Marinova, Mira; Hayden, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Patients with heavily pretreated advanced cancer or with rare tumors are difficult to treat. Molecular profiling (MP) of tumors to identify biomarkers that predict potential outcomes with individual therapies is an emerging strategy to guide treatment decisions. Patients with rare tumors for which standard-of-care therapy was unavailable or more common tumors for which standard-of-care options had been exhausted underwent MP at a single Australian center. Data regarding treating physicians' choice of therapy, MP results and recommendations, and patient outcomes were collected. Seven patients had received prior standard first-line therapy (PST), 16 had rare tumors, and 31 had been heavily pretreated (HPT; ≥2 prior lines). Most treatments suggested by MP (541/594; 91.1%) were common chemotherapy drugs available in generic formulations. MP-guided therapy recommendations differed from physician's recommendations in 48 patients (88.9%). MP-guided therapy produced clinical benefit (improved QOL and/or performance status, symptoms, bodyweight, or RECIST) in 19/31 (61.3%), 11/16 (68.8%), and 3/7 (42.9%) patients with HPTs, rare tumors, and PSTs, respectively, and had a PFS ratio ≥1.3 in 22/37 evaluable patients (59.5%; 95% confidence interval 44-76%). The null hypothesis that ≤15% of these patients would have a PFS ratio ≥1.3 was rejected (one-sided p < 0.0001). In conclusion, using MP to guide therapy selection is feasible in clinical practice and may improve patient outcomes. PMID:27525268

  3. Comparison of Single-Level and Multiple-Level Outcomes of Total Disc Arthroplasty: 24-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Gössel, Lutz; Dreßler, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Background Low back pain is one of the most prevalent problems in industrialized countries, affecting as many as 80% of all adults at some time in their lives. Among the significant contributors to low back pain is degenerative disc disease (DDD). Although fusion has been well accepted for treatment of DDD, high rates of complications and stress to adjacent segments remain a concern. Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) was developed with a goal of preserving motion and avoiding various fusion-related complications, but the relative merits of single vs. multiple level arthroplasty remain unclear. Methods This is a multi-center, single arm, prospective post-market registry of the M6-L, consisting of consecutive patients presenting with lumbar DDD who agreed to participate. This paper reports on those patients who have completed at least 24 months of followup to date. Clinical outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and back and leg Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Radiographic analysis of disc angle and range of motion (ROM) was also performed. Results Results for 83 patients comprising 121 implants in two cohorts (49 single level (SL), 34 multiple levels (ML)) are reported. Both cohorts experienced significant improvement at 24 months including significant decreases in ODI and VAS. Relative to SL procedures, ML procedures demonstrated either comparable results, or results that trended favorably towards the ML procedures. Index and global ROM at 24 months were not significantly different between the two cohorts, while the disc angles were larger in the SL cohort regardless of index level. Conclusions This is the first study to report clinical and radiographic outcomes of TDR with the M6-L in SL vs ML procedures with two years of followup. The results suggest initial device safety and effectiveness when used for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease at one or more levels. PMID:26056629

  4. Is hyperglycaemia an independent predictor of poor outcome after acute stroke? Results of a long-term follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, C. J.; Murray, G. D.; Dyker, A. G.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether raised plasma glucose concentration independently influences outcome after acute stroke or is a stress response reflecting increased stroke severity. DESIGN: Long-term follow up study of patients admitted to an acute stroke unit. SETTING: Western Infirmary, Glasgow. SUBJECTS: 811 patients with acute stroke confirmed by computed tomography. Analysis was restricted to the 750 non-diabetic patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival time and placement three months after stroke. RESULTS: 645 patients (86%) had ischaemic stroke and 105 patients (14%) haemorrhagic stroke. Cox's proportional hazards modelling with stratification according to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project categories identified increased age (relative hazard 1.36 per decade; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.53), haemorrhagic stroke (relative hazard 1.67; 1.22 to 2.28), time to resolution of symptoms > 72 hours (relative hazard 2.15; 1.15 to 4.05), and hyperglycaemia (relative hazard 1.87; 1.43 to 2.45) as predictors of mortality. The effect of glucose concentration on survival was greatest in the first month. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma glucose concentration above 8 mmol/l after acute stroke predicts a poor prognosis after correcting for age, stroke severity, and stroke subtype. Raised plasma glucose concentration is therefore unlikely to be solely a stress response and should arguably be treated actively. A randomised trial is warranted. PMID:9158464

  5. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Kumru, Pınar; Arınkan, Arzu; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Selçuk, Selçuk; Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Arısoy, Resul; Erdoğdu, Emre; Tarhan, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16–19, and 20–34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia. PMID:27308080

  6. Academic self-concept and academic achievement: relations and causal ordering.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. A positive self-concept is valued as a desirable outcome in many disciplines of psychology as well as an important mediator to other outcomes. AIMS. The present review examines support for the reciprocal effects model (REM) that posits academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other - and its extension to other achievement domains. METHOD. We review theoretical, methodological, and empirical support for the REM. Critical features in this research are a theoretical emphasis on multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and a methodological focus on a construct validity approach to evaluating the REM. RESULTS. Consistent with these distinctions, REM research and a comprehensive meta-analysis show that prior ASC has direct and indirect effects on subsequent achievement, whilst the effects of self-esteem and other non-academic components of self-concept are negligible. We then provide an overview of subsequent support for the generality of the REM for: young children, cross-cultural, health (physical activity), and non-elite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. CONCLUSION. This research is important in demonstrating that increases in ASC lead to increases in subsequent academic achievement and other desirable educational outcomes. Findings confirm that not only is self-concept an important outcome variable in itself, it also plays a central role in affecting other desirable educational outcomes. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:21391964

  7. Academic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  8. Academic Jibberish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about academic jibberish. Alfie Kohn states that a great deal of academic writing is incomprehensible even to others in the same area of scholarship. Academic Jibberish may score points for the writer but does not help research or practice. The author discusses jibberish as a career strategy that impresses those…

  9. School Counselors Center on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Charles

    Academic support has long been accepted as a major role of school counselors, yet many believe that traditional roles will not be enough for school counselors in the twenty-first century. This chapter focuses on how school counselors will need to expand their understanding of what academic support means in terms of learning and academic outcomes.…

