Ruthig, Joelle C.; Marrone, Sonia; Hladkyj, Steve; Robinson-Epp, Nancy
This study investigated the longitudinal associations of health perceptions and behaviors with subsequent academic performance among college students. Multiple health perceptions and behaviors were assessed for 203 college students both at the beginning and end of an academic year. Students' academic performance was also measured at the end of the…
He, Yunke; Banham, Heather
Using time series data, this study shows that domestic students' academic performance is generally better than international students' performance, but the gap is significantly narrowing as international students' performance is improving over time. The study also shows that there is no strong correlation between the percentage of international…
Akinsolu, A. Olatoun
This paper examined the number of qualified teachers and its relationship to students' academic performance in public secondary schools in a sample of Local Government Areas (LGA) of Osun State. This descriptive study used a post-hoc dataset. An instrument titled "Quantity and Quality of Teachers and Students' Academic Performance"…
Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that impacted on the performance and attractiveness of the Academic Director's role. Academic Directors are responsible for leading and managing an academic qualification. Academic Directors (n = 101) participating in a leadership development programme were invited to respond to an online 360…
Rice, Kenneth G; Ray, Merideth E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Ashby, Jeffrey S
Complementary hypotheses suggest that perfectionism may (a) cause later stress (stress generation) and (b) moderate the effects of stress on subsequent outcomes (stress enhancement). The present study tested these hypotheses with a sample of 432 first-time college freshmen pursuing science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors. Students completed baseline perfectionism scales and repeated measures for perceived academic stress at monthly intervals 3 times in the fall semester and 3 times in the spring semester. Course grade data from institutional records were used to calculate first-year STEM grade point average (GPA) as the distal outcome in analyses. Gender, high school GPA, SAT math scores, and university were covariates. Latent profile analyses supported adaptive, maladaptive, and nonperfectionist classes and latent class growth mixture models identified distinctly low, moderate, and high patterns of academic stress over the year. Latent transition analyses indicated that maladaptive perfectionists were likely to experience moderate or high stress (none transitioned to low stress), and adaptive perfectionists were likely to have low or moderate stress (only 4% transitioned to high stress). Women were substantially more likely than male maladaptive perfectionists to experience high stress. Low-stressed adaptive perfectionists followed by moderately stressed maladaptive perfectionists had relatively higher GPAs than other groups. Subgroups of perfectionists who transitioned to the next higher stress level had substantially lower GPAs than other groups. Overall, results were consistent with stress-generation and stress-enhancement hypotheses regarding perfectionists. Findings suggested implications for prevention and intervention with perfectionistic STEM students that should be implemented early in their college experience.
Sitton, Jennifer Susan
Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys
Roberts, Joanne E.; Schuele, C. Melanie
This article reviews the literature on the relationship of otitis media with effusion (OME) during early childhood to intelligence, academic achievement, and classroom behavior during the preschool and primary school years. Guidelines for assessment, program planning, and intervention for the child with an active episode or past OME history are…
Shaw, Steven R.; Gomes, Paul; Polotskaia, Anna; Jankowska, Anna M.
Children who are unhealthy are at higher risk for school problems than students who are free from medical problems. Students with poor health have a higher probability of school failure, grade retention, and dropout. The relationship between student health and academic success is complex. Common manageable factors of student health are nutrition,…
Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Marshall, Stephen; Evans, Steven W
This study investigated the relative impact of total time slept per night and daytime sleepiness on the academic functioning of 100 middle school-aged youth (mean age = 11.9) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The primary goal of the study was to determine if total time slept per night and/or daytime sleepiness, as measured by youth self-report on the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), predicted academic functioning above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, such as intelligence, achievement scores and parent education level. Self-reported daytime sleepiness but not self-reported total time slept per night was associated significantly with all academic outcomes. When examined in a hierarchical regression model, self-reported daytime sleepiness significantly predicted parent-rated homework problems and academic impairment and teacher-rated academic competence above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, but did not predict grade point average or teacher-rated academic impairment. The implications of these findings for understanding more clearly the association between ADHD and sleep and the functional implications of this relationship are discussed.
Bello, S.; Goni, Umar
This is a survey study, designed to determine the relationship between audio-visual materials and environmental factors on students' academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State: Implications for Counselling. The study set two research objectives, and tested two research hypotheses. The population of this study is 1,987 students…
Goni, Umar; Bello, S.
This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…
Kogan, Lori R; Stewart, Sherry M; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Janke, Janet M
This study addressed how students' undergraduate science courses influence their academic performance in a veterinary program, and examined what implications this may have for the veterinary admissions process. The undergraduate transcripts and veterinary school rankings of current third-year veterinary students at Colorado State University were coded and analyzed. Because the study found no statistically meaningful relationships between the pre-veterinary coursework parameters and class rank, it could be concluded that veterinary schools may be unnecessarily restricting access to the profession by requiring long and complicated lists of prerequisite courses that have a questionable predictive value on performance in veterinary school. If a goal of veterinary schools is to use the admissions process to enhance recruitment and provide the flexibility necessary to admit applicants who have the potential to fill the current and emerging needs of the profession, schools may want to re-evaluate how they view pre-veterinary course requirements. One of the recommendations generated from the results of this study is to create a list of veterinary prerequisite courses common to all schools accredited by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. It is suggested that this might simplify pre-veterinary advising, enhance recruitment, and provide flexibility for admitting nontraditional but desirable applicants, without impacting the quality of admitted veterinary students.
Plant, E. Ashby; Ericsson, K. Anders; Hill, Len; Asberg, Kia
The current work draws upon the theoretical framework of deliberate practice in order to clarify why the amount of study by college students is a poor predictor of academic performance. A model was proposed where performance in college, both cumulatively and for a current semester, was jointly determined by previous knowledge and skills as well as…
Arnaud Cabanac; Perlovsky, Leonid; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel
In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform better because they hear music during their examinations, or would they perform better anyway because they are more gifted/motivated? This motivated the current study as a preliminary step toward that general question: Do students who like/perform music have better grades than the others? Our results confirmed this hypothesis: students studying music have better grades in all subjects.
Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.
Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…
The significant increase of entrepreneurship education (EE) is a trend in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote general and specific entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This paper evaluates whether EE influences academic performance, measured by Grade Point Average. The main indicator used for EE is the…
Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.
Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…
Gunter, Helen M.
Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…
Nida, Eugene A.
The technical complexity of the language of academic journals is discussed in terms of graduate students' needs for information, especially in developing countries. An examination of problems in two articles in "Language" and one in "American Anthropologist" points out the nature of the difficulties and some of the solutions. (Author/LB)
Haas, J F; Cope, D N; Hall, K
A study of 80 head injured patients revealed poor premorbid academic performance in up to 50% of the sample. Poor academic performance, as defined by diagnosis of learning disability, multiple failed academic subjects, or school dropout during secondary education, is not a previously cited risk factor for head injury. These findings have important implications in the identification of a high risk population and in the subsequent ability to reduce the incidence of head injury. PMID:3819755
Tanglang, Nebath; Ibrahim, Aminu Kazeem
The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. Randomization sampling technique was used to select 346 undergraduate distance learners and the learners were grouped into four, High and Low Goal setter learners and High and Low Decision-making skills learners. The instruments for data collection were Undergraduate Academic Goal Setting Scale…
Goni, Umar; wali S. B., Yagana; Ali, Hajja Kaltum; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri
This study examines the differences between students' gender and academic achievement in Colleges of Education in Borno State. The study set one research objective, one research question and tested one research hypothesis. the population of this study include all the NCE students from three NCE awarding institutions in the state that were…
Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan
There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency--measured as the…
This article draws on research into the role of academic literacies within a range of disciplines and its implications for academic literacy teaching in Higher Education. The study explored ways of transforming current academic literacy teaching practices with a view to developing better synergy between the academic literacies that are taught and…
Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…
This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…
Flook, Lisa; Repetti, Rena L; Ullman, Jodie B
A model linking children's peer acceptance in the classroom to academic performance via academic self-concept and internalizing symptoms was tested in a longitudinal study. A sample of 248 children was followed from 4th to 6th grade, with data collected from different informants in each year of the study to reduce respondent bias. A path analysis supported the model; a lack of peer acceptance in the classroom in 4th grade predicted lower academic self-concept and more internalizing symptoms the following year, which in turn, predicted lower academic performance in 6th grade. An alternative path with internalizing symptoms predicting declines in peer acceptance was tested and received some support as well. Implications of the findings for schools are discussed.
Hale, James B; Reddy, Linda A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole
Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to indirect informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes direct neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment efficacy. Documenting "cool" executive-working memory (EWM) and "hot" self-regulation (SR) neuropsychological impairments could aid in differential diagnosis of ADHD subtypes and determining cognitive and academic MPH response. In this study, children aged 6 to 16 with ADHD inattentive type (IT; n = 19) and combined type (n = 33)/hyperactive-impulsive type (n = 4) (CT) participated in double-blind placebo-controlled MPH trials with baseline and randomized placebo, low MPH dose, and high MPH dose conditions. EWM/ SR measures and behavior ratings/classroom observations were rank ordered separately across conditions, with nonparametric randomization tests conducted to determine individual MPH response. Participants were subsequently grouped according to their level of cool EWM and hot SR circuit dysfunction. Robust cognitive and behavioral MPH response was achieved for children with significant baseline EWM/SR impairment, yet response was poor for those with adequate EWM/ SR baseline performance. Even for strong MPH responders, the best dose for neuropsychological functioning was typically lower than the best dose for behavior. Findings offer one possible explanation for why long-term academic MPH treatment gains in ADHD have not been realized. Implications for academic achievement and medication titration practices for children with behaviorally diagnosed ADHD will be discussed.
De Gale, S.; Boisselle, L. N.
POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a collaborative learning technique that employs guided inquiry within a cyclic system of exploration, concept invention, and application. This action research explores students' academic performance on a unit of organic chemistry work taught using POGIL, in addition to the effect of POGIL on…
Topor, David R.; Keane, Susan P.; Shelton, Terri L.; Calkins, Susan D.
Parent involvement in a child's education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child's academic performance. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanisms that explain this association. The present study examines two potential mechanisms of this association: the child's perception of cognitive competence and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. This study used a sample of 158 seven-year old participants, their mothers, and their teachers. Results indicated a statistically significant association between parent involvement and a child's academic performance, over and above the impact of the child's intelligence. A multiple mediation model indicated that the child's perception of cognitive competence fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and the child's performance on a standardized achievement test. The quality of the student-teacher relationship fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and teacher ratings of the child's classroom academic performance. Limitations, future research directions, and implications for public policy initiatives were discussed. PMID:20603757
Topor, David R; Keane, Susan P; Shelton, Terri L; Calkins, Susan D
Parent involvement in a child's education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child's academic performance. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanisms that explain this association. The present study examines two potential mechanisms of this association: the child's perception of cognitive competence and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. This study used a sample of 158 seven-year-old participants, their mothers, and their teachers. Results indicated a statistically significant association between parent involvement and a child's academic performance, over and above the impact of the child's intelligence. A multiple mediation model indicated that the child's perception of cognitive competence fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and the child's performance on a standardized achievement test. The quality of the student-teacher relationship fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and teacher ratings of the child's classroom academic performance. Limitations, future research directions, and implications for public policy initiatives are discussed.
Diener, Thomas J., Ed.
This document presents the proceedings of a conference at the University of Alabama designed to examine the legal implications of academic affairs. Papers cover women's rights in academe, and some extra-legal concerns, the outlook for faculty bargaining, an industrial relations approach to faculty collective bargaining, and the courts and academic…
Guyton, Edith; Farokhi, Elizabeth
In order to determine if successful academic performance assures good teaching, four measures of academic achievement of teacher education graduates of Georgia State University from 1981 through 1984 were correlated with on-the-job performance assessments. Results are presented and implications for education policies are discussed. (Author/MT)
Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.
The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…
Wittberg, Richard A.; Northrup, Karen L.; Cottrel, Lesley
Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health threat. Increased fitness may have a positive influence on cognitive performance in both adults and children. Purpose: To examine which aspects of children's fitness assessment are associated with their performance on four different academic areas. Methods: FITNESSGRAM measures aerobic…
Wilkes, Michael S; Srinivasan, Malathi; Flamholtz, Eric
This article provides a framework for understanding the nature, role, functioning, design, and effects of organizational oversight systems. Using a case study with elements recognizable to an academic audience, the authors explore how a dean of a fictitious School of Medicine might use organizational control structures to develop effective solutions to global disarray within the academic medical center. Organizational control systems are intended to help influence the behavior of people as members of a formal organization. They are necessary to motivate people toward organizational goals, to coordinate diverse efforts, and to provide feedback about problems. The authors present a model of control to make this process more visible within organizations. They explore the overlap among academic medical centers and large businesses-for instance, each is a billion-dollar enterprise with complex internal and external demands and multiple audiences. The authors identify and describe how to use the key components of an organization's control system: environment, culture, structure, and core control system. Elements of the core control system are identified, described, and explored. These closely articulating elements include planning, operations, measurement, evaluation, and feedback systems. Use of control portfolios is explored to achieve goal-outcome congruence. Additionally, the authors describe how the components of the control system can be used synergistically by academic leadership to create organizational change, congruent with larger organizational goals. The enterprise of medicine is quickly learning from the enterprise of business. Achieving goal-action congruence will better position academic medicine to meet its multiple missions.
Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni
Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.
Amin, Hazilah Mohd; Hanawi, Siti Aishah; Mohamed, Hazura; Saad, Saidah; Sahari, Noraidah; Mohamed, Ibrahim
This study aims to investigate the performance of FTSM [Faculty of Information Science and Technology] students' academic achievement, based on the number of years of their study and entry requirements. The main objectives of this study are to look at the STPM [Malaysian Higher Education Certificate], Matriculation and Diploma students' academic…
Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…
Nasrullah, Shazia; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah
The current study will be conducted in relationship of entrepreneurship education and academic performance. The study will be conducted on the post graduate students in the Universities of Bahawalpur. In the current study those universities will be included that were offering and also not offering entrepreneurship as a subject of teaching. The…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between problem representation and academic performance in statistics. A specially-designed triad judgment task was administered through SurveyMonkey, an online survey service. Participants were 162 high school graduates who took the AP Statistics Examination in the spring of 2013. Results…
Zook, Joan M.; Repinski, Daniel J.
This study examined associations between parent-child relationships and adolescents' academic performance. Adolescents in 7th and 10th grade completed self-report questionnaires assessing 6 features of parent-adolescent relationships: time spent together, number of activities, degree of influence, frequency of experiencing positive emotions,…
Rulloda, Rudolfo B.
A shift to computer skills for improving academic performances was investigated. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the amount of high school dropouts after the Act was enacted. At-risk students were included in this research study. Several models described using teachers for core subjects and mentors to built citizenship skills, along…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina
This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…
Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with school and academic achievement. Nonetheless, some authors were able to actively manipulate sleep in order to observe neurocognitive and behavioral consequences, such as learning, memory capacity and school performance. The findings strongly suggest that: (a) students of different education levels (from school to university) are chronically sleep deprived or suffer from poor sleep quality and consequent daytime sleepiness; (b) sleep quality and quantity are closely related to student learning capacity and academic performance; (c) sleep loss is frequently associated with poor declarative and procedural learning in students; (d) studies in which sleep was actively restricted or optimized showed, respectively, a worsening and an improvement in neurocognitive and academic performance. These results may been related to the specific involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vulnerability to sleep loss. Most methodological limitations are discussed and some future research goals are suggested.
Lee, Barbara A.; And Others
The application of the comparable worth doctrine to faculty positions in higher education is examined and the political, legal, legislative, and collective bargaining approaches taken towards its adoption are reviewed and analyzed. Recommendations for enhancing salary equity in academe are postulated. (Author/MLW)
Abd-Elmotaleb, Moustafa; Saha, Sudhir K.
This study examines the mediating influence of academic self-efficacy on the link between perceived academic climate and academic performance among university students. The participants in the study consist of 272 undergraduate students at the University of Assiut, Assiut, Egypt. A scale to measure perceived academic climate, was developed. To…
Abrams, Sandra S.
When considering the interdisciplinary nature of education, researchers need to acknowledge students' traditional and multimodal literacies and learning environments. Technological changes have brought about new learning spaces and what students learn through their video gaming experiences seems to have important academic implications and…
Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa
This paper investigates the relationship of academic stress with aggression, depression and academic performance of college students. Using a random sampling technique, 60 students consist of boys and girls were selected as students having academic stress. The scale for assessing academic stress (Sinha, Sharma and Mahendra, 2001); the Buss-Perry…
Chadwick, B A; Day, R C
The effect of contingent tangible and social reinforcement on academic performance was investigated in an experimental classroom of 25 selected underachieving students. Measures were taken of both teacher and child behavior during a baseline and two experimental treatment periods. During Treatment I, a point system with tangible backup reinforcers was combined with contingent social reinforcers dispensed by the teaching staff to assess the effects on three measures of academic performance (i.e., per cent of time at work, work output per minute, and accuracy). During Treatment II, the contingencies for the tangible reinforcers were terminated while social reinforcement was continued to see if the positive effects of Treatment I on academic performance would persist. The results show that with combined tangible and social reinforcers, students' work time, rate of output per hour, and accuracy in all activities substantially increased. After termination of the tangible reinforcers, the students maintained their high rates of output per hour and accuracy for the remaining period of the study while the total amount of time at work returned to the baseline level.
Dhaqane, Mahad Khalif; Afrah, Nor Abdulle
This study examines the role of satisfaction on students' academic performance and investigates the relationship between satisfaction of students and academic performance and explores other factors that contribute academic performance. A correlation research was used. The study population was the third and the last year students of Benadir…
Graham, Andrew T.
This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…
Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin
This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Stavinoha, Peter L
Academic difficulties are widely acknowledged but not adequately studied in survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma. Although most survivors require special education services and are significantly less likely than healthy peers to finish high school, measured academic skills are typically average. This study sought to identify potential factors associated with academic difficulties in this population and focused on school competence and fluent academic performance. Thirty-six patients (ages 7-18 years old) were recruited through the Departments of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology at Children's Medical Center Dallas and Cook Children's Medical Center in Fort Worth, TX. Participants completed a neuropsychological screening battery including selected Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement subtests. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. School competence was significantly correlated with measured academic skills and fluency. Basic academic skill development was broadly average, in contrast to significantly worse fluent academic performance. School competence may have utility as a measure estimating levels of educational success in this population. Additionally, academic difficulties experienced by childhood medulloblastoma survivors may be better captured by measuring deficits in fluent academic performance rather than skills. Identification of these potential factors associated with educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors has significant implications for research, clinical assessment, and academic services/interventions.
Yurk Quadlin, Natasha
Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research.
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.
Wharry, R E; Kirkpatrick, S W
The purpose of this study was to assess difference in academic performance among myopic, hyperopic, and emmetropic children who were learning disabled. More specifically, myopic children were expected to perform better on mathematical and spatial tasks than would hyperopic ones and that hyperopic and emmetropic children would perform better on verbal measures than would myopic ones. For 439 learning disabled students visual anomalies were determined via a Generated Retinal Reflex Image Screening System. Test data were obtained from school files. Partial support for the hypothesis was obtained. Myopic learning disabled children outperformed hyperopic and emmetropic children on the Key Math test. Myopic children scored better than hyperopic children on the WRAT Reading subtest and on the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty Oral Reading Comprehension, Oral Rate, Flashword, and Spelling subtests, and on the Key Math Measurement and Total Scores. Severity of refractive error significantly affected the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised Full Scale, Performance Scale, Verbal Scale, and Digit Span scores but did not affect any academic test scores. Several other findings were also reported. Those with nonametropic problems scored higher than those without problems on the Key Math Time subtest. Implications supportive of the theories of Benbow and Benbow and Geschwind and Behan were stated.
Gaus, Nurdiana; Hall, David
This study aimed to explore the perceptions of Indonesian academics towards the implementation of Performance Indicators (PIs) on teaching and research. The study was a case study using semi-structured interviews, conducted with 30 academics in three state universities in Indonesia. The results of the study revealed academics believed that outcome…
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…
DeRoma, Virginia M.; Leach, John B.; Leverett, J. Patrick
The current study examined the association between self-reported depressive symptomology and college academic performance. A significant, negative relationship was found between depression and academic performance. Furthermore, students presenting with moderate levels of depressive symptoms demonstrated lower performance within academic…
Zamboanga, Byron L.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Thompson, Ross A.; Wang, Sherry C.
We examined how academic background and course involvement differentially predicted students' performance on lecture- and text-based exam questions (N = 114; 34% men; 76% freshmen). Results showed that academic background and course involvement predicted performance on lecture-based questions and overall exam performance, whereas academic…
Chun, Heejung; Dickson, Ginger
Although the number of students who complete high school continues to rise, dramatic differences in school success remain across racial/ethnic groups. The current study addressed Hispanic adolescents' academic performance by investigating the relationships of parental involvement, culturally responsive teaching, sense of school belonging, and academic self-efficacy and academic performance. Participants were 478 (51.5% female) Hispanic 7th graders in the US-Mexico borderlands. Based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, a structural model was tested. Results showed that the proposed model was supported by demonstrating significant indirect effects of parental involvement, culturally responsive teaching, and sense of school belonging on academic performance. Furthermore, academic self-efficacy was found to mediate the relationships between parental involvement, culturally responsive teaching, and sense of school belonging and academic performance. The current study provides a useful psychoecological model to inform educators and psychologists who seek to meet the needs of Hispanic students.
