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Sample records for academic plastic surgery

  1. [Science and research in academic plastic surgery in Germany].

    PubMed

    Giunta, R E; Machens, H-G

    2009-12-01

    Plastic surgery has passed through a very positive evolution in the last decades on the solid fundament of constantly developing academic plastic surgery. Aim of this paper is an objective evaluation of the current status of academic plastic surgery regarding research topics, currently available ressources and scientific outcome based on a questionnaire. The return rate of the questionnaire in academic departments was 92%. Main topics in research besides wound healing were topics from regenerative medicine such as tissue engineering, biomaterials, genetherapy and angiogenesis with the main focus on skin and fat tissues. In the past five years a total of 25 million Euros of third party research grants were raised. Research relied mainly on interdisciplinary research facilities. Regarding the scientific outcome more than 200 scientific papers were published in basic science research journals having an impactfactor higher than two. These results clearly demonstrate that plastic surgery is scientifically highly productive in academic surroundings where independent departments are established. Considering that independent units of plastic surgery exist in a relatively small number of all 36 university hospitals in germany, it has to be claimed for further independent departments so to provide adequate research facilities for further evolution of academic plastic surgery.

  2. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  3. Fundraising and philanthropy in plastic surgery: an essential tool for academic excellence.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Michael L; Ahmad, Jamil; Rohrich, Rod J

    2011-05-01

    In a time of multiple economic challenges in healthcare and society as a whole, academic plastic surgery units are also struggling to support teaching initiatives, research programs, and poorly remunerative patient care activities. A practical, available, and realistic solution is the establishment of formal fundraising and philanthropic efforts within plastic surgery divisions, sections, and departments. An understanding of donors and their motivations and how the fundraising process operates can lead to a successful long-term fundraising effort, benefitting various areas of the academic plastic surgery unit. Fundraising and philanthropic efforts are essential for the continued success and survival of academic plastic surgery units and will be requisite to ensure that education, research, and clinical programs flourish well into the future.

  4. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the ... Plastic Surgery Statistics 2005 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics Stats Report 2016 National Clearinghouse of ...

  5. Do Plastic Surgery Programs with Integrated Residencies or Subspecialty Fellowships Have Increased Academic Productivity?

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Stephen P.; Valsangkar, Nakul P.; Sood, Rajiv; Socas, Juan; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surgical training pathways on the academic performance of plastic surgical divisions. Methods: Eighty-two academic parameters for 338 plastic surgeons (PS), 1737 general surgeons (GS), and 1689 specialist surgeons (SS) from the top 55 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded academic departments of surgery were examined using data gathered from websites, SCOPUS, and NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. Results: The median size of a PS division was 7 faculty members. PS faculty had lower median publications (P)/citations (C) (ie, P/C) than GS and SS (PS: 25/328, GS: 35/607, and SS: 40/713, P < 0.05). Publication and citation differences were observed at all ranks: assistant professor (PS: 11/101, GS: 13/169, and SS: 19/249), associate professor (PS: 33/342, GS: 40/691, and SS: 44/780), and professor (PS: 57/968, GS: 97/2451, and SS: 101/2376). PS had a lower percentage of faculty with current/former NIH funding (PS: 13.5%, GS: 22.8%, and SS: 25.1%, P < 0.05). Academic productivity for PS faculty was improved in integrated programs. P/C for PS faculty from divisions with traditional 3-year fellowships was 19/153, integrated 6-year residency was 25/329, and both traditional and 6-year programs were 27/344, P < 0.05. Craniofacial and hand fellowships increased productivity within the integrated residency programs. P/C for programs with a craniofacial fellowship were 32/364 and for those that additionally had a hand fellowship were 45/536. PS faculty at divisions with integrated training programs also had a higher frequency of NIH funding. Conclusions: PS divisions vary in degree of academic productivity. Dramatically improved scholarly output is observed with integrated residency training programs and advanced specialty fellowships. PMID:27014543

  6. Impact of Subspecialty Fellowship Training on Research Productivity Among Academic Plastic Surgery Faculty in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Therattil, Paul J.; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors’ aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Methods: Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. Results: In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P < .01) and multiple fellowships (10.4; P < .01). Craniofacial-trained plastic surgeons demonstrated the next highest h-index (9.8), followed by no fellowship (8.4), microsurgery (8.3), hand (7.7), cosmetic (5.2), and burn (5.1). Conclusion: Plastic surgeons with a research fellowship or at least 2 subspecialty fellowships had increased academic productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery. PMID:26664673

  7. [Strategies to ensure careers of young academics in plastic surgery - analysis of the current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Horch, R E; Vogt, P M; Schaller, H E; Stark, G B; Lehnhardt, M; Kneser, U; Giunta, R E

    2013-08-01

    Recruitment problems in surgical disciplines have become an increasingly debated topic. On the one hand current career prospects appear to be less attractive than those were seen for the previous generation. On the other hand the demands for a so-called "work-life balance" have changed and the proportion of female students and colleagues in medicine has risen and will continue to increase. Although Plastic Surgery currently seems to be less affected by these problems than other surgical disciplines, securing a qualified supply of young academics in Plastic Surgery is a prerequisite for the further development of this discipline. The traditional model of mentoring is discussed and the role of coaching in a sense of helping the mentorees examine what they are doing in the light of their intentions and goals is reflected. The present article tries to analyze the current status of academic Plastic Surgery from the viewpoint of German university senior surgeons in academic plastic surgery, and aims to highlight the specific prospects for young academics against the backdrop of an often one-sided and superficial perception of this profession.

  8. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure that can help smooth or camouflage severe acne scars) — sometimes feel more comfortable with their appearance ... procedures teens choose include nose reshaping, ear surgery, acne and acne scar treatment, and breast reduction. previous ...

  9. [Postoperative complications in plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Vogt, P M

    2009-09-01

    Plastic surgery covers a broad spectrum of diseases and conditions in the areas of reconstructive surgery, hand, burn and aesthetic surgery. Besides acquired defects or malformations an increasing number of patients are being treated for surgical or multimodal complications. In a considerable number of patients plastic and reconstructive surgery remains the only therapeutic alternative after other therapy has failed. Therefore complication management in plastic surgery is of utmost importance for a successful outcome. In addition patient expectations in the results of plastic surgery as a discipline of invention and problem solving are steadily increasing. This challenge is reflected in clinical patient management by intensive research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Patients in plastic surgery are recruited from all age groups of either gender, involving traumatic and oncologic as well as congenital and aesthetic disorders. The demographics of aging, multimorbidity and obesity pose new challenges to plastic surgery. Although age over 70 years is not an independent risk factor per se for complications in plastic surgery, e.g. for complex free flap transfer, medical problems are present at a higher rate, which is to be expected in this age group. Risk factors such as alcoholism and coronary heart diseases seem to be independent predictors of perioperative complications. Therefore older patients can also benefit from plastic surgery and recurrent operations by the corresponding risk and complication management. Complication management necessitates careful patient selection, estimation of operative risks and patient-adapted selection of procedures. In addition to expertise in plastic surgery a thorough knowledge of non-surgical and surgical back-up procedures for technical incidents as well as vascular circulatory and wound healing disorders is required to deal successfully with complications in plastic surgery. This article presents these specific

  10. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G

    2013-04-01

    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  11. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  12. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written ... Copyright 2017. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, VA 22314 tel (703) ...

  13. [The history of plastic surgery in Israel].

    PubMed

    Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior

    2014-09-01

    The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.

  14. Anaesthetic complications in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumya Sankar; Roy, Debashis; Ansari, Farrukh; Pawar, Sundeep T

    2013-05-01

    Anaesthesia related complications in plastic surgeries are fortunately rare, but potentially catastrophic. Maintaining patient safety in the operating room is a major concern of anaesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitals and surgical facilities. Circumventing preventable complications is essential and pressure to avoid these complications in cosmetic surgery is increasing. Key aspects of patient safety in the operating room are outlined, including patient positioning, airway management and issues related to some specific conditions, essential for minimizing post-operative morbidity. Risks associated with extremes of age in the plastic surgery population, may be minimised by a better understanding of the physiologic changes as well as the pre-operative and post-operative considerations in caring for this special group of patients. An understanding of the anaesthesiologist's concerns during paediatric plastic surgical procedures can facilitate the coordination of efforts between the multiple services involved in the care of these children. Finally, the reader will have a better understanding of the perioperative care of unique populations including the morbidly obese and the elderly. Attention to detail in these aspects of patient safety can help avoid unnecessary complication and significantly improve the patients' experience and surgical outcome.

  15. Anaesthetic complications in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Soumya Sankar; Roy, Debashis; Ansari, Farrukh; Pawar, Sundeep T.

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia related complications in plastic surgeries are fortunately rare, but potentially catastrophic. Maintaining patient safety in the operating room is a major concern of anaesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitals and surgical facilities. Circumventing preventable complications is essential and pressure to avoid these complications in cosmetic surgery is increasing. Key aspects of patient safety in the operating room are outlined, including patient positioning, airway management and issues related to some specific conditions, essential for minimizing post-operative morbidity. Risks associated with extremes of age in the plastic surgery population, may be minimised by a better understanding of the physiologic changes as well as the pre-operative and post-operative considerations in caring for this special group of patients. An understanding of the anaesthesiologist's concerns during paediatric plastic surgical procedures can facilitate the coordination of efforts between the multiple services involved in the care of these children. Finally, the reader will have a better understanding of the perioperative care of unique populations including the morbidly obese and the elderly. Attention to detail in these aspects of patient safety can help avoid unnecessary complication and significantly improve the patients’ experience and surgical outcome. PMID:24501480

  16. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  17. The Future of Plastic Surgery: Surgeon's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin; Zor, Fatih

    2015-11-01

    Since the days of Sushruta, innovation has shaped the history of plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons have always been known as innovators or close followers of innovations. With this descriptive international survey study, the authors aimed to evaluate the future of plastic surgeons by analyzing how plastic surgery and plastic surgeons will be affected by new trends in medicine. Aesthetic surgery is the main subclass of plastic surgery thought to be the one that will change the most in the future. Stem cell therapy is considered by plastic surgeons to be the most likely "game changer." Along with changes in surgery, plastic surgeons also expect changes in plastic surgery education. The most approved assumption for the future of plastic surgery is, "The number of cosmetic nonsurgical procedures will increase in the future." If surgeons want to have better outcomes in their practice, they must at least be open minded for innovations if they do not become innovators themselves. Besides the individual effort of each surgeon, international and local plastic surgery associations should develop new strategies to adopt these innovations in surgical practice and education.

  18. The Origins and Current State of Plastic Surgery Residency in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Donald Roy; Johnson, Shane

    2015-11-01

    The history of plastic surgery residency training in the United States dates back to the establishment of plastic surgery as a specialty. The pivotal role played by the American Board of Plastic Surgery is outlined. The history of the early regulatory bodies leading to the formation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committees and the establishment of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons gives context to our current training models.

  19. Sushruta: father of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Champaneria, Manish C; Workman, Adrienne D; Gupta, Subhas C

    2014-07-01

    Sushruta is considered the "Father of Plastic Surgery." He lived in India sometime between 1000 and 800 BC, and is responsible for the advancement of medicine in ancient India. His teaching of anatomy, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies were of unparalleled luminosity, especially considering his time in the historical record. He is notably famous for nasal reconstruction, which can be traced throughout the literature from his depiction within the Vedic period of Hindu medicine to the era of Tagliacozzi during Renaissance Italy to modern-day surgical practices. The primary focus of this historical review is centered on Sushruta's anatomical and surgical knowledge and his creation of the cheek flap for nasal reconstruction and its transition to the "Indian method." The influential nature of the Sushruta Samhita, the compendium documenting Sushruta's theories about medicine, is supported not only by anatomical knowledge and surgical procedural descriptions contained within its pages, but by the creative approaches that still hold true today.

  20. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  1. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, M. Justin

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients. PMID:27622096

  2. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Hettiaratchy, Shehan

    2016-01-01

    Background Innovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years. Methods Patents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010) were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored. Results Between 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued. Conclusions The application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active. PMID:27019807

  3. #SocialMedia for the Academic Plastic Surgeon—Elevating the Brand

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Laura S.; Curl, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The link between social media and surgery has been under increasingly popular discussion. This article discusses the potential role of social media in creating and maintaining the brand of an academic plastic surgeon. PMID:27104098

  4. [The history of pediatric plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2016-10-01

    The history of pediatric plastic surgery is linked to that of paediatrics. Until the early 19th century, there was no children's hospital. Only some operations were performed before the discovery of anesthesia, aseptic and antisepsis: cleft lip repair, amputation for polydactyly. Many operations were described in the 19th century for cleft lip and palate repair, hypospadias, syndactylies. The first operation for protruding ears was performed in 1881. Pediatric plastic surgery is diversified in the 2nd half of the 20th century: cleft lip and palate, burns, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery become separate parts of the speciality.