  10. Contributions of Study Skills to Academic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth; Seibert, Jill K.

    2002-01-01

    Study skills are fundamental to academic competence. Effective study skills are associated with positive outcomes across multiple academic content areas and for diverse learners. The purpose of this article is to describe an information-processing perspective on the contribution of study skills to academic competence, and to identify…

  11. The Impact for Patient Outcomes of Failure to Follow Up on Test Results. How Can We Do Better?

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Andrew; Li, Julie; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization–World Alliance for Patient Safety has identified test result management as a priority area. Poor test result follow-up can have major consequences for the quality of care, including missed diagnoses and suboptimal patient outcomes. Over the last three decades there has been considerable growth in the number of requests for pathology and radiology services which has added to the complexity of how patient care is delivered and test results are managed. This can contribute to a lack of clarity about where and with whom responsibility for test follow-up should reside: a problem that is compounded by a lack of clear definitions about what are critical, unexpected or significantly abnormal results. Aim of this paper This paper will present a narrative review highlighting key issues related to the problem of failure to follow up laboratory test results, and outline potential solutions. Conclusions Information technology (IT) has the potential to enhance the performance and safety of test result management processes. Effective solutions must engage all stakeholders, including consumers, in arriving at decisions about who needs to receive results, how and when they are communicated, and how they are acknowledged and acted upon and the documentation of these actions.

  12. Analysis of Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes from a Bottom-up Comprehensive School Reform in the Absence of Student Level Data through Simulation Methods: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines the efficacy of a bottom-up comprehensive school reform (CSR) program by evaluating its impact on student achievement, attendance, and behavior outcomes through an explanatory mixed methods design. The CSR program (Gear Up) was implemented in an urban junior high school over the course of seven years allowing for…

  13. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results From a Two-Year Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163

  14. Immediate results and long-term cardiovascular outcomes of endovascular therapy in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians with peripheral arterial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Li; Jimmy Juang, Jyh-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Hsieh, Chien-An; Jang, Shih-Jung; Cheng, Shih-Tsung; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical outcomes of endovascular therapy (EVT) in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians with peripheral arterial disease. Methods A retrospective analysis of 511 patients (654 affected legs) who underwent EVT between July 2005 and December 2013 was conducted in a prospectively maintained database. Immediate results and long-term vascular outcomes were analyzed and compared between octogenarians and nonoctogenarians. Results Octogenarians were more likely to be female and have atrial fibrillation (AF), whereas nonoctogenarians had higher rates of obesity, claudication, and medical comorbidities. There were no differences in the rates of EVT success, 30-day major adverse vascular events, and 6-month functional improvement between groups. Over the 10-year follow-up period, the rates of 3-year limb salvage, sustained clinical success, freedom from major cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, and composite vascular events were similar between groups, but the survival rate was better in nonoctogenarians than in octogenarians (73% vs 63%, respectively, P=0.004). In Cox regression analysis, dependence on dialysis and AF were significant predictors of death (odds ratio [OR] 4.44 in dialyzed and 2.83 in AF patients), major cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events (OR 3.49 and 2.45), and composite vascular events (OR 3.14 and 2.25). Conclusion EVT in octogenarians was feasible, without an increased risk of periprocedural complications. The rates of limb salvage, sustained clinical success, and long-term vascular events were comparable between groups. Dialysis dependence and AF are independent predictors for poor prognosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease. However, these observations require further confirmation in larger scale studies. PMID:27217735

  15. Use of Local {sup 111}In-Capromab Pendetide Scan Results to Predict Outcome After Salvage Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, Bridget F. Mouraviev, Vladimir; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Mayes, Janice; Chen, Stephanie H.; Wong, Terence Z.; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Sun, Leon; Moul, Judd; Polascik, Thomas J.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: The {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan (ProstaScint; Cytogen Corp., Princeton NJ) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to evaluate increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy. This study evaluated the role of prostate bed {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan findings to predict response to salvage radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Forty patients who had PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy and a {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan immediately before salvage prostate bed RT (median, 66 Gy) were identified from the Duke Prostate Center database. Patients with distant uptake of capromab pendetide or long-term androgen deprivation therapy were excluded. Median follow-up after salvage RT was 2.7 years. Patient demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics; PSA values; and {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan results were retrospectively analyzed. A PSA failure after salvage RT was defined as PSA level greater than 0.2 ng/ml. Data were combined with other published results in a secondary pooled analysis of 106 patients. Results: {sup 111}In-Capromab pendetide findings included 20 patients with negative scan results and 20 with locally positive scan results. Two-year progression-free survival rates were 60% for patients with a negative scan result and 74% for those with a locally positive scan result (p = 0.49). Combined analysis did not show a difference in outcome based on local {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan result. Conclusion: For patients without distant signal detected by using {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan, patients with locally positive scan findings did not have statistically different progression-free survival than those with a negative scan result, suggesting that salvage RT may be successful in patients with either a locally positive or negative {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan result.

  16. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  17. Examining Dosage Effects on Prevention Outcomes: Results from a Multi-Modal Longitudinal Preventive Intervention for Young Disruptive Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlebois, Pierre; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Normandeau, Sylvie; Boudreau, Jean-Francois

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the predictive effect of disruptive boys' attendance to a prevention program (i.e., dosage) on post-intervention academic achievement and behavior and (b) the potential moderating effects of child and family characteristics in this context. The 3-year intervention program included reading, self-regulation, and social…

  18. Intensive-Phase Treatment Outcomes among Hospitalized Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: Results from a Nationwide Cohort in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Isaakidis, Petros; Obasanya, Olusegun J.; Eltayeb, Osman; Khogali, Mohammed; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Abdurrahman, Saddiq T.; Lawson, Lovett; Cuevas, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria is faced with a high burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered across the globe have been poor, partly due to high loss-to-follow-up. To address this challenge, MDR-TB patients in Nigeria are hospitalized during the intensive-phase(IP) of treatment (first 6–8 months) and are provided with a package of care including standardized MDR-TB treatment regimen, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CPT) for HIV-infected patients, nutritional and psychosocial support. In this study, we report the end-IP treatment outcomes among them. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the patient records of all bacteriologically-confirmed MDR-TB patients admitted for treatment between July 2010 and October 2012. Results Of 162 patients, 105(65%) were male, median age was 34 years and 28(17%) were HIV-infected; all 28 received ART and CPT. Overall, 138(85%) were alive and culture negative at the end of IP, 24(15%) died and there was no loss-to-follow-up. Mortality was related to low CD4-counts at baseline among HIV-positive patients. The median increase in body mass index among those documented to be underweight was 2.6 kg/m2 (p<0.01) and CD4-counts improved by a median of 52 cells/microL among the HIV-infected patients (p<0.01). Conclusions End-IP treatment outcomes were exceptional compared to previously published data from international cohorts, thus confirming the usefulness of a hospitalized model of care. However, less than five percent of all estimated 3600 MDR-TB patients in Nigeria were initiated on treatment during the study period. Given the expected scale-up of MDR-TB care, the hospitalized model is challenging to sustain and the national TB programme is contemplating to move to ambulatory care. Hence, we recommend using both ambulatory and hospitalized approaches, with the latter being reserved for