Vandamme, J. -P.; Meskens, N.; Superby, J. -F.
Academic failure among first-year university students has long fuelled a large number of debates. Many educational psychologists have tried to understand and then explain it. Many statisticians have tried to foresee it. Our research aims to classify, as early in the academic year as possible, students into three groups: the "low-risk"…
House, J D
The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for, female students were found to earn significantly higher mathematics grades than did male students. A significant three-way (Sex x Ethnic Group x Achievement-Related Expectancies) interaction was also noted. Unlike in several previous studies, no significant racial differences in mathematics performance were found. These students had a similar socioeconomic status (SES), and the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, suggesting that racial and gender differences in mathematics achievement may be partially explained by prior schooling and SES background, as posited by Reyes and Stanic (1988).
Honken, Nora; Ralston, Patricia A.; Tretter, Thomas R.
Self-control has been related to positive student outcomes including academic performance of college students. Because of the critical nature of the first semester academic performance for engineering students in terms of retention and persistence in pursuing an engineering degree, this study investigated the relationship between freshmen…
Lowenthal, Werner; Meth, Hilda
A study to determine if there are any relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory personality preferences and academic performance in schools of pharmacy is discussed. Differences in academic performance that could be related to gender are reported. (Author/MLW)
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic performance, compared with standardized test scores and high school grade point average (GPA). Academic performance was expanded to include student organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and student counterproductive behavior, comprised of cheating and disengagement, in addition…
Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Antoniou, Eliana; Panayides, Alexandros; Vassiliou, Evros
Over the last twenty years, many contributions appeared on the relationship between working during school and academic performance using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The obvious assumption is that a full time working student will show a lower academic performance relatively to a part time working student or a full time…
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette
The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…
Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández
The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…
Van Dusen, Duncan P.; Kelder, Steven H.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Ranjit, Nalini; Perry, Cheryl L.
Background: Public schools provide opportunities for physical activity and fitness surveillance, but are evaluated and funded based on students' academic performance, not their physical fitness. Empirical research evaluating the connections between fitness and academic performance is needed to justify curriculum allocations to physical activity…
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing
Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…
Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Metros, Susan E.
The purpose of this article is to explore issues of the digital divide and its impact on academic performance. Research shows that proper use of technology by students increases their academic performance outcomes. In the literature review section, the authors review articles and theories based on Bennett's (2001) societal equity framework. The…
Wilson, Lucinda M.; Corpus, Deborah A.
Examines educational research on the effects of rewards and punishments on students' academic performance. Discusses findings on the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, locus of control with students or teacher, the benefits of celebrations and rewards, and implications for the classroom. (JPB)
Musso, Mariel F.; Kyndt, Eva; Cascallar, Eduardo C.; Dochy, Filip
Many studies have explored the contribution of different factors from diverse theoretical perspectives to the explanation of academic performance. These factors have been identified as having important implications not only for the study of learning processes, but also as tools for improving curriculum designs, tutorial systems, and students'…
Cokley, Kevin O
This study examined data from 358 African American students and 229 European American students to determine if the phenomenon of academic disidentification occurred. Analyses revealed that among African American male students, the relationship between academic self-concept and grade point average (GPA) significantly decreased, whereas the relationship between academic self-concept, self-esteem, and GPA significantly increased for European American female students. The relationship between academic self-concept and GPA remained significant for African American female and European American male students. Research and counseling implications are discussed.
An, Brian P.
I examine whether academic motivation and engagement--conditions that advocates consider mechanisms for the effect of dual enrollment--account for the relationship between dual enrollment and academic performance. Few studies examine the claimed mechanisms that account for the impact of dual enrollment, which leaves the processes through which…
Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.
The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…
Talamas, Sean N; Mavor, Kenneth I; Perrett, David I
Despite the old adage not to 'judge a book by its cover', facial cues often guide first impressions and these first impressions guide our decisions. Literature suggests there are valid facial cues that assist us in assessing someone's health or intelligence, but such cues are overshadowed by an 'attractiveness halo' whereby desirable attributions are preferentially ascribed to attractive people. The impact of the attractiveness halo effect on perceptions of academic performance in the classroom is concerning as this has shown to influence students' future performance. We investigated the limiting effects of the attractiveness halo on perceptions of actual academic performance in faces of 100 university students. Given the ambiguity and various perspectives on the definition of intelligence and the growing consensus on the importance of conscientiousness over intelligence in predicting actual academic performance, we also investigated whether perceived conscientiousness was a more accurate predictor of academic performance than perceived intelligence. Perceived conscientiousness was found to be a better predictor of actual academic performance when compared to perceived intelligence and perceived academic performance, and accuracy was improved when controlling for the influence of attractiveness on judgments. These findings emphasize the misleading effect of attractiveness on the accuracy of first impressions of competence, which can have serious consequences in areas such as education and hiring. The findings also have implications for future research investigating impression accuracy based on facial stimuli.
Talamas, Sean N.; Mavor, Kenneth I.; Perrett, David I.
Despite the old adage not to ‘judge a book by its cover’, facial cues often guide first impressions and these first impressions guide our decisions. Literature suggests there are valid facial cues that assist us in assessing someone’s health or intelligence, but such cues are overshadowed by an ‘attractiveness halo’ whereby desirable attributions are preferentially ascribed to attractive people. The impact of the attractiveness halo effect on perceptions of academic performance in the classroom is concerning as this has shown to influence students’ future performance. We investigated the limiting effects of the attractiveness halo on perceptions of actual academic performance in faces of 100 university students. Given the ambiguity and various perspectives on the definition of intelligence and the growing consensus on the importance of conscientiousness over intelligence in predicting actual academic performance, we also investigated whether perceived conscientiousness was a more accurate predictor of academic performance than perceived intelligence. Perceived conscientiousness was found to be a better predictor of actual academic performance when compared to perceived intelligence and perceived academic performance, and accuracy was improved when controlling for the influence of attractiveness on judgments. These findings emphasize the misleading effect of attractiveness on the accuracy of first impressions of competence, which can have serious consequences in areas such as education and hiring. The findings also have implications for future research investigating impression accuracy based on facial stimuli. PMID:26885976
Rosadi, R.; Akamal; Sudrajat, R.; Kharismawan, B.; Hambali, Y. A.
Grade Point Average (GPA) is commonly used as an indicator of academic performance. Academic performance evaluations is a basic way to evaluate the progression of student performance, when evaluating student’s academic performance, there are occasion where the student data is grouped especially when the amounts of data is large. Thus, the pattern of data relationship within and among groups can be revealed. Grouping data can be done by using clustering method, where one of the methods is the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm. Furthermore, this algorithm is then applied to a set of student data form the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University.
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Harder, Lana; Silver, Cheryl; Bowers, Daniel C; Stavinoha, Peter L
It has been proposed previously that extrinsic motivation may enable survivors of childhood medulloblastoma to significantly improve aspects of neurocognitive performance. In healthy populations, enhanced motivation has been shown to promote academic fluency, a domain likely more relevant to the educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors than academic skill development. The present study investigates the effect of enhanced extrinsic motivation on fluent (i.e., accurate and efficient) academic performance in pediatric medulloblastoma survivors. Participants were 36 children, ages 7-18, who had completed treatment for medulloblastoma. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery that included administration of equivalent tasks on Forms A and B of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Half were randomly assigned to an incentive condition prior to the administration of Form B. Provision of a performance-based incentive resulted in statistically significant improvement, but not normalization of function, in performance on measures of academic fluency. No demographic, treatment-related, academic, neuropsychological, or self-perception variables predicted response to incentive. Findings suggest that academic performance of survivors may significantly improve under highly motivating conditions. In addition to implications for educational services, this finding raises the novel possibility that decreased motivation represents an inherent neuropsychological deficit in this population and provides a rationale for further investigation of factors affecting individual differences in motivational processes. Further, by examining effort in a context where effort is not inherently suspect, present findings also significantly contribute to the debate regarding the effects of effort and motivation on neuropsychological performance.
Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane
Background Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Aims Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between depressive symptoms and academic performance would be mediated by school involvement at the intrapersonal (actor) and interpersonal (partner) levels. Sample Data came from 155 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends (80 boys; Mage = 16.17, SD = .44). The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to examine the dyadic data and mediation hypotheses. Results Mediated actor effects showed that adolescents who had more depressive symptoms reported lower academic performance, and such an association was mediated by their own and their friend’s lower school involvement. Mediated partner effects showed that adolescents who had more depressive symptoms also had a friend with lower academic performance, and such an association was mediated by both individuals’ lower school involvement. Conclusions This study provided evidence to support the broader interpersonal framework for understanding school involvement and academic performance. The current findings also have potential practical implications, especially for programs targeted at addressing adolescents’ school problems. PMID:25858014
Jennings, Jennifer L.; Beveridge, Andrew A.
Analyzing data from a large urban district in Texas, this study examines how high-stakes test exemptions alter officially reported scores and asks whether test exemption has implications for the academic achievement of special education students. Test exemption inflated overall passing rates but especially affected the passing rates of African…
Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.
Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…
Academic liaison--the two-way communication between a particular academic area and the library, focused through an individual or group of library staff--has received little attention in the debate about performance measurement. Changes have taken place in higher education libraries in both scale, with the growth of student numbers, and intent,…
Zubairu, Umaru Mustapha; Sakariyau, Olalekan Busra
In this paper, the association between religiosity and academic performance among accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is explored, as recent research demonstrates a positive association between religiosity and academic success. Students' religiosity was measured using proxies from an Islamic…
MacKenzie, Heather; McShane, Kim; Wilcox, Susan
This paper explores tensions between individual desires to enact the work of academic development practice in ways that foster authenticity, and the pressure to fabricate proper identities in the service of the performative university. Through auto-ethnographic inquiry, three academic developers together ask, "How are we and our practices…
Mansfield, Phylis M.; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Wortman, Thomas I.
College students face a myriad of pressures and challenges in the academic environment as they seek to maintain optimal performance or even to remain in the academic program. In 2002, it was reported that more than 30% of first-year students did not return for their second year of college (Smith), and only 40% are reported to actually compete…
Mansfield, Phylis M.; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Wortman, Thomas I.
College students face a myriad of pressures and challenges in the academic environment as they seek to maintain optimal performance or even to remain in the academic program. In 2002, it was reported that more than 30% of first-year students did not return for their second year of college (Smith), and only 40% are reported to actually compete…
Henderson, Ronald W.
This project used six environmental variables identified by Dave (1963) and Wolf (1964) and three additional variables (identification with models, range of social interaction, and perception of practical value of education) to predict academic achievement in six-year-old Mexican-American children from an economically depressed area. The children…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve
Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.
Montanaro, Marilee Kaye Fannon
A variety of academic and financial performance metrics are used to assess higher education institution performance. However, there is no consensus on the best performance measures. Signaling theory and agency theory are used to frame the challenges of assessing post-secondary institution performance related to information asymmetry between the…
Baker, Majel R; Frazier, Patricia A; Greer, Christiaan; Paulsen, Jacob A; Howard, Kelli; Meredith, Liza N; Anders, Samantha L; Shallcross, Sandra L
College women frequently report having experienced sexual victimization (SV) in their lifetime, including child sexual abuse and adolescent/adult sexual assault. Although the harmful mental health sequelae of SV have been extensively studied, recent research suggests that SV is also a risk factor for poorer college academic performance. The current studies examined whether exposure to SV uniquely predicted poorer college academic performance, even beyond contributions from three well-established predictors of academic performance: high school rank, composite standardized test scores (i.e., American College Testing [ACT]), and conscientiousness. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of female college students (N = 192) who were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester. SV predicted poorer cumulative end-of-semester grade point average (GPA) while controlling for well-established predictors of academic performance. Study 2 replicated these findings in a second longitudinal study of female college students (N = 390) and extended the analyses to include follow-up data on the freshmen and sophomore students (n = 206) 4 years later. SV predicted students' GPA in their final term at the university above the contributions of well-established academic predictors, and it was the only factor related to leaving college. These findings highlight the importance of expanding the scope of outcomes of SV to include academic performance, and they underscore the need to assess SV and other adverse experiences on college campuses to target students who may be at risk of poor performance or leaving college. (PsycINFO Database Record
Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita
Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433
Lackner, Helmut K; Gramer, Margit; Paechter, Manuela; Wimmer, Sigrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Papousek, Ilona
The present study investigated whether students' academic goal orientation (learning goals, performance goals, work avoidance) and their individual competence beliefs (their academic self-concept) can predict motivation-related cardiovascular activation patterns in a demanding performance situation. A sample of seventy-two undergraduate students rated their academic goal orientation as well as their competence beliefs and completed a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure, pre-ejection period (PEP) as well as cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance were monitored continuously during rest and task exposure. Students scoring higher on work avoidance showed smaller increases in HR and CO, and a smaller shortening of the PEP. A lower academic self-concept was associated with attenuated CO reactivity and a smaller shortening of the PEP. Learning and performance goals were unrelated to cardiovascular activity. The attenuated cardiac activity observed for work avoidance and competence beliefs was interpreted in terms of reduced task engagement resulting from lower success importance.
Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar
In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students differently. We use data from 5367 university students nested within 1141 science, engineering, and mathematics learning groups and use a regression analysis to estimate the effect of group diversity, measured in two ways, on course performance. Our results indicate that academic-preparedness diversity is generally associated with positive learning outcomes, that academically less-prepared students derive greater benefit, and that less-prepared students fare best when they are not alone in a group of highly prepared students. Implications for teaching and small-group facilitation are addressed.
Abstract Previous research into the relationship between attributions and academic performance has produced contradictory findings that have not been resolved. The present research examines the role of specific dimensions of attributional style in predicting subsequent academic performance in a sample of pupils (N = 979) from both high‐ and low‐achieving schools. Hierarchical regression and moderation analyses indicate that internal, stable, and global, attributional styles for positive events predict higher levels of academic performance. Global attributions for negative events were related to poorer performance across all schools. Stable attributions for negative events were related to higher levels of performance in high‐achieving schools but not in low‐achieving schools. Higher levels of internality for negative events were associated with higher performance only in low achieving schools. PMID:27594711
This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…
Summarizes two speeches. William W. Stead offers three scenarios illustrating typical future interactions of consumers with a medical system based on informatics and information technology and then considers implications for academic medicine. Valerie Florance discusses a program that is exploring ways medical schools and teaching hospitals can…
Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
Poropat, Arthur E
BACKGROUND. The relationship between personality and academic performance has long been explored, and a recent meta-analysis established that measures of the five-factor model (FFM) dimension of Conscientiousness have similar validity to intelligence measures. Although currently dominant, the FFM is only one of the currently accepted models of personality, and has limited theoretical support. In contrast, the Eysenckian personality model was developed to assess a specific theoretical model and is still commonly used in educational settings and research. AIMS. This meta-analysis assessed the validity of the Eysenckian personality measures for predicting academic performance. SAMPLE. Statistics were obtained for correlations with Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism (20-23 samples; N from 8,013 to 9,191), with smaller aggregates for the Lie scale (7 samples; N= 3,910). METHODS. The Hunter-Schmidt random effects method was used to estimate population correlations between the Eysenckian personality measures and academic performance. Moderating effects were tested using weighted least squares regression. RESULTS. Significant but modest validities were reported for each scale. Neuroticism and Extraversion had relationships with academic performance that were consistent with previous findings, while Psychoticism appears to be linked to academic performance because of its association with FFM Conscientiousness. Age and educational level moderated correlations with Neuroticism and Extraversion, and gender had no moderating effect. Correlations varied significantly based on the measurement instrument used. CONCLUSIONS. The Eysenckian scales do not add to the prediction of academic performance beyond that provided by FFM scales. Several measurement problems afflict the Eysenckian scales, including low to poor internal reliability and complex factor structures. In particular, the measurement and validity problems of Psychoticism mean its continued use in academic
Mulholland, D J; Watt, N F; Philpott, A; Sarlin, N
Parental divorce can be conceptualized as a stressful event for all children, but one must recognize that reactions to divorce can vary widely among children. This investigation was based on two basic ideas: 1) children of divorce as a group would show deficits in academic performance compared to children from intact families, even several years after their parents' separation, and 2) because factors that promote psychological resilience and vulnerability, we expected to find normal heterogeneity within the divorce sample. Among 96 middle-school adolescents from a suburban school district near Denver, children of divorce showed significant performance deficits in academic achievement, as reflected in grade-point average and scholastic motivation in middle school, but not in nationally normed tests of scholastic aptitude and other less direct measures of behavioral conformity. An analysis of GPA over time revealed strikingly disparate patterns of achievement between divorce and control groups. Corresponding patterns of scholastic aptitude scores, absence from school and comportment revealed no systematic differences over time. These results suggest strongly that parental divorce can be a critical event in the academic development of children. Large differences in academic achievement between our divorce group as a whole and the controls cannot be attributed, at least at the time of sampling, to differences in social class or intellectual ability. Despite a similar family background, i.e., marital dissolution, a minority of the children of divorce showed vulnerability in the pattern of academic achievement over time while the majority demonstrated academic careers not unlike that of the controls.
Lizandra, Jorge; Devís-Devís, José; Pérez-Gimeno, Esther; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; Peiró-Velert, Carmen
This study examined whether adolescents' time spent on sedentary behaviors (academic, technological-based and social-based activities) was a better predictor of academic performance than the reverse. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year period study. Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to test plausible causal hypotheses. Four competing models were analyzed to determine which model best fitted the data. The Best Model was separately tested by gender. The Best Model showed that academic performance was a better predictor of sedentary behaviors than the other way round. It also indicated that students who obtained excellent academic results were more likely to succeed academically three years later. Moreover, adolescents who spent more time in the three different types of sedentary behaviors were more likely to engage longer in those sedentary behaviors after the three-year period. The better the adolescents performed academically, the less time they devoted to social-based activities and more to academic activities. An inverse relationship emerged between time dedicated to technological-based activities and academic sedentary activities. A moderating auto-regressive effect by gender indicated that boys were more likely to spend more time on technological-based activities three years later than girls. To conclude, previous academic performance predicts better sedentary behaviors three years later than the reverse. The positive longitudinal auto-regressive effects on the four variables under study reinforce the 'success breeds success' hypothesis, with academic performance and social-based activities emerging as the strongest ones. Technological-based activities showed a moderating effect by gender and a negative longitudinal association with academic activities that supports a displacement hypothesis. Other longitudinal and covariate effects reflect the complex relationships among sedentary behaviors and academic performance and the
Lizandra, Jorge; Devís-Devís, José; Pérez-Gimeno, Esther; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; Peiró-Velert, Carmen
This study examined whether adolescents’ time spent on sedentary behaviors (academic, technological-based and social-based activities) was a better predictor of academic performance than the reverse. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year period study. Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to test plausible causal hypotheses. Four competing models were analyzed to determine which model best fitted the data. The Best Model was separately tested by gender. The Best Model showed that academic performance was a better predictor of sedentary behaviors than the other way round. It also indicated that students who obtained excellent academic results were more likely to succeed academically three years later. Moreover, adolescents who spent more time in the three different types of sedentary behaviors were more likely to engage longer in those sedentary behaviors after the three-year period. The better the adolescents performed academically, the less time they devoted to social-based activities and more to academic activities. An inverse relationship emerged between time dedicated to technological-based activities and academic sedentary activities. A moderating auto-regressive effect by gender indicated that boys were more likely to spend more time on technological-based activities three years later than girls. To conclude, previous academic performance predicts better sedentary behaviors three years later than the reverse. The positive longitudinal auto-regressive effects on the four variables under study reinforce the ‘success breeds success’ hypothesis, with academic performance and social-based activities emerging as the strongest ones. Technological-based activities showed a moderating effect by gender and a negative longitudinal association with academic activities that supports a displacement hypothesis. Other longitudinal and covariate effects reflect the complex relationships among sedentary behaviors and academic performance
Campbell, Michael M.
This study explored the validity of the Motivational Systems Theory (MST) as a measure of performance of college students pursuing business degrees and the level of academic performance attained across gender and race lines. This goal is achieved by investigating the relationships between motivational strategies, biological factors, responsive…
This study focuses on third grade pupils' (9 to 10 years old) ability to predict their performance in a given task and on the correspondence between the accuracy and adequacy of the predictions on the one hand, and the academic achievement on the other. The study involved 713 pupils from 29 Estonian schools. The pupils' performance predictions…
Risser, Scott D.
To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…
Rice, Kenneth G; Lopez, Frederick G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Stinson, Jennifer M
Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of freshmen students (N = 294) was recruited from 2 major universities. Students were blocked by gender and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to experience subtle ST or no ST. Participants in the subtle ST condition were primed to consider their gender, race, and ethnicity prior to completing measures of science self-efficacy. Those in the control condition completed the measures without such priming. Controlling for prior academic performance and university context, ST priming significantly interacted (a) with self-critical perfectionism to predict coping self-efficacy scores and (b) with race/ethnicity to predict end-of-semester STEM grades. A 3-way interaction of ST priming, sex, and self-critical perfectionism also predicted students' grades in courses wherein women and men were more proportionally represented. The Sex × Self-Critical Perfectionism interaction was not significant for those in the ST group but was for those in the control group. Men in the control group had higher grade-point averages (GPAs) at low levels of self-critical perfectionism than they had at higher levels of perfectionism. In contrast, women had lower GPAs when self-critical perfectionism was low, but their GPAs were higher when self-critical perfectionism was high. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for self-efficacy and performance in the pursuit of a STEM major.
Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.
Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…
Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.
Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the
Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Martínez-Gómez, David; Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Conde-Caveda, Julio; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
Dance is a predominant type of physical activity among girls. Dance characteristics imply skills associated to health-related physical fitness, as well as others such as learning and memory, mental representation, imagination and creativity, which are related to cognitive development. Although dance has been shown to influence physical health among youth girls, whether dance may influence academic performance and cognition in youth remains to be elucidated. The objective of this work was to examine the association between participation in dance and academic performance in youth girls.
Renzulli, Sara J.
One half of all students who begin college fail to complete their degrees, resulting in wasted talents, time, and resources. Through use of mixed methods, but primarily qualitative, comparative case studies, this research reveals ways a 3-week course in study strategies improved the performance of students placed on academic probation. The…
Edwards, Jack E.; Waters, L. K.
A job involvement measure adapted to reflect course involvement was unrelated to age, sex, class rank, and tested verbal ability. However, it was significantly and positively related to achievement motivation, locus of control, Protestant ethic attitudes, academic satisfaction, and performance. (Author/CP)
Carter, Christina Michelle
Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…
Uhlik, Kim S.; Jones, Pamela E.
The influence of students' learning styles has been increasingly recognized as an integral component of effective higher education; therefore, application of learning styles to academic advising is equally relevant. As academic advisors address student learning styles in the hope of promoting greater student success, the contribution of advisors'…
Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; Vos, C M P; Westers, P; Croiset, G
Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.
Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.
Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…
Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi
This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…
Gilfert, Christy M.
This research was a quantitative study designed to evaluate parenting satisfaction, academic performance, and students' perceptions of pursuing higher education in students attending community college. One purpose of this research was to determine if pursuing higher education at the community college level impacted the parenting satisfaction of…
O'Brien, Kathryn Mary
The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…
Langevin, Elizabeth L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…
Yeboah, Alex Kumi; Smith, Patriann
The study investigated the relationship between minority students' use of technology, social media, the number of online courses, program of study, satisfaction, and academic performance. Participants in the study were a diverse student body regarding age, gender, and educational level, and functioned at both undergraduate and graduate levels.…
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
Chun, Heejung; Dickson, Ginger
Although the number of students who complete high school continues to rise, dramatic differences in school success remain across racial/ethnic groups. The current study addressed Hispanic adolescents' academic performance by investigating the relationships of parental involvement, culturally responsive teaching, sense of school belonging, and…
Vu, Phuong Anna
Students' behavior and emotional well being are instrumental for their success in the school setting. The present study examined the effects of behavioral problems on the academic performance of students three years later. The behavioral problems consisted of individual externalizing, internalizing, and inattentive behaviors. Next, this study…
Irtwange, S. V.; Orsaah, S.
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of management style on academic staff performance with University of Agriculture, Makurdi as a case study. The management style of the vice chancellor of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi between the periods, September 3, 1996 to September 3, 2001 was determined using the Ohio State…
Neoliberal precepts of the governance of academic science-deregulation; reification of markets; emphasis on competitive allocation processes have been conflated with those of performance management--if you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it--into a single analytical and consequent single programmatic worldview. As applied to the United…
Park, Hae Seong; Bonner, Patricia
This project investigated the impacts of family religious involvement and family religious affiliations on parenting practices and academic performance. This study utilized data from the base-year and first follow-up of the Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/2004 (ELS). A series of statistical techniques were incorporated to examine the nature of…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
Children from a low socioeconomic status (SES) are exposed to numerous stress factors that are negatively associated with sustained attention and academic performance. This association suggests that the timed component of lengthy assessments may be unfair for students from such backgrounds, as they may have an inability to sustain attention during…
Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Zhang, Yi
For this study we identified factors exerting significant influence on homesickness and explored the impact of the homesick experience on students' academic performance and retention in the first year in college. The findings reveal 2 constructs underlying the homesickness scale: homesick separation and homesick distress. Demographic variables…
Arshad, Muhammad; Zaidi, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider; Mahmood, Khalid
The current study was conducted to assess the self-esteem and academic performance among university students after arising of several behavioral and educational problems. A total number of 80 students, 40 male students and 40 female students were selected through purposive sampling from G. C. University Faisalabad. The participants were…
Polikoff, Morgan S.; McEachin, Andrew
The Academic Performance Index (API) is the centerpiece of California's state assessment and accountability system. With the recent passage of SB1458 and the pending reauthorization of both state and federal accountability legislation, there is now an unprecedented opportunity to improve the API for next generation accountability in California. In…
The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between Internet addiction and academic performance among university undergraduates. The study also focused to examine the gender differences among students on internet addiction. The sample comprised of 359 university undergraduates. Their responses to the "Internet Addiction…
Sabia, Joseph J.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the relationship between school-year employment and academic performance of young adolescents under age 16. Ordinary least squares estimates show a significant positive relationship between modest hours of school-year employment and grade point average.…
Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Viljaranta, Jaana; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa
This study examined the extent to which a student's academic performance in first grade contributes to the active instruction given by a teacher to a particular student. To investigate this, 105 first graders were tested in mathematics and reading in the fall and spring of their first school year. At the same time points, their teachers filled in…
Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario
Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…
Talib, Nadeem; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad
This study aims to investigate the effect of factor such as perceived stress on the academic performance of the students. A sample of 199 university graduates and undergraduates in Rawalpindi and Islamabad was selected as a statistical frame. Instrumentation used for this study is previously validated construct in order to evaluate the effect of…
Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.
Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…
Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe
The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…
Drawing on research conducted at National University of Ireland, Galway, this paper explores how senior managers at an Irish university are seeking to measure and facilitate academic performance in the context of national and global competitiveness and a higher education landscape that appears firmly inflected by neoliberal ideas of rankings,…
Hale, James B.; Reddy, Linda A.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A.; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole
Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to "indirect" informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes "direct" neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment…
Hall, Daniel E.
Reviews the history of the tenure system and its constitutional and due process implications. Describes Florida's sustained performance review program, an evaluation of tenured faculty every seven years to encourage continuing professional development. (SK)
Graham, Lori; West, Courtney
Objectives To investigate if and to what extent the Learning and Study Strategy Inventory (LASSI) and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) yield academic performance predictors; To examine if LASSI findings are consistent with previous research. Methods Medical school students completed the LASSI and SDLRS before their first and second years (n = 168). Correlational and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of the LASSI and the SDLRS. Paired t-tests were used to test if the two measurement points differed. Bivariate correlations and R2s were compared with five other relevant studies. Results The SDLRS was moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales in both measures (r(152) =.255, p=.001) to (r(152) =.592, p =.000). The first SDLRS, nor the first LASSI, were predictive of academic performance. The second LASSI measure was a significant predictor of academic performance (R2(138) = 0.188, p = .003). Six prior LASSI studies yielded a range of R2s from 10-49%. Conclusions The SDLRS is moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales. However, the predictive value of the SDLRS and LASSI differ. The SDLRS does not appear to be directly related to academic performance, but LASSI subscales: Concentration, Motivation, Time Management, and Test Strategies tend to be correlated. The explained LASSI variance ranges from 10% to 49%, indicating a small to substantial effect. Utilizing the LASSI to provide medical school students with information about their strengths and weaknesses and implementing targeted support in specific study strategies may yield positive academic performance outcomes. PMID:27718497
Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina
Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.
Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S P
The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of academic programs based on multiple criteria. Keeping this in view, this paper attempts to evaluate the performance efficiencies of 19 academic departments of IIT Roorkee (India) through data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. The technique has been used to assess the performance of academic institutions in a number of countries like USA, UK, Australia, etc. But we are using it first time in Indian context to the best of our knowledge. Applying DEA models, we calculate technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies and identify the reference sets for inefficient departments. Input and output projections are also suggested for inefficient departments to reach the frontier. Overall performance, research performance and teaching performance are assessed separately using sensitivity analysis.
Baumann, Chris; Hamin
A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…
Ting, Siu-Man Raymond
SAT scores and noncognitive factors (acquired knowledge in a field, community service, positive self-concept, and preference for long-term goals) were found to be related to academic performance and persistence among 1st-year NCAA Division I student athletes (N = 109). Implications for college counselors and future research directions are…
Haemmerlie, Frances Montgomery; Montgomery, Robert L.
This study examined the role of academic performance factors, and personality traits as measured by the "Hogan Personality Inventory" (Hogan & Hogan, 2007), in the academic success and retention of undergraduate engineering majors. With regard to academic performance, the academic measures of ACT score and high school GPA were…
Scudder, Mark R; Federmeier, Kara D; Raine, Lauren B; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K; Hillman, Charles H
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children's aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance.
Ali, K; Zahra, D; Coelho, C; Jones, G; Tredwin, C
Aims To compare the academic performance of undergraduate dental students with known learning disabilities (LDs) to their peers.Methods This study analysed the results of students in applied dental knowledge (ADK) progress tests across four cohorts of dental students. A mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the performance of students with known disability to their peers. ADK test sitting was treated as a repeated measures variable, and the outcome variable of interest was percentage score on the ADK.Results Students' performance data on five ADK test sittings (ADK15, ADK16, ADK17, ADK18, and ADK19) by disability showed a significant main effect of test but no significant effect of disability or any interaction between disability and test.Conclusions This is the first study that explores the academic performance of dental students with a diagnosis of disability. The findings give reassurance to all stakeholders that, within the study population, students with LDs are not disadvantaged in knowledge-based assessments, demonstrating compliance with the legal obligations. Further research is required to explore how generalisable these findings are, as well as assess academic, clinical, and behavioural attributes of students with learning disabilities.
Hartzema, Abraham G.
The impact of changing health care systems on the content of pharmaceutical education is examined, including the relationship between basic and applied sciences and between the applied sciences and skill and attitude formation, in both academic and clinical education. The role of pharmacy administration in the curriculum is discussed. (MSE)
Abelman, Robert; Dalessandro, Amy; Janstova, Patricie; Snyder-Suhy, Sharon; Pettey, Gary
Whether and to what extent a college or university vision is embraced, transformed into action, and dispersed to the campus community by academic advisors is largely dependent on the rhetoric of the vision statement. Through a content analysis of a nation-wide sample of vision and mission statements from NACADA-membership institutions, we isolated…
Bassok, Daphna; Reardon, Sean F.
We use two nationally representative data sets to estimate the prevalence of kindergarten "redshirting"--the decision to delay a child's school entry. We find that between 4% and 5.5% of children delay kindergarten, a lower number than typically reported in popular and academic accounts. Male, White, and high-SES children are most likely…
Reardon, Robert; Bullock, Emily
John Holland's typological theory of persons and environments is regarded as the most influential in the field of career counseling (Brown, 2002), but few have carried the theory over to the field of higher education and academic advising (Smart, Feldman, & Ethington, 2000). Therefore, Holland's theory and the subsequent research on it were…
Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila
From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students.
Jamieson, Janet R.
The correlation between lowered academic achievement and classroom noise has been demonstrated for normally hearing children (Shield and Dockrell, 2003). However, the implications of poor classroom acoustics on the socialization and academic performance of children who are hard of hearing have not been examined. Eleven hard of hearing students in one school district, ranging from kindergarten to grade 7, were the foci of the present study. Acoustic measurements of each of the 11 classrooms in both unoccupied and occupied conditions revealed that all classrooms were acoustically challenging for the hard of hearing students, particularly at transition times, when ventilation was operational, and in the primary grades, when language learning needs are greatest. Interviews with parents and teachers underscored the difficulty these students experienced in comprehending teacher instructions and participating in group work. The students seldom initiated conversation or seatwork independently, but, rather, followed the lead of their peers. The hard of hearing students experienced frequent difficulties in understanding or participating in informal peer-to-peer conversations in the classroom, and parents and teachers attributed the children's frequent social isolation and withdrawal at school to the combined effects of poor hearing abilities and hostile classroom acoustics. [Work supported by Hampton Research Fund.
Casey, M. M.; McVitie, S.
At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.
Ahrberg, K; Dresler, M; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Genzel, L
Sleep quality has significant effects on cognitive performance and is influenced by multiple factors such as stress. Contrary to the ideal, medical students and residents suffer from sleep deprivation and stress at times when they should achieve the greatest amount of learning. In order to examine the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance, 144 medical students undertaking the pre-clinical board exam answered a survey regarding their subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), grades and subjective stress for three different time points: semester, pre- and post-exam. Academic performance correlated with stress and sleep quality pre-exam (r = 0.276, p < 0.001 and r = 0.158, p < 0.03, note that low performance meant low sleep quality and high stress), however not with the stress or sleep quality during the semester and post-exam. 59% of all participants exhibited clinically relevant sleep disturbances (PSQI > 5) during exam preparation compared to 29% during the semester and 8% post-exam. This study shows that in medical students it is not the generally poor sleepers, who perform worse in the medical board exams. Instead students who will perform worse on their exams seem to be more stressed and suffer from poor sleep quality. However, poor sleep quality may negatively impact test performance as well, creating a vicious circle. Furthermore, the rate of sleep disturbances in medical students should be cause for intervention.
Roso-Bas, Fátima; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; García-Buades, Esther
The dropout of university studies is a main concern in many countries, also for Health Sciences degrees. The reviews on dropout in all university degrees as well as nursing generally show multidimensional causes with factors related both to institutional and students' characteristics. Regarding the personal variables of students, researchers have focused on financial, family and personality features. Far less attention has been devoted to emotional variables. This study aims to explore whether individual variables of the emotional domain such as perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and depressive rumination are related and/or can predict students' intention to dropout and academic performance. Using a cross-correlational approach, data were obtained from a sample of 144 nursing students. Students with a pessimistic disposition revealed a greater tendency to drop out. The remaining variables correlated significantly with pessimism but had no predictive value on dropout. Our results suggest that students with low levels of emotional clarity and repair and high depressive rumination have pessimistic expectations, so they are more likely to leave studies. No significant results were found in relation to academic performance. We conclude with an identification of strategies to increase retention and academic success.
Recent scholarship challenges the celebratory discourse surrounding Web 2.0. This paper engages with this scholarship to examine critically the implications of academic libraries' presence within commercially owned social media spaces. It considers the apparent contradiction between work to promote the principles of open access and the idea of the…
The changing work roles and resulting workloads of distance educators hold significant implications for the wellbeing and mental health of academics. New work roles include redesigning curricula for online delivery, increasing staff-student ratios and demands for student-support, management of part-time staff, and 24-h availability. This research…
Mars, Matthew M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia
Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of "academic entrepreneurship" has emerged.…
Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini
This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…
Mather, Nancy; Wendling, Barbara J.
We reviewed 13 studies that focused on analyzing student errors on achievement tests from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third edition (KTEA-3). The intent was to determine what instructional implications could be derived from in-depth error analysis. As we reviewed these studies, several themes emerged. We explain how a careful…
Bickel, Janet; Brown, Ann J
Differences and tensions between the Baby Boom generation (born 1945-1962) and Generation X (born 1963-1981) have profound implications for the future of academic medicine. By and large, department heads and senior faculty are Boomers; today's residents and junior faculty are Generation X'ers. Looking at these issues in terms of the generations involved offers insights into a number of faculty development challenges, including inadequate and inexpert mentoring, work-life conflicts, and low faculty morale. These insights suggest strategies for strengthening academic medicine's recruitment and retention of Generation X into faculty and leadership roles. These strategies include (1) improving career and academic advising by specific attention to mentoring "across differences"--for instance, broaching the subject of formative differences in background during the initial interaction; adopting a style that incorporates information-sharing with engagement in problem solving; offering frequent, frank feedback; and refraining from comparing today to the glories of yesterday; to support such improvements, medical schools should recognize and evaluate mentoring as a core academic responsibility; (2) retaining both valued women and men in academic careers by having departments add temporal flexibility and create and legitimize less-than-full-time appointments; and (3) providing trainees and junior faculty with ready access to educational sessions designed to turn their "intellectual capital" into "academic career capital."Given the trends discussed in this article, such supports and adaptations are indicated to assure that academic health centers maintain traditions of excellence.
Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W; McInerney, Dennis
The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation and self-concept positively predicted attitudes toward school; (b) attitudes toward school positively predicted class participation and homework completion and negatively predicted absenteeism; and (c) class participation and homework completion positively predicted test performance whilst absenteeism negatively predicted test performance. Taken together, these findings provide support for the relevance of the self-system model and, particularly, the importance of examining the dynamic relationships amongst engagement factors of the model. The study highlights implications for educational and psychological theory, measurement, and intervention.
Toptsis, Anestis A.; Ho, Frankie; Leindekar, Milton; Foon, Debra Low; Carbonaro, Mike
The York University CLIPS Student Administrator (YUCSA), an expert database system implemented in C Language Integrated Processing System (CLIPS), for monitoring the academic performance of undergraduate students at York University, is discussed. The expert system component in the system has already been implemented for two major departments, and it is under testing and enhancement for more departments. Also, more elaborate user interfaces are under development. We describe the design and implementation of the system, problems encountered, and immediate future plans. The system has excellent maintainability and it is very efficient, taking less than one minute to complete an assessment of one student.
Gilliland, K; Andress, D
The authors explored the relationship between ad lib caffeine consumption in college students and the incidence of caffeinism, characterized by heightened anxiety, depression, and various psychophysiological reactions. Students were randomly selected from four groups (abstainers from caffeine and low, moderate, and high consumers). A survey battery assessed the effects of caffeine, incidence of psychophysiological disorders, state-trait anxiety, and depression. The moderate and high consumer groups combined reported significantly higher trait anxiety and depression scores when compared with abstainers. The high consumer group also reported significantly higher levels of symptoms of caffeinism, higher frequency of psychophysiological disorders, and lower academic performance.
González, Antonio; Paoloni, Paola Verónica
The present study examined the role of behavioral engagement and disaffection as mediators between self-determination and academic performance. Participants were 545 secondary students (53.4% girls) aged 12 to 19 years. Variables were assessed in the Spanish language classroom over a nine-month period. Students estimated their self-determination, and their teachers assessed student engagement, disaffection, and performance. Structural equation models corroborated the hypotheses: the types of self-determination differentially predicted engagement (R 2 = .39) and disaffection (R 2 = .24), and were progressively more adaptive the higher the autonomy; self-determination, behavioral engagement, and disaffection predicted performance (R 2 = .43); engagement and disaffection partially mediated the relationship from external regulation (β = -.097; p < .002; Confidence Interval = -.177, -.051), identified regulation (β = .109; p < .006; CI = .054, .165), and intrinsic motivation (β = .139; p < .002; CI = .086, .206) to performance. The implications of these findings for current theory and educational intervention are discussed.
Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick
Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…
Broughton, Sam F.; Lahey, Benjamin B.
The relative effects of positive reinforcement, response cost, and the two contingencies combined when used as contingencies for correct academic responses were compared on the dependent measures of accuracy of academic performance and level of on-task behavior. All three contingency systems increased academic performance and on-task behavior.…
Flannery, David A.
The objective of this research was to determine if a correlation exists between a college student's spirituality and his or her academic performance (GPA) or his or her academic achievement. An insignificant amount of literature has been published in which researchers explore spirituality and academic performance or achievement. This current study…
Whitney, Stephen D.; Renner, Lynette M.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.
Using holistic-interactionistic theory, the simultaneous nature of risk and protection factors for both males and females (age 6–11 in Wave 1) is examined using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). Risk/protection classes are estimated using multiple risk factor variables (e.g., physical child abuse) and multiple protective factors (e.g., extracurricular activities). These risk/protection classes were used to predict low academic performance. For both males and females, high risk, low protection individuals were significantly more likely to experience low academic performance than low risk, high protection cases. Gender differences emerged in a class for females that included the importance of parental/peer disapproval of anti-social behavior as a protective factor that was not present for males. Findings support elements of the holistic-interactionistic theory for human development and suggest the need to examine risk and protective factors in combination to account for their shared influences on developmental outcomes. Implications for youths underperforming academically are discussed. PMID:22879685
Whitney, Stephen D; Renner, Lynette M; Herrenkohl, Todd I
Using holistic-interactionistic theory, the simultaneous nature of risk and protection factors for both males and females (age 6-11 in Wave 1) is examined using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). Risk/protection classes are estimated using multiple risk factor variables (e.g., physical child abuse) and multiple protective factors (e.g., extracurricular activities). These risk/protection classes were used to predict low academic performance. For both males and females, high risk, low protection individuals were significantly more likely to experience low academic performance than low risk, high protection cases. Gender differences emerged in a class for females that included the importance of parental/peer disapproval of anti-social behavior as a protective factor that was not present for males. Findings support elements of the holistic-interactionistic theory for human development and suggest the need to examine risk and protective factors in combination to account for their shared influences on developmental outcomes. Implications for youths underperforming academically are discussed.