  5. Mentorship: Concepts and Application to Plastic Surgery Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.; Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Countless papers have demonstrated and emphasized the importance of mentoring in academic medicine. However, the upcoming role of mentors in the evolving medical field is poorly defined. As translational medicine, collaboration, and healthcare priorities change, so too must the goals and usage of mentoring. The aims of this paper are to demonstrate key aspects of effective mentoring in academic plastic surgery, show institutions how to cultivate mentoring relationships among their faculty and trainees, and provide direction for how to optimize the future use of mentoring to best prepare the next generation of plastic surgeons. Methods We reviewed the current literature regarding mentorship and the evolution of academic medicine. Results Mentors not only facilitate their protégés’ entrance into the field and future success, but can also attract medical students and residents to careers in research and abet the racial and gender discrepancies in plastic surgery and academia. Ideally faculty should undergo some form of training before they enter mentoring relationships. This will ensure that they are aware of their specific duties as mentors, are able to communicate with mentees, and can avoid potential pitfalls. Conclusions Mentorship is a tool. If used correctly, it can help recruit and retain talented physician-scientists to plastic surgery to satisfy the growing demand. This will require institutions to actively support mentorship, provide opportunities and resources for training mentors, and enable faculty to allocate time to this vital pursuit. PMID:23629123

  6. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  7. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  8. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  9. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  10. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  12. Plastic surgery: understanding abdominoplasty and liposuction.

    PubMed

    Logan, Judith M; Broughton, George

    2008-10-01

    Requests for plastic surgery procedures that alter one's body image are on the rise. To ensure the best possible outcome, patients who request a combined procedure (eg, abdominoplasty and liposuction) must meet certain criteria to be eligible for surgery. It is critically important for patients to understand that these surgeries are not weight-reduction procedures, and they must be prepared to make lifestyle changes to ensure long-lasting results. These procedures are performed in a variety of facilities (eg, surgeons' offices, surgery centers, hospitals). Perioperative nurses must have a basic knowledge and understanding of abdominoplasty and liposuction and the special requirements and potential complications involved with these procedures.

  13. New developments in pediatric plastic surgery research.

    PubMed

    Nacamuli, Randall P; Wan, Derrick C; Lenton, Kelly A; Longaker, Michael T

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric plastic surgery research is a rapidly expanding field. Unique in many ways, researchers in this field stand at the union of multiple scientific specialties, including biomedical engineering, tissue engineering, polymer science, molecular biology, developmental biology, and genetics. The goal of this scientific effort is to translate research advances into improved treatments for children with congenital and acquired defects. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic acceleration in research related to pediatric plastic surgery, the next 10 years will no doubt lead to novel treatment strategies with improved clinical outcomes.

  14. Exposure to plastic surgery during undergraduate medical training: A single-institution review

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Ryan E; Wanzel, Kyle R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Applications to surgical residency programs have declined over the past decade. Even highly competitive programs, such as plastic surgery, have begun to witness these effects. Studies have shown that early surgical exposure has a positive influence on career selection. OBJECTIVE: To review plastic surgery application trends across Canada, and to further investigate medical student exposure to plastic surgery. METHODS: To examine plastic surgery application trends, national data from the Canadian Resident Matching Service database were analyzed, comparing 2002 to 2007 with 2008 to 2013. To evaluate plastic surgery exposure, a survey of all undergraduate medical students at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario) during the 2012/2013 academic year was conducted. RESULTS: Comparing 2002 to 2007 and 2008 to 2013, the average number of national plastic surgery training positions nearly doubled, while first-choice applicants decreased by 15.3%. The majority of Canadian academic institutions experienced a decrease in first-choice applicants; 84.7% of survey respondents indicated they had no exposure to plastic surgery during their medical education. Furthermore, 89.7% believed their education had not provided a basic understanding of issues commonly managed by plastic surgeons. The majority of students indicated they receive significantly less plastic surgery teaching than all other surgical subspecialties. More than 44% of students not considering plastic surgery as a career indicated they may be more likely to with increased exposure. CONCLUSION: If there is a desire to grow the specialty through future generations, recruiting tactics to foster greater interest in plastic surgery must be altered. The present study suggests increased and earlier exposure for medical students is a potential solution. PMID:25821773

  15. Career evaluation and the decision process for plastic surgery graduates.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steven P; Clemens, Mark W

    2011-08-01

    National experience shows that 50 percent of physicians change positions within the first 2 years of practice. Because of market pressures, medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular are shifting away from solo practice. The authors examine the primary reasons for turnover and discuss job search priorities for recent plastic surgery graduates and established surgeons in job transition, with a current analysis of the different job opportunities available, ranging from government to private practice. The advantages and disadvantages of different positions are compared and income data are presented. Academic income is close to that of private practice at a mean of $366,141 annually but requires more work as measured by an overall higher relative value unit of productivity. The concept of creating a personal inventory before seeking the best job match is introduced.

  16. Overview of lasers in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gregory, R O

    2000-04-01

    The laser used today in plastic surgery has gone through many stages of development. This article examines the history of lasers, including the scientific background and the theory of selective photothermolysis in therapy. In addition, current trends and future developments in laser treatment are discussed.

  17. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Shopping Cart American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Home Meetings & Courses Find a ... About Our Academy The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is the world's largest specialty ...

  18. Teaching plastic surgery from different perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cable, Christian; Chong, Tae; Pratt, Daniel D

    2012-06-01

    Just as everyone has a different learning style, teachers too approach the task from different perspectives. There are five basic teaching perspectives or styles: transmission, apprenticeship, developmental, nurturing, and social justice. The acronym BIAS is useful to describe the beliefs, intentions, assessments, and strategies associated with each perspective. The authors present a hypothetical 1-week rotation in plastic and reconstructive surgery in which a student encounters instructors who embody the five basic teaching perspectives. By presenting these perspectives, the authors introduce valuable teaching techniques that can benefit all those charged with the education of learners along the spectrum from premedical to continuing education venues. Educational objectives include the following: (1) explain and illustrate different approaches to effective teaching in plastic surgery; (2) introduce readers to the Teaching Perspectives Inventory as a means of determining their primary teaching style; and (3) argue for a "plurality of the good" in teaching.

  19. “Oriental anthropometry” in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Background: According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points' (acupoints) locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry” (OA). Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS). Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO) of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures) over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (%) terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients' opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS). Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5%) obtained “good” results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results “excellent”, and 2.8% found them “fair”. Discussion and Conclusion: The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries. PMID:19753249

  20. Psychiatric issues in cosmetic plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ericksen, William Leif; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2012-09-01

    The objective of cosmetic surgery is increased patient self-esteem and confidence. Most patients undergoing a procedure report these results post-operatively. The success of any procedure is measured in patient satisfaction. In order to optimize patient satisfaction, literature suggests careful pre-operative patient preparation including a discussion of the risks, benefits, limitations and expected results for each procedure undertaken. As a general rule, the patients that are motivated to surgery by a desire to align their outward appearance to their body-image tend to be the most satisfied. There are some psychiatric conditions that can prevent a patient from being satisfied without regard aesthetic success. The most common examples are minimal defect/Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the patient in crisis, the multiple revision patient, and loss of identity. This paper will familiarize the audience with these conditions, symptoms and related illnesses. Case examples are described and then explored in terms of the conditions presented. A discussion of the patient's motivation for surgery, goals pertaining to specific attributes, as well as an evaluation of the patient's understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of the procedure can help the physician determine if a patient is capable of being satisfied with a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgeons can screen patients suffering from these conditions relatively easily, as psychiatry is an integral part of medical school education. If a psychiatric referral is required, then the psychiatrist needs to be aware of the nuances of each of these conditions.

  1. Nanotechnology applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joe; Kath, Melissa; Gabrick, Kyle; Ver Halen, Jon Peter

    2012-01-01

    Although nanotechnology is a relatively young field, there are already countless biomedical applications. Plastic and reconstructive surgery has significantly benefited from nanoscale refinements of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Plastic surgery is an incredibly diverse specialty, encompassing craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, cancer/trauma/congenital reconstruction, burn care, and aesthetic surgery. In particular, wound care, topical skin care, implant and prosthetic design, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery have all been influenced by advances in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology will continue to witness growth and expansion of its biomedical applications, especially those in plastic surgery.

  2. [Principles of plastic pediatric surgery: Thirty years of surgical practice].

    PubMed

    Magalon, G

    2016-10-01

    In this document, Pr Guy Magalon presents a reflection on the plastic pediatric surgery drawn from 30 years of surgical practice. His thinking is supported by several examples of plastic surgery results from children reviewed in adulthood. These cases highlight the evolution of surgical practices and the need for continuing education for surgeons to adapt to technical progress. Professor Magalon honors his masters and shares his personal vision of the principles of pediatric plastic surgery.

  3. [Lactation after breast plastic surgery: literature review].

    PubMed

    Bouhassira, J; Haddad, K; Burin des Roziers, B; Achouche, J; Cartier, S

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of lactation is a rare complication of breast plastic surgery. During the course of his practice, the plastic surgeon will probably encounter this complication. The goal of this article is to carry out a literature review of all published galactorrhea and/or galactocele cases following a breast-reduction or a breast-augmentation, representing a total of 34 cases reported in 21 articles. The physiopathology of this complication is linked to an inappropriate secretion of prolactin in a surgical context. The factors favoring this complication would be the number of pregnancies, a history of recent and extensive nursing, and the intake of certain medicines such as an oestro-progestative pill. The main symptom of this complication is the occurrence of a uni- or bilateral galactorrhea, on average 12.6 days after the surgery. The main differential diagnosis is a postoperative infection. The explorations presented a hyperprolactinemia in 69% of cases. No biological inflammatory syndrome was reported. A fluid collection evoking a galactocele was visible on the ultrasound in 65% of cases. One case of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was reported. Depending on the case, the treatment varied from a simple surveillance to the association of a dopamine agonist, an antibiotic therapy, and a surgical revision. A diagnostic and therapeutic management strategy is proposed.

  4. [From the French Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery to the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2004-04-01

    (The) 3rd December 1952, 11 surgeons and other specialists found the French Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (SFCPR) which was officially published on (the) 28 September 1953. The first congress was during October 1953 and the first president as Maurice Aubry. The first secretary was Daniel Morel Fatio. The symposiums were after about three of four times each year and the thematic subjects were initially according the reconstructive surgery. The review "Annales de chirurgie plastique" was free in 1956. The members of the Society were about 30 initially, but their plastic surgery in the big hospitals at Paris and other big towns in France. The "specialty" of plastic surgery was created in 1971. On "syndicate", one French board of plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery, the increasing of departments of plastic surgery were the front of increasing of the plastic surgery in French and of the number of the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive surgery (580 in 2003). The French Society organized the International Congress of Plastic Surgery in 1975. The society SFCPR became the French Society of plastic reconstruction and Aesthetic Surgery (SFCPRE) in 1983 and the "logo" (front view) was in the 1994 SOF.CPRE.

  5. Public Perceptions of Plastic Surgery Practice in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Karin Milleni; Samartine, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The perception of medical specialists by the public has a significant effect on health-care decisions, research funding allocation, and implantation of educational measures. The purpose of this survey was to assess the public's perception of the field of plastic surgery practice. General public members (n = 1290) completed a survey where they matched nine specialties with 28 plastic surgery-related scenarios. Response patterns were distributed as "plastic surgeon alone," "plastic surgeon combined with other specialists," or "no plastic surgeon." Sociodemographic data and previous plastic surgery contact were also collected. "Plastic surgeon alone" was identified as an expert by more than 70 % of respondents in four (40 %) aesthetic-related scenarios and in one (5.5 %) general/reconstructive-related scenario. "Plastic surgeon alone" was significantly (all p < 0.05) more recognized as an expert than other response patterns in all aesthetic-related scenarios, except for botulinum toxin for facial wrinkles. There was a significant (all p < 0.05) poor understanding of the role of plastic surgeons in facial fracture surgery, facial paralysis management, chest wall surgery, hand surgery-related scenarios, and tumor surgery-related scenarios. Age, health-care professional, education level, and prior plastic surgery contact were significant (all p < 0.05) determinants of "plastic surgeon" as a response pattern, according to bivariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The public has a poor understanding of the broad field of plastic surgery practice. Therefore, improved public education about the scope of plastic surgery is needed.