  19. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  20. Constructing a Roadmap for Future Universal Screening Research beyond Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Volpe, Robert J.; Livanis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The majority of the literature on universal screening in education is devoted to academic screeners. However, research clearly indicates that other aspects of student functioning are closely associated with outcomes inside and outside of school. As a result, there are gaps in the current literature that call for additional research extending…

  1. Gender differences in acute and chronic pain in the emergency department: results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference pain section.

    PubMed

    Musey, Paul I; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Miner, James R; Bortsov, Andrey V; Safdar, Basmah; Bijur, Polly; Rosenau, Alex; Tsze, Daniel S; Chang, Andrew K; Dorai, Suprina; Engel, Kirsten G; Feldman, James A; Fusaro, Angela M; Lee, David C; Rosenberg, Mark; Keefe, Francis J; Peak, David A; Nam, Catherine S; Patel, Roma G; Fillingim, Roger B; McLean, Samuel A

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a leading public health problem in the United States, with an annual economic burden of more than $630 billion, and is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek emergency department (ED) care. There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the assessment and treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions in the ED. The Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference convened in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014 to develop a research agenda to address this issue among others related to sex differences in the ED. Prior to the conference, experts and stakeholders from emergency medicine and the pain research field reviewed the current literature and identified eight candidate priority areas. At the conference, these eight areas were reviewed and all eight were ratified using a nominal group technique to build consensus. These priority areas were: 1) gender differences in the pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain, including differences in opioid tolerance, side effects, or misuse; 2) gender differences in pain severity perceptions, clinically meaningful differences in acute pain, and pain treatment preferences; 3) gender differences in pain outcomes of ED patients across the life span; 4) gender differences in the relationship between acute pain and acute psychological responses; 5) the influence of physician-patient gender differences and characteristics on the assessment and treatment of pain; 6) gender differences in the influence of acute stress and chronic stress on acute pain responses; 7) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating acute pain in ED populations; and 8) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating chronic pain development after trauma, stress, or acute illness exposure. These areas represent priority areas for future scientific inquiry, and gaining understanding in these will be essential to improving our understanding of sex and gender

  2. Gender Differences in Acute and Chronic Pain in the Emergency Department: Results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Pain Section

    PubMed Central

    Musey, Paul I.; Linnstaedt, Sarah D.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.; Miner, James R.; Bortsov, Andrey V.; Safdar, Basmah; Bijur, Polly; Rosenau, Alex; Tsze, Daniel S.; Chang, Andrew K.; Dorai, Suprina; Engel, Kirsten; Feldman, James A.; Fusaro, Angela M.; Lee, David C.; Rosenberg, Mark; Keefe, Francis J.; Peak, David A.; Nam, Catherine S.; Patel, Roma G.; Fillingim, Roger B.; McLean, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a leading public health problem in the United States, with an annual economic burden of more than $630 billion, and is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek emergency department (ED) care. There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the assessment and treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions in the ED. The Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference convened in Dallas, Texas in May of 2014 to develop a research agenda to address this issue among others related to sex differences in the ED. Prior to the conference, experts and stakeholders from emergency medicine and the pain research field reviewed the current literature and identified eight candidate priority areas. At the conference, these eight areas were reviewed and all eight were ratified using a nominal group technique to build consensus. These priority areas were: 1) gender differences in the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for pain, including differences in opioid tolerance, side effects, or misuse; 2) gender differences in pain severity perceptions, clinically meaningful differences in acute pain, and pain treatment preferences; 3) gender differences in pain outcomes of ED patients across the lifespan; 4) gender differences in the relationship between acute pain and acute psychological responses; 5) the influence of physician-patient gender differences and characteristics on the assessment and treatment of pain; 6) gender differences in the influence of acute stress and chronic stress on acute pain responses; 7) gender differences in biologic mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating acute pain in ED populations; and 8) gender differences in biologic mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating chronic pain development after trauma, stress, or acute illness exposure. These areas represent priority areas for future scientific inquiry, and gaining understanding in these will be essential to improving our understanding of sex and gender

  3. Parental Characteristics Associated With Outcomes in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the TODAY Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Ruth S.; Trief, Paula M.; Goland, Robin; McKay, Siripoom; Milaszewski, Kerry; Preske, Jeff; Willi, Steven; Yasuda, Patrice M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined parental factors associated with outcomes of youth in the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Of 699 youth with type 2 diabetes in the TODAY cohort, 623 (89.1%) had a parent participate and provide data at baseline, including weight, HbA1c, blood pressure, symptoms of depression, binge eating (BE), and medical history. Youth were followed 2–6.5 years. Data were analyzed using regression models and survival curve methods. RESULTS Parental diabetes (43.6% of parents) was associated with higher baseline HbA1c (P < 0.0001) and failure of youths to maintain glycemic control on study treatment (53.6% vs. 38.2% failure rate among those without a diabetic parent, P = 0.0002). Parental hypertension (40.6% of parents) was associated with hypertension in youth during TODAY (40.4% vs. 27.4% of youth with and without parental hypertension had hypertension, P = 0.0008) and with higher youth baseline BMI z scores (P = 0.0038). Parents had a mean baseline BMI of 33.6 kg/m2. Parental obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2) was associated with higher baseline BMI z scores in the youth (P < 0.0001). Depressive symptoms in parents (20.6% of parents) were related to youth depressive symptoms at baseline only (P = 0.0430); subclinical BE in parents was related to the presence of subclinical BE (P = 0.0354) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.0326) in youth throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS Parental diabetes and hypertension were associated with lack of glycemic control, hypertension, and higher BMI z scores in youth. Further research is needed to better understand and address parental biological and behavioral factors to improve youth health outcomes. PMID:25784663