Akgun, Serap; Ciarrochi, Joseph
Explored whether more resourceful students could protect themselves from academic stress, particularly in terms of not allowing stress to affect their grades. Focuses on college freshman (n=141) who completed measures of academic stress and learned resourcefulness. Includes references. (CMK)
Lueger, Robert J.; And Others
Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…
Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill
In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…
Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus A.; Tyson, Graham A.; Shaw, Rosemary
This study examined whether: (1) the non-academic constructs of psychological well-being, motivation to learn and quality of life (QOL) explained the variance in the academic achievement of students with disability; and (2) students with a mental health disability (MHD) differed from students with other disability on academic achievement and on…
Gordon, Derrick M.; Iwamoto, Derek; Ward, Nadia; Potts, Randolph; Boyd, Elizabeth
Researchers have called for innovative and culturally responsive intervention programs to enhance male, African American middle school students’ academic achievement. Mentoring has received considerable attention as a novel remedy. Although anecdotal evidence supports the positive role of mentoring on academic achievement, these results are not consistent. The Benjamin E. Mays Institute (BEMI) builds on the ideals of mentoring to counter the effects academic underachievement among adolescent Black males by building a model that is Afro-centric, uses pro-social modeling, and emphasizes cultural strengths and pride, and single-sex instruction in a dual-sex educational environment. Sixty-one middle-school Black males were enrolled (BEMI: n=29; Comparison: n=32) in this study. Results revealed that students in the BEMI program had significantly greater academic attachment scores and academic success than their non-mentored peers. Additionally, racial identity attitudes of immersion/emersion and internalization and identification with academics were also significantly associated with standardized achievement tests and GPA. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:20379371
Salamonson, Yenna; Andrew, Sharon; Everett, Bronwyn
Connecting students with learning activities to promote academic engagement has been a focus of higher education over the past decade, partly driven by an increasing rate of student participation in part-time employment, and a growing concern about the quality of the student experience. Using a prospective survey design, this study selected three elements of academic engagement (homework completion, lecture attendance, and study hours) and academic disengagement (part-time work), to identify predictors of academic performance in a pathophysiology subject in 126 second year nursing students. Homework completion emerged as the strongest positive predictor of academic performance, followed by lecture attendance; however, time spent studying was not a significant predictor of academic performance. Of concern was the finding that the amount of part-time work had a significant and negative impact on academic performance. Combining all elements of academic engagement and disengagement, and controlling for age and ethnicity, the multiple regression model accounted for 34% of the variance in the academic performance of second year nursing students studying pathophysiology. Results from these findings indicate the importance of active learning engagement in influencing academic success, and provide some direction for nursing academics to design effective learning approaches to promote academic engagement of nursing students.
Kuncel, Nathan R; Hezlett, Sarah A; Ones, Deniz S
This meta-analysis addresses the question of whether 1 general cognitive ability measure developed for predicting academic performance is valid for predicting performance in both educational and work domains. The validity of the Miller Analogies Test (MAT; W. S. Miller, 1960) for predicting 18 academic and work-related criteria was examined. MAT correlations with other cognitive tests (e.g., Raven's Matrices [J. C. Raven, 1965]; Graduate Record Examinations) also were meta-analyzed. The results indicate that the abilities measured by the MAT are shared with other cognitive ability instruments and that these abilities are generalizably valid predictors of academic and vocational criteria, as well as evaluations of career potential and creativity. These findings contradict the notion that intelligence at work is wholly different from intelligence at school, extending the voluminous literature that supports the broad importance of general cognitive ability (g).
Reese, Latasha Shireen
Studies indicated that teaching styles and learning styles of students play a very important role in the academic success of students. A lack of knowledge about teaching styles and learning styles often complicates the challenge of learning and, therefore, affects the academic achievement of students. The research site at a college had a retention rate of 70% of its biology majors and needed to improve the retention rate of the biology program. The purpose of this study was to improve the academic performance of university biology students through a multicomponent program, the Student Retention Engagement Program. The 3 components included students and teachers understanding students' learning styles, teachers acquiring knowledge of learner-based teaching methodology, and peer mentoring. In the implementation of this applied dissertation, the researcher sought to increase the grade point averages of 100 Biology 103 students from 2.25 to at least an overall 2.50 out of a 4.00 point grade point average scale. After implementation of the intervention strategies. the overall retention ratc of biology majors was also targeted to improve from 70% to at least 75%. The focus of the dissertation was on the outcomes associated with implementing successful teaching and learning strategies with the biology students. In 1 component of the Student Retention Engagement Program, biology teachers learned to identify their preferred teaching styles through a teaching perspectives inventory administered during a professional development program. A training program focused on utilizing teaching strategies for specific student learning styles was implemented. Another component involved training and using upper class peer mentors. The supervisors of the Office of Retention selected upper class participants who held a 3.0 or higher grade point average. A learning style inventory was administered to the upper class peer mentors and participating students. The results helped to identify
Lew, Magdeleine D N; Schmidt, Henk G
The purposes of the present study were two-fold: first, to evaluate whether reflection journal writing was effective in promoting self-reflection and learning, and whether students become better at self-reflection if they engage continuously in reflection journal writing. To that end, the reflection journals of 690 first-year applied science students at a local polytechnic were studied by means of an automated coding procedures using software. Data was collected twice, once at the beginning and again towards the end of an academic year. Outcomes of the textual content analyses revealed that students reflected on both the process and contents of their learning: critical review of past learning experiences, learning strategies and summaries of what was learned. Correlational analyses showed weak to moderate inter-relationships between the textual categories and their classroom and knowledge acquisition test grades. Taken together, the findings suggest that self-reflection on both how and what students have learned does lead to improvements in academic performance, although to a limited extent.
Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty; Malope, Nomxolisi
This study presents data that extend an earlier analysis of predictors of academic performance from one to three years. None of the adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress and perceived academic overload) could predict success at university at the end of three years of study.…
Baerenholdt, Jorgen Ole; Gregson, Nicky; Everts, Jonathan; Granas, Brynhild; Healey, Ruth L.
How can we find ways of training PhD students in academic practices, while reflexively analysing how academic practices are performed? The paper's answer to this question is based on evaluations from a British-Nordic master class. The paper discusses how master classes can be used to train the discursive skills required for academic discussion,…
Buriel, Raymond; Perez, William; De Ment, Terri L.; Chavez, David V.; Moran, Virginia R.
Study of 122 9th- and 10th-grade Latino high school students examined the relationship of language brokering (informal interpreting for immigrant parents) to academic performance, biculturalism, academic self-efficacy, and social self-efficacy. Results showed positive relationships, with academic self-efficacy being the strongest predictor of…
Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen
Background: Prior research has shown that test anxiety is negatively related to academic buoyancy, but it is not known whether test anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of academic buoyancy. Furthermore, it is not known whether academic buoyancy is related to performance on high-stakes examinations. Aims: To test a model specifying reciprocal…
Soo Kim, Tatum
This dissertation addresses the phenomenon of how academic leaders conceptualize faculty performance practices. Qualitative research methods were used to explore the experiences of 11 academic leaders from 4-year higher education institutions in the metropolitan area of New York, NY. Each academic leader had direct responsibility for faculty…
Wong, Shun Han Rebekah; Webb, T. D.
Academic libraries must demonstrate empirically that library usage does contribute positively to student academic performance and, thereby, to the university's effectiveness. While customary academic library assessment practices may not be sufficient for this purpose, the Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) Library undertook an experimental…
Ebuara, Victor Obule; Ekpoh, Uduak Imo
This study was embarked upon with a view to examining the need for peace in the management of tertiary institutions towards enhancing academic performance in south-south Nigeria. Three hypotheses and one research question guided the study. One thousand, two hundred and nineteen (1219) academic and non-academic staff were selected for the study. A…
Daley, D; Birchwood, J
This paper reviews the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and academic performance. First, the relationship at different developmental stages is examined, focusing on pre-schoolers, children, adolescents and adults. Second, the review examines the factors underpinning the relationship between ADHD and academic underperformance: the literature suggests that it is the symptoms of ADHD and underlying cognitive deficits not co-morbid conduct problems that are at the root of academic impairment. The review concludes with an overview of the literature examining strategies that are directed towards remediating the academic impairment of individuals with ADHD.
Barling, J; Zacharatos, A; Hepburn, C G
The authors developed and tested a model in which children who perceive their parents to be insecure about their jobs are distracted cognitively, which in turn affects their academic performance negatively. Participants were 102 female and 18 male undergraduates (mean age = 18 years), their fathers (mean age = 49 years), and their mothers (mean age = 47 years). Students completed questionnaires measuring perceived parental job insecurity, identification with parents, and cognitive difficulties; 3 months later, they also reported their midyear grades. Fathers and mothers each completed questionnaires assessing their job insecurity. Support for the model was obtained using LISREL 8, and as predicted, children's identification with their mothers and fathers moderated the relationship between their perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' job insecurity and their own cognitive difficulties.
Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D.
Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement. PMID:24699536
Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D
Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.
von Stumm, Sophie; Hell, Benedikt; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
Over the past century, academic performance has become the gatekeeper to institutions of higher education, shaping career paths and individual life trajectories. Accordingly, much psychological research has focused on identifying predictors of academic performance, with intelligence and effort emerging as core determinants. In this article, we propose expanding on the traditional set of predictors by adding a third agency: intellectual curiosity. A series of path models based on a meta-analytically derived correlation matrix showed that (a) intelligence is the single most powerful predictor of academic performance; (b) the effects of intelligence on academic performance are not mediated by personality traits; (c) intelligence, Conscientiousness (as marker of effort), and Typical Intellectual Engagement (as marker of intellectual curiosity) are direct, correlated predictors of academic performance; and (d) the additive predictive effect of the personality traits of intellectual curiosity and effort rival that the influence of intelligence. Our results highlight that a "hungry mind" is a core determinant of individual differences in academic achievement.
Job, Jenelle M.; Klassen, Robert M.
Previous research suggests that adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) are less accurate in predicting academic performance than normally achieving (NA) adolescents and display a tendency to overestimate their level of performance (e.g., Klassen, 2007). However, no studies have been conducted investigating whether this overestimation is…
Objectives To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. Methods Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores. Three unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were done in order to analyze the associations of variables. Results Fatness has a negative association with academic performance when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) are assessed independently. When BMI and WHR are assessed jointly and adjusted by cofounders, WHR is more associated with academic performance than BMI, and only the association of WHR is positive. For fitness components, strength was the variable most associated with the academic performance. Cardiorespiratory capacity was not associated with academic performance if fatness and other fitness components are included in the model. Conclusions Fitness and fatness are associated with academic performance. WHR and strength are more related with academic performance than BMI and cardiorespiratory capacity. PMID:27761345
Van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Internalizing and externalizing problems are associated with poor academic performance, both concurrently and longitudinally. Important questions are whether problems precede academic performance or vice versa, whether both internalizing and externalizing are associated with academic problems when simultaneously tested, and whether associations and their direction depend on the informant providing information. These questions were addressed in a sample of 816 children who were assessed four times. The children were 6-10 years at baseline and 14-18 years at the last assessment. Parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems and teacher-reported academic performance were tested in cross-lagged models to examine bidirectional paths between these constructs. These models were compared with cross-lagged models testing paths between teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems and parent-reported academic performance. Both final models revealed similar pathways from mostly externalizing problems to academic performance. No paths emerged from internalizing problems to academic performance. Moreover, paths from academic performance to internalizing and externalizing problems were only found when teachers reported on children's problems and not for parent-reported problems. Additional model tests revealed that paths were observed in both childhood and adolescence. Externalizing problems place children at increased risk of poor academic performance and should therefore be the target for interventions.
De Feyter, Tim; Caers, Ralf; Vigna, Claudia; Berings, Dries
The main purpose of this study is to unravel the impact of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance. We propose a theoretical model with conditional indirect effects of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance through their impact upon academic motivation. To clarify the mixed results of previous studies concerning…
Brown, William T.; Jones, James M.
This study investigated the relationship between the Future Temporal Orientation (FTO) and academic performance of African American high school students. We hypothesized that the relationship between FTO and academic performance would be mediated by students' perceptions of the usefulness of an education and their valuing of academic work and that…
Background Academic performance enhancement or cognitive enhancement (CE) via stimulant drug use has received increasing attention. The question remains, however, whether CE solely represents the use of drugs for achieving better academic or workplace results or whether CE also serves various other purposes. The aim of this study was to put the phenomenon of pharmacological academic performance enhancement via prescription and illicit (psycho-) stimulant use (Amphetamines, Methylphenidate) among university students into a broader context. Specifically, we wanted to further understand students’ experiences, the effects of use on students and other factors, such as pressure to perform in their academic and private lives. Methods A sample of 18 healthy university students reporting the non-medical use of prescription and illicit stimulants for academic performance enhancement was interviewed in a face-to-face setting. The leading questions were related to the situations and context in which the students considered the non-medical use of stimulants. Results Based on the resultant transcript, two independent raters identified six categories relating to the life context of stimulant use for academic performance enhancement: Context of stimulant use beyond academic performance enhancement, Subjective experience of enhancement, Timing of consumption, Objective academic results, Side effects, Pressure to perform. Conclusions The answers reveal that academic performance enhancement through the use of stimulants is not an isolated phenomenon that solely aims at enhancing cognition to achieve better academic results but that the multifaceted life context in which it is embedded is of crucial relevance. The participants not only considered the stimulants advantageous for enhancing academic performance, but also for leading an active life with a suitable balance between studying and time off. The most common reasons given for stimulant use were to maximize time, to increase
Leathwood, Carole; Read, Barbara
Research, a major purpose of higher education, has become increasingly important in a context of global economic competitiveness. In this paper, we draw on data from email interviews with academics in Britain to explore responses to current research policy trends. Although the majority of academics expressed opposition to current policy…
This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…
Benham, Harry C.; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William
This study's objective is to determine if students who were unable to successfully complete a required sophomore level business software applications course encountered unique academic difficulties in that course, or if their difficulty signaled more general academic achievement problems in business. The study points to the importance of including…
González Ramos, Ana M.; Fernández Palacín, Fernando; Muñoz Márquez, Manuel
Why is the gender gap so large in researchers' career progression? Do men and women have different priorities in their academic careers? This study explores men's and women's academic work to shed light on the strategies of male and female researchers. The online survey collected data on Andalusian researchers to determine possible differences in…
Jama, M. P.; Mapesela, M. L. E.; Beylefeld, A. A.
Whilst the government, higher education authorities and institutions, academics, academic development practitioners, researchers etc. recognize that there is an increasing number and diversity of students accessing higher education, do the stake-holders really know who these students are before even thinking of enhancing their learning and…
Alswat, Khaled A.; Al-shehri, Abdullah D.; Aljuaid, Tariq A.; Alzaidi, Bassam A.; Alasmari, Hassan D.
Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent’s education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded. Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved >90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved <90%. Post hoc 1-way-analysis of variance showed that obese students were performing worse in physics than normal weight peers (p=0.049). Students who achieved >90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p<0.05), live with their parents (p=0.013), having educated parents (p=0.037), getting optimal sleep (p<0.05), and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students. PMID:28133692
Jackson, Linda A; Samona, Ricky; Moomaw, Jeff; Ramsay, Lauren; Murray, Christopher; Smith, Amy; Murray, Lindsay
HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Participants included 140 children, mostly 13-year-old African American (83%) boys (58%), living in single-parent households (75%) where the median annual income was $15,000 (USD). This report focuses on children's Internet activities, socio-demographic characteristics related to their Internet activities, and the relationship between academic performance and Internet activities. Overall, findings indicate that low-income children initially use the Internet primarily for entertainment. As home Internet use loses its novelty children become more focused in their Internet activities, reducing the number of websites they visit and visiting more websites targeted to their specific interests. Pornography websites are popular initially, especially among boys, but their popularity decreases dramatically after 3 months. Age, race, and sex have little influence on which websites are most popular. Academic performance predicts subsequent Internet activities, and Internet activities predict subsequent academic performance. Directions for future research to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between Internet activities and academic performance and implications for the digital divide are discussed.
Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Luque De La Rosa, Antonio; Martos Martínez, África; Barragán Martín, Ana Belén; Simón Márquez, María del Mar
The present study analyzes the relation between delinquent behaviors, interpersonal values, and academic performance. It also analyzes the possible protective function of interpersonal values against delinquent behaviors. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire (IVQ) was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire (A-D) was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 students of Compulsory Secondary Education, aged from 14 to 17 years. The results show that individuals who fail a subject as well as those who repeat a course present higher means in delinquent behaviors. Repeaters present higher means in the values of recognition and leadership, and non-repeaters in the value stimulation, whereas students who do not fail obtain higher scores in the value benevolence. Students with high levels of recognition, independence, and leadership, as well as students with low levels of conformity and benevolence display significantly higher levels of delinquent behaviors. Lastly, the probability of presenting a high level of delinquent behaviors is greater in individuals with: high independence, high leadership, high recognition, low benevolence, and low conformity. PMID:27799914
Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini
This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades.
Ross, Jonathan L.; Drysdale, Maureen T. B.; Schultz, Robert A.
Investigated effects of cognitive learning style on academic performance in two university computer applications courses. Discusses use of the Gregorc Style Delineator to collect learning style information over a four-year period. Results indicated a significant effect of learning style on academic performance, and that sequential learners…
Torres, Sonia Maldonado
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between Latino Students' learning styles and their academic performance. Students' academic performance was measured using their overall grade point average (GPA). A group of 229 Latino students who were enrolled at an urban community college in New York City participated in the study. Two…
Yildiz, Osman; Bal, Abdullah; Gulsecen, Sevinc
It is essential to predict distance education students' year-end academic performance early during the course of the semester and to take precautions using such prediction-based information. This will, in particular, help enhance their academic performance and, therefore, improve the overall educational quality. The present study was on the…
Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Rozelle, Scott; Loyalka, Prashant
We examine the impact of primary school mergers on academic performance of students using a dataset that we collected using a survey designed specifically to examine changes in the academic performance of students before and after their schools were merged. We use difference-in-differences and propensity score matching approaches and demonstrate…
Florin, Todd A.; Shults, Justine; Stettler, Nicolas
Background: To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting the relationship between adolescent obesity and poor academic performance, we examined the association of overweight or perceived weight status with academic achievement. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 14-17-year-olds (N = 11,012) from the nationally representative…
Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.
Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…
Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane
Background: Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Aims: Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between…
Alimi, Olatunji Sabitu; Ehinola, Gabriel Babatunde; Alabi, Festus Oluwole
The study investigated the influence of school types and facilities on students' academic performance in Ondo State. It was designed to find out whether facilities and students' academic performance are related in private and public secondary schools respectively. Descriptive survey design was used. Proportionate random sampling technique was used…
Nordström, Thomas; Jacobson, Christer; Söderberg, Pernilla
This study, using a longitudinal design with a Swedish cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in second grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (grade 2) with academic performance (grade 9), gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were…
Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.
The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…
Balfour, Denise Shata
One way students become engaged in their undergraduate experience is through place of residence. Factors associated with high academic performance suggest high levels of engagement in campus life. This study investigated the relationship between living arrangement and the academic performance of first-year, full-time undergraduate students. The…
Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin
This study investigated the effects of supplemental instruction, a peer-assisted learning approach, on students, learning competence and academic performance. The supplemental instruction intervention facilitated by senior students focused on developing students' use of study skills and enhancing their motivation and academic performance. Pre- and…
Swanson, H. Lee; Scarpati, Stan
In two experiments, self-instruction training for educationally handicapped children consisted of general self-instruction components and explicit instruction in task components. For both experiments the training improved academic performance. It was concluded that successful academic performance occurs when self-instructional statements integrate…
Williams, James D.
This case study involved 3 middle school students in an assessment of the influence of self-reflection on general academic performance. It was hypothesized that increased self-reflection would have a positive influence on academic performance as measured by grades on tests, writing assignments, and homework. The participants were ages 13.4, 13.5,…
Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob
The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,…
Valadez Sierra, Maria de los Dolores; Borges del Rosal, Maria Africa; Ruvalcaba Romero, Norma; Villegas, Karina; Lorenzo, Maryurena
Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been linked to several variables, such as gender, and academic performance. In the area of high intellectual abilities, the literature shows controversy, without a unanimous result on the relationship between both variables. In the present study we analyzed the modulatory effect has academic performance in…
Duty, Susan M; Christian, Ladonna; Loftus, Jocelyn; Zappi, Victoria
The cognitive component of test anxiety was correlated with academic performance among nursing students. Modest but statistically significant lower examination grade T scores were observed for students with high compared with low levels of cognitive test anxiety (CTA). High levels of CTA were associated with reduced academic performance.
Echaune, Manasi; Ndiku, Judah M.; Sang, Anthony
The factors associated with students' academic performance may have been addressed but the impact of parental involvement continues to be a significant issue. Some schools in Kenya post poor results amid claims that parents are not supportive. This study examined the effect of parental involvement in homework on academic performance in public…
Tamanja, Emmanuel Makabu J.
The nexus between migration and academic performance is complex and difficult to extricate. Not only are there several factors affecting academic performance, but also many of these factors are confounding, making it difficult to identify and isolate in order to address. Furthermore, the discourse appears silent on the nexus between child…
Fite, Paula J.; Hendrickson, Michelle; Rubens, Sonia L.; Gabrielli, Joy; Evans, Spencer
Background: There is substantial evidence to suggest that aggressive behavior is associated with poor academic performance in school-aged children. However, less is known about how different subtypes of aggression are related to academic performance and what variables may account for this association. Objective: The current study examined unique…
Hasan, Sharique; Bagde, Surendrakumar
In this article we examine how social capital affects the creation of human capital. Specifically, we study how college students' peers affect academic performance. Building on existing research, we consider the different types of peers in the academic context and the various mechanisms through which peers affect performance. We test our model…
Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui
Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…
Ruiz, Maria Jose; Bermejo, Rosario; Ferrando, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Sainz, Marta
Introduction: Academic performance is usually generally explained by student's intelligence, although other factors such as personality and motivation also account for it. Factors associated with a more complex thought process in adolescence are also beginning to gain importance in the prediction of academic performance. Among these forms of…
Berry, James J.; Plecha, Michelle D.
Three pilot studies are used to examine the relationships between academic performance, student ability, and motivation among community college students. The first study analyzed the association between motivation and academic performance in order to test the hypothesis that students who are highly motivated will earn higher grades. Results…
Long, Janna B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies and student academic performance. Academic performance was measured by final grade (out of 100 points) in courses that were part of the study, and self-regulated learning strategies were assessed by the Motivated Strategies for Learning…
Jaramillo, Fernando; Spector, Paul E.