  6. Novel oral anticoagulants in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Munson, C F; Reid, A J

    2016-05-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have emerged as a good alternative to warfarin in the prevention of stroke for patients with atrial fibrillation. NOAC use is increasing rapidly; therefore, greater understanding of their use in the perioperative period is important for optimal care. Studies and reviews that reported on the use of NOACs were identified, with particular focus on the perioperative period. PubMed was searched for relevant articles published between January 2000 and August 2015. The inevitable rise in the use of NOACs such as rivaroxaban (Xarelto™), apixaban (Eliquis™), edoxaban (Lixiana™) and dabigatran (Pradaxa™) may present a simplified approach to perioperative anticoagulant management due to fewer drug interactions, rapidity of onset of action and relatively short half-lives. Coagulation status, however, cannot reliably be monitored and no antidotes are currently available. When planning for discontinuation of NOACs, special consideration of renal function is required. Advice regarding the management of bleeding complications is provided for consideration in emergency surgery. In extreme circumstances, haemodialysis may be considered for bleeding with the use of dabigatran. NOACs will increasingly affect operative planning in plastic surgery. In order to reduce the incidence of complications associated with anticoagulation, the management of NOACs in the perioperative period requires knowledge of the time of last dose, renal function and the bleeding risk of the planned procedure. Consideration of these factors will allow appropriate interpretation of the current guidelines.

  7. Prevention of perioperative hypothermia in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Young, V Leroy; Watson, Marla E

    2006-01-01

    While inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has received serious attention in many surgical specialties, few discussions of hypothermia have been published in the plastic surgery literature. This article reviews the physiology of thermoregulation, describes how both general and regional anesthesia alter the normal thermoregulatory mechanisms, indicates risk factors particularly associated with hypothermia, and discusses the most effective current methods for maintaining normothermia. Hypothermia is typically defined as a core body temperature of /=36.5 degrees C is maintained. Unless preventive measures are instituted, inadvertent hypothermia occurs in 50% to 90% of surgical patients, even those undergoing relatively short procedures lasting one to one-and-a-half hours. During either general or regional anesthesia, a patient's natural behavioral and autonomic responses to cold are unavailable or impaired, and the combination of general and neuraxial anesthesia produces the highest risk for inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Unless hypothermia is prevented, the restoration of normothermia can take more than 4 hours once anesthesia is stopped. Consequences of hypothermia are serious and affect surgical outcomes in plastic surgery patients. Potential complications include morbid cardiac events, coagulation disorders and blood loss, increased incidence of surgical wound infection, postoperative shivering, longer hospital stays, and increased costs associated with surgery. Measures for preventing hypothermia are emphasized in this article, especially those proven most effective in prospective and controlled clinical studies. Perhaps the most important step in maintaining normothermia is to prewarm patients in the preoperative area with forced-air heating systems. Intraoperative warming with forced-air and fluid warming are also essential. Other strategies

  8. Better to light a candle: Arthur Barsky and global plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christopher D; Barsky, Emily; Hagander, Lars; Barsky, Arthur J; Meara, John G

    2013-08-01

    Plastic and reconstructive surgery has had a long history with international humanitarian efforts. As the field of global surgery continues to gain momentum in academic centers throughout the world, the role of the surgical subspecialist in the public health infrastructure of low-resource communities has also begun to gain a new sense of wonder and importance. Arthur Barsky, Jr was arguably one of the most influential forefathers of global plastic surgery. Throughout his notable career spanning most of the 20th century, Barsky remained dedicated to delivering plastic and reconstructive surgical care to the disadvantaged worldwide, as well as educating others to do the same. Although he was not the first surgeon with an interest in global health, Barsky's work was unique and influential in its originality, magnitude, and scope. An appreciation and understanding of Barsky's groundbreaking work will help inform the future development of sustainable surgical systems in resource-poor settings.

  9. [What do general, abdominal and vascular surgeons need to know on plastic surgery - aspects of plastic surgery in the field of general, abdominal and vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Damert, H G; Altmann, S; Stübs, P; Infanger, M; Meyer, F

    2015-02-01

    There is overlap between general, abdominal and vascular surgery on one hand and plastic surgery on the other hand, e.g., in hernia surgery, in particular, recurrent hernia, reconstruction of the abdominal wall or defect closure after abdominal or vascular surgery. Bariatric operations involve both special fields too. Plastic surgeons sometimes use skin and muscle compartments of the abdominal wall for reconstruction at other regions of the body. This article aims to i) give an overview about functional, anatomic and clinical aspects as well as the potential of surgical interventions in plastic surgery. General/abdominal/vascular surgeons can benefit from this in their surgical planning and competent execution of their own surgical interventions with limited morbidity/lethality and an optimal, in particular, functional as well as aesthetic outcome, ii) support the interdisciplinary work of general/abdominal/vascular and plastic surgery, and iii) provide a better understanding of plastic surgery and its profile of surgical interventions and options.

  10. New developments in wound healing relevant to facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hom, David B

    2008-01-01

    To review new advances in wound healing over the last decade relevant to facial plastic surgery, recent studies in wound healing and its clinical implications were evaluated. New biological and clinical products in wound healing have implications in facial plastic surgery. These products will alter the method with which we approach normal and poorly healing wounds. The US Food and Drug Administration approval of growth factor products signifies the beginning of a new age for actively promoting the healing of wounds for the surgeon. Some of these recent discoveries in wound healing relevant to the facial plastic surgeon are described.

  11. [The Golden book of the French plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2010-10-01

    Susruta, Tagliacozzi and Dieffenbach are considered to be the first plastic surgeons. Many French surgeons deserve to figure in the "Golden Book" of the specialty. From Pierre Franco to Paul Tessier, many famous or sometimes unknown surgeons introduced important innovations. In the XVIth century, Pierre Franco realized the first autoplasty of the face as well as the first suture of a cleft lift. This was modified by Mirault, three centuries later. Delpech created at Montpellier a real "school" dedicated to plastic surgery where there was an attempt to oppose a French technique to the success of surgeons from Berlin. Roux was the first (or the second according to Von Graefe) to succeed a cleft palate closure. The first Z plasty was performed by Denonvilliers and Morestin devoted many works to plastic surgery insisting on scar discretion. After World War II, the main cosmetic procedures were described and performed by French surgeons: Bourguet, Passot, Dartigues… Suzanne Noel was the first female plastic surgeon and the first to perform outpatient operations. After the creation of the French Society of Plastic surgery, Paul Tessier conceived the craniofacial surgery. An important step in cosmetic surgery was liposuction described by Y.G. Illouz. More recently, French teams performed the first allotransplantation of the face and of the upper limbs.

  12. Taking evidence-based plastic surgery to the next level: report of the second Summit on Evidence-based Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Felmont F; Rohrich, Rod J; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2013-07-01

    Applying the principles of evidence-based medicine has the potential to drastically improve quality of care and patient outcomes. For this reason, evidence-based medicine has been held as one of the 15 most important developments in medicine within the past 100 years. In August of 2010, a broad coalition of leaders from numerous organizations representing societies, boards, journals, foundations, and academic institutions met in Colorado Springs, Colorado, for the first Evidence-Based Plastic Surgery Summit. The summit signaled a sea change in the approach of organized plastic surgery to the promotion of evidence-based medicine within the specialty. It was determined that a strategic, coordinated, and sustained effort to drive an evidence-based medicine culture would accelerate adoption and advance quality of care and patient safety. Over the past 2 years, many of the goals of the initial summit have been met. In order to take our evidence-based medicine efforts to the next level, a second summit was recently held to redefine goals, focus efforts, address barriers, and launch new initiatives with broad consensus. This article documents the outcomes of the second Evidence-Based Plastic Surgery Summit.

  13. Taking evidence-based plastic surgery to the next level: report of the second summit on evidence-based plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Felmont F; Rohrich, Rod J; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Applying the principles of evidence-based medicine has the potential to drastically improve quality of care and patient outcomes. For this reason, evidence-based medicine has been held as one of the 15 most important developments in medicine within the past 100 years. In August of 2010, a broad coalition of leaders from numerous organizations representing societies, boards, journals, foundations, and academic institutions met in Colorado Springs, Colorado, for the first Evidence-Based Plastic Surgery Summit. The summit signaled a sea change in the approach of organized plastic surgery to the promotion of evidence-based medicine within the specialty. It was determined that a strategic, coordinated, and sustained effort to drive an evidence-based medicine culture would accelerate adoption and advance quality of care and patient safety. Over the past 2 years, many of the goals of the initial summit have been met. In order to take our evidence-based medicine efforts to the next level, a second summit was recently held to redefine goals, focus efforts, address barriers, and launch new initiatives with broad consensus. This article documents the outcomes of the second Evidence-Based Plastic Surgery Summit.

  14. Do plastic surgery division heads and program directors have the necessary tools to provide effective leadership?

    PubMed Central

    Arneja, JS; McInnes, CW; Carr, NJ; Lennox, P; Hill, M; Petersen, R; Woodward, K; Skarlicki, D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective leadership is imperative in a changing health care landscape driven by increasing expectations in a setting of rising fiscal pressures. Because evidence suggests that leadership abilities are not simply innate but, rather, effective leadership can be learned, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to evaluate the training and challenges of their leaders because there may be opportunities for further growth and support. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the practice profiles, education/training, responsibilities and challenges of leaders within academic plastic surgery. METHODS: Following research ethics board approval, an anonymous online survey was sent to division heads and program directors from all university-affiliated plastic surgery divisions in Canada. Survey themes included demographics, education/training, job responsibilities and challenges. RESULTS: A response rate of 74% was achieved. The majority of respondents were male (94%), promoted to their current position at a mean age of 48 years, did not have a leadership-focused degree (88%), directly manage 30 people (14 staff, 16 faculty) and were not provided with a job description (65%). Respondents worked an average of 65 h per week, of which 18% was devoted to their leadership role, 59% clinically and the remainder on teaching and research. A discrepancy existed between time spent on their leadership role (18%) and related compensation (10%). Time management (47%) and managing conflict (24%) were described as the greatest leadership challenges by respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Several gaps were identified among leaders in plastic surgery including predominance of male sex, limitations in formal leadership training and requisite skill set, as well as compensation and human resources management (emotional intelligence). Leadership and managerial skills are key core competencies, not only for trainees, but certainly for those in a position of leadership. The present study provides evidence that

  15. Computer-based multimedia in plastic surgery education.

    PubMed

    Webber, W B; Summers, A N; Rinehart, G C

    1994-05-01

    Computer animation complements text explanation, image documentation, and graphic analysis techniques. It is compatible with the development of interactive multimedia science. Computer animation may emerge as a critical tool to assist in the efficient processing and analysis of greater volumes of educational data in plastic surgery training. At St. Louis University, we have continuously developed multimedia plastic surgery teaching materials with full-fidelity digital sound, three-dimensional computer graphics, and "picture-in-picture" video capabilities since 1987. We have used these materials, many of which are illustrated in this paper, for patient informed consent and the education of medical students and residents.

  16. Computer Simulation and Digital Resources for Plastic Surgery Psychomotor Education.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Plana, Natalie M; Stranix, John T; Cutting, Court B; McCarthy, Joseph G; Flores, Roberto L

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary plastic surgery residents are increasingly challenged to learn a greater number of complex surgical techniques within a limited period. Surgical simulation and digital education resources have the potential to address some limitations of the traditional training model, and have been shown to accelerate knowledge and skills acquisition. Although animal, cadaver, and bench models are widely used for skills and procedure-specific training, digital simulation has not been fully embraced within plastic surgery. Digital educational resources may play a future role in a multistage strategy for skills and procedures training. The authors present two virtual surgical simulators addressing procedural cognition for cleft repair and craniofacial surgery. Furthermore, the authors describe how partnerships among surgical educators, industry, and philanthropy can be a successful strategy for the development and maintenance of digital simulators and educational resources relevant to plastic surgery training. It is our responsibility as surgical educators not only to create these resources, but to demonstrate their utility for enhanced trainee knowledge and technical skills development. Currently available digital resources should be evaluated in partnership with plastic surgery educational societies to guide trainees and practitioners toward effective digital content.