  4. Racism, health status, and birth outcomes: results of a participatory community-based intervention and health survey.

    PubMed

    Carty, Denise C; Kruger, Daniel J; Turner, Tonya M; Campbell, Bettina; DeLoney, E Hill; Lewis, E Yvonne

    2011-02-01

    Many community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships address social determinants of health as a central consideration. However, research studies that explicitly address racism are scarce in the CBPR literature, and there is a dearth of available community-generated data to empirically examine how racism influences health disparities at the local level. In this paper, we provide results of a cross-sectional, population-based health survey conducted in the urban areas of Genesee and Saginaw Counties in Michigan to assess how a sustained community intervention to reduce racism and infant mortality influenced knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of racism and to explore how perceived racism is associated with self-rated health and birth outcomes. We used ANOVA and regression models to compare the responses of intervention participants and non-participants as well as African Americans and European Americans (N = 629). We found that intervention participants reported greater acknowledgment of the enduring and differential impact of racism in comparison to the non-intervention participants. Moreover, survey analyses revealed that racism was associated with health in the following ways: (1) experiences of racial discrimination predicted self-rated physical health, mental health, and smoking status; (2) perceived racism against one's racial group predicted lower self-rated physical health; and (3) emotional responses to racism-related experiences were marginally associated with lower birth-weight births in the study sample. Our study bolsters the published findings on perceived racism and health outcomes and highlights the usefulness of CBPR and community surveys to empirically investigate racism as a social determinant of health.

  5. Safety Events in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Results from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplant (FAVORIT) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Matthew R.; Gravens-Muller, Lisa; Costa, Nadiesda; Ivanova, Anastasia; Manitpisitkul, Wana; Bostom, Andrew G.; Diamantidis, Clarissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk for adverse safety events related to their reduced renal function and many medications. Methods We determined the incidence of adverse safety events based on previously defined Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality (AHRQ) ICD-9 code-derived patient safety indicators (PSI) in the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplant (FAVORIT) trial participants who had a hospitalization stratified by tertiles of estimated glomerular filtration rate. We also examined the frequency of Micromedex defined two precautionary drug-drug interactions, and two medications whose use may be contraindicated due to reduced GFR from the FAVORIT trial Medication Thesaurus at baseline, and annually among 4110 participants. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between patient safety events and baseline demographic and clinical variables at a participant level. Event rates were estimated at participant and visit levels. Results Of the 2514 patients with a hospitalization, 978 (38.9%) experienced an AHRQ PSI. Factors which were associated with more common AHRQ PSI included: US location, history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and lower tertile of estimated GFR. At a participant level, 2524 of the 4110 participants (61.4%) were taking a CNI and a statin, 378 (9.2%) were taking azathioprine and an ACE inhibitor, 171 (12.9%) were taking a sulfonylurea ), 45 (3.4%) were taking metformin despite a baseline GFR below 40 ml/min/1.73m2. Conclusions We conclude that patient safety events are not uncommon in kidney transplant recipients. Careful monitoring is necessary to prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:25393158

  6. Clinical Outcome of First- vs Second-Generation DES According to DAPT Duration: Results of ARCTIC-Generation.

    PubMed

    Collet, Jean-Philippe; Silvain, Johanne; Kerneis, Mathieu; Cuisset, Thomas; Meneveau, Nicolas; Boueri, Ziad; Barthélémy, Olivier; Rangé, Grégoire; Cayla, Guillaume; Belle, Eric Van; Elhadad, Simon; Carrié, Didier; Caussin, Christophe; Rousseau, Hélène; Aubry, Pierre; Monségu, Jacques; Sabouret, Pierre; O'Connor, Stephen A; Abtan, Jérémie; Saint-Etienne, Christophe; Beygui, Farzin; Vicaut, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    There is an apparent benefit with extension of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1 year after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES). Assessment by a Double Randomization of a Conventional Antiplatelet Strategy vs a Monitoring-Guided Strategy for Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation, and of Treatment Interruption vs Continuation One Year After Stenting (ARCTIC)-Generation assessed whether there is a difference of outcome between first- vs second-generation DES and if there is an interaction with DAPT duration in the ARCTIC-Interruption study. ARCTIC-Interruption randomly allocated 1259 patients 1 year after stent implantation to a strategy of interruption of DAPT (n = 624), in which aspirin antiplatelet treatment only was maintained, or DAPT continuation (n = 635) for 6 to 18 additional months. The primary endpoint was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or urgent revascularization. A total of 520 and 722 patients received a first- and a second-generation DES, respectively. After a median follow-up of 17 months (interquartile range, 15-18 months) after randomization, the primary endpoint occurred in 32 (6.2%) and 19 (2.6%) patients with first- and second-generation DES, respectively (hazard ratio: 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-4.07, P = 0.004). This was observed irrespective of the strategy of interruption or continuation of DAPT and timing of study recruitment. Major bleeding events occurred in 4 (0.8%) and 3 patients (0.4%) with first- and second-generation DES, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.40-8.02, P = 0.44). Results did not change after multiple adjustments for potential confounding variables. ARCTIC-Generation showed worse clinical outcome with first- vs second-generation DES, a difference that appeared to persist even with prolonged DAPT. PMID:26880570

  7. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  8. Student Academic Performance and the Allocation of School Resources: Results from a Survey of Junior Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yuhong; Hu, Yongmei

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the increasing cost of education has been a global trend, and there is a growing demand for increasing efficiency in different countries. As a result, education economists began focusing on the issue of efficient allocation of educational resources and borrowed production function from economics to study educational production…

  9. "My Universe Is Here": Implications for the Future of Academic Libraries from the Results of a Survey of Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncrieff, Joan; Macauley, Peter; Epps, Janine

    2007-01-01

    Supporting the information needs of researchers adequately is a major challenge for university libraries. This paper outlines results of a survey of 23 researchers conducted by Deakin University Library into their information needs and perceptions of the library's role and performance. The survey challenged established ideas about researchers'…

  10. Experiences of Discrimination among Chinese American Adolescents and the Consequences for Socioemotional and Academic Development