Due to the effect of academic performance on employment opportunities and admission to graduate schools, researchers have long recognized the need for identifying factors that are linked to the academic performance of undergraduate marketing students. This research proposes a model that investigates the relationships among motivation, effort,…
Kolawole, E. B.; Oginni, O. I.; Fayomi, E. O.
This paper examined ordinary level result as predictors of students' academic performance in chemistry in South-west Nigeria universities. It also examined the relationship between the academic performance of students in each level of the university examinations and their corresponding secondary school certificates examination. The sample of the…
Kolawole, E. B.; Oginni, O. I.; Fayomi, E. O.
This paper examined an ordinary level as predictors of students' academic performance in chemistry in South-west Nigeria universities. It also revealed the relationship between the academic performance of students in each level of the university examinations and their corresponding secondary school certificates examination. The sample of the study…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.; Casillas, Alex; Oh, In-Sue
We studied the effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness on third-year retention, transfer, and dropout behavior. To accommodate the three outcome categories and nesting of data within institutions, we fit a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression path model with first-year academic performance as a mediating…
Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.
Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…
Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin
The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.
Taylor, Daniel J.; Vatthauer, Karlyn E.; Bramoweth, Adam D.; Ruggero, Camilo; Roane, Brandy
Few studies have looked at the predictability of academic performance (i.e., cumulative grade point average [GPA]) using sleep when common nonsleep predictors of academic performance are included. The present project studied psychological, demographic, educational, and sleep risk factors of decreased academic performance in college undergraduates. Subjects (N = 867) completed a questionnaire packet and sleep diary. It was hypothesized that low total sleep time (TST), increased sleep onset latency (SOL), later bedtimes, later wake times, and TST inconsistency would predict decreased academic performance. The most significant predictors of academic performance were high school GPA, standardized test scores (i.e., SAT/ACT), TST, time awake before arising (TWAK), TST inconsistency, and the quadratic equations of perceived stress (PSS) and TST. PMID:23402597
Barrigas, Carlos; Fragoso, Isabel
Obesity has been linked to several physiological and psycho-social diseases, decreases in cognitive function, poor levels of scholastic achievement, low socioeconomic status and delayed onset of maturity. This study investigates the association between obesity and both academic performance and reasoning ability in 394 male and 398 females students between the ages of 6 and 12 from Lisbon, Portugal. It also assesses how this relationship may be influenced by chronological age, maturity and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that: 1) reasoning ability is independent of socioeconomic status and level of maturity; 2) no differences in reasoning ability exist between groups of different BMI; 3) academic performance is moderated by chronological age in boys, and by maturity in both genders; 4) obesity is not associated with academic performance. It is concluded that reasoning ability and academic performance are not associated with obesity, and that inter-individual differences in academic performance in boys may be explained by differences in their level of maturity.
Zhu, Yu-Qian; Chen, Li-Yueh; Chen, Houn-Gee; Chern, Ching-Chin
Although researchers tend to agree that Internet is a good source for learning and research, little empirical data has substantiated this claim by specifically linking time and effort spent on the Internet for school related information seeking to academic performances. This research investigates the relationship between vocational high school…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.
We hypothesized that college major persistence would be predicted by first-year academic performance and an interest-major composite score that is derived from a student's entering major and two work task scores. Using a large data set representing 25 four-year institutions and nearly 50,000 students, we randomly split the sample into an…
Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed that students' self-control impacts university…
Lawrence, Jason S.; Charbonneau, Joseph
Two studies showed that the link between how much students base their self-worth on academics and their math performance depends on whether their identification with math was statistically controlled and whether the task measured ability or not. Study 1 showed that, when math identification was uncontrolled and the task was ability-diagnostic,…
Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael
In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.
Meda, Shashwath A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza V.; Pittman, Brian; Rosen, Rivkah R.; Aslanzadeh, Farah; Tennen, Howard; Leen, Samantha; Hawkins, Keith; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol S.; Dager, Alecia; Fallahi, Carolyn; Pearlson, Godfrey D.
Background Alcohol and marijuana are the two most abused substances in US colleges. However, research on the combined influence (cross sectional or longitudinal) of these substances on academic performance is currently scant. Methods Data were derived from the longitudinal 2-year Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS) study including 1142 freshman students who completed monthly marijuana use and alcohol consumption surveys. Subjects were classified into data-driven groups based on their alcohol and marijuana consumption. A linear mixed-model (LMM) was employed using this grouping factor to predict grade point average (GPA), adjusted for a variety of socio-demographic and clinical factors. Results Three data-driven clusters emerged: 1) No/low users of both, 2) medium-high alcohol/no-low marijuana, and 3) medium-high users of both substances. Individual cluster derivations between consecutive semesters remained stable. No significant interaction between clusters and semester (time) was noted. Post-hoc analysis suggest that at the outset, compared to sober peers, students using moderate to high levels of alcohol and low marijuana demonstrate lower GPAs, but this difference becomes non-significant over time. In contrast, students consuming both substances at moderate-to-high levels score significantly lower at both the outset and across the 2-year investigation period. Our follow-up analysis also indicate that when students curtailed their substance use over time they had significantly higher academic GPA compared to those who remained stable in their substance use patterns over the two year period. Conclusions Overall, our study validates and extends the current literature by providing important implications of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use on academic achievement in college. PMID:28273162
Reysen, Rebekah H.
Although academic entitlement (AE) has become a popular topic of discussion in the media, it has received very little scholarly focus in the higher education literature to date. AE has been defined as a belief held by students that they deserve high grades in school despite a lack of effort put forth into their work (Chowning & Campbell,…
Kuterbach, James M.
The purpose of this study was to determine the most important factors in predicting academic outcomes at the post-secondary level. With an increasing number of students attending college and the spiraling costs of post-secondary education there is a greater need, now more than ever, to discern the most important factors in positive academic…
Rienties, Bart; Beausaert, Simon; Grohnert, Therese; Niemantsverdriet, Susan; Kommers, Piet
More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and socially. Furthermore, several groups of international students experience considerable amounts…
Latorella, Kara A.
A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.
McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O.
BACKGROUND To improve support and justification for health promotion efforts in schools, it is helpful to understand how students’ health behaviors affect academic performance. METHODS Fifth grade students completed an online school administered health survey with questions regarding their eating behavior, physical activity, academic performance, and sleep patterns. Differences in health behaviors were examined by sex, self-reported weight status, and sufficient (≥ 9 hours) versus insufficient sleep. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between academic performance and the health behaviors. RESULTS One-third of the sample did not get the recommended amount of physical activity and more than half of the students watched TV ≥ 2 hours/day. Self-reported overweight status was related to lower self-reported academic performance, fewer lunch and breakfast occasions, less physical activity, not meeting the recommendations for vegetable and soda consumption as well as hours of TV watching. Sufficient sleep (≥ 9 hours/night) was associated with better grades, meeting the recommended hours of daily TV watching and video game playing, being more physically active and increased breakfast and lunch frequency. Percentage of serving free/reduced lunch, soda consumption, breakfast frequency, amount of physical activity, and TV watching were associated with academic performance. CONCLUSION More positive health behaviors generally were associated with better academic performance. Promoting healthy behaviors in schools might improve not only students’ health academic performance as well. PMID:23331266
Cho, Yeonsuk; Bridgeman, Brent
This study examined the relationship between scores on the TOEFL Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT[R]) and academic performance in higher education, defined here in terms of grade point average (GPA). The academic records for 2594 undergraduate and graduate students were collected from 10 universities in the United States. The data consisted of…
Kendricks, Kimberly D.; Nedunuri, K. V.; Arment, Anthony R.
The Benjamin Banneker Scholars Program (BBSP) was designed at an HBCU to increase the academic performance, retention, and graduation of minority students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). At the end of each academic year, students completed a BBSP Post-Program Satisfaction Survey. Each year Mentoring was consistently…
Snyder, Vivian; Hackett, Rachelle Kisst; Stewart, Mark; Smith, Doug
Examines academic success and retention of first-year students in need of developmental education at a small private university to determine which variables are predictive of academic achievement, retention, and a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Results support other studies that indicate high school performance is the best indicator of success in college.…
Dong, Shengli; Lucas, Margaretha S.
This study focused on the academic performance and use of disability support services (DSS) of students with different types of disabilities who attend a postsecondary education institution. Findings show different patterns of academic success over four semesters as well as different patterns of DSS usage. Students who requested support from DSS…
Mapuranga, Barbra; Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Zebron, Shupikai
Some educators argue that entry standards are the most important determinants of successful completion of a university programme; others maintain that non-academic factors must also be considered. In this study we sought to investigate open and distance learning students' perceptions of the factors affecting academic performance and successful…
Johnson, Matthew D.
Transfer students comprise a substantial component of the student body in many 4-year academic colleges, but the factors affecting students' success once they have transferred are poorly understood. Using data from standard university records, academic performance was examined for 2,467 students enrolled in natural resource majors at a mid-sized…
Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Fisher, Benjamin W.
Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance,…
McComas, Jennifer J.; Burns, Matthew K.
Academic skills are frequent concerns in K-12 schools that could benefit from the application of applied behavior analysis (ABA). Brief experimental analysis (BEA) of academic performance is perhaps the most promising approach to apply ABA to student learning. Although research has consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of academic…
Bouchey, Heather A.; Harter, Susan
The authors tested a model of the relations among adolescents' perceptions of parents', teachers', and classmates' support for, valuing of, and beliefs about their competence in math/science; adolescents' own academic self-perceptions concerning math/science; and their academic performance. The sample included 378 middle school students; 65% were…
Fenollar, Pedro; Roman, Sergio; Cuestas, Pedro J.
Background: The prediction and explanation of academic performance and the investigation of the factors relating to the academic success and persistence of students are topics of utmost importance in higher education. Aims: The main aim of the present study is to develop and test a conceptual framework in a university context, where the effects of…
Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan
Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…
Turley, Ruth N. Lopez; Wodtke, Geoffrey
Although previous research suggests that living on campus promotes a variety of desirable academic outcomes by enhancing students' involvement and engagement with their institutions, research on academic performance frequently ignores the possibility that different groups of students are differentially affected by their living environments.…
Beneke, J.; Beeming, C.
This article analyses the direct effect of demographic variables on academic outcomes. The study concludes that ethnic group plays a pivotal role in determining the academic performance of students registered for the Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management at the University of Cape Town. White students (presumed to emanate from a privileged…
Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa
We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…
Ray, Larry A.
This study examined the academic performance of Tech Prep students (referred to as participants) in comparison to non-Tech Prep students (referred to as non-participants) entering a two-year community college from sixteen different high schools in Stark County, Ohio. This study provided a quantitative analysis of students' academic experiences to…
This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…
Hossein, Mahdian; Asadzadeh, Hassan; Shabani, Hassan; Ahghar, Ghodsi; Ahadi, Hassan; Shamir, Abootaleb Seadatee
The purpose of the present study is to examine the role of Invitational Education and intelligence beliefs in the academic performance of high school students. The research population comprised all male and female students studying at high schools in the academic year of 2009-2010 in Kashmar, a city in Iran. Selected through multi-stage random…
Gomes, Ana Allen; Tavares, Jos; de Azevedo, Maria Helena P
The present study examined the associations of sleep patterns with multiple measures of academic achievement of undergraduate university students and tested whether sleep variables emerged as significant predictors of subsequent academic performance when other potential predictors, such as class attendance, time devoted to study, and substance use are considered. A sample of 1654 (55% female) full-time undergraduates 17 to 25 yrs of age responded to a self-response questionnaire on sleep, academics, lifestyle, and well-being that was administered at the middle of the semester. In addition to self-reported measures of academic performance, a final grade for each student was collected at the end of the semester. Univariate analyses found that sleep phase, morningness/eveningness preference, sleep deprivation, sleep quality, and sleep irregularity were significantly associated with at least two academic performance measures. Among 15 potential predictors, stepwise multiple regression analysis identified 5 significant predictors of end-of-semester marks: previous academic achievement, class attendance, sufficient sleep, night outings, and sleep quality (R(2)=0.14 and adjusted R(2)=0.14, F(5, 1234)= 40.99, p < .0001). Associations between academic achievement and the remaining sleep variables as well as the academic, well-being, and lifestyle variables lost significance in stepwise regression. Together with class attendance, night outings, and previous academic achievement, self-reported sleep quality and self-reported frequency of sufficient sleep were among the main predictors of academic performance, adding an independent and significant contribution, regardless of academic variables and lifestyles of the students.
Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar
In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students…
Stankovska, Gordana; Angelkovska, Slagana; Grncarovska, Svetlana Pandiloska
The world is extensively changed by Social Networks Sites (SNSs) on the Internet. A large number of children and adolescents in the world have access to the internet and are exposed to the internet at a very early age. Most of them use the Social Networks Sites with the purpose of exchanging academic activities and developing a social network all…
Klein, Nicole Aydt; Dudley, Michael G.
Objective: To investigate health-related impediments to academic success for bisexual college students. Participants: Respondents to the Fall 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) survey who self-identified as bisexual, heterosexual, gay, or lesbian. Methods: Secondary analyses of the…
Blicblau, Aaron Simon; Nelson, Tracey Louise; Dini, Kurosh
Engineering graduates without industrial experience may find that employment is difficult to obtain immediately after completing their studies. This study investigates the impact of two arrangements of work experiences; short term (over 12 weeks, STP) and long-term (over 52 weeks, IBL) on academic grades. This study involved 240 undergraduate…
Daniels, Dianne Yow
Although academics and safety continue to rank as high-priority issues in public schools, educators and administrators are beginning to recognize the importance of student health on school success. This move toward a holistic approach suggests that efforts to improve a student's physical, social, and emotional well-being are as important as…
Calisir, Fethi; Basak, Ecem; Comertoglu, Sevinc
The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting academic achievement of the master's students who are enrolling in the executive engineering management master's programs in Turkey. These factors include admission requirements (entrance examination, undergraduate grade point average, English proficiency) and demographic attributes…
In this study, data were obtained from sixth grade students on attitudes toward each of four aspects of the school experience and on academic achievement. Data were available from 159 males and 199 females from 17 sixth grade classrooms in 17 schools within the Kansas City school district. Attitudes toward school were measured with the Pupil…
Kwong, K. S.; Lui, Gladie
Explores the effects of accounting internships upon subsequent academic achievement. Reports that grade point averages and degree examination results of 10 Chinese University of Hong Kong students who had been interns were compared to scores of 236 accounting majors who had not. Concludes that internships increased student knowledge and…
Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara
This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…
Wenz, Michael; Yu, Wei-Choun
This article outlines a framework for evaluating the decision of undergraduate students to engage in term-time employment as a method of financing higher education. We then examine the impact of work on academic achievement and find that employment has modest negative effects on student grades, with a grade point average (GPA) falling by 0.007…
In interviews with 12 full-time undergraduates employed part time, 5 said their employment was not related to their degree program; attitudes about work's effect on academics were mixed. There were no significant achievement differences between working and nonworking students. Many felt financial pressure to work while in school. (SK)
Awang, Mohd Mahzan; Ahmad, Abdul Razaq; Bakar, Nora'asikin Abu; Ghani, Sayuti Abd; Yunus, Asyraf Nadia Mohd; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Ramalu, Jaya Chitra; Saad, Che Pee; Rahman, Mohd Jasmy Abd
The main goal of the nationhood education is to instill the sense of loyalty and passion into the nation. In a Malaysian context, several academic subjects at higher education such as Malaysian Studies, Ethnic Relations and National Language have been implemented in order to achieve the goal. Malaysian Study is one of the compulsory courses…
Knox, Jeffrey A.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.
There is a direct correlation between the variables of teacher job satisfaction and student academic achievement (Brookover & Lezotte, 1979; Mertler, 2002; Wynne, 1980). One would assume that schools that are not making AYP are doing everything possible to be removed from this status. One may also hypothesize that teacher job satisfaction is…
Fernandez-Castillo, Antonio; Gutierrez-Rojas, Maria Esperanza
Introduction: In this cross-sectional, descriptive research we studied the relation between three psychological variables (anxiety, depression and attention) in order to analyze their possible association with and predictive power for academic achievement (as expressed in school grades) in a sample of secondary students. Method: For this purpose…
Summers, J. Gregory, Ed.
This report presents summary statistics from a study that focused on student athletes in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) who receive initial athletically related financial aid in their freshman or sophomore years. The study is a result of the efforts of NCAA's Special Committee on Academic Research to investigate…
Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A.; Figgs, Larry W.; Castro, Mario
Background: Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since…
DeBaryshe, Barbara D.; And Others
This study followed 206 adolescent boys and their families from the fourth through eighth grade to test a model for conduct-related school failure. Results indicated that low parental academic achievement was associated with ineffective discipline practices and child antisocial behavior in the sixth grade and that ineffective discipline had a…
Rajasingam, Uma; Suat-Cheng, Peh; Aung, Thidar; Dipolog-Ubanan, Genevieve; Wei, Wee Kok
This study examines the association between emotional intelligence and its influence on academic performance on medical students to see if emotional intelligence emerges as a significant influencer of academic achievement. The instrument used is the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure an individual's perceived emotional intelligence (PEI). Participants are required to rate the extent to which they agree with each item on a 5-point Likert scale. The TMMS consists of three subscales - Attention to Feelings (which measures the extent to which individuals notice and think about their feelings, Clarity (which measures the extent to which an individual is able to discriminate among different moods) and Mood Repair (related to an individual's ability to repair/terminate negative moods or maintain pleasant ones). Of special interest is whether high scores in the Clarity and Repair subscales correlate positively with academic performance, and whether high scores on the Attention subscale, without correspondingly high scores in the Clarity and Mood Repair subscales, correlates negatively with academic performance. Sample population includes all medical students (Years 1-5) of the MD program in UCSI University, Malaysia. Preliminary analysis indicates no significant relationship between overall TMMS scores and academic performance; however, the Attention subscale is significantly correlated to academic performance. Therefore even though PEI has to be ruled out as an influencer on academic performance for this particular sample, the fact that Attention has a significant relationship with academic performance may give some insight into the factors that possibly influence medical students' academic performance.
Entwistle, Noel J.; And Others
Volume 1 discusses a large-scale follow-up study of the correlates of academic success in 2,595 college students. Volume 2 presents a philosophical and historical approach to studying educational objectives. (Available in microfiche from: Carfax Publishing Company, Haddon House, Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxford 0X9 8JZ, England.) (CP)
Ihm, Jung-Joon; Lee, Gene; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Jang, Ki-Taeg; Jin, Bo-Hyoung
The purpose of this study was to examine what cognitive and non-cognitive factors were responsible for predicting the academic performance of dental students in a dental school in the Republic of Korea. This school is one of those in Korea that now require applicants to have a bachelor's degree. In terms of cognitive factors, students' undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and Dental Education Eligibility Test (DEET) scores were used, while surveys were conducted to evaluate four non-cognitive measures: locus of control, self-esteem, self-directed learning, and interpersonal skills. A total of 353 students matriculating at Seoul National University School of Dentistry in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 consented to the collection of records and completed the surveys. The main finding was that applicants who scored higher on internal locus of control and self-efficacy were more likely to be academically successful dental students. Self-directed learning was significantly associated with students ranked in the top 50 percent in cumulative GPA. However, students' interpersonal skills were negatively related to their academic performance. In particular, students' lack of achievement could be predicted by monitoring their first-year GPA. Therefore, the identification of those factors to predict dental school performance has implications for the dental curriculum and effective pedagogy in dental education.
Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor
This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p < .05). Achievement motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p < .05). Also, achievement motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.
White, Clovis L.
The responses of 109 Black and 201 White urban college students to a questionnaire were examined for connections between social background, self-concept, and social and academic experiences. Findings indicate that ethnic identity has no effect on performance. (FMW)
Swanson, H. Lee
The effects of positive reinforcement on an 8-year-old partially sighted girl's visual academic performance were assessed, using a multiple baseline design that involved tasks of matching and of counting number sets. (Author/DLS)
Ginsburg, G S; Bronstein, P
This study examined 3 familial factors--parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades, and general family style--in relation to children's motivational orientation and academic performance. Family, parent, and child measures were obtained in the home from 93 fifth graders and their parents. Teachers provided a measure of classroom motivational orientation, and grades and achievement scores were obtained from school records. Higher parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades that included negative control, uninvolvement, or extrinsic reward, and over- and undercontrolling family styles were found to be related to an extrinsic motivational orientation and to lower academic performance. On the other hand, parental encouragement in response to grades children received was associated with an intrinsic motivational orientation, and autonomy-supporting family styles were associated with intrinsic motivation and higher academic performance. In addition, socioeconomic level was a significant predictor of motivational orientation and academic performance.
Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks.
Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Norgate, Roger; Hadwin, Julie A
Working memory skills are positively associated with academic performance. In contrast, high levels of trait anxiety are linked with educational underachievement. Based on Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET), the present study investigated whether associations between anxiety and educational achievement were mediated via poor working memory performance. Fifty children aged 11-12 years completed verbal (backwards digit span; tapping the phonological store/central executive) and spatial (Corsi blocks; tapping the visuospatial sketchpad/central executive) working memory tasks. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Academic performance was assessed using school administered tests of reasoning (Cognitive Abilities Test) and attainment (Standard Assessment Tests). The results showed that the association between trait anxiety and academic performance was significantly mediated by verbal working memory for three of the six academic performance measures (math, quantitative and non-verbal reasoning). Spatial working memory did not significantly mediate the relationship between trait anxiety and academic performance. On average verbal working memory accounted for 51% of the association between trait anxiety and academic performance, while spatial working memory only accounted for 9%. The findings indicate that PET is a useful framework to assess the impact of children's anxiety on educational achievement.