  17. Patient selection in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M

    2008-05-01

    This article provides a perspective on the process of interacting with the cosmetic surgery patient preoperatively during the selection process and postoperatively during the healing process. Patient satisfaction requires that the surgeon pay meticulous attention to the psychologic needs of the patient both pre- and postoperatively. This portion of the patient's care certainly is as important as the surgical procedure itself. The author discusses the surgeon's need to evaluate the patient's inner strength and ability to deal with the entire perioperative healing process, both physically and psychologically, and the surgeon's own strength in refusing to perform surgery when warranted.

  18. Ethnic trends in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sturm-O'Brien, Angela K; Brissett, Annette E A; Brissett, Anthony E

    2010-05-01

    The appearance of patients seeking cosmetic surgery is changing to reflect our multicultural society. Integral to addressing the desires of a cross-cultural patient population is an understanding of one's perception of race, ethnicity, and culture. Race is an objective description, whereas ethnicity is a subjective description of a person's social group. Culture, on the other hand, defines the behaviors, beliefs, and values of a group. How a person perceives their place within these groups affects his or her self-image and approach to cosmetic surgery. These cultural perceptions are important, as patients of Asian, Hispanic, and African descent make up the fastest growing groups that desire cosmetic surgery. Factors contributing to this trend include population growth, especially within multicultural communities, improvements in social status, and increasing disposable income, combined with a positive perception of cosmetic surgery. Surgical philosophies have also changed, shifting from the perspective of racial transformation, defined as the use of a common set of surgical goals for all ethnicities, toward a view of racial preservation, with the goal of preserving one's racial and ethnic features.

  19. Special issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Gerard J; Khan, Sami U; Zabel, David D

    2003-01-01

    Intensivists frequently collaborate with plastic and reconstructive surgeons in treating patients with major wounds, following significant reconstructive procedures, and following free-tissue transfers. Pressure ulcers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit; prevention, early recognition, and multidisciplinary treatment are critical components for successful management. Necrotizing fasciitis is an aggressive, soft-tissue infection that requires rapid diagnosis, early surgical intervention frequent operative debridements, and soft-tissue reconstruction Catastrophic abdominal injuries and infections can be treated with an open abdominal approach and require the expertise of a plastic surgeon to reconstruct the abdominal wall. The success of free-tissue transfers and complex reconstructive procedures requires a thorough understanding of the factors that improve flap survival.

  20. American plastic surgery and global health: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christopher D; Alkire, Blake; Martin, Christine; Semer, Nadine; Meara, John G

    2012-02-01

    Access to essential surgical care in resource-poor settings is gaining recognition as a major component of international public health efforts. As evidence is mounting about the burden of surgically treatable disease in low- and middle-income countries, so too is the evidence for the significant need for plastic surgery treatment of disease rising in these areas. American plastic surgery has a long history with international surgical efforts in resource-poor regions around the world. Early experiences were not formalized until after World War II, when a foundation partnership provided a venue for interested plastic surgeons to volunteer. These efforts progressed and advanced throughout the 1960s-1970s, but were ultimately devastated by the Vietnam War. Subsequent international plastic surgical experiences by American surgeons over the last 40 years have been largely through several nongovernmental organizations. American plastic surgical involvement in global surgery has changed significantly over the last 70 years. Although quality care is being delivered to resource-poor regions around the world, many of the challenges of regionally appropriate, sustainable care persist today.

  1. Wall Street's growing influence on plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    2000-04-01

    The advent of managed care has unleashed market forces on the health care system. One result of these new pressures is a shift from nonprofit to Wall Street-based financing. This report quantifies these trends by comparing health organizations' financial structures in the 1980s and now. The reasons behind this shift and the function of the stock market are examined. A review of Wall Street's key financial measures confirms that health care has shifted to the stock market as its principal means of financing. The stock market works by assigning a current price to a company's stock based on estimates for future earnings. Thus, companies desire predictability in their costs, revenues, and profits. Plastic surgeons can master this system by meeting the challenges imposed by Wall Street financing. Important steps include continuously measuring costs and outcomes of procedures, demanding cost data from hospitals and payers, using these data to improve costs and outcomes, and taking advantage of the system's openness to innovation and easier access to capital. As they seek to protect their role as medical decision makers under the new free-market system, plastic surgeons can benefit from understanding the mechanisms of the stock market.

  2. Survey of Attitudes on Professionalism in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Yong; Kang, Seok Joo; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the current attitudes toward professionalism, the core values, and the type of professionalism among plastic surgeons in Korea to establish a code of ethics regarding the role of professionalism for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. Methods From March 9, to July 1, 2012, face-to-face and mail surveys were conducted targeting the 325 participants (256 specialists and 69 residents) who are registered members of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. The proportion of each response given to an item was obtained through statistical processing through frequency analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences in the responses between the resident group and the specialist group. Results The survey results on the perception of professionalism in plastic surgery showed that a high proportion (90.5%) of the respondents viewed the future of plastic surgeons as bright. Through evaluation of the importance of the value items,"professional dominance" (4.58 pts), "autonomy" (4.45 pts), "lifestyle" (4.34 pts), and "commercialism" (4.31 pts) were assessed as critical values. "Altruism" (3.84 pts), "interpersonal competence" (3.79 pts), and "social justice" (3.61 pts) were viewed as lesser values. This difference showed the characteristics of an entrepreneurial outlook. Conclusions Plastic surgeons should pursue excellence, humanism, accountability, and altruism in order to overcome the crisis of professionalism in plastic surgery. In order to develop the necessary competencies of professionals, vocational education should be arranged by the Korean Society of Plastic Surgeons, and an appropriate code of ethics should be established. PMID:23533062

  3. The state of academic cancer surgery in the UK.

    PubMed

    Eckhouse, S; Sullivan, R

    2008-10-01

    Despite media and public perception to the contrary cancer surgery is the most important modality for the control and cure of cancer. However, after years of underinvestment by research funders and increasing service delivery demands the academic cancer surgeon is an endangered species. In an effort to improve evidence-based policymaking in this critical domain of cancer research the ECRM has conducted a semi-quantitative assessment of the state of academic cancer surgery in the UK. We have found that the percentage of investment in cancer surgical technologies R&D is less than 1% and even when this is extended to other diseases then this figure is still less than 1%. A decline in the overall numbers of academic surgical staff is paralleled by our finding that over 50% of the academic cancer surgeons in this survey had insufficient time for research. With clinical trials and surgical technology development identified as key research domains the majority (60-80%) did not perceive any benefit for surgical research in these areas as a result of the creation of the UK National Cancer Research Institute. We also found high support for academic surgery from colleagues but medium-low support from many institutions. Key policy conclusions are: (1) greater hypothecated investment by research funders, particularly for the development of surgical technologies as well as clinical trials, and (2) the creation of cancer surgery centres of excellence which have sufficient staffing and institutional support to engendered a creative academic environment.

  4. Academic stress disrupts cortical plasticity in graduate students.

    PubMed

    Concerto, Carmen; Patel, Dhaval; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Chusid, Eileen; Muscatello, Maria R; Bruno, Antonio; Zoccali, Rocco; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2017-03-20

    Medical education is a time of high stress and anxiety for many graduate students in medical professions. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of academic stress on cortical excitability and plasticity by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We tested two groups (n = 13 each) of healthy graduate medical students (mean age 33.7 ± 3.8 SE). One group was tested during a final exam week (High-stress group) while the other group was tested after a break, during a week without exams (Low-stress group). Students were required to fill the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) questionnaire. We investigated resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP). The paired-pulse stimulation paradigm was used to assess short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity was evaluated with paired associative stimulation (PAS-25). There was no between-group difference in cortical excitability. On the contrary, during examination period, levels of perceived stress were significantly higher (p= .036) and the amount of cortical plasticity (60 min after PAS) was significantly lower (p = .029). LTP-like plasticity (60 min after PAS) was inversely correlated with perceived stress in the High-stress group. The present study showed LTP-like plasticity was reduced by examining stress in graduate students. Our results provide a new opportunity to objectively quantify the negative effect of academic and examination stress on brain plasticity.

  5. [Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) as the founder of plastic surgery. His contribution to maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Knöner, W; Kramer, F J; Jonas, U

    1998-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) is generally known as the founder of modern plastic surgery. One focus of his work, apart from the physiology of transplantation and operative techniques, was reconstructive oral and maxillofacial surgery. This special aspect of plastic surgery as well as Dieffenbach's biography is presented in this historic article.

  6. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  7. Free flap monitoring in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Thorniley, Maureen S; Carver, Nigel; Jones, Deric P

    2003-01-01

    Free flaps are regularly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery but have a significant failure rate due to vessel thrombosis in the re-established arterial or venous circulation. A monitor of flap perfusion and oxygenation would allow the early detection of progressing flap ischaemia, hastening the required intervention and maximising the chances of salvaging the flap. A dual wavelength spectrophotometer has been designed and constructed which can monitor haemodynamic events in flaps during surgery and postoperatively. Eleven patients undergoing free flap surgery were studied. Measurements were made during surgery before division of the vessels and during and after microvascular anastomosis. Significant changes in all parameters were observed on reperfusion of the flaps after anastomosis or tourniquet ischaemia. Abnormal reperfusion in one flap and subsequent ischaemic events in two others were identified.

  8. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery.

  9. A brief history of plastic surgery in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Hormozi, Abdoljalil

    2013-03-01

     Although the exact time of performing plastic surgery is not addressed in the medical and historical literature, it can be supposed that these surgical procedures have a long and fascinating history.  Recent excavations provided many documents regarding the application of medical instruments, surgical and even reconstructive procedures during the pre-historic and ancient periods. Actually, there is no historical definite time-zone separating general and cosmetic operations in the pre-modern time; however, historically there have been many surgeons who tried to perform reconstructive procedures during their usual medical practice. This article presents a brief look at the history of plastic surgery form the ancient to the contemporary era, with a special focus on Iran.

  10. The Imperative of Academia in the Globalization of Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Harry S; Bentz, Michael L; Baus, Gustavo Herdocia; Palacios, Jorge; Dibbell, David G; Noon, John; Poore, Samuel O; King, Timothy W; Mount, Delora L

    2015-06-01

    Although vertical health care delivery models certainly will remain a vital component in the provision of surgery in low-and-middle-income countries, it is clear now that the sustainability of global surgery will depend on more than just surgeons operating. Instead, what is needed is a comprehensive approach, that is, a horizontal integration that develops sustainable human resources, physical infrastructure, administrative oversight, and financing mechanisms in the developing world. We propose that such a strategy for development would necessarily involve an active role by academic institutions of high-income countries.

  11. On One Application of Fourier Analysis in Plastic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, Abdumalik; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    In present paper, we discuss the spectral methods of measurement of the degree of speech and/or quality of sound by comparing the coefficient of performance indicators depending on energy distributions, ratio of energy of the fundamental tone and energy of overtones. Such a method is very efficient for string oscillation with different initial conditions and it is useful for justification of applications of Fourier analysis in plastic surgery in treatment of some medical diseases.

  12. Cutaneous plastic surgery with the CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, R A

    1984-10-01

    Utilization of the CO2 laser in cutaneous plastic surgery has steadily increased in recent years. The accessibility of the laser in the office setting has had a major impact, providing situations that have aided in the development of surgical proficiency, and its innate properties have made possible a scope of surgical office procedures not previously possible. The work described herein is considered by today's researchers as but the harbinger of advancements to come.

  13. Plastic surgery telehealth consultation expedites Emergency Department treatment.

    PubMed

    Paik, Angie M; Granick, Mark S; Scott, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    Plastic surgery is a field that is particularly amenable to a telehealth milieu, as visual exam and radiographs guide proper diagnosis and management. The goals of this study were to evaluate telehealth feedback executed through an iPad app for plastic surgery-related consultations. A Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) study was conducted over a 1-month period during which patients with hand injuries, facial injuries, or acute wounds presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of a level-one trauma centre and university hospital were monitored. The study utilized a commercial iPad application through which up to four images and a brief history could be sent to a remote Plastic Surgery Educator (PSE) for evaluation. The PSE would respond with best practice information, references and videos to assist ED point-of-care providers. During the 1-month period of this study, there were 42 ED consultations for plastic surgical conditions. There was a highly significant difference in overall mean response time between consultants and PSEs (48.3 minutes vs. 8.9 minutes respectively, p < 0.001). The agreement between PSEs and consultants regarding patient assessment and care was 85.7% for in-person consultations and 100% for phone consultations. In four cases of telephone consultations, the ED providers placed splints incorrectly on hand-injured patients. Our results show that telehealth consultations to a remote plastic surgeon based on digital images and a brief history were able to produce timely and accurate responses in an emergency care facility. This design may have significant impact in rural areas, underserved populations, or regions abroad.