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influences of discrimination on socioemotional adjustment and academic performance for a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Using autoregressive and cross-lagged techniques, results indicate that discrimination in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms, alienation, school engagement, and grades in middle adolescence, but early socioemotional adjustment and academic performance did not predict later experiences of discrimination. Further, our investigation of whether earlier or contemporaneous experiences of discrimination influenced developmental outcomes in middle adolescence indicated differential effects, with contemporaneous experiences of discrimination affecting socioemotional adjustment, while earlier discrimination was more influential for academic performance. Finally, we found a persistent negative effect of acculturation on the link between discrimination and adolescents’ developmental outcomes, such that those adolescents who were more acculturated (in this case, higher in American orientation) experienced more deleterious effects of discrimination on both socioemotional and academic outcomes. PMID:19899924

  11. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  12. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  13. Impulsivity and Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…

  14. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  15. Microwave tumor ablation: cooperative academic-industry development of a high-power gas-cooled system with early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J.; Schefelker, Rick; Hinshaw, J. L.; Lubner, Meghan G.; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-02-01

    Microwave tumor ablation continues to evolve into a viable treatment option for many cancers. Current systems are poised to supplant radiofrequency ablation as the dominant percutaneous thermal therapy. Here is provided an overview of technical details and early clinical results with a high-powered, gas-cooled microwave ablation system. The system was developed with academic-industry collaboration using federal and private funding. The generator comprises three synchronous channels that each produce up to 140W at 2.45GHz. A mountable power distribution module facilitates CT imaging guidance and monitoring and reduces clutter in the sterile field. Cryogenic carbon-dioxide cools the coaxial applicator, permitting a thin applicator profile (~1.5 mm diameter) and high power delivery. A total of 106 liver tumors were treated (96 malignant, 10 benign) from December 2010 to June 2012 at a single academic institution. Mean tumor size +/- standard deviation was 2.5+/-1.3cm (range 0.5-13.9cm). Treatment time was 5.4+/-3.3min (range 1-20min). Median follow-up was 6 months (range 1-16 months). Technical success was reported in 100% of cases. Local tumor progression was noted in 4/96 (4.3%) of malignancies. The only major complication was a pleural effusion that was treated with thoracentesis. Microwave ablation with this system is an effective treatment for liver cancer. Compared to previous data from the same institution, these results suggest an increased efficacy and equivalent safety to RF ablation. Additional data from the lung and kidney support this conclusion.

  16. Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…

  17. Results of an Academic, Health Care Worksite Weight Loss Contest for Southeastern Americans: Scale Back Alabama 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Whitt, Lauren; Oster, Robert A; Lewis, Dwight; Shropshire, Toneyell S; Calhoun, David A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of competitive incentivized worksite weight loss programs. Scale Back Alabama (SBA) is a free, state-supported program designed to promote weight loss among overweight and obese citizens. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the design and preliminary findings of SBA as a worksite intervention among employees at a collegiate institution and university hospital. In teams of 4 employees, SBA participants volunteered to engage in a 10-week competitive weight loss contest; both teams and individuals who lost significant weight were eligible for randomly drawn cash incentives. Trained staff objectively measured participants' weight before and at the conclusion of the contest. Preliminary analyses suggest that SBA as a worksite program can promote weight loss among employees, but future analyses are warranted to understand the context of these findings and determine if current results are confounded by unmeasured factors. PMID:26081473

  18. Doctors currently in jobs with academic content and their future intentions to pursue clinical academic careers: questionnaire surveys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Our aim was to report on doctors’ descriptions of their current post at about 12 years after qualification, in respect of academic content, and to compare this with their long-term intentions. By academic content, we mean posts that are designated as clinical academic posts or clinical service posts that include research and/or teaching commitments. Design Questionnaire survey. Participants All UK medical graduates of 1996 contacted in 2007, graduates of 1999 in 2012, and graduates of 2000 in 2012. Setting UK. Main outcome measures Responses about current posts and future intentions. Method Postal and email questionnaires. Results The response rate was 61.9% (6713/10844). Twenty eight per cent were working in posts with academic content (3.3% as clinical academics, 25% in clinical posts with some academic content). Seventeen per cent of women were working in clinical posts with some teaching and research, compared with 29% of men. A higher percentage of men than women intended to be clinical academics as their eventual career choice (3.9% overall, 5.4% of men, 2.7% of women). More doctors wished to move to a job with an academic component than away from one (N = 824 compared with 236). This was true for both men (433 compared with 118) and women (391 compared with 118). Conclusions Women are under-represented both in holding posts with academic content and in aspirations to do so. It is noteworthy that many more doctors hoped to move into an academic role than to move out of one. Policy should facilitate this wish in order to address current shortfalls in clinical academic medicine. PMID:25780595

  19. Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Improves Early Postoperative Results: A Retrospective Comparison of Outcomes After Endoscopic Versus Open Plantar Fasciotomy.

    PubMed

    Chou, Andrew Chia Chen; Ng, Sean Yung Chuan; Koo, Kevin Oon Thien

    2016-01-01

    Plantar fasciotomy is offered to patients with recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Few studies have characterized the functional outcomes over time for the endoscopic approach compared with the open approach. We hypothesized that patients undergoing endoscopic surgery will have better postoperative functional outcomes early in the postoperative period but equivalent long-term outcomes compared with patients undergoing open surgery. We analyzed the prospectively collected data of all patients undergoing plantar fasciotomy at our institution from December 2007 to August 2014. A total of 42 feet of 38 patients were included in the analysis. The clinical data were collected preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months and 1 year. The functional outcomes analyzed included the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot scale, the Medical Outcomes Study, Short-Form, 36-item Health Survey, and patient satisfaction and expectations. Patients undergoing endoscopic surgery had significantly greater American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot and SF-36 Health Survey scores and lower pain scores at the 3-month period. They were also significantly more likely to be satisfied with and have had their expectations met by surgery. Compared with the open approach, the patients who had undergone endoscopic plantar fasciotomy experienced significantly greater improvements in the subjective and objective functional outcomes, with less pain and greater satisfaction, and had had their expectations met earlier in the recovery period, with equivalent long-term outcomes, compared with the patients who had undergone open plantar fasciotomy.