Khaola, Peter P.
As one of the most important dependent variables in education and work research, performance has been operationalised either as the proficiency with which core tasks are performed (task performance), or as extra-role behaviours that support core activities (organisational citizenship behaviours). Relative to academic performance (core academic…
Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh
Background This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson’s bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.25–3.02) and less likely to be delayed, have to re-sit an examination, or be warned (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.77). Conclusion Only 32.8% of the variation in self-reported academic performance was explained by the studied
Tan, Tony Xing
The author investigated the extent of developmental delays in girls adopted from China, their subsequent early intervention (EI) enrollment, and how the delays and EI were related to their academic performance and internalizing problems in adolescence. The sample included 180 adolescent girls (M = 13.4 years, SD = 2.0 years) who were adopted at 3-23.5 months (M = 11.5 months, SD = 3.7 months). Data on the adopted Chinese girls' delays at arrival and EI enrollment in physical therapy (PT) and speech-language therapy (SLT) were collected from the adoptive mothers at the Baseline; data on the adopted Chinese girls' present academic performance and internalizing problems were collected from the adoptive mothers and adopted girls at Wave 4 six years later. Data analyses revealed that 55% of the adoptees had moderate-to-severe delays when first arrived at the adoptive homes. Motor delays significantly increased the odds for PT (odds ratio [OR] = 3.98, 95% CI [2.18, 7.82], p <.001) and SLT (OR = 2.36, 95% CI [1.50-3.72, p <.001). Social-cognitive delays also significantly increased the odds for PT (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.36, 2.63], p <.001) and SLT (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.22, 2.17], p <.001). Motor delays were negatively associated with academic performance but positively associated with internalizing problems. General linear modeling showed that the adoptees who had developmental delays at arrival and subsequently enrolled in EI scored significantly lower on academic performance than their peers who had delays but did not enroll in EI, as well their peers who had no delays and did not enroll in EI. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto
This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.
Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G
Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.
Gibson, Michelle; Meem, Deborah T
We experience queer literacy as a kind of collision between the traditional and the transformative. Queer literacy is an acquired literacy of transformation, where the established rules of behavior and discourse are both challenged and transcended. As a lesbian academic couple in a privileged intellectual, political, and social location, we can move out of the traditional realm (through the closet) into an otherworldly queer space where knowledge and identity are destabilized. Moving in and out of queer transformative space requires a kind of blind faith-faith that believes in what the mind can neither see nor prove.
Borhan, Maslan; Jemain, Abdul Aziz
A lot of attention has been given to education as it is the most practical way of improving social mobility. In order to be progressive and resilient, there has to be an overall transformation of society as evidenced in the annual budget allocations which has educational implications to it. Therefore, schools will come to term that they are under…
Huang, Shaobo; Fang, Ning
Predicting student academic performance has long been an important research topic in many academic disciplines. The present study is the first study that develops and compares four types of mathematical models to predict student academic performance in engineering dynamics--a high-enrollment, high-impact, and core course that many engineering…
Orgiles, Mireia; Johnson, Blair T.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.
Introduction: According to previous studies, when parents divorce it may increase the vulnerability of children to develop personal problems, such as lowering academic performance. This research examines the academic performance of Spanish children with divorced parents and its relation to academic self-concept and social anxiety. Method: The…
Kocoglu, Deniz; Emiroglu, Oya Nuran
Introduction: School nursing services should be evaluated through health and academic outcomes of students; however, it is observed that the number of studies in this field is limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of comprehensive school nursing services provided to 4th grade primary school students on academic performance of students. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted with 31 students attending a randomly selected school in economic disadvantaged area in Turky. Correlation analysis, repeated measures analyses of variance, multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS software. Results: At the end of school nursing practices, an increase was occurred in students’ academic achievement grades whereas a decrease was occurred in absenteeism and academic procrastination behaviors. Whilst it was determined that nursing interventions including treatment/ procedure and surveillance was associated to the decrease of absenteeism, it also was discovered that the change in the health status of the student after nursing interventions was related to the increase of the academic achievement grade and the decrease of the academic procrastination behavior score. Conclusion: In this study, the conclusion that comprehensive school nursing services contributed positively to the academic performance of students has been reached. In addition, it can be suggested that effective school nursing services should include services such as acute-chronic disease treatment, first aid, health screening, health improvement-protection, health education, guidance and counseling and case management. PMID:28299293
Kocoglu, Deniz; Emiroglu, Oya Nuran
Introduction: School nursing services should be evaluated through health and academic outcomes of students; however, it is observed that the number of studies in this field is limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of comprehensive school nursing services provided to 4th grade primary school students on academic performance of students. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted with 31 students attending a randomly selected school in economic disadvantaged area in Turky. Correlation analysis, repeated measures analyses of variance, multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS software. Results: At the end of school nursing practices, an increase was occurred in students' academic achievement grades whereas a decrease was occurred in absenteeism and academic procrastination behaviors. Whilst it was determined that nursing interventions including treatment/ procedure and surveillance was associated to the decrease of absenteeism, it also was discovered that the change in the health status of the student after nursing interventions was related to the increase of the academic achievement grade and the decrease of the academic procrastination behavior score. Conclusion: In this study, the conclusion that comprehensive school nursing services contributed positively to the academic performance of students has been reached. In addition, it can be suggested that effective school nursing services should include services such as acute-chronic disease treatment, first aid, health screening, health improvement-protection, health education, guidance and counseling and case management.
Kim, Jong-Hyuck; So, Wi-Young
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic performance and obesity/overweight among South Korean adolescents. Our data set included 72,399 adolescents in grades 7-12 who had participated in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) in 2009. We assessed the association between academic performance and body mass index (BMI), using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, parents' education level, economic status, mental stress experienced, sleep duration, frequency of muscle-strengthening exercises, smoking and drinking behaviour, and vigorous and moderate physical activity (PA). For boys, being overweight (compared with being of normal weight) had a significantly greater odds of poor academic performance (OR=1.182, 95% Cl 1.052-1.329, p=0.005). Obese boys had 1.182 (1.048-1.332, p=0.006), 1.461 (1.294-1.648, p<0.001), and 1.443(1.256-1.657, p<0.001) greater odds of having average, poor, and very poor performance, respectively. In the analysis for girls, overweight girls had 1.314 (1.124-1.536, p<0.001) and 1.296 (1.084-1.548, p=0.004) greater odds of having poor and very poor academic performance, respectively. Finally, obese girls had 1.374 (1.098-1.718, p=0.005), 1.672 (1.339-2.089, p<0.001), and 1.887 (1.478-2.409, p<0.001) greater odds of having average, poor, or very poor academic performance, respectively. Thus, overweight/obesity was negatively associated with academic performance in both boys and girls. The results of this study indicate that adolescents would benefit from weight management to prevent obesity and, possibly, improve academic performance.
McCarey, Margaret; Barr, Tony; Rattray, Janice
The recruitment, selection and retention of nursing students have become crucial in securing the future workforce required by the NHS. Concerns regarding the academic performance of what is a changing student profile led to an audit being performed to explore the predictive relationship between entry qualifications, age, gender, attendance and academic performance in a cohort of pre-registration Diploma of Nursing students. Data was collated from a cohort of 154 students. Statistical analysis demonstrated that students with higher level entry qualifications performed consistently better than those with lower level qualifications. Mature students, over the age of 26, achieved better average marks in coursework and examinations that their younger peers. Year 1 performance predicted year 3 performance in both examinations and assignments. Non-attendance was shown to have an impact on academic performance with a correlation existing between high absenteeism and poor academic achievement. The findings highlight interesting issues for nurse educators relating to academic student support particularly in first year; recruitment and selection of the most suitable candidates; absenteeism monitoring and curriculum design.
Andrade, Fernando H
A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use.
Scoggins, Sally Smykla
The current action research study explored how student placement in heterogeneous or homogeneous classes in seventh-grade science affected students' eighth-grade Science State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) scores, and how ability grouping affected students' scores based on race and socioeconomic status. The population included all eighth-grade students in the target district who took the regular eighth-grade science STAAR over four academic school years. The researcher ran three statistical tests: a t-test for independent samples, a one-way between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a two-way between subjects ANOVA. The results showed no statistically significant difference between eighth-grade Pre-AP students from seventh-grade Pre-AP classes and eighth-grade Pre-AP students from heterogeneous seventh-grade classes and no statistically significant difference between Pre-AP students' scores based on socioeconomic status. There was no statistically significant interaction between socioeconomic status and the seventh-grade science classes. The scores between regular eighth-grade students who were in heterogeneous seventh-grade classes were statistically significantly higher than the scores of regular eighth-grade students who were in regular seventh-grade classes. The results also revealed that the scores of students who were White were statistically significantly higher than the scores of students who were Black and Hispanic. Black and Hispanic scores did not differ significantly. Further results indicated that the STAAR Level II and Level III scores were statistically significantly higher for the Pre-AP eighth-grade students who were in heterogeneous seventh-grade classes than the STAAR Level II and Level III scores of Pre-AP eighth-grade students who were in Pre-AP seventh-grade classes.
Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth
Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.
De Luca, Susan M; Franklin, Cynthia; Yueqi, Yan; Johnson, Shannon; Brownson, Chris
The impact of suicidal ideation on college students' academic performance has yet to be examined, yet mental health is often linked with academic performance. Underclassmen and upperclassmen were compared on behavioral health outcomes related to academic success (N = 26,457). Ideation (b = -0.05, p < .05), increased mental health (b = -0.03, p < .01) or substance use severity (b = -0.02, p < .01) was associated with lower GPAs. Underclassmen's behavioral health severity was related to lower GPA. Students reported higher GPAs when participating in extracurricular activities during the past year. Ideation, beyond mental health, is an important when assessing academic performance. Increasing students' connections benefits students experiencing behavioral concerns but also aids in suicide prevention initiatives and improves academic outcomes. Creating integrated health care systems on campus where physical, mental health and academic support services is crucial to offer solutions for students with severe or co-morbid mental health histories.
Flowers, Schwanda K.; Bordelon, Bryan J.; Gubbins, Paul O.; O’Brien, Catherine; Stowe, Cindy D.; Martin, Bradley C.
Objective. To identify admissions variable prognostics for academic difficulty in the PharmD curriculum to use for admissions determinations and early identification of at-risk students. Methods. Retrospective multivariate analysis of 2008-2012 admission data were linked with academic records to identify students with academic difficulty (ie, those with Ds, Fs, delayed progression). The influence of prepharmacy grade point average (GPA), composite Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) score, multiple-mini interview (MMI) score, age, credit hours, state residence, and prior degree on academic difficulty was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Students’ (n=587) prepharmacy GPA, composite PCAT score, mean MMI score, and age were 3.6, 72.0, 5.5, 22.8 (SD=4.14 years), respectively. Students having a GPA <3.25, PCAT score <60th percentile, or MMI score <4.5, were approximately 12-, 7-, and 3-times more likely, respectively, to experience academic difficulty than those with a GPA ≥ 3.75, PCAT score >90, or MMI score of 5-6. Conclusion. Using GPA, PCAT, and MMI performance can predict academic difficulty and assist in the early identification of academically at-risk PharmD students. PMID:27073280
Mahdinezhad, Maryam; Bin Suandi, Turiman; bin Silong, Abu Daud; Omar, Zoharah Binti
In higher learning education, the performance is influenced by many factors. Effective leadership has an imperative role in the better performance and growth of the organization. Yet, several performance efforts were unsuccessful as a result of factors such as satisfactory leadership style of leaders. This study was carried out to identify the…
Popovich, Nicholas G.; And Others
The performance of first-professional-year pharmacy students was compared to their PCAT performance of prepharmacy students. The value of the PCAT was found to lie in those portions of it that are directly related to the coursework in which a student is enrolled, especially when there is a performance level within a class that is directly…
Fruth, Jason D.; Woods, Melanie N.
This study examines the impact of inclusion on secondary students by focusing on the performance of students without disabilities in the inclusive environment compared to their performance in a segregated environment. Many studies exist demonstrating the positive impact of the inclusive environment on the performance of students with disabilities.…
Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Söderqvist, Stina
Working memory (WM) is one of our core cognitive functions, allowing us to keep information in mind for shorter periods of time and then work with this information. It is the gateway that information has to pass in order to be processed consciously. A well-functioning WM is therefore crucial for a number of everyday activities including learning and academic performance (Gathercole et al., 2003; Bull et al., 2008), which is the focus of this review. Specifically, we will review the research investigating whether improving WM capacity using Cogmed WM training can lead to improvements on academic performance. Emphasis is given to reviewing the theoretical principles upon which such investigations rely, in particular the complex relation between WM and mathematical and reading abilities during development and how these are likely to be influenced by training. We suggest two possible routes in which training can influence academic performance, one through an effect on learning capacity which would thus be evident with time and education, and one through an immediate effect on performance on reading and mathematical tasks. Based on the theoretical complexity described we highlight some methodological issues that are important to take into consideration when designing and interpreting research on WM training and academic performance, but that are nonetheless often overlooked in the current research literature. Finally, we will provide some suggestions for future research for advancing the understanding of WM training and its potential role in supporting academic attainment.
Lakshminarayan, Nagesh; Potdar, Shrudha; Reddy, Siddana Goud
Procrastination, generally defined as a voluntary, irrational delay of behavior, is a prevalent phenomenon among college students throughout the world and occurs at alarmingly high rates. For this study, a survey was conducted of 209 second-, third-, and fourth-year undergraduate dental students of Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere, India, to identify the relationship between their level of procrastination and academic performance. A sixteen-item questionnaire was used to assess the level of procrastination among these students. Data related to their academic performance were also collected. Spearman's correlation coefficient test was used to assess the relationship between procrastination and academic performance. It showed a negative correlation of -0.63 with a significance level of p<0.01 (two-tailed test), indicating that students who showed high procrastination scores performed below average in their academics. In addition, analysis with the Mann-Whitney U test found a significant difference in procrastination scores between the two gender groups (p<0.05). Hence, among the Indian undergraduate dental students evaluated in this study, it appeared that individuals with above average and average academic performance had lower scores of procrastination and vice versa.
Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Söderqvist, Stina
Working memory (WM) is one of our core cognitive functions, allowing us to keep information in mind for shorter periods of time and then work with this information. It is the gateway that information has to pass in order to be processed consciously. A well-functioning WM is therefore crucial for a number of everyday activities including learning and academic performance (Gathercole et al., 2003; Bull et al., 2008), which is the focus of this review. Specifically, we will review the research investigating whether improving WM capacity using Cogmed WM training can lead to improvements on academic performance. Emphasis is given to reviewing the theoretical principles upon which such investigations rely, in particular the complex relation between WM and mathematical and reading abilities during development and how these are likely to be influenced by training. We suggest two possible routes in which training can influence academic performance, one through an effect on learning capacity which would thus be evident with time and education, and one through an immediate effect on performance on reading and mathematical tasks. Based on the theoretical complexity described we highlight some methodological issues that are important to take into consideration when designing and interpreting research on WM training and academic performance, but that are nonetheless often overlooked in the current research literature. Finally, we will provide some suggestions for future research for advancing the understanding of WM training and its potential role in supporting academic attainment. PMID:28223948
Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan
Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.
Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F
Numerous factors are known to affect the academic performance of students. These include prenatal conditions, birth conditions, postnatal events, nutritional, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. This paper examines the nutritional status and its relationship with academic performance of 9-10 years old primary school children recruited randomly in Selangor, Malaysia. A standard self-administered questionnaire was utilized to obtain pertinent information and a face-to-face interview was also conducted with the parents. Results of the academic performances were extracted from the students' report cards. The intellectual performance was assessed using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Physical examination was also conducted on these students by doctors. Overall 1,405 students and 1,317 parents responded to the survey. Of these 83.6% were Malays, 11.6% Indians, and 4.2% Chinese. The majority of them (82.9%) were from urban areas. The female: male ratio was 51:49; mean age was 9.71 years. The mean height and weight were 32.3 kg and 135.2 cm respectively. Their mean BMI was 17.42 kg/cm2, with 0.9% underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight, and 6.3% obese. Academic performance was significantly correlated with breast feeding, income and educational level of their parents, BMI, and whether they have been taking breakfast. There was a weak correlation between presence of anaemia and intellectual performance. Improving the socio-economic status of the parents will lend a helping hand in the academic performance of the students. Since breast feeding is associated with better academic and intellectual performance it must be emphasized, particularly to expectant mothers in the antenatal clinics.
Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W.; McInerney, Dennis
The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation…
Aleta, Beda T.
This research study aims to determine the factors of engineering skills self- efficacy sources contributing on the academic performance of AMAIUB engineering students. Thus, a better measure of engineering self-efficacy is needed to adequately assess engineering students' beliefs in their capabilities to perform tasks in their engineering…
Amsterlaw, Jennifer; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
This study assessed young children's understanding of the effects of emotional and physiological states on cognitive performance. Five, 6-, 7-year-olds, and adults (N = 96) predicted and explained how children experiencing a variety of physiological and emotional states would perform on academic tasks. Scenarios included: (a) negative and positive…
Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther
Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…
Potolsky, Alicia; Cohen, Jayne; Saylor, Coleen
The academic performance of first-semester nursing students who attended 5 or more (n=18) or fewer than 5 (n=19) tutorials was compared. A significant relationship was found between grades in prerequisite science courses and first-semester performance. Those who attended fewer tutorials had higher prerequisite course grades. (Contains 17…
Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Iatarola, Patrice; Fruchter, Norm
This study examines the academic performance of students in New York City's elementary and middle schools, investigating variations across grades and schools and documenting differences in student and teacher characteristics and the pattern and level of expenditure between low, middle, and high performing schools. The study reports averages of…
Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Taderera, Ever; Mandimika, Elinah
The study seeks to establish scientific evidence of the factors affecting academic performance for first year accounting students using four selected courses at the University of Zimbabwe. It uses Ordinary Least Squares method to analyse the influence of personal and family background on performance. The findings show that variables age gender,…
Mbugua, Stephen Ngugi; Kiboss, Joel; Tanui, Edward
Teachers must understand the context within which students' performance improvement takes place. Operational effectiveness and strategy are both essential to superior performance and strategy execution is crucial for quality and better students' academic result. ICT can be a catalyst by providing tools which teachers use to improve teaching and…
Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S.
Background: Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. Methods: A sample of…
Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…
Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi
The main controversy as a result of the commercialisation of international education markets is that international students especially those from China are unable to perform as well as UK students in UK universities. So far, research has yet to identify the influence of placements on the academic performance of Chinese students from entry to…
This dissertation aims to provide a better understanding of the technology licensing practices of academic research institutions. The study identifies time durations in licensing and incorporates these into a model to evaluate licensing performance. Performance is measured by the efficiency of an institution's technology licensing process and…
Luyben, Paul D.; Hipworth, Kristin; Pappas, Thomas
Although computer-assisted instruction (CAI) favorably affects academic performance and attitudes toward instruction, most CAI programs target mastery but not fluency. This study used a within-subjects, crossover design to compare the effects of CAI that included fluency training with traditional study (TS) conditions on test performance and…
Ewing, Maureen; Howell, Jessica
Strong academic performance in college, as measured by first-year grades, is important for a host of reasons, but perhaps the most critical reason is that students who perform well in their first year of college are more likely to earn a bachelor's degree (Adelman, 2006). Research shows that Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students, particularly…
This Information Capsule answers the most frequently asked questions about M-DCPS' academic performance during the 2010-11 school year. M-DCPS earned a performance grade of "B" in 2011 and was only six points short of an "A." Over half of the District's schools (56 percent) earned an "A." In Writing, the percent of…
Heath, Nancy; Roberts, Elizabeth; Toste, Jessica R.
Children with academic and behavioral difficulties have been found to report overly positive self-perceptions of performance in their areas of specific deficit. Researchers typically investigate self-perceptions in reference to both actual performance and ratings by teachers, peers, and parents. However, few studies have investigated whether or…
Downs, C. T.
First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, students performed best in the…
Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan
Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…
Al-Ansari, Asim A; El Tantawi, Maha M A
Greater emphasis on student-centered education means that students' perception of their educational environment is important. The ultimate proof of this importance is its effect on academic performance. The aim of this study was to assess the predictability of dental students' grades as indicator of academic performance through their perceptions of the educational environment. The Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire was used to assess dental students' perceptions of their educational environment at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, in academic year 2012-13. Aggregate grades in courses were collected at the end of the semester and related to levels of perception of the five DREEM domains using regression analysis. The response rate was 87.1% among all students in Years 2-6. As the number of students perceiving excellence in learning increased, the number of students with A grades increased. Perception of an environment with problems in the atmosphere and social life increased the number of students with D and F grades. There was no relation between any of the DREEM domains and past academic performance as measured by GPA. This study concludes that these students' academic performance was affected by various aspects of perceiving the educational environment. Improved perception of learning increased the number of high achievers, whereas increased perception of problems in atmosphere and social life increased the number of low achievers and failing students.
Burgess, Stephen R.; Stermer, Steven Paul; Burgess, Melinda C. R.
The relations between media consumption, especially TV viewing, and school performance have been extensively examined. However, even though video game playing may have replaced TV viewing as the most frequent form of media usage, relatively little research has examined its relations to school performance, especially in older students. We surveyed…
Hanks, George F.; Shivaswamy, Melkote
A study of 435 students (229 male, 206 female) in junior level accounting classes found positive answers to these questions: (1) Do women, on the whole, perform as well as men do in accounting classes? and (2) Are women often the top performers of the class? (CT)
Hazleton, Vincent; Tuttle, George E.