  14. Advances in computer imaging/applications in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Jiannetto, D F

    1999-01-01

    Rapidly progressing computer technology, ever-increasing expectations of patients, and a confusing medicolegal environment requires a clarification of the role of computer imaging/applications. Advances in computer technology and its applications are reviewed. A brief historical discussion is included for perspective. Improvements in both hardware and software with the advent of digital imaging have allowed great increases in speed and accuracy in patient imaging. This facilitates doctor-patient communication and possibly realistic patient expectations. Patients seeking cosmetic surgery now often expect preoperative imaging. Although society in general has become more litigious, a literature search up to 1998 reveals no lawsuits directly involving computer imaging. It appears that conservative utilization of computer imaging by the facial plastic surgeon may actually reduce liability and promote communication. Recent advances have significantly enhanced the value of computer imaging in the practice of facial plastic surgery. These technological advances in computer imaging appear to contribute a useful technique for the practice of facial plastic surgery. Inclusion of computer imaging should be given serious consideration as an adjunct to clinical practice.

  15. Plastic surgery-myths and realities in developing countries: experience from eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Brijesh; Koirala, Robin; Tripathi, Nalini; Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Adhikary, Buddhinath; Shah, Surendra

    2011-01-01

    B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, is the only tertiary care referral centre in the eastern region of Nepal. This paper discusses the author's experience of starting a plastic surgery unit in eastern Nepal regarding need and present status of plastic surgery care in Nepal. Methods. We analyzed the data of patients treated in Plastic surgery unit from July 2007 to February 2009. We did evaluation regarding type of patients, procedures, and their outcome. We also evaluated the limitations and their possible solutions to overcome the barriers to establish effective plastic surgical centers in developing countries. Results. Plastic surgery services were started as a unit in general surgery by single plastic surgeon and one general surgery resident on rotation. Total 848 patients were treated for different plastic-surgery-related conditions, which included 307 acute burn patients 541 general plastic surgery patients. Trauma constituted the major bulk 22%, followed by tumors 20%, while aesthetic surgery operations were only 10.1%. Conclusions. In developing countries, aesthetic procedures constitute very small part of plastic surgery interventions and plastic surgery units are primarily required for reconstructive needs for optimum management of patients.

  16. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  17. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  18. Medical Ethics in Plastic Surgery: A Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Azin; Hashem-Zade, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Currently, cosmetic surgery is spread around the world. Several factors are involved in this rapidly evolving field such as socio-economic development, changes in cultural norms, globalization and the effects of Western culture, advertising, media, and mental disorders. Nowadays the cosmetic surgery is becoming a profitable business, which deals exclusively with human appearance and less from the perspective of beauty based on physical protests and considering factors such as sex, age, and race. The morality of plastic surgery subspecialty has undergone many moral dilemmas in the past few years. The role of the patient regardless of his unrealistic dreams has questionable ethical dimension. The problem is the loss of human values and replacing them with false values, of pride and glory to a charismatic person of higher status, that may underlie some of the posed ethical dilemmas. Cosmetic surgery has huge difference with the general principle of legal liability in professional orientation, because the objective for cosmetic surgeries is different from common therapeutic purposes. To observe excellence in the medical profession, we should always keep in mind that these service providers, often as a therapist (healer) must maintain a commitment and priority for patient safety and prior to any action, a real apply for this service recipient should be present. Also, patient–physician confidentiality is the cornerstone of medical ethics. In this review, we study the issues addressed and the ways that they can be resolved. PMID:27853683

  19. Medical Ethics in Plastic Surgery: A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Azin; Hashem-Zade, Haleh

    2016-09-01

    Currently, cosmetic surgery is spread around the world. Several factors are involved in this rapidly evolving field such as socio-economic development, changes in cultural norms, globalization and the effects of Western culture, advertising, media, and mental disorders. Nowadays the cosmetic surgery is becoming a profitable business, which deals exclusively with human appearance and less from the perspective of beauty based on physical protests and considering factors such as sex, age, and race. The morality of plastic surgery subspecialty has undergone many moral dilemmas in the past few years. The role of the patient regardless of his unrealistic dreams has questionable ethical dimension. The problem is the loss of human values and replacing them with false values, of pride and glory to a charismatic person of higher status, that may underlie some of the posed ethical dilemmas. Cosmetic surgery has huge difference with the general principle of legal liability in professional orientation, because the objective for cosmetic surgeries is different from common therapeutic purposes. To observe excellence in the medical profession, we should always keep in mind that these service providers, often as a therapist (healer) must maintain a commitment and priority for patient safety and prior to any action, a real apply for this service recipient should be present. Also, patient-physician confidentiality is the cornerstone of medical ethics. In this review, we study the issues addressed and the ways that they can be resolved.

  20. Plastic Surgeons' Opinions of Facial Surgery for Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah C.; Turnbull, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    One hundred plastic surgeons responded to a survey on opinions toward facial plastic surgery for individuals with Down's syndrome. Twenty-four of the surgeons had performed the surgery. Surgeons indicated appropriate circumstances for the surgery, consent requirements, degree of understanding expected of the patient, and degree of discomfort…

  1. Stem cell regenerative potential for plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Boháč, Martin; Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Kupcová, Ida; Zamborský, Radoslav; Fedeleš, Jozef; Koller, Ján

    2016-12-01

    Stem cells represent heterogeneous population of undifferentiated cells with unique characteristics of long term self renewal and plasticity. Moreover, they are capable of active migration to diseased tissues, secretion of different bioactive molecules, and they have immunosuppressive potential as well. They occur in all tissues through life and are involved in process of embryogenesis and regeneration. During last decades stem cells attracted significant attention in each field of medicine, including plastic and reconstructive surgery. The main goal of the present review article is to present and discuss the potential of stem cells and to provide information about their safe utilization in chronic wounds and fistulae healing, scar management, breast reconstruction, as well as in bone, tendon and peripheral nerve regeneration.

  2. Complications by liquid plastics in ophthalmic surgery. Histopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Strempel, I

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective morphological studies of ocular tissues after treatment with liquid plastics reveal many complications induced by the material. Cyanoacrylates for punctal occlusion glide into the lacrimal sac and lead to obstructive dacryocystitis and even to reactive xanthogranuloma. The use of this glue in combination with a hard contact lens as 'artificial epithelium' provokes a remarkable stromal and endothelial cell loss of the cornea. Intraocular silicone oil sometimes induces a massive epiretinal macrophage activity with storage of the material or reactive fibrosis when it gets into the subretinal space. Liquid alloplasts for intraocular lens surgery of the future are tested in experimental studies but are still not satisfactory.

  3. Twenty years of experience with particulate silicone in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Planas, J; del Cacho, C

    1992-01-01

    The use of particulate silicone in plastic surgery involves the introduction of solid silicone into the body. The silicone is in small pieces in order for it to adapt to the shape of the defect. This way large quantities can be introduced through small incisions. It is also possible to distribute the silicone particles from outside the skin to make the corrections more regular. This method has been very useful for correcting post-traumatic depressions in the face and all areas where the depression has a rigid back support. We consider it the treatment of choice for correcting the funnel chest deformity.

  4. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  5. [Monitoring and conditioning in plastic and reconstructive ENT-surgery].

    PubMed

    Dacho, A; Dietz, A

    2006-11-01

    Plastic and reconstructive ENT surgery serves for reconstruction of form and function. Frequent indications in ENT surgery are the covering of large tissue defects after tumor operations, firing and/or explosion injuries, accidents, burns or massive infections. A high revision rate of up to 20 % in selective patient groups show that more knowledge of both monitoring and ischemia-/reperfusion mechanisms is necessary. Besides improved monitor proceedings biochemical cell procedures in pedicled and free flaps are getting more focused. In the last years certain physical and medical factors appear, which have influence on the long-term surviving of a pedicled or free flap, e. g. pre- and/or postconditioning. The increasing knowledge of changes in perfusion and oxygenation, which prevail in the flap, as well as different options of physical and pharmacological therapies permit a promising view into the future, in order to achieve an improved surviving of a pedicled or free flap in combination with improved monitor proceedings.

  6. A tribute to the founding figures of the American Board of Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mansher; Noone, R Barrett; Afolabi, Halimat; Caterson, Edward J

    2015-06-01

    The American Board of Plastic Surgery recently celebrated its 75th anniversary as an established specialty board. This historical article provides an outline of the events that led to the formation of the American Board of Plastic Surgery and gives insight into the personalities and achievements of the key individuals whose unique talents coalesced into a common vision of making plastic surgery the diverse and well-respected specialty that it is today. This is a historical literature review outlining the circumstances leading to the formation of American Board of Plastic Surgery. The emphasis on the role of its founding fathers is reviewed and detailed in the article. The founding figures continue to inspire us through their unrelenting dedication to the field of plastic surgery. Over the past 75 years, the field of plastic surgery has been very well served by their successors, and these founding figures have fostered a surgical specialty of great repute.

  7. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The most important factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery as a career include; plastic surgeons appear happy in their work 93 (85%), Plastic surgeons have rewarding careers 78 (71%), and plastic surgeons provide good role models for medical students 96 (87%). An overall score of > 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery

  8. Catheter use and infection reduction in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Zach J; Mahabir, Raman C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infection and can result in increased health care costs, morbidity and even mortality. In 2009, The Scott & White Memorial Hospital/Texas A&M Health Science Center (Texas, USA) system’s CAUTI rate placed it in the upper quartile (ie, highest rate) for the country, necessitating a system-wide change. OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a guideline to reduce the incidence of CAUTI. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team was formed and completed both a root cause analysis and a review of the available literature. Consolidating the best evidence, the team formulated a best practice guideline detailing the proper indications for insertion of, improper use of and techniques to minimize infection with catheters. Included as part of this protocol was nursing and patient education, changes in identifying patients with a catheter and automatic termination orders. Three-, six- and 12-month reviews identifying additional opportunities for improvement at the end of 2010 were completed. RESULTS: In 2009, the hospital’s CAUTI rate was 1.46 per 1000 catheter days. In 2011 – the first complete year of the finalized guideline – the hospital’s CAUTI rate was 0.52 per 1000 catheter days, ranking the institution in the bottom quartile (ie, lowest rate) for the country. The surgery and plastic surgery subgroup analyses also demonstrated statistically significant reduction in both catheter use and CAUTI. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CAUTI was successfully reduced at The Texas A&M Healthcare Center. The guideline, its development and how it applies to plastic surgery patients are discussed. PMID:24431946

  9. The transforming training pathway of plastic and craniofacial surgery in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sida; Yin, Kanhua; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Haisong; Wei, Min

    2015-03-01

    The history of plastic surgery in China dates back to about 17 centuries ago when Chinese ancestors documented a case of cleft lip repair, whereas the concepts of modern plastic surgery were imported from the West. In the last 50 years, the Chinese plastic surgeons have thrived and, through their hard work and even harder-gained experiences, witnessed the emergence of microsurgery in the 1960s, the development of craniofacial surgery during the 1970s, and cosmetic surgery becoming a trend since 1980s.With the fast renovation of treatment methods and the broadened spectrum of indications, more specialists with solid basic science knowledge and adequate clinical experience are needed for providing plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic treatment. Attempts and efforts have been made to establish a suitable training system in China for plastic surgeons and plastic subspecialists recently, which led to the transformation of pathway for one to become a plastic surgeon and provoked thoughts upon the upcoming challenges.