  20. University Students' Satisfaction with their Academic Studies: Personality and Motivation Matter

    PubMed Central

    Wach, F.-Sophie; Karbach, Julia; Ruffing, Stephanie; Brünken, Roland; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is consensus about the importance of students' satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement), as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress) assessed approximately 2 years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; Mage = 20.77; SDage = 3.22) using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level. PMID:26909049

  1. University Students' Satisfaction with their Academic Studies: Personality and Motivation Matter.

    PubMed

    Wach, F-Sophie; Karbach, Julia; Ruffing, Stephanie; Brünken, Roland; Spinath, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is consensus about the importance of students' satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement), as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress) assessed approximately 2 years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; M age = 20.77; SD age = 3.22) using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level.

  2. Clinical outcomes resulting from the transfer of vitrified human embryos using a new device for cryopreservation (plastic blade)

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Rikikazu; Shirai, Asako; Sugiyama, Rie; Nishi, Yayoi; Kuribayashi, Yasushi; Inoue, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We attempted clinical application of a plastic blade, which is a novel cryopreservation device, for vitrification of human embryos and blastocysts. Methods Between February 2003 and December 2007, a total of 4,430 Day 3 embryos from 898 patients (Day 3 group) and 55 blastocysts from 29 patients (blastocyst group) were vitrified and cryopreserved with a plastic device, and subsequently thawed for embryo transfer. Clinical outcomes after thawing and transfer of vitrified embryos and blastocysts were evaluated. Results In the Day 3 group, all embryos resulting from 1,441 oocyte retrieval cycles were recovered, and the thawed embryo survival rate was 98.4%. In the blastocyst group, the survival rate after thawing was 100%. A total of 3,026 day 3 embryos and 46 blastocysts were transferred. The pregnancy and implantation rates in the Day 3 group were 25.0% and 15.5%, respectively, and in the blastocyst group the rates were 24.2% and 26.1%, respectively. The miscarriage rates in the Day 3 and blastocyst groups were 18.3% and 50.0%, respectively. Conclusions A plastic blade is a useful novel device in cryopreservation of vitrified human embryos. PMID:20127161

  3. Examining the Relationship between Scores on the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System" and Student Academic, Behavioral, and Engagement Outcomes: An Investigation of Concurrent Validity in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie; Dowdy, Erin; Jimerson, Shane R.; Hart, Shelley R.; Earhart, James, Jr.; Jones, Camille N.

    2009-01-01

    Universal screening of emotional and behavioral problems among students warrants further consideration by school professionals. School-based universal screening may provide opportunities for early identification and intervention, ultimately preventing the development of more severe problems and promoting more positive outcomes in the future. The…

  4. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  5. Context Matters: Distinct Disease Outcomes as a Result of Crebbp Hemizygosity in Different Mouse Bone Marrow Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Perez, Stephanie N.; Cheng, Ziming; Kinney, Marsha C.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Scott, Linda M.; Rebel, Vivienne I.

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations in CREB binding protein (CREBBP) are associated with hematopoietic malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Mice hemizygous for Crebbp develop myelodysplasia with proliferative features, reminiscent of human MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), and a proportion goes on to develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We have also shown that the Crebbp+/- non-hematopoietic bone marrow microenvironment induces excessive myeloproliferation of wild-type cells. We now report that transplantation of unfractionated Crebbp+/- bone marrow into wild-type recipients resulted in either early-onset AML or late-onset MDS and MDS/MPN-U. In contrast, purified Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit++ cells primarily gave rise to MDS with occasional transformation to AML. Furthermore, Crebbp+/- common myeloid progenitors and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors could trigger skewed myelopoiesis, myelodysplasia and late-onset AML. Surprisingly, the phenotypically abnormal cells were all of wild-type origin. MDS, MPN and AML can thus all be transferred from Crebbp+/- BM to wild-type hosts but fractionated bone marrow does not recapitulate the full disease spectrum of whole bone marrow, indicating that not only mutational status but also cellular context contribute to disease outcome. This has important consequences for structuring and interpreting future investigations into the underlying mechanisms of myeloid malignancies as well as for their treatment. PMID:27427906

  6. Outcome of alloanergized haploidentical bone marrow transplantation after ex vivo costimulatory blockade: results of 2 phase 1 studies

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jeff K.; Gribben, John G.; Brennan, Lisa L.; Yuk, Dongin; Nadler, Lee M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the outcomes of 24 patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies or bone marrow failure (BMF) who received haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after ex vivo induction of alloantigen-specific anergy in donor T cells by allostimulation in the presence of costimulatory blockade. Ninety-five percent of evaluable patients engrafted and achieved full donor chimerism. Despite receiving a median T-cell dose of 29 ×106/kg, only 5 of 21 evaluable patients developed grade C (n = 4) or D (n = 1) acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), with only one attributable death. Twelve patients died from treatment-related mortality (TRM). Patients reconstituted T-cell subsets and immunoglobulin levels rapidly with evidence of in vivo expansion of pathogen-specific T cells in the early posttransplantation period. Five patients reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV), only one of whom required extended antiviral treatment. No deaths were attributable to CMV or other viral infections. Only 1 of 12 evaluable patients developed chronic GVHD. Eight patients survive disease-free with normal performance scores (median follow-up, 7 years). Thus, despite significant early TRM, ex vivo alloanergization can support administration of large numbers of haploidentical donor T cells, resulting in rapid immune reconstitution with very few viral infections. Surviving patients have excellent performance status and a low rate of chronic GVHD. PMID:18617635

  7. Relation Between Dose of Loop Diuretics and Outcomes in a Heart Failure Population: Results of the ESCAPE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasselblad, Vic; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Shah, Monica R.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Califf, Robert M.; Adams, Kirkwood F.