Presents the performance appraisal model for student advisement, a centralized developmental model that focuses on the content and process of advisement. The model has three content objectives: job definition, performance assessment, and goal setting. Operation of the model is described. Benefits and potential limitations are identified. (Author)
Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R
This study provides conceptual and empirical arguments why an assessment of applicants' procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior via a video-based situational judgment test might be valid for academic and postacademic success criteria. Four cohorts of medical students (N = 723) were followed from admission to employment. Procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior at the time of admission was valid for both internship performance (7 years later) and job performance (9 years later) and showed incremental validity over cognitive factors. Mediation analyses supported the conceptual link between procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior, translating that knowledge into actual interpersonal behavior in internships, and showing that behavior on the job. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin
We assessed the impact of expert students' instructional quality on the academic performance of novice students in 12th-grade physics classes organized in an expert model of cooperative learning ('jigsaw classroom'). The instructional quality of 129 expert students was measured by a newly developed rating system. As expected, when aggregating across all four subtopics taught, regression analysis revealed that academic performance of novice students increases with the quality of expert students' instruction. The difficulty of subtopics, however, moderates this effect: higher instructional quality of more difficult subtopics did not lead to better academic performance of novice students. We interpret this finding in the light of Cognitive Load Theory. Demanding tasks cause high intrinsic cognitive load and hindered the novice students' learning.
Tuckman, Bruce W
This study compared students' academic procrastination tendency with the (1) frequency and nature of rationalizations used to justify procrastination, (2) self-regulation, and (3) performance in a web-based study strategies course with frequent performance deadlines. 106 college students completed the 16-item Tuckman Procrastination Scale, a measure of tendency to procrastinate, the Frequency of Use Self-survey of Rationalizations for Procrastination, and a 9-item self-regulation scale. Students' subsequent course performance was measured by total points earned. A linear regression with Academic Procrastination as the criterion variable and Rationalization score and Course Points as the predictor variables suggested academic procrastinators support procrastinating by rationalizing, not self-regulating, and thus put themselves at a disadvantage, with respect to evaluation in highly structured courses with frequent enforced deadlines.
DiPerna, James Clyde
Academic enablers have been defined as attitudes and behaviors that facilitate students' participation in, and benefit from, academic instruction in the classroom (J.C. DiPerna & S.N. Elliott, 2000). The purpose of this article is to provide practitioners with an overview of specific academic enablers (motivation, study skills, engagement, and…
Jones, Carolyn A.
While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.
Hughes, Alicia A; Lourea-Waddell, Brittany; Kendall, Philip C
The present study aimed to examine somatic complaints in children with anxiety disorders compared to non-anxious control children and whether somatic complaints predict poorer academic performance. The sample consisted of 108 children and adolescents (aged 8-14 years) assessed by a structured diagnostic interview: 69 with a principal (i.e., most severe and/or interfering) anxiety disorder diagnosis and 39 non-anxious community controls. Established child and parent report measure of somatic complaints, anxiety, and internalizing symptoms were completed. The participants' primary teacher was used to assess academic performance. Findings indicated that children with anxiety disorders reported more somatic complaints than the non-anxious community controls. Furthermore, a greater frequency of somatic complaints uniquely predicted poorer academic performance beyond that accounted for by anxiety and internalizing symptoms based on both child and parent report measures. Knowledge about somatic complaints in children with anxiety disorders and their relation to academic functioning may allow for early identification and prevent academic problems.
Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge
The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood.
Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.
Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S. P.
The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of…
Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Sinuani-Stern, Zila
This case study is the first to track the method used by an Israeli institution of higher education to assess and reward faculty members using a set of performance measures ("Excellence criteria"). The study profiles faculty members who received financial rewards for excellence during 2005-2007, based on the previous year's activities,…
Tuckman, Bruce W.
This study compared high, moderate, and low procrastinators on their (1) frequency and nature of rationalizations to justify procrastination, (2) reported degree of self-regulation, and (3) grades in a web-based course with 216 performances, all with deadlines. One hundred and sixteen college students enrolled in a web-based "study…
Steinmayr, Ricarda; Bipp, Tanja; Spinath, Birgit
Goal orientations are thought to be an important predictor of scholastic achievement. The present paper investigated the joint influence of goal orientations, intelligence, and personality on school performance in a sample of N=520 11th and 12th graders (303 female; mean age M=16.94 years). Intelligence, the Big Five factors of personality…
Sandiford, Janice R.; Montoya, Rolando, Jr.
Higher education institutions receiving public financial support are accountable to the governmental bodies providing their funding. The current accountability movement has generated demands for greater effectiveness and efficiency from public higher education institutions. A recent manifestation of this movement is performance-based funding that…
Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw
In this article, Jessica Wolpaw Reyes investigates the link between lead exposure and student achievement in Massachusetts. Childhood exposure to even low levels of lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, behavior, and cognitive performance. Using a panel dataset of cohorts of children born in the 1990s who were third and fourth graders in the…
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.
Teenagers working more than 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and…
Iqbal, Asif; Aziz, Fakhra; Farooqi, Tahir Khan; Ali, Shabbir
Problem Statement: An extensive literature on Job satisfaction has shown, teachers who are satisfied with their jobs perform better. Along with various indicators of teachers' job satisfaction, variables such as organizational justice (Nojani, Arjmandnia, Afrooz, & Rajabi, 2012), organizational culture (Hosseinkhanzadeh, Hosseinkhanzadeh,…
Cakiroglu, Unal; Erdogdu, Fatih; Kokoc, Mehmet; Atabay, Melek
In the constructivist approach, various self-assessment techniques are being developed to enable students to assess themselves in the learning process. The purpose of the study is to investigate relation between students' preferences in assessment process and students' performances. The study was conducted with 67 sophomore students enrolled in…
Brown, Richard S.
The use of latent class analysis for establishing student performance standards was studied. Latent class analysis (LCA) is an established procedure for investigating the latent structure of a set of data. LCA presumes that groups, classes, or respondents differ qualitatively from one another, and that these differences account for all of the…
Kusurkar, R. A.; Ten Cate, Th. J.; Vos, C. M. P.; Westers, P.; Croiset, G.
Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous…
Al-Twaijry, Abdulrahman Ali
The author's purpose was to identify potential factors possibly affecting student performance in three sequential management-accounting courses: Managerial Accounting (MA), Cost Accounting (CA), and Advanced Managerial Accounting (AMA) within the Saudi Arabian context. The sample, which was used to test the developed hypotheses, included 312…
Denton, David W.
Feedback is an effective instructional practice for improving achievement. The importance of feedback has been understood by teachers for many years, yet recent research has elevated its status. One characteristic of effective feedback is personalized comments, which assist students in understanding their performance. Most research analyzes the…
Gunter, Tracey; Shao, Jing
Since the late 1970s, researchers have examined the relationship between school building condition and student performance. Though many literature reviews have claimed that a relationship exists, no meta-analysis has quantitatively examined this literature. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the existing literature on the relationship…
Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.
College student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educational institutions, educators, and students. The purpose of this study was to determine if student needs for achievement, affiliation, autonomy, and dominance measured by the Needs Assessment Questionnaire (Heckert et al., 2000) could predict academic…
Lau, S; Leung, K
Current research and theory have suggested that the relational domains of family and school experiences are important to children's development. The present study thus examined how relations with parents and school were related to Chinese students' psychosocial and cognitive development in self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. A total of 1668 secondary school students were studied, and results showed that better relation with parents was associated with higher general, academic, appearance, social, and physical ability self-concepts. Better relation with school was associated with higher academic performance, as shown in higher class rank, higher grand total exam scores, and higher scores in Chinese, English, mathematics, physical education, and music. Both poorer relations with parents and school were found to associate with more self-reported delinquency as well as more school records of misconduct.
Kiekens, Glenn; Claes, Laurence; Demyttenaere, Koen; Auerbach, Randy P; Green, Jennifer G; Kessler, Ronald C; Mortier, Philippe; Nock, Matthew K; Bruffaerts, Ronny
We examined whether nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with academic performance in college freshmen, using census-based web surveys (N = 7,527; response = 65.4%). NSSI was assessed with items from the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview and subsequently linked with the administratively recorded academic year percentage (AYP). Freshmen with lifetime and 12-month NSSI showed a reduction in AYP of 3.4% and 5.9%, respectively. The college environment was found to moderate the effect of 12-month NSSI, with more strongly reduced AYPs in departments with higher-than-average mean departmental AYPs. The findings suggest that overall stress and test anxiety are underlying processes between NSSI membership and academic performance.
Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L
This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly hours in self-care were trichotomized into low (0-3), moderate (4-9), and high (10-15). Moderate and high amounts of self-care were linked to increased aggression and decreased academic performance for children from high-crime areas (11,230 crimes per 100,000 persons) but not average-crime areas, when the authors controlled for neighborhood, family, and child covariates. In high-crime areas, academic outcomes were more favorable when self-care occurred in combination with after-school program participation.
de Lima, Márcia Gabriela Rodrigues; Nietsche, Elisabeta Albertina; dos Santos, Solange Capaverde; Teixeira, Joice Ane; Bottega, Janilene Camara; Nicola, Glaucia Dal Omo; Ilha, Silomar
This is an integrative literature review aimed at finding out how death, teaching about death and the dying process have been addressed in scientific publications in the health field. The research was performed using the Literatura da América Latina e Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e Base de Dados em Enfermagem (Latin America and Caribe Health Sciences Literature and Nursing Database) databases with the descriptors "death" and "teach". The survey covered national publications between 1998 and 2010, 14 articles were selected to compose the corpus of the study. The results indicated the lack of proper training by students, teachers and other health professionals to deal with death, since they had little or no preparation throughout their academic life. Thus, stimulating scientific production within this theme promotes a bigger diffusion of this specific knowledge and helps in the qualification and training of professionals to deal with death and the dying process.
Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Katsumi
Visual working memory (VWM) enables active maintenance of goal-relevant visual information in a readily accessible state. The storage capacity of VWM is severely limited, often as few as 3 simple items. Thus, it is crucial to restrict distractor information from consuming VWM capacity. The current study investigated how VWM storage and distractor resistance develop during childhood in relation to academic performance in the classroom. Elementary school children (7- to 12-year-olds) and adults (total N=140) completed a VWM task with and without visual/verbal distractors during the retention period. The results showed that VWM performance with and without distractors developed at similar rates until reaching adult levels at 10years of age. In addition, higher VWM performance without distractors was associated with higher academic scores in literacy (reading and writing), mathematics, and science for the younger children (7- to 9-year-olds), whereas these academic scores for the older children (10- to 12-year-olds) were associated with VWM performance with visual distractors. Taken together, these results suggest that VWM storage and distractor resistance develop at a similar rate, whereas their contributions to academic performance differ with age.
Psychological correlates of academic performance have always been of high relevance to psychological research. The relation between psychometric intelligence and academic performance is one of the most consistent and well-established findings in psychology. It is hypothesized that intelligence puts a limit on what an individual can learn or achieve. Moreover, a growing body of literature indicates a relationship between personality traits and academic performance. This relationship helps us to better understand how an individual will learn or achieve their goals. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relationship between psychological correlates of academic performance by exploring the potentially moderating role of prior education. The participants in this study differed in the type of high school they attended. They went either to gymnasium, a general education type of high school that prepares students specifically for university studies, or to vocational school, which prepares students both for the labour market and for further studies. In this study, we used archival data of psychological testing during career guidance in the final year of high school, and information about the university graduation of those who received guidance. The psychological measures included intelligence, personality and general knowledge. The results show that gymnasium students had greater chances of performing well at university, and that this relationship exceeds the contribution of intelligence and personality traits to university graduation. Moreover, psychological measures did not interact with type of high school, which indicates that students from different school types do not profit from certain individual characteristics. PMID:27695073
Madhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Cholleti Sudheer; Naik, Eslavath Seena; Panda, Sujit; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Barik, Ashish Kumar
Trait procrastination is believed to be highly prevalent among college students and detrimental to their educational performance. As the scenario among dental students is virtually unknown, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students and to analyze its influence on their academic performance. A total of 174 fourth-year dental students from three dental colleges in India voluntarily completed the Lay's Procrastination Scale-student version (LPS). The mean percentage marks scored in the subsequent final university examinations were used as a measure of academic performance. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ≥60). Mann-Whitney U test and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the influence of age and gender on procrastination severity, and the latter was again used to analyze the association between procrastination severity and academic performance. The results indicated that 27 percent (n=47) of the students exhibited a significant extent of trait procrastination; neither age nor gender affected its severity (p<0.05). Procrastination had a significant and negative impact on the academic performance of the student (beta=-0.150, p=0.039). These findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education.
Urrila, Anna S.; Artiges, Eric; Massicotte, Jessica; Miranda, Ruben; Vulser, Hélène; Bézivin-Frere, Pauline; Lapidaire, Winok; Lemaître, Hervé; Penttilä, Jani; Conrod, Patricia J.; Garavan, Hugh; Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Banaschewski, Tobias; Flor, Herta; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Poutska, Louise; Nees, Frauke; Grimmer, Yvonne; Struve, Maren; Heinz, Andeas; Ströhle, Andreas; Kappel, Viola; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Schwartz, Yanick; Thyreau, Benjamin; Ireland, James; Rogers, John; Bordas, Nadège; Bricaud, Zuleima; Filippi, Irina; Galinowski, André; Gollier-Briant, Fanny; Ménard, Vincent; Schumann, Gunter; Desrivières, Sylvane; Cattrell, Anna; Goodman, Robert; Stringaris, Argyris; Nymberg, Charlotte; Reed, Laurence; Barker, Gareth J; Ittermann, Berndt; Brühl, Ruediger; Smolka, Michael; Hübner, Thomas; Müller, Kathrin; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Büchel, Christian; Bromberg, Uli; Gallinat, Jurgen; Fadai, Tahmine; Gowland, Pennylaire; Lawrence, C; Paus, Tomas
Here we report the first and most robust evidence about how sleep habits are associated with regional brain grey matter volumes and school grade average in early adolescence. Shorter time in bed during weekdays, and later weekend sleeping hours correlate with smaller brain grey matter volumes in frontal, anterior cingulate, and precuneus cortex regions. Poor school grade average associates with later weekend bedtime and smaller grey matter volumes in medial brain regions. The medial prefrontal - anterior cingulate cortex appears most tightly related to the adolescents’ variations in sleep habits, as its volume correlates inversely with both weekend bedtime and wake up time, and also with poor school performance. These findings suggest that sleep habits, notably during the weekends, have an alarming link with both the structure of the adolescent brain and school performance, and thus highlight the need for informed interventions. PMID:28181512
Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W
Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary educational aspirations. The data for this study came from two large national surveys--the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (N = 38,707 students; 51% male, 77% White, MAge = 14.72) and the School Survey on Crime and Safety (N = 10,340 schools; average student composition of 50% male, 57% White). The results provided no evidence that visible security measures had consistent beneficial effects on adolescents' academic outcomes; some security utilization patterns had modest detrimental effects on adolescents' academic outcomes, particularly the heavy surveillance patterns observed in a small subset of high schools serving predominantly low socioeconomic students. The findings of this study provide no evidence that visible security measures have any sizeable effects on academic performance, attendance, or postsecondary aspirations among U.S. middle and high school students.
Whyte, Douglas G; Madigan, Veronica; Drinkwater, Eric J
The expanding scope of practice of paramedics and nurses demands they possess a sophisticated knowledge of bioscience to enable them to think critically and make rational clinical decisions. It is well documented that nursing students struggle with bioscience but there are no studies examining the performance of paramedic students in this crucial subject. In this study, we compared the academic performance of first year nursing, paramedic and nursing/paramedic double degree students in a bioscience subject. Regression analyses were used to identify predictors of academic success. Data revealed a low success rate in bioscience for all three degree programs (63.2, 58.8, and 67.6% respectively) and a strong correlation between academic success in bioscience and non-bioscience subjects (r(2)=0.49). The best predictors of overall academic success were the University Admission Index score and mature entry into the course. Previous study of biology was associated with an increased bioscience and overall GPA but not with non-bioscience grades. Discriminant analysis was used to develop a model that could predict overall academic success with an accuracy of 78.5%. These criteria may be useful during the admission process and for the early identification of students at risk of failure.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n = 292; males: 53.8%) completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days), occasional (3-4 days), or frequent (5-7 days). Participants' CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal, and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS) for verbal, non-verbal, quantitative reasoning, and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language, and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted). However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research, were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.
Devine, Amy; Hill, Francesca; Szűcs, Dénes
Introduction Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. Method We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8–9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11–13). We conducted latent profile analysis of students’ anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance. Results Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety). Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety. Conclusions There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one’s anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance. PMID:28350857
Wilson, Gerald L.
Results of an examination of research literature on performance-appraisal interviewing and its implications are presented in this report. The appraisal interview functions to (1) provide feedback on performance, (2) counsel and provide help, (3) discover what the employee is thinking, (4) teach the employee to solve problems, (5) help the employee…
Musani, Suhaina; Aziz Jemain, Abdul
Determination rank is structuring alternatives in order of priority. It is based on the criteria determined for each alternative involved. Evaluation criteria are performed and then a composite index composed of each alternative for the purpose of arranging in order of preference alternatives. This practice is known as multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). There are several common approaches to MCDM, one of the practice is known as VIKOR (Multi-criteria Optimization and Compromise Solution). The objective of this study is to develop a rational method for school ranking based on linguistic information of a criterion. The school represents an alternative, while the results for a number of subjects as the criterion. The results of the examination for a course, is given according to the student percentage of each grade. Five grades of excellence, honours, average, pass and fail is used to indicate a level of achievement in linguistics. Linguistic variables are transformed to fuzzy numbers to form a composite index of school performance. Results showed that fuzzy set theory can solve the limitations of using MCDM when there is uncertainty problems exist in the data.
Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama
The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…
Gravenhorst, Robynne M.
This study examines the interaction between learning styles and academic performance in an anatomy course that blends traditional lecture with an array of hands-on activities. Participants were 19 students (ranging from 18 to 24 years of age) at Columbia College, Chicago. The Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles and a 25-item pre-test and…
Dimkpa, Daisy I.
This paper explores the teaching profession and the impact of teachers' conduct on the academic performance of students. It noted that as teaching is one of the oldest and well respected professions in the world, the role of the teacher in the effective delivery of knowledge and in bringing about a conducive atmosphere for learning cannot be over…
This Information Capsule answers the most frequently asked questions about M-DCPS' academic performance during the 2011-2012 school year. Over the past year, the Florida Department of Education made over 28 changes to the school grading formula, including the transition to new, more rigorous assessments, new accountability components, and…
Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He
The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended.
Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu
This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…
Apaak, Daniel; Sarpong, Emmanuel Osei
This paper examined internal challenges affecting academic performance of student-athletes in Ghanaian public universities, using a descriptive survey research design. Proportionate random sampling technique was employed to select Three Hundred and Thirty-Two (332) respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was…
Dvorak, Tomas; Jia, Miaoqing
This study analyzes the relationship between students' online work habits and academic performance. We utilize data from logs recorded by a course management system (CMS) in two courses at a small liberal arts college in the U.S. Both courses required the completion of a large number of online assignments. We measure three aspects of students'…
Everaert, Patricia; Opdecam, Evelien; Maussen, Sophie
Previous literature calls for further investigation in terms of precedents and consequences of learning approaches (deep learning and surface learning). Motivation as precedent and time spent and academic performance as consequences are addressed in this paper. The study is administered in a first-year undergraduate course. Results show that the…
Sabates, Ricardo; Feinstein, Leon; Shingal, Anirudh
This paper focuses on the links between inequality in academic performance and juvenile conviction rates for violent crime, stealing from another person, burglary in a dwelling and racially motivated offences. We use area-based aggregate data to model this relationship. Our results show that, above and beyond impacts of absolute access to…
Hesser, Al; Lewis, Lloyd
A study explored predictors of African-American and other nontraditional medical students' first-year academic performance at the Medical College of Georgia. Variables included undergraduate grades and grades in a summer prematriculation program (SPP) featuring biochemistry, anatomy, and immunology courses. SPP grades were found useful in…
Cunningham, M. Jo; Trickey, Becki A.
The purpose of this study was to determine any correlation between learning styles and performance in the academic and clinical course work of occupational therapy students at the Medical University of South Carolina. (Availability: RAM Associates LTD., P.O. Box N, Laurel, MD 20707) (SSH)
Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa
Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…
Pettit, Michele L.; DeBarr, Kathy A.
Objective: This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants: Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Methods: Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale and items to…
Richmond, Aaron S.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Curl, Layton S.; Broussard, Kristin A.
During the past decades, little research has investigated the effects of immersion scheduling on the psychology classroom. Therefore, we sought to compare academic performance of students in 2-week immersion psychology courses to that of students in traditional 16-week courses. In Study 1, students who received instruction in a 2-week immersion…
This research investigated the relationship between cognitive flexibility and openness to change and their effects on academic performance among college students at National Taiwan University in Taipei, Taiwan. Using a quantitative purposeful sampling strategy, data were collected in classroom settings from 770 undergraduate voluntary…
Thiele, Tamara; Singleton, Alexander; Pope, Daniel; Stanistreet, Debbi
Students' trajectories into university are often uniquely dependent on school qualifications though these alone are limited as predictors of academic potential. This study endorses this, examining associations between school grades, school type, school performance, socio-economic deprivation, neighbourhood participation, sex and academic…
Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Austin, M. Jill
This study examined business students' perceptions of four objectives (i.e., Enjoyment, Learning, Motivation, and Career Application) across five teaching technologies (i.e., Projector, PowerPoint, Video, the Internet, and Lecture), business professors' effective application of technologies, and students' academic performance. We collected data…
Van der Westhuizen, C. P.; Nel, Carisma; Richter, Barry W.