  10. Three Decades of History and Perspectives of Khon Kaen University's Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2015-08-01

    Plastic surgery consists of two major fields: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery with its roots lie in the reconstruction aspect. In Thailand, the plastic surgery procedures, performed during the initial period, included cleft lip and cleft palate repairs and skin graftings: In 1987, the Plastic Surgery Unit was established in the Department of Surgery, Srinagarind Hospital in Khon Kaen, which is the city in the Center of the northeast Thailand. In 1991, the partnership training of resident in plastic surgery with Siriraj Hospital was established and continued until the present time. All fields of plastic surgery were managed and educated in the Plastic Surgery Unit. Since the first batch of plastic surgery training program in 2009, the unit has many advanced in interdisciplinary management, the management of cleft center burn center postgraduate training program, research, community services, and national, regional and international coloration. The future perspectives involve educationfor 21st century skills, integration of teaching, research and community services, and a focus on evidence-based medicine and benchmarked outcomes are the future perspectives.

  11. Plastic surgery in 17th century Europe. case study: Nicolae Milescu, the snub-nosed.

    PubMed

    Dumbravă, Daniela; Luchian, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rising and the existence of plastic and aesthetic surgery in early modern Europe did not have a specific pattern, but was completely different from one nation to another. Colleges of Physicians could only be found in some places in Europe; different Parliaments of Europe's nations did not always elevate being a surgeon to the dignity of a profession, and being a surgeon did not always come with corporate and municipal privileges, or with attractive stipends. Conversely, corporal punishments for treacherous surgeons were ubiquitous. Rhinoplasty falls into the category of what Ambroise Paré named "facial plastic surgery". The technique is a medical source from which many histories derive, one more fascinating than the other: the history of those whose nose was cut off (because of state betrayal, adultery, abjuration, or duelling with swords), the history of those who invented the surgery of nose reconstruction (e.g. SuSruta-samhita or Tagliacozzi?), the history of surgeries kept secret in early modern Europe (e.g. Tropea, Calabria, Leiden, Padua, Paris, Berlin), and so on. Where does the history of Nicolae Milescu the Snub-nosed fall in all of this? How much of this history do the Moldavian Chronicles record? Is there any "scholarly gossip" in the aristocratic and diplomatic environments at Constantinople? What exactly do the British ambassadors learn concerning Rhinoplasty when they meet Milescu? How do we "walk" within these histories, and why should we be interested at all? What is their stike for modernity? Such are the interrogations that this article seeks to provoke; its purpose is to question (and eventually, synchronise) histories, and not exclusively history, both in academic terms but also by reassessing the practical knowledge of the 17th century.

  12. Introducing Evidence-based Medicine to Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Swanson, Jennifer A.; Schmitz, DeLaine; Sullivan, Daniel; Rohrich, Rod J.

    2009-01-01

    An effective healthcare system is one in which healthcare spending provides acceptable returns in terms of health outcomes and broad coverage for its citizens. By this measure, the United States healthcare system unfortunately falls short. Tremendous pressure for improvement has given rise to several initiatives designed to decrease healthcare expenditure and improve outcomes, access, and quality of care. The outcomes movement, which is revolutionary in American medicine, has heightened awareness about the need to critically examine our treatment outcomes. However, the early euphoria surrounding the outcomes movement was met with restraint at the realization of its limitations. Although the outcomes movement has verified the effectiveness of many existing treatments in plastic surgery, most of the investments in these projects unfortunately have resulted in few, if any, positive changes for the patient, physician or healthcare system (1). US healthcare is now moving towards the adoption of evidence-based medicine (EBM), which may potentially be another revolution in American healthcare (2). PMID:19337107

  13. Incorporating skin care into a facial plastic surgery practice.

    PubMed

    TerKonda, Raj P

    2004-02-01

    Starting a skin care practice takes patience and dedication, but it provides your patients with a necessary service for a comprehensive facial plastic and reconstructive surgery practice. This article discusses the differences between physician-directed skin care and spa-directed skin care and emphasizes procedures that may be performed by an aesthetician in a physician's office. Skin care practice can be classified into skin care regimens: chemical peels, microdermabrasion, and makeup. Optimal skin care regimens incorporate pharmaceutical-grade ingredients, including tretinoin, topical vitamin C, and hydroquinone. Microdermabrasion and superficial chemical peels, such as glycolic, salicylic, and trichloroacetic acid peels, are discussed. Noninvasive procedures by the physician, such as Botox and laser treatments, complement the procedures performed by the aesthetician. However, the physician is ultimately responsible for the philosophy of the skin care practice. Patient education, customer service, and skin health are key ingredients for success.

  14. 75 FR 68972 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Tissue Adhesive With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 878 Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery..., 21 CFR part 878 is amended as follows: PART 878--GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES 0 1....

  15. 75 FR 70112 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Non-Powered Suction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 878 Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery...--GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 878 continues to read...

  16. Plastic surgery within the Veterans Affairs Medical System: proposed modified indications for operative procedures.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Detlev; Pradka, Sarah P; Similie, Ernest; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Moyer, Kurtis E; Shelburne, John D; Tyler, Douglas S; Levin, Scott L

    2009-07-01

    Many plastic surgery procedures span the divide between aesthetic ("cosmetic") and reconstructive surgery. However, definitions and guidelines may be inconsistent, which may decrease patients' access to legitimate procedures. The article aims to assist Veterans' Health Administration-affiliated plastic surgeons in continuing to provide optimal care to the Nation's Veterans and family members, and should be regarded as an open discussion.

  17. Plastic Surgery Intervention with Down Syndrome Persons: Summary of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The article discusses the role of plastic surgery for persons with Down Syndrome, as considered in a recent conference. The functions of team plastic surgery, importance of intensive speech therapy, and the question of ultimate therapeutic value are among questions considered. (CL)

  18. Academic Proficiency in Children Following Early Congenital Heart Disease Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Melguizo, Maria S.; Reeves, Rachel N.; Rowell, Jacob A.; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school-age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at <1 year of age from 1/1/1998─12/31/2003 at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital were identified. Out-of-state births and infants with known genetic and/or neurologic conditions were excluded. Infants were matched to an Arkansas Department of Education database containing standardized assessments at early school-age and special education codes. Predictors for achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. 256 children who attended Arkansas public schools and had surgery as infants were included; 77.7% had either school-age achievement-test scores or special education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7–13% lower than Arkansas students (p<0.01). They had an 8-fold increase in the receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities (OR 10.66, 95% CI 4.23─22.35) or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95% CI 2.6─8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with reduced literacy proficiency and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with reduced mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments and many received special education. This is concerning since achievement- test scores at school-age are “real-world” predictors of long-term outcomes. PMID:24000004

  19. Cloud-Based Applications for Organizing and Reviewing Plastic Surgery Content.

    PubMed

    Luan, Anna; Momeni, Arash; Lee, Gordon K; Galvez, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Cloud-based applications including Box, Dropbox, Google Drive, Evernote, Notability, and Zotero are available for smartphones, tablets, and laptops and have revolutionized the manner in which medical students and surgeons read and utilize plastic surgery literature. Here we provide an overview of the use of Cloud computing in practice and propose an algorithm for organizing the vast amount of plastic surgery literature. Given the incredible amount of data being produced in plastic surgery and other surgical subspecialties, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to lead the process of providing solutions for the efficient organization and effective integration of the ever-increasing data into clinical practice.

  20. Leg ulcer plastic surgery descent by laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfer, Jacqui; Filonenko, Natalia; Salansky, Norman M.

    1994-02-01

    Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled device. A 22 red ((lambda) equals 660 nm) laser head was utilized to provide a dose of (4 - 6) J/cm2 and 7 infrared ((lambda) equals 880 nm) head to provide a dose of (4 - 8) J/cm2. The patients were treated three to five times per week, 25 - 30 treatments per course. Three patients underwent two courses of laser therapy with three weeks interval between them. All patients, after 5 - 10 laser treatments, have gotten relief of pain and decreased the amount of analgesics used. All ulcers in six patients were completely healed and two ulcers in the seventh patient decreased in size by 75%. One may conclude the developed laser methodology might be used as a preventative measure to avoid plastic surgery or improve its success.

  1. The Evolution of Photography and Three-Dimensional Imaging in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M

    2016-11-21

    Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have refined not only the plastic surgeon's armamentarium, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography.Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphological analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both pre and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes, however the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations.We intend to familiarize readers with the notion that 3D photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied upon.This paper reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.

  2. The Evolution of Photography and Three-Dimensional Imaging in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian E; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M

    2017-03-01

    Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have not only refined the methods available to the plastic surgeon, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography. Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphologic analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes; however, the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations. The authors intend to familiarize readers with the notion that three-dimensional photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied on. This article reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.

  3. Identification of Best Practices for Resident Aesthetic Clinics in Plastic Surgery Training: The ACAPS National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cindy; Bentz, Michael L.; Redett, Richard J.; Shack, R. Bruce; David, Lisa R.; Taub, Peter J.; Janis, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Resident aesthetic clinics (RACs) have demonstrated good outcomes and acceptable patient satisfaction, but few studies have evaluated their educational, financial, or medicolegal components. We sought to determine RAC best practices. Methods: We surveyed American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeon members (n = 399), focusing on operational details, resident supervision, patient safety, medicolegal history, financial viability, and research opportunities. Of the 96 respondents, 63 reported having a RAC, and 56% of plastic surgery residency program directors responded. Results: RACs averaged 243 patient encounters and 53.9 procedures annually, having been in existence for 19.6 years (mean). Full-time faculty (73%) supervised chief residents (84%) in all aspects of care (65%). Of the 63 RACs, 45 were accredited, 40 had licensed procedural suites, 28 had inclusion/exclusion criteria, and 31 used anesthesiologists. Seventeen had overnight capability, and 17 had a Life Safety Plan. No cases of malignant hyperthermia occurred, but 1 facility death was reported. Sixteen RACs had been involved in a lawsuit, and 33 respondents reported financial viability of the RACs. Net revenue was transferred to both the residents’ educational fund (41%) and divisional/departmental overhead (37%). Quality measures included case logs (78%), morbidity/mortality conference (62%), resident surveys (52%), and patient satisfaction scores (46%). Of 63 respondents, 14 have presented or published RAC-specific research; 80 of 96 of those who were surveyed believed RACs enhanced education. Conclusions: RACs are an important component of plastic surgery education. Most clinics are financially viable but carry high malpractice risk and consume significant resources. Best practices, to maximize patient safety and optimize resident education, include use of accredited procedural rooms and direct faculty supervision of all components of care. PMID:26146599

  4. Psychological change after aesthetic plastic surgery: a prospective controlled outcome study.

    PubMed

    Moss, Timothy P; Harris, David L

    2009-10-01

    Aesthetic plastic surgery has been long practiced for primarily psychological rather than physical benefit to patients. However, evaluation of the psychological impact of aesthetic plastic surgery has often been of limited methodological rigor in both study design and appropriate measurement. This study is intended to evaluate the psychological impact of aesthetic surgery on patients seeking such intervention in regard to concerns about breasts, nose or upper limbs using standardised psychometric instruments. Participants were recruited through the Plastic Surgery Unit (Patients) and general surgery, ENT surgery and Maxillo-facial surgery (Comparisons) at a UK General Hospital. Outcome measures included the Crown-Crisp Experiential Inventory anxiety scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Derriford Appearance Scale-24, a valid and reliable measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. Data were collected pre-operatively (T1) and 3 months post-operatively (T2) for both groups. Longitudinal appearance adjustment for the plastic surgery group was also assessed at 12 months (T3). Both groups were less depressed and anxious post-operatively. The improvement in anxiety was significantly greater in the plastic surgery group. Body site specific appearance distress was significantly improved for the plastics group only, and the level of improvement was related to the body site affected.

  5. Plastic Surgery on Children with Down Syndrome: Parents' Perceptions of Physical, Personal, and Social Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Shlomo; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study compared perceptions of parents of 19 children with Down's syndrome (DS) who had undergone plastic facial surgery with perceptions of parents of DS children who had not received surgery. The comparison found little evidence of positive impact of the surgery on parents' perceptions of their children's physical, personal, and social…

  6. 76 FR 42713 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Amendment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. This meeting was... of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee would...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4810 - Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in dermatology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4810 - Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in dermatology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4810 - Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in dermatology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4810 - Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in dermatology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4810 - Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in dermatology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and...