    2007-01-01

    Background We examined the relation of maximal in-hospital diuretic dose to weight loss, changes in renal function, and mortality in hospitalised heart failure (HF) patients. Methods In ESCAPE, 395 patients received diuretics in-hospital. Weight was measured at baseline, discharge, and every other day before discharge. Weight loss was defined as the difference between baseline and last in-hospital weight. Mortality was assessed using a log-logistic model with non-zero background. Results Median weight loss: 2.8 kg (0.7, 6.1); mean: 3.7 kg (22% of values <0). Weight loss and maximum in-hospital dose were correlated (p = 0.0007). Baseline weight, length of stay, and baseline brain natriuretic peptide were significant predictors of weight loss. After adjusting for these, dose was not a significant predictor of weight loss. A strong relation between dose and mortality was seen (p = 0.003), especially at >300 mg/day. Dose remained a significant predictor of mortality after adjusting for baseline variables that significantly predicted mortality. Correlation between maximal dose and creatinine level change was not significant (r = 0.043; p = 0.412) Conclusions High diuretic doses during HF hospitalisation are associated with increased mortality and poor 6-month outcome. PMID:17719273

  8. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  9. Patient-based outcome analysis is important to determine the success of total knee arthroplasty: result of a focus group discussion

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, Balaji; Paul, Manu; Thanveeruddin Sherule, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Total knee replacement (TKR) results in an excellent outcome in terms of pain relief. The reporting of outcomes was traditionally focused on implant survivorship and objective outcomes such as range of motion, knee stability, and radiographic alignment. However, patients and doctors had differing perceptions of all domains of outcome, especially subjective quality of life domains such as emotions and social functioning. In this study, we tried to find out the expectations of Indian patients regarding TKR and assess the level of satisfaction among our patients from their view point using focus group discussion (FGD), and whether these expectations have an impact on outcomes and patient satisfaction. Materials and methods This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in November 2014. Patients between the ages 60 and 65 years who met inclusion criteria were selected. A total of 50 patients were selected for FGDs. Among them, 42 patients participated in FGD. The remaining eight did not appear for the discussion. A total of four FGD sessions were conducted. Results and discussion It was found that there is a discrepancy between the satisfaction levels of patient and surgeon. There is a difference in satisfaction level achieved depending on socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural characteristics. Conclusion Newer methods of TKR outcome assessment combining radiological outcome, surgeon-based assessment, and patient satisfaction based on their socioeconomic status and cultural characteristics should be developed for different populations. PMID:27284268

  10. Does Previous Hip Surgery Effect the Outcome of Tönnis Triple Periacetabular Osteotomy? Mid-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Aydın, Bahattin Kerem; Yıldırım, Timur; Sofu, Hakan; Gürsu, Sarper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hip dysplasia (HD) is 1 of the major reasons of coxarthrosis. The goal of the treatment of HD by Tönnis triple pelvic osteotomy (TPAO) is to improve the function of hip joint while relieving pain, delaying and possibly preventing end-stage arthritis. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical and radiological results of TPAO to determine if previous surgery has a negative effect on TPAO. Patients operated with TPAO between 2005 and 2010, included in this study. Patients divided into 2 groups: primary acetabular dysplasia (PAD) and residual acetabular dysplasia (RAD). Prepostoperatively, hip range of motion, Harris hip score (HHS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) hip score, visual analog scores (VAS), impingement tests, and also the presence of Trendelenburg sign (TS) were investigated for clinical evaluation. For radiological analysis pre–postoperative, anterior–posterior (AP) pelvis and faux profile radiographs were used. Acetabular index, lateral center edge (LCE) angle, and Sharp angles were measured by AP pelvis; anterior center edge (ACE) angle were measured by faux profile radiography. All the clinical and radiological data of the groups were analyzed separately for the pre–postoperative scores also the amount of improvement in all parameters were analyzed. SPSS20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis. Wilcoxon test, McNemar test, paired t tests, and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to compare the groups. P < 0.05 were defined as statistically significant. Study included 27 patients: 17 patients were in PAD and 10 patients were in RAD. The mean follow-up period was 6.2 years (5.2–10.3 years). In all patients, the radiological and the clinical outcomes were better after TPAO except the flexion of the hip parameter. When the patient groups were evaluated as pre–postoperatively, more statistically significant parameters were found in the PAD group when compared with RAD

  11. Survival Outcomes in Resected Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Effect of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vern-Gross, Tamara Z.; Shivnani, Anand T.; Chen, Ke; Lee, Christopher M.; Tward, Jonathan D.; MacDonald, O. Kenneth; Crane, Christopher H.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Munoz, Louis L.; Small, William

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has not been clearly established. We analyzed survival outcomes of patients with resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and examined the effect of adjuvant RT. Methods and Materials: Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program between 1973 and 2003. The primary endpoint was the overall survival time. Cox regression analysis was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the following clinical variables: age, year of diagnosis, histologic grade, localized (Stage T1-T2) vs. regional (Stage T3 or greater and/or node positive) stage, gender, race, and the use of adjuvant RT after surgical resection. Results: The records for 2,332 patients were obtained. Patients with previous malignancy, distant disease, incomplete or conflicting records, atypical histologic features, and those treated with preoperative/intraoperative RT were excluded. Of the remaining 1,491 patients eligible for analysis, 473 (32%) had undergone adjuvant RT. After a median follow-up of 27 months (among surviving patients), the median overall survival time for the entire cohort was 20 months. Patients with localized and regional disease had a median survival time of 33 and 18 months, respectively (p < .001). The addition of adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in overall or cause-specific survival for patients with local or regional disease. Conclusion: Patients with localized disease had significantly better overall survival than those with regional disease. Adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in long-term overall survival in patients with resected extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Key data, including margin status and the use of combined chemotherapy, was not available through the SEER database.

  12. Sphincter-sparing surgery after preoperative radiotherapy for low rectal cancers: feasibility, oncologic results and quality of life outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Allal, A S; Bieri, S; Pelloni, A; Spataro, V; Anchisi, S; Ambrosetti, P; Sprangers, M A G; Kurtz, J M; Gertsch, P

    2000-01-01

    The present study assesses the choice of surgical procedure, oncologic results and quality of life (QOL) outcomes in a retrospective cohort of 53 patients with low-lying rectal cancers (within 6 cm of the anal verge) treated surgically following preoperative radiotherapy (RT, median dose 45 Gy) with or without concomitant 5-fluorouracil. QOL was assessed in 23 patients by using two questionnaires developed by the QOL Study Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer: EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-CR38. After a median interval of 29 days from completion of RT, abdominoperineal resection (APR) was performed in 29 patients (55%), low anterior resection in 23 patients (20 with coloanal anastomosis) and transrectal excision in one patient. The 3-year actuarial overall survival and locoregional control rates were 71.4% and 77.5% respectively, with no differences observed between patients operated by APR or restorative procedures. For all scales of EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-CR38, no significant differences in median scores were observed between the two surgical groups. Although patients having had APR tended to report a lower body image score (P = 0.12) and more sexual dysfunction in male patients, all APR patients tended to report better physical function, future perspective and global QOL. In conclusion, sphincter-sparing surgery after preoperative RT seems to be feasible, in routine practice, in a significant proportion of low rectal cancers without compromising the oncologic results. However, prospective studies are mandatory to confirm this finding and to clarify the putative QOL advantages of sphincter-conserving approaches. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10735495