This article discusses the effect of the integration of the Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) as an ICT-variant on the academic performance of full-time geography teacher students enrolled for a Bachelor of Education (B. Ed.) degree at a rural university in a developing country. Action research (which includes both quantitative and qualitative…
Fox, Alison; Stevenson, Lorna; Connelly, Patricia; Duff, Angus; Dunlop, Angela
This article considers the impact of a student peer-mentoring programme (the Mentor Accountant Project, MAP) on first-year undergraduates' academic performance. The development of MAP was informed by reference to extant literature; it relies on the voluntary services of third-year students who then act as mentors to first-year student mentees in…
Rulinda, Ephrard; Role, Elizabeth; Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku
This study examined students' perception on academic performance using five-factor ratings namely, principal's instructional leadership, school climate, school facilities, teachers' effectiveness and family support. Data for this study were collected from selected Parent's Private Seventh-Day Adventist Secondary Schools (PPSDASS) in Southern…
Lang, Eric L.; Rossi, Robert J.
The influences of student-level and campus factors on the academic performance of intercollegiate athletes were studied. Approximately 80 full-time student athletes were selected from each of 42 institutions in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Data were drawn from the 1987-88 National Study of Intercollegiate…
Song, Lynda Jiwen; Huang, Guo-hua; Peng, Kelly Z.; Law, Kenneth S.; Wong, Chi-Sum; Chen, Zhijun
This study considers the debate about whether emotional intelligence (EI) has incremental validity over and above traditional intelligence dimensions. We propose that EI and general mental abilities (GMA) differ in predicting academic performance and the quality of social interactions among college students. Using two college student samples, we…
Edison, David Allen
The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of Texas high school principals' organizational commitment and the academic performance of the high schools served by the principals. Three components of principal organizational commitment--affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment--were assessed using the…
Jabari, Kamran; Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
Present study examined the relationship between stress among academic staff and students' satisfaction of their performances in Payame Noor University (PNU) of Miandoab City, Iran in 2014. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society…
Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Godwin-Maduike, Chinwe Constance
The aim of the study was to analyze effects of social media on academic performance of business education students in south-east Nigeria. To achieve this, an instrument was designed and sent out to four universities in south-east Nigeria. Out of the 600 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 520 were completely filled and returned giving a…
Akiri, Agharuwhe A.
The study is based on the assessment of instructional and administrative strategies applied by principals to improve academic performance of students in schools. This simply means that the individual talents of everyone in school needs to be maximized for the effective benefit of the school, students, parents, and the society at large. It is…
Rugsaken, Kris T.; Robertson, Jacqueline A.; Jones, James A.
A study investigated the usefulness of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory in predicting college students' academic performance, focusing on whether the scores enhance the accuracy of traditional predictors such as college entrance examinations and high school rank. Results indicate the scores produce a slight but not significant increase…
Cortes, Kalena E.
This paper analyzes the relationship between age at arrival and immigrant-receiving high schools (i.e., enclave schools) on the academic performance of first- and second-generation immigrant children using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). The CILS survey was conducted in two major immigrant-receiving cities in the…
Rodriguez, Tomas D.
Investigated whether second generation youth were academically affected by oppositional attitudes depending upon the relative proportion of African American students enrolled in their schools. Longitudinal data indicated that Nicaraguan students' grade point average and Cuban and Nicaraguan students' mathematics performance declined with higher…
Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…
Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg
The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…
Poropat, Arthur E.
Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…
Logan, Jennifer; Hughes, Traci; Logan, Brian
Current observations from the National Center for Education Statistics demonstrate the dramatic increase in college student employment over the past few decades. Not only are more students employed than in previous decades, students are working more hours. This could lead to declines in academic performance as hours worked increase, resulting in…
Magagula, C. M.; Ngwenya, A. P.
This study examined (1) the profile of the distance and on-campus learners, (2) the academic performance of distance and on-campus learners, (3) the advantages and disadvantages of learning through distance education and on-campus education, and (4) how the disadvantages of learning through distance education could be reduced. The study found that…
Dreyer, Lorna M.; Singh, Suzanne A. M.
This article examines the subjective life experiences of racial minority Xhosa speakers and the factors that contribute to their continued poor academic performance in a previously Whites-only school in South Africa. Vygotskian sociocultural perspective in relation to creating a democratic educational system and Bronfenbrenner's biosystemic theory…
Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos
Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…
Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.
The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…
Zacherman, Avi; Foubert, John
The effects of time spent in cocurricular activities on academic performance was tested. A curvilinear relationship between hours per week spent involved in cocurricular activities and grade point average was discovered such that a low amount of cocurricular involvement was beneficial to grades, while a high amount can potentially hurt academic…
Al-Alwan, Ahmed F.
The author proposed a model to explain how parental involvement and school engagement related to academic performance. Participants were (671) 9th and 10th graders students who completed two scales of "parental involvement" and "school engagement" in their regular classrooms. Results of the path analysis suggested that the…
Yip, Michael C. W.
The present study examines the dynamic relationship between academic performance of high school students and their respective learning and study strategies. Two hundred thirty-six high school students were recruited to participate in this study by completing a Chinese version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory--LASSI, to probe into the…
Tymon, Alex; Batistic, Sasa
This study contributes to proactivity theory and debate on how universities meet competing stakeholder demands in an increasingly marketized higher education environment. We explore how the interplay between the stable facet of proactive personality and the situated behaviour of personal initiative influence academic performance. We hypothesized…
The relationship between weight status and academic performance among 2nd grade students was examined. We hypothesized that overweight and obese students would have poorer grades than students who were normal weight. The sample was composed of 798 ethnically diverse children (White=28%, Black=23%, H...
Weiss, Christopher C.; García, Emma
This paper investigates the relationship between student engagement--with teachers and schools--and academic performance in Mexico. It uses hierarchical linear models and data from the OECD 2003 PISA study to examine the relative importance of engagement in comparison to other educational inputs--school and family characteristics--as predictors of…
Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.
This paper draws attention to a subtle, but concerning, empirical challenge common in panel data models that seek to estimate the relationship between student transfers and district academic performance. Specifically, if such models have a dynamic element, and if the estimator controls for unobserved traits by including district-level effects,…
Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin
We assessed the impact of expert students' instructional quality on the academic performance of novice students in 12th-grade physics classes organized in an expert model of cooperative learning ("jigsaw classroom"). The instructional quality of 129 expert students was measured by a newly developed rating system. As expected, when…
Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi
Motivated by an increasing number of international students in UK higher education, this study investigates the effect of year-long placements on the academic performance of 268 accounting and finance students enrolled between 2006 and 2009. The results show differences between UK and international students although both statistically and…
Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.
Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…
Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.
We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…
Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.
This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…
Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary
Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation.
Musa, Alice K.J.
The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…
White-Johnson, Rhonda L.
Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…
Owston, Ron; Lupshenyuk, Denys; Wideman, Herb
Many higher education institutions are now digitally capturing lectures in courses and making them available on the Web for students to view anytime and in anyplace. This study is an attempt to understand the relationship between student perceptions of lecture capture and academic performance in large undergraduate courses where the practice is…
Perry, Raymond C. W.; Braun, Rebecca A.; Cantu, Michelle; Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Chung, Paul J.
Background: Text messaging is an increasingly common mode of communication, especially among adolescents, and frequency of texting may be a measure of one's sociability. This study examined how text messaging ("texting") frequency and academic performance are associated with adolescent sexual behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey…
Usman, Yunusa Dangara
This study examined the Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State with reference to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). Five research questions were used to guide the study to a rational conclusion. Descriptive Survey method was adopted in which Instructional Supervision…
Richardson, Amy; Chandra, Anita; Martin, Laurie T.; Setodji, Claude Messan; Hallmark, Bryan W.; Campbell, Nancy F.; Hawkins, Stacy; Grady, Patrick
Long and frequent deployments, with short dwell times in between, have placed stresses on Army children and families already challenged by frequent moves and parental absences. RAND Arroyo Center was asked by the Army to examine the effects of parental deployments on children's academic performance as well as their emotional and behavioral…
Li, Gang; Chen, Wei; Duanmu, Jing-Lin
With the increasing number of international students travelling to well-developed countries for higher education, there has been a growing interest in exploring the factors that influence their academic performance during their overseas studies. This study aims to give an insight into international students' learning experience by investigating…
Yip, Michael C. W.
Empirical research supports the idea that differences in academic performance among students are largely due to their different learning and study strategies. The strategies, in turn, affect the self-efficacy of the students. Two hundred university students were recruited to participate in this study by completing a revised Chinese version of the…
Casey, Alice; Layte, Richard; Lyons, Sean; Silles, Mary
A recent rise in home computer ownership has seen a growing number of children using computers and accessing the internet from a younger age. This paper examines the link between children's home computing and their academic performance in the areas of reading and mathematics. Data from the nine-year-old cohort of the Growing Up in Ireland survey…
Yu, May Leen; Hamid, Suraya; Ijab, Mohamad Taha; Soo, Hsaio Pei
This research paper is a pilot study that investigated the suitability of adopting an automated balanced scorecard for managing and measuring the performance excellence of academic staffs in the higher education setting. A comprehensive study of related literature with requirements elicited from the target population in a selected premier…
Andrade Adaniya, Fernando Humberto
Children and adolescents are exposed to multiple contextual influences along their development towards adulthood. Before they transition to adulthood, adolescents acquire skills and knowledge usually in schools, which are one of the most influential contexts during adolescence. During school years performing well academically can generate better…
Ratner, Hilary Horn; Chiodo, Lisa; Covington, Chandice; Sokol, Robert J.; Ager, Joel; Delaney-Black, Virginia
Community violence exposure (CVE), a critical urban problem, is associated with negative academic outcomes. Children who report feeling safe, however, may perform better than those who do not. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among CVE, feelings of safety, and cognitive outcomes among 6- and 7-year-olds born to women…
Bowen, Gary L.; Hopson, Laura M.; Rose, Roderick A.; Glennie, Elizabeth J.
Self-report data from 2,088 sixth-grade students in 11 middle schools in North Carolina were combined with administrative data on their eighth-grade end-of-the-year achievement scores in math and reading to examine the influence of students' perceived parental school behavior expectations on their academic performance. Through use of multilevel…
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…
Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi
As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Jin, Bora
In this study, the authors use psycho-cultural models of ethnic parental theories and acculturation to look at Indo Caribbean immigrant beliefs concerning the relationship between the amount of time children play and their early academic performance. During home interviews, fifty-seven Indo Caribbean couples offered their opinions about the…
Phan, Huy P.
Introduction: This article reports on a two-phase study that was conducted looking at study processing strategies, reflective thinking practice, and academic performance. Phase I is a mediational analysis of conceptual model that we have developed involving examination of direct and mediating effects between the four phases of reflection (habitual…
This study focuses on the academic performance of community college transfer students at four-year institutions. It uses a nationally representative sample from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88/2000) and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS). Results from an Ordinary Least Squares regression model suggest…
Brown, Tony N.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lesane-Brown, Chase L.
This study examined the link between family ethnic/race socialization and Black kindergarteners' and first graders' academic performance as measured by their general knowledge, math, and reading assessment scores. Drawing on identity theory, the authors predicted that repeated instances of family ethnic/race socialization would increase academic…
Flores de Apodaca, Roberto; Gentling, Dana G.; Steinhaus, Joanna K.; Rosenberg, Elena A.
This study examined parental involvement as a mediator of the academic performance of middle school students with special needs. The study built on the different types of parental involvement theorized by Epstein and colleagues (2002) and studied empirically by Fan and Chen (2001). Using a specially developed questionnaire, a sample of 82 parents…
Oluwatayo, Adedapo Adewunmi; Aderonmu, Peter A.; Aduwo, Egidario B.
Scholars have agreed that the way in which students perceive their learning environments influences their academic performance. Empirical studies that focus on architecture students, however, have been very scarce. This is the gap that an attempt is filled in this study. A questionnaire survey of 273 students in a school of architecture in Nigeria…
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Three waves of panel data from 7,897 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Studies have been used to investigate whether a stabilized postdivorce family environment benefits adolescents' academic performance trajectories. The analyses indicate that compared with peers who grow up in stable postdivorce families, children of divorce who…
Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.
This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…
Ebong, Samuel T.
The study investigated parental background on student's academic performance in secondary schools in Abak local government, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A survey design was adopted for the study. One thousand four hundred and forty (1440) senior secondary three (SS3) Physics students were drawn by simple random sampling from 12 Schools, six (6) each…
Jhangiani, Rajiv S.
The present study investigates the impact of participation in a peer assessment activity on subsequent academic performance. Students in two sections of an introductory psychology course completed a practice quiz 1 week prior to each of three course exams. Students in the experimental group participated in a five-step double-blind peer assessment…
Kolawole, E. B.
This study investigated the effects of the cooperative and competitive learning on academic performance of students in mathematics in order to find out which one of them is the more effective learning strategy. The sample of the study was 400 Senior Secondary Schools III, Mathematics students made up of 240 boys and 160 girls randomly selected…
Shawer, Saad Fathy
This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…
Samuolis, Jessica; Lazowski, Andrew; Kessler, Janice
Objectives: This paper explores the extent to which curriculum infusion (CI) impacted undergraduate students' alcohol use, perceived peer alcohol use, use of protective behavioural strategies, academic performance and course engagement. Design: Two faculty members infused content on norms and protective behavioural strategies into selected…
Bertheussen, Bernt Arne; Myrland, Øystein
This study reports on the effect of student engagement in digital learning activities on academic performance for 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate finance course. Interactive practice and exam problem files were available to each student, and individual download activity was automatically recorded during the first 50 days of the course.…
The author examined the relationship between student engagement and academic performance, using U.S. data of the Program for International Student Assessment 2000. The sample comprised 3,268 fifteen-year-old students from 121 U.S. schools. Multilevel analysis showed that behavioral engagement (defined as effort and perseverance in learning) and…
Oredein, Afolakemi; Awodun, Adebisi
The impact of science teachers' motivation on science students' academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo and Ekiti States of Nigeria was investigated in this study. This was a descriptive survey research which was questionnaire based and past WAEC O/L ((May/June 2008 and 2009) student results on the science subjects. The population…
Burns, Jolene; Byrne, Susan; Kiedaisch, Jan; Thiele, Nancy; Weber, Gwyn
This Action Research Project implemented a program for improving human relation skills intended to raise the academic performance level of students. The target population consists of kindergarten, seventh grade (regular/at-risk), and high school (regular/behavior disordered) students. Analysis of both research literature and problem evidence…
Flores, Alberto M.
In an increasingly competitive world, many universities have tried to improve academic performance, retention and graduation rates by introducing online education or mentoring. Although researchers have explored university mentoring using qualitative methods, few have addressed the quantitative connection between student mentoring and academic…
Andrietti, Vincenzo; Velasco, Carlos
The authors analyze matched administrative survey data on economics students enrolled in two econometrics courses offered in consecutive terms at a major public university in Spain to assess the impact of lecture attendance and study time on academic performance. Using proxy variables in a cross-sectional regression setting, they find a positive…
Colvin, Richard Lee
California's Academic Performance Index (API) is the state's main accountability metric. Authorized by the Legislature in 1999, around the time California was implementing rigorous new standards in math, science, social studies, and English language arts, the API relies heavily on the results of standardized tests designed to align with those…
Komarraju, Meera; Ramsey, Alex; Rinella, Virginia
Identifying the best predictors of academic performance is crucial for postsecondary institutions seeking students with the greatest promise. We investigated the relative strength of standardized test scores (ACT), high school GPA, and non-cognitive, college readiness skills in predicting college GPA. College freshmen (505) completed the 108-item…
Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.
This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…
Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.
Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99, p < .001] and year 3 [R2Δ of 0.28, F(1,169) = 76.80, p < .001]. Learning environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3. The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Conclusions Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception. PMID:27570912
Carney, Claire; McNeish, Sharon; McColl, John
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between part time working, mental and physical health and academic performance. Fifty per cent of the undergraduate full time respondents had part time jobs. Mean pay per hour was ?4.25 and mean number of hours worked was 14 hours. When the current state of students' health was compared to…
Bella, Surjit K.; Huba, Mary E.
The relationship between type of work (work-study, university employment, and food service) and academic performance was examined to determine whether students with different types of jobs at Iowa State differed in their cumulative grade-point averages. They did not differ among themselves or from the nonworking students. (MLW)
Kot, Felly Chiteng; Jones, Jennifer L.
This study uses three cohorts of first-time, full-time undergraduate students (N = 8,652) at a large, metropolitan, public research university to examine the impact of student use of three library resources (workstations, study rooms, and research clinics) on academic performance. To deal with self-selection bias and estimate this impact more…
Schillerstrom, Jason E.; Lutz, Mary
Objective: In order to better manage medical student absences during the psychiatry clerkship, a policy allowing students to miss up to 3 days without penalty was developed. The purpose of this study was to describe absence patterns and compare academic performance between students with and without absences. Method: Authors reviewed the academic…
Nadler, Dustin R.; Komarraju, Meera
Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of stereotype threat and autonomy support on the test performance of 190 African American college students. Participants completed a set of 7 easy and 7 difficult problems from Raven's Progressive Matrices and a survey including measures of Academic Self-Concept, Learning Climate, and…
An, Brian P.
I examine the influence of dual enrollment, a program that allows students to take college courses and earn college credits while in high school, on academic performance and college readiness. Advocates consider dual enrollment as a way to transition high school students into college, and they further claim that these programs benefit students…
Coulson, Andrew J.
Long-term trends in academic performance and spending are valuable tools for evaluating past education policies and informing current ones. But such data have been scarce at the state level, where the most important education policy decisions are made. State spending data exist reaching back to the 1960s, but the figures have been scattered across…
Leske, Gary S.; Ripa, Louis
Performance in a second-year course in pedodontics/orthodontics for three classes at the State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine who received grades under an honors/pass/fail system was compared to that of three academically comparable classes that received letter grades. (Author/MLW)
Johansen, Vegard; Schanke, Tuva
Many European countries have launched policy strategies for entrepreneurship education in the past decade. The result is a significant increase of entrepreneurship education in schools and higher education institutions in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This…
Hughes, Alicia A.; Lourea-Waddell, Brittany; Kendall, Philip C.
The present study aimed to examine somatic complaints in children with anxiety disorders compared to non-anxious control children and whether somatic complaints predict poorer academic performance. The sample consisted of 108 children and adolescents (aged 8-14 years) assessed by a structured diagnostic interview: 69 with a principal (i.e., most…
Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…
Poropat, Arthur E.
This article reports a meta-analysis of personality-academic performance relationships, based on the 5-factor model, in which cumulative sample sizes ranged to over 70,000. Most analyzed studies came from the tertiary level of education, but there were similar aggregate samples from secondary and tertiary education. There was a comparatively…
Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.
Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…
Sembiring, Maximus Gorky
Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…
Alfano, Halley J.; Eduljee, Nina B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between work, levels of involvement and academic performance between residential and commuter students. One hundred and eight undergraduate students at a private college in the Northeast were surveyed. Surveys aimed at examining work and levels of involvement were administered to the…
Griffin, Richard; MacKewn, Angie; Moser, Ernest; VanVuren, Ken W.
Universities and colleges are very interested in understanding the factors that influence their students' academic performance. This paper describes a study that was conducted at a mid-sized public university in the mid-south, USA, to examine this issue. In this study, the 10-scale, Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) (Weinstein et…
Pitt, Victoria; Powis, David; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Hunter, Sharyn
Predicted workforce shortages have resulted in government initiatives to increase student numbers in preregistration nursing education. In tandem schools of nursing need to ensure students' progress and complete. The aim of this review was to identify factors that influence preregistration nursing students' academic performance, clinical performance and attrition. An integrative review of both quantitative and qualitative literature was conducted using validated appraisal checklists. The review included studies published from 1999 to 2011 in the databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest nursing, Proquest Education (via Proquest 5000), ERIC, Journals@Ovid, PsychINFO and ScienceDirect. Studies were categorised according to their impact on academic progression, clinical progression and attrition. Forty four studies were found; most used quantitative methodologies. The review identified that few studies explored factors that impact on students' clinical performance. The four categories that potentially impact on nursing students' academic performance and attrition were: demographic, academic, cognitive and personality/behavioural factors. The challenge for universities committed to students' success is to develop strategies aimed at addressing these factors that are appropriate to specific contexts and student cohorts.
Shawer, Saad F.
This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…
Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L.
This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly…
Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…
Chesmore, Ashley A.; Winston, Willie, III; Brady, Sonya S.
A social support and coping framework informed the present research on children's academic behavior and performance. Forty-six African American children aged 8-12 years were recruited from the 2011/2012 enrollment list of a partnering school. Data on children's resources for resilience (e.g., coping skills, perceived support from caregivers) were…
Woodman, Richard J.; Parappilly, Maria B.
The success of peer review of teaching (PRT) in shaping teaching practice during an academic's formative years may depend on the peers' teaching experience and the frequency of evaluation. Two Australian early-career University lecturers with no previous experience of peer review performed a single PRT on one another following a one week academic…
Ronai, Ann K.; And Others
Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)