  12. Plastic Surgery Training Worldwide: Part 1. The United States and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Parisa; van Paridon, Maaike W.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Paul, Marek A.; Winters, Henri A.; Martinot-Duquennoy, Veronique; Noah, Ernst Magnus; Pallua, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major differences exist in residency training, and the structure and quality of residency programs differ between different countries and teaching centers. It is of vital importance that a better understanding of the similarities and differences in plastic surgery training be ascertained as a means of initiating constructive discussion and commentary among training programs worldwide. In this study, the authors provide an overview of plastic surgery training in the United States and Europe. Methods: A survey was sent to select surgeons in 10 European countries that were deemed to be regular contributors to the plastic surgery literature. The questions focused on pathway to plastic surgery residency, length of training, required pretraining experience, training scheme, research opportunities, and examinations during and after plastic surgery residency. Results: Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States differ from the various (selected) countries in Europe and are described in detail. Conclusions: Plastic surgery education is vastly different between the United States and Europe, and even within Europe, training programs remain heterogeneous. Standardization of curricula across the different countries would improve the interaction of different centers and facilitate the exchange of vital information for quality control and future improvements. The unique characteristics of the various training programs potentially provide a basis from which to learn and to gain from one another. PMID:27257571

  13. The Plastic Surgery Compass: Navigating the Reconstructive Ladder in the Personalized Health Care Era.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Lars Johan M

    2016-09-01

    The reconstructive ladder and the reconstructive elevator have withstood the test of time as didactic tools for resident education. Over time, many alternative models have been suggested to incorporate the technological advances in plastic surgery, but none of them have focused on the patient. Changes in practice and the trend toward personalized health care demand a 360-degree evaluation and solution of surgical problems incorporating patient-specific characteristics. We, therefore, suggest the concept of the plastic surgery compass to navigate the ladder.

  14. Flash scanning the CO2 laser: a revival of the CO2 laser in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The CO2 laser has broad clinical application yet also presents a number of practical disadvantages. These drawbacks have limited the success and utilization of this laser in plastic surgery. Flashscanner technology has recently been used for char-free CO2 laser surgery of the oropharynx, the external female genital tract, and perirectal mucosa. A commercially available optomechanical flashscanner unit `Swiftlase,' was adapted to a CO2 laser and used for treatment in numerous plastic surgical applications. Conditions and situations that were treated in this study included generalized neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, rhinophyma, viral warts, breast reconstruction, and deepithelialization prior to microsurgery or local flap transfer and/or skin graft placement. There were no significant wound healing complications. Some patients previously sustained undue scarring from conventional CO2 laser surgery. Conservative, primarily ablative CO2 laser surgery with the Swiftlase has usefulness for treatment of patients in plastic surgery including those that were previously unsuccessfully treated.

  15. The Effect of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Plastic Surgery Literature.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Adam; Pace, Elizabeth; Reintgen, Christian; Mast, Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    Medical research has a long history of joint venture between commercial entities and nonindustry researchers. Significant concern exists among accrediting bodies for medical education and federal granting agencies that conflicts of interest (COIs) exist that affect the validity of the research. This study evaluates the legitimacy of this concern.All clinical breast and cosmetic articles in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Annals of Plastic Surgery were reviewed for calendar year 2013. If a financial disclosure was present, the article was then reviewed to determine if the subject/findings were in favor of the commercial conflict and, if so, whether the study was valid. To assess plastic surgery versus other specialties, articles from Dermatology and Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery were similarly reviewed from January to April of 2013.Two hundred seventy-two clinical articles were reviewed. Only 15 (5.5%) had a true COI: the article's findings favored the commercial interest of at least 1 author: for each journal, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 7.7%; Annals of Plastic Surgery, 3.3%; Dermatology, 2.2%; Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 7.5%. Conflicts of interest were not statistically significant between pooled articles of plastic surgery versus dermatology/orthopedics. However, COI was statistically greater (P = 0.05) in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery compared with Annals and Dermatology.Despite public and regulatory concerns, this assessment demonstrates that the peer-review process of leading journals polices true COIs. Published articles provide sound research despite presumed COIs. As such, the integrity and validity of published research remain high.

  16. Time of cochlear implant surgery in academic settings

    PubMed Central

    Majdani, Omid; Schuman, Theodore A.; Haynes, David S.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Leinung, Martin; Lenarz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Establish time required to perform cochlear implantation (CI) in academic settings. STUDY DESIGN Historical cohort study. SETTING German and American academic centers. PATIENTS 2,639 patients underwent CI (1997–2007), excluding patients receiving experimental device or technique with abnormal cochlear anatomy or incomplete charts, leaving 2,253 for analysis. INTERVENTION Unilateral, bilateral and revision CI with devices approved in USA and Europe. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Mean surgical time (ST) and total OR time (TORT). RESULTS Mixed model analysis was employed; estimated marginal means given in minutes after adjusting for random effect of individual surgeon. No differences between unilateral (ST=171, TORT=245) and revision CI (ST=160, TORT=232), but bilateral procedures were longer than (ST=295, TORT=377, p=0.000). Unilateral surgeries - Cochlear Limited (CL) devices were implanted faster (ST=165, TORT=225) than Advanced Bionics (ABC) (ST=183, p=0.001, TORT=240, p=0.023) or MedEl (ST=193, p=0.000, TORT=253, p=0.002). No differences for unilateral CI between ABC and MedEl. For revision CI, ABC (ST=141, TORT=219) was faster than CL (ST=181, p=0.001, TORT=266, p=0.000). No differences by age group or between Germany and the USA. ST and TORT were shorter for 575 CI performed in the final two years of the study (unilateral CI: ST=145, TORT=209; bilateral CI: ST=259, TORT=330; revision CI: ST=138, TORT=205). For unilateral CI, ST and TORT decreased yearly (linear regression, p<0.001) and inversely correlated with surgeon experience (linear regression, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS We report time required to perform CI in academic settings, data vital for cost-benefit analyses and assessing new CI techniques. PMID:20115984

  17. The impact of advancing age on postoperative outcomes in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kevin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Qin, Charles; Kim, John Y

    2015-11-01

    Age has been shown to be an independent predictor of complications in general surgery patients. In contrast, the effect of age on outcomes after plastic surgery has yet to be confirmed or refuted. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate a possible association between age and postoperative outcomes after plastic surgery. The 2005-2012 NSQIP database was retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing plastic surgery. Patients ≥60 years with procedures under the category of plastic surgery in NSQIP were selected for analysis. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day overall complication rates. Multivariate regression models were constructed to control for potential perioperative confounders. Of the 2,320,920 patients captured in the NSQIP database, 36,819 patients underwent plastic surgery and met inclusion criteria. The incidence of unadjusted overall complications increased with age with an overall complication rate of 9.0% in patients <60 years, 11.6% in patients 60-69 years, 13.2% in patients 70-79 years, and 15.9% in patients 80 or more years (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, age was not independently associated with increased overall complications rates in patients 60-69 years (OR = 1.026; 95% CI = 0.927-1.135; p = 0.619) and 70-79 years (OR = 0.933; 95% CI = 0.797-0.919; p = 0.393), although patients 80 years and older experienced more medical complications (OR = 1.626; 95% CI = 1.218-2.172; p = 0.001). Age is not independently associated with overall worse outcomes in patients undergoing plastic surgery. Medical complications and mortality were more likely in extremes of age (>80 years). Age alone should not be included as a decisional factor in patients <80 years old considering plastic surgery.

  18. Does research during general surgery residency correlate with academic pursuits after pediatric surgery residency?

    PubMed

    Lessin, M S; Klein, M D

    1995-09-01

    A study was designed to evaluate whether successful candidates in pediatric surgery have performed laboratory research with publication, and if such preparation leads to continued investigations. We requested a curriculum vitae from the 248 pediatric surgeons who began their pediatric surgery residencies (PSR) between 1979 and 1992. For nonresponders, data were collected from physician directories. Indicators of academic status, personal information, and publication data were obtained. Responders had more publications before, during, and after PSR. Those who published during general surgery residency (GSR) had more research years during their residency. Among responders, 59% had spent time in the laboratory, and the percentage with laboratory time increased over the study period. Those with laboratory experience had more laboratory and clinical papers before PSR. Ninety-four percent were from university-based GSRs and 6% were from community GSRs. University general surgery residents did not have more publications during GSR or PSR but had a greater number of publications after PSR. University general surgery residents had more laboratory publications during GSR and after PSR, but did not have more clinical publications. Publications during GSR and after PSR increased during the study period, but not during PSR. Time in the laboratory during GSR did not independently predict continued laboratory research. Those with laboratory papers during GSR did not publish more basic science papers after PSR. Several surgeons had basic science publications that were initiated only after their PSR. In a recent study that compared successful and unsuccessful PSR candidates, the successful candidates were found to have more publications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Facial plastic surgery area acquisition method based on point cloud mathematical model solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuwu; Liu, Fei

    2013-09-01

    It is one of the hot research problems nowadays to find a quick and accurate method of acquiring the facial plastic surgery area to provide sufficient but irredundant autologous or in vitro skin source for covering extensive wound, trauma, and burnt area. At present, the acquisition of facial plastic surgery area mainly includes model laser scanning, point cloud data acquisition, pretreatment of point cloud data, three-dimensional model reconstruction, and computation of area. By using this method, the area can be computed accurately, but it is hard to control the random error, and it requires a comparatively longer computation period. In this article, a facial plastic surgery area acquisition method based on point cloud mathematical model solution is proposed. This method applies symmetric treatment to the point cloud based on the pretreatment of point cloud data, through which the comparison diagram color difference map of point cloud error before and after symmetry is obtained. The slicing mathematical model of facial plastic area is got through color difference map diagram. By solving the point cloud data in this area directly, the facial plastic area is acquired. The point cloud data are directly operated in this method, which can accurately and efficiently complete the surgery area computation. The result of the comparative analysis shows the method is effective in facial plastic surgery area.

  20. A Systematic Review of Applying Patient Satisfaction Outcomes in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, Philip J.; Pushman, Allison G.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background We performed a systematic review of patient satisfaction studies in the Plastic Surgery literature. The specific aim was to evaluate the status of satisfaction research that has been undertaken to date and to identify areas for improvement. Methods Four medical databases were searched using satisfaction and Plastic Surgery related search terms. Quality of selected articles was assessed by two trained reviewers. Results Out of the total of 2,936 articles gleaned by the search, 178 were included in the final review. The majority of the articles (58%) in our review examined patient satisfaction in breast surgery populations. Additionally, 53% of the articles were limited in scope and only measured features of care in one or two domains of satisfaction. Finally, the majority of the studies (68%) were based solely on the use of ad-hoc satisfaction measurement instruments that did not undergo a formal development. Conclusion Given the important policy implications of patient satisfaction data within Plastic Surgery, we found a need to further refine research on patient satisfaction in Plastic Surgery. The scarcity of satisfaction research in the craniofacial, hand, and other reconstructive specialties, as well as the narrow scope of satisfaction measurement and the use of unvalidated instruments are current barriers preventing Plastic Surgery patient satisfaction studies from producing meaningful results. PMID:20517109

  1. Joseph Constantine Carpue and the Bicentennial of the Birth of Modern Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2015-08-01

    September 2014 marked the bicentennial of the birth of modern plastic surgery. It was then that Carpue began a prospective observational study of nasal reconstruction that culminated in his 1816 monograph, which caused an explosion of interest in reconstructive surgery throughout Europe. In conducting his study, Carpue demonstrated ethical standards and the power of planning a procedure. His methods to document his results accurately would remain unsurpassed until photography was adopted at the end of the 19th century. Carpue took an apocryphal story of surgery performed in India more than twenty years earlier and transformed it into the beginning of modern plastic surgery. He succeeded in a number of unrecognized tasks that are themselves landmarks not only in plastic surgical history, but surgical history: devising the first prospective observational study, using exclusion criteria, maintaining appropriate patient confidentiality, setting a standard for preoperative disclosure and ethical approval over a century before these measures were codified, having independent documentation of his preoperative and postoperative findings, devising a method to objectively monitor and document the forehead flap, and describing the potential value of tissue expansion. He shared his experience by publishing his results and by lecturing in Europe. His contemporaries recognized him for his contributions and he was honored by election to the Royal Society. Carpue launched the modern era of plastic surgery in an ethical, logical, and objective manner. While plastic surgery has changed in the last two centuries, the principles that Carpue followed remain valid.