  13. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  14. Academic Decathlon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    This position paper from the Research, Evaluation, and Accreditation Committee of the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA) presents a description of the Academic Decathlon program and offers recommendations for improving the program and ways that ACSA can assist the program. The description of the Academic Decathlon, a ten-event…

  15. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 22: US academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 3 survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

  17. The long-term outlook to final outcome and steroid treatment results in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dinçel, Nida; Yılmaz, Ebru; Kaplan Bulut, İpek; Hacıkara, Şükriye; Mir, Sevgi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) was defined as combination of a nephrotic syndrome and non-specific histological abnormalities of the kidney. Among these abnormalities, minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common. We report our experience with MCNS; its clinical course, treatments and outcomes. One-hundred twenty children (66 male, 54 female) with MCNS, admitted to Nephrology Department between 1987-2009 was assessed. Their clinical presentations, treatment and disease courses were reviewed. The mean duration of follow-up was 11.5 ± 1.9 years. Initially, all patients given prednisone 2 mg/kg/ day single dose per four weeks a followed by eight weeks of the same daily dose given every other day. After week 12, prednisone was progressively tapered off at the rate of 0.5 mg/kg per 15 daily intervals until complete discontinuation had been achieved by week 16. Steroid resistance was accepted as no achievement of remission following four weeks of prednisone 2 mg/kg/day followed by three intravenous pulses of corticosteroids. At the end of the initial steroid treatment, 106 (88.3%) patients were determinate steroid responsive while 14 (11.7%) patients were steroid resistance. Thirty-eight patients underwent biopsy. At the end of study recovery rate was increased from 88.3% to 94.1%. In conclusion, most of patients entered remission by our therapy end of follow up time. With the support of our satisfactory results among the whole study group, long-term prednisolone treatment still remains valid. PMID:26313331

  18. Pattern and quality of care of cancer pain management. Results from the Cancer Pain Outcome Research Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Apolone, G; Corli, O; Caraceni, A; Negri, E; Deandrea, S; Montanari, M; Greco, M T

    2009-01-01

    Most patients with advanced or metastatic cancer experience pain and despite several guidelines, undertreatment is well documented. A multicenter, open-label, prospective, non-randomised study was launched in Italy in 2006 to evaluate the epidemiology, patterns and quality of pain care of cancer patients. To assess the adequacy of analgesic care, we used a standardised measure, the pain management index (PMI), that compares the most potent analgesic prescribed for a patient with the reported level of the worst pain of that patient together with a selected list of clinical indicators. A total of 110 centres recruited 1801 valid cases. 61% of cases were received a WHO-level III opioid; 25.3% were classified as potentially undertreated, with wide variation (9.8–55.3%) according to the variables describing patients, centres and pattern of care. After adjustment with a multivariable logistic regression model, type of recruiting centre, receiving adjuvant therapy or not and type of patient recruited (new or already on follow-up) had a significant association with undertreatment. Non-compliance with the predefined set of clinical indicators was generally high, ranging from 41 to 76%. Despite intrinsic limitations of the PMI that may be considered as an indicator of the poor quality of cancer pain care, results suggest that the recourse to WHO third-level drugs still seems delayed in a substantial percentage of patients. This delay is probably related to several factors affecting practice in participating centres and suggests that the quality of cancer pain management in Italy deserves specific attention and interventions aimed at improving patients' outcomes. PMID:19401688

  19. Inflammatory Mediators and Glucose in Pregnancy: Results from a Subset of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Lowe, William L.; Dyer, Alan R.; McDade, Thomas W.; McIntyre, H. David

    2010-01-01

    Context: Inflammatory mediators are associated with type 2 and gestational diabetes. It is unknown whether there are associations with glucose in pregnant women with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose levels and neonatal size in a subset of participants in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. Design: Eligible pregnant women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 32 wk gestation, and levels of C-peptide, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and resistin were measured in fasting serum samples. Associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose and with birth size were assessed using multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting C-peptide, and other potential confounders. Results: Mean levels of adiponectin declined, and PAI-1 and CRP increased across increasing levels of maternal glucose, BMI, and C-peptide. For example, for fasting plasma glucose less than 75 mg/dl and fasting plasma glucose of 90 mg/dl or greater, adiponectin was 22.5 and 17.4 μg/ml and PAI-1 was 30.9 and 34.2 ng/ml, respectively. Associations with 1- and 2-h plasma glucose remained significant for adiponectin (P < 0.001), PAI-1 (P < 0.05), and CRP (P < 0.01) after adjustment for BMI and C-peptide. Adiponectin and CRP were inversely associated with birth weight, sum of skinfolds and percent body fat, and PAI-1 with sum of skinfolds (all P < 0.05) after adjustment for confounders. Resistin was not associated with 1- or 2-h glucose or birth size. Conclusion: Levels of inflammatory mediators are associated with levels of maternal glucose in pregnant women without overt diabetes. PMID:20843942

  20. Flavored Alcoholic Beverage Use, Risky Drinking Behaviors, and Adverse Outcomes Among Underage Drinkers: Results From the ABRAND Study

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Alison Burke; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between consumption of different types of flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) and risky drinking and drinking-related harms among underage drinkers. Methods. For the Alcohol Brand Research among Underage Youth study, we applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to data from underage drinkers (n = 1031, aged 13–20 years), recruited from a national Internet panel in 2011 to 2012, to estimate associations between consumption of malt-based drinks; spirits-based, premixed- or ready-to-drink cocktails; and supersized alcopops, alone or in combination, and alcohol-related outcomes. Results. After adjustment for confounding variables, the exclusive consumption of alcopops was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 15.31; P < .05) and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 6.25; 95% CI = 1.34, 29.10; P < .05). Exclusive consumption of cocktails was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.26, 5.41; P < .05) and injuries requiring medical attention (OR = 6.50; 95% CI = 2.09, 20.17; P < .001. Exclusive consumption of 2 or more FABs was associated with episodic heavy drinking (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.25, 6.16; P < .05), fighting (OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.46, 7.47; P < .001), and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 2.83; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.58; P < .001). Conclusions. FABs present an emerging public health problem among youths. PMID:25713955