  2. Joseph Constantine Carpue and the Bicentennial of the Birth of Modern Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Freshwater, M. Felix

    2015-01-01

    September 2014 marked the bicentennial of the birth of modern plastic surgery. It was then that Carpue began a prospective observational study of nasal reconstruction that culminated in his 1816 monograph, which caused an explosion of interest in reconstructive surgery throughout Europe. In conducting his study, Carpue demonstrated ethical standards and the power of planning a procedure. His methods to document his results accurately would remain unsurpassed until photography was adopted at the end of the 19th century. Carpue took an apocryphal story of surgery performed in India more than twenty years earlier and transformed it into the beginning of modern plastic surgery. He succeeded in a number of unrecognized tasks that are themselves landmarks not only in plastic surgical history, but surgical history: devising the first prospective observational study, using exclusion criteria, maintaining appropriate patient confidentiality, setting a standard for preoperative disclosure and ethical approval over a century before these measures were codified, having independent documentation of his preoperative and postoperative findings, devising a method to objectively monitor and document the forehead flap, and describing the potential value of tissue expansion. He shared his experience by publishing his results and by lecturing in Europe. His contemporaries recognized him for his contributions and he was honored by election to the Royal Society. Carpue launched the modern era of plastic surgery in an ethical, logical, and objective manner. While plastic surgery has changed in the last two centuries, the principles that Carpue followed remain valid. PMID:25795909

  3. Face recognition via edge-based Gabor feature representation for plastic surgery-altered images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chude-Olisah, Chollette C.; Sulong, Ghazali; Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.; Hashim, Siti Z. M.

    2014-12-01

    Plastic surgery procedures on the face introduce skin texture variations between images of the same person (intra-subject), thereby making the task of face recognition more difficult than in normal scenario. Usually, in contemporary face recognition systems, the original gray-level face image is used as input to the Gabor descriptor, which translates to encoding some texture properties of the face image. The texture-encoding process significantly degrades the performance of such systems in the case of plastic surgery due to the presence of surgically induced intra-subject variations. Based on the proposition that the shape of significant facial components such as eyes, nose, eyebrow, and mouth remains unchanged after plastic surgery, this paper employs an edge-based Gabor feature representation approach for the recognition of surgically altered face images. We use the edge information, which is dependent on the shapes of the significant facial components, to address the plastic surgery-induced texture variation problems. To ensure that the significant facial components represent useful edge information with little or no false edges, a simple illumination normalization technique is proposed for preprocessing. Gabor wavelet is applied to the edge image to accentuate on the uniqueness of the significant facial components for discriminating among different subjects. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the Georgia Tech (GT) and the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) databases with illumination and expression problems, and the plastic surgery database with texture changes. Results show that the proposed edge-based Gabor feature representation approach is robust against plastic surgery-induced face variations amidst expression and illumination problems and outperforms the existing plastic surgery face recognition methods reported in the literature.

  4. Quality of Life and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Carolina; Tenório, Juliana L.C.; Saltz, Renato; Ely, Pedro B.; Ferrão, Ygor A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in plastic surgery. However, authors use different scales to address this subject, making it difficult to compare the outcomes. To address this discrepancy, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and a random effect meta-analysis. Methods: The search was made in two electronic databases (LILACS and PUBMED) using Mesh and non-Mesh terms related to aesthetic plastic surgery and QoL. We performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the gathered data. We calculated a random effect meta-analysis with Der Simonian and Laird as variance estimator to compare pre- and postoperative QoL standardized mean difference. To check if there is difference between aesthetic surgeries, we compared reduction mammoplasty to other aesthetic surgeries. Results: Of 1,715 identified, 20 studies were included in the qualitative analysis and 16 went through quantitative analysis. The random effect of all aesthetic surgeries shows that QoL improved after surgery. Reduction mammoplasty has improved QoL more than other procedures in social functioning and physical functioning domains. Conclusions: Aesthetic plastic surgery increases QoL. Reduction mammoplasty seems to have better improvement compared with other aesthetic surgeries. PMID:27757327

  5. The financial environment of aesthetic surgery: results of a survey of plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-12-01

    To gather information about aesthetic surgery's current practice structures, competitive environment, patient price sensitivity, and marketing and practice development requirements, a two-page survey was developed and mailed to all 1180 members of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. A total of 632 surveys were returned (response rate of 54.5 percent). Most aesthetic plastic surgeons said they were in solo practice (63.3 percent). More than two-thirds described the marketplace as "very competitive," with 59 percent reporting 25 or more surgeons offering aesthetic surgery in their area. They estimated their patients' average income at $62,800. Nearly all plastic surgeons labeled their patients as "moderately price sensitive" (62.3 percent) or "very price sensitive" (30.6 percent). Similarly, 23.2 percent estimated that they had lost 20 or more patients within the last year for reasons of price. Practice development and marketing efforts represented an average of 7.3 percent of plastic surgeons' working time. Parameters associated with a high percentage of time devoted to these activities were solo practice, percentage of revenue from aesthetic surgery greater than 50 percent, a practice environment designation of moderately or very competitive, and ten or more area surgeons offering aesthetic surgery (p < 0.05). High patient income led to only slight decreases in price sensitivity and did not significantly reduce the amount of time spent on marketing and practice development. Although the rest of the healthcare industry has undergone a period of consolidation, aesthetic surgeons have been able to resist these changes. The results of this survey suggest that the fragmented nature of the aesthetic surgery industry is associated with additional burdens on plastic surgeons. As the aesthetic surgery market becomes more competitive, plastic surgeons may benefit from consolidation to reduce costs and maximize efficiency.

  6. Enhancing the mission of academic surgery by promoting scientific writing skills.

    PubMed

    Derish, Pamela A; Maa, John; Ascher, Nancy L; Harris, Hobart W

    2007-06-15

    Writing and publishing are key to career development and academic success for surgeons who have less time than ever to devote to these activities. To improve the scientific writing skills of its faculty and trainees and to help them complete their manuscripts and grant proposals more quickly, the Department of Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) established a service dedicated to scientific writing and editing. Through coursework in scientific writing, individual writing consultations, and editorial review, the service helps academic surgeons with the difficult tasks of writing and publishing their research and seeking extramural funding. The service has rapidly become a successful adjunct to the academic mission of the UCSF Department of Surgery and could offer a model for other academic surgery departments to increase scientific productivity and advance the academic surgical mission.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Reason for or Consequence of Facial Plastic Surgery?

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Facial plastic surgery may be undertaken for a variety of reasons. Patients may have had traumatic experiences prior to surgery, such as an accident, a physical assault, or severe illness resulting in facial damage, and they may have used inadequate coping strategies. These patients usually appear suspicious toward medical staff and need special attention because they are at high risk of being unsatisfied with the outcome of surgery. Some patients may hold unrealistic assumptions about the outcome of plastic surgery. Yet other patients may suffer from complications of surgery and may thus experience facial plastic surgery as a trauma. In all such events these patients require special attention. First of all, careful exploration of traumatic experiences prior to surgery should take place even if this does not seem to be part of the standard treatment and requires additional time. Patients usually experience strong relief when their concerns are taken seriously, and treatment outcomes can thus be improved. Moreover, patients should be checked for acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and if so diagnosed, specialized treatment should be initiated postoperatively. Patients with ASD or PTSD will experience the surgical intervention and the treatment postsurgery with more confidence and greater satisfaction if the surgeon also engages in the psychosocial aspects of their history.

  8. Scholarship in Academic Surgery: History, Challenges, and Ideas for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of academic surgery is changing. Traditional roles of the triple threat researcher, clinician and teacher, were formulated by Osler and improved upon by Boyle in the 1990s. These include application and integration of research to clinical problems. However, new pressures exist on the academic surgeon. Financial pressures rising costs of health care and decreased research funding all need to be addressed. In addition, retention and advancement of faculty is more difficult with increased emphasis of clinical practice in academic medicine. The future of academic medicine will require personal optimization as a multifaceted academician, businessman, and administrator, as well as rethinking how academic medicine may function in the future. PMID:24436678

  9. A plastic surgery office-based Website: an asset to any practice!

    PubMed

    Drye, C

    2000-01-01

    We are living in a "connected world" and our patients are taking a more active role in their health care management as well as educating themselves about health-related issues. An office-based website can be an effective tool for plastic surgery practices as well as plastic and reconstructive surgical nurses. This type of a website can serve as a source of information for potential and current clients.

  10. Principles of plastic surgery portrayed by the professional life of Dr John Peter Mettauer.

    PubMed

    Avashia, Yash J; Thaller, Seth R

    2011-11-01

    Regarded as "America's first plastic surgeon," Dr John Peter Mettauer's professional life displays 3 fundamental keystones of plastic surgery: education, innovation, and practice. To fully appreciate the history of our plastic surgery, one must look beyond a purely factual recount of noteworthy actions performed decades ago. Fundamental principles that governed achievements of our predecessors remain applicable even today. Dr Mettauer thrived as a medical student under the influence of distinguished professors in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Later, he continued to propagate their basic tenets when he established his medical institute in 1837. Throughout his life, Dr Mettauer combined ingenuity with scientific inquiry to devise numerous unprecedented surgical techniques and instruments. He was a prolific writer and exquisitely documented his work in medical journals for the benefit of both contemporary and future surgeons. One of Dr Mettauer's momentous achievements in plastic surgery that displays his remarkable capabilities was his contributions to management of both simple and complicated cases of cleft palate. He was the first to describe relaxing lateral incisions for treating complete cleft palates and, incidentally, was the first to successfully treat this in America. He invariably replicated similar success in establishing techniques for treating a wide range of anatomic deformities. Cumulatively, Dr Mettauer's lifelong commitment and diligence have truly laid a foundation for the eventual progress and success in the field of plastic surgery.

  11. Octyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive for skin closure and prevention of infection in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Alessandro; Brandi, Cesare; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe; Brafa, Anna; Calabrò, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    No complete scientific study has yet investigated the incidence of surgical-site infections in plastic surgery operations. However, it has been noted that in the case of wound infection, the aesthetic and sometimes the functional results become invalidated by delay and an alteration of the healing processes, thus necessitating surgical correction. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of applying tissue adhesive on surgical wounds in plastic surgery as a protection capable of reducing the onset of infection, and to verify the existence of a statistically significant difference between treated and untreated wounds, and to determine patients' satisfaction with their cicatricial results.

  12. The Plastic Surgery Compass: Navigating the Reconstructive Ladder in the Personalized Health Care Era

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The reconstructive ladder and the reconstructive elevator have withstood the test of time as didactic tools for resident education. Over time, many alternative models have been suggested to incorporate the technological advances in plastic surgery, but none of them have focused on the patient. Changes in practice and the trend toward personalized health care demand a 360-degree evaluation and solution of surgical problems incorporating patient-specific characteristics. We, therefore, suggest the concept of the plastic surgery compass to navigate the ladder. PMID:27757348

  13. [Urodynamics of upper urinary tracts after intestinal plastic surgery on urinary bladder (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Mudraia, I S; David'iants, A A; Zaĭtsev, A V

    1999-01-01

    In dog experiments, the urinary bladder was replaced for an isolated intestinal segment to test upper urinary tract function as regards configuration of the established urine reservoir early and late after the surgery. Intestinal plastic surgery of the bladder changes parameters of ureteral function in unchanged potential reserve of ureteral contraction. Postileocystoplasty urodynamics of the upper urinary tracts is characterized by lowering of intraureteral pressure, decreased amplitude of ureteral contractions, enhanced tonicity and motility. Plastic replacement of the bladder with isolated intestinal segment is not contraindicated in the solitary kidney.

  14. [Jean-Louis-Paul Denucé (1824-1889): A forgotten pioneer of plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Marck, K W; Martin, D

    2016-02-01

    The authors propose to define as main characterization of plastic reconstructive surgery the conceptual thinking that leads to a rational choice of an operative treatment. Conceptual thinking in plastic surgery started halfway the nineteenth century with the first schematic representations of the operative procedures available at that time, in which Von Ammon and Baumgarten, Szymanowski and Denucé played a prominent role. These four authors and their works are presented with special attention for the less known of them, Jean-Paul Denucé, surgeon in Bordeaux.

  15. [Treatment of the human body : the possibilities and limits of plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Bermes, C

    2015-01-01

    The desire for authenticity is often cited as a motive for making use of plastic surgery. This article aims to elaborate on the meaning of this particular authenticity. At the same time, it discusses reasons that justify or forbid a plastic surgery intervention in the light of ethics. For this purpose, a distinction is made between "objective body" (Körper) and "subjective body" (Leib), and the objectives of medical actions are questioned. Through the terminological differentiation between integrity (Integrität), prosperity (Wohlergehen), and well-being (Wohlbefinden), these objectives are qualified and the limits of medical actions are determined.

  16. [What are the objectives of a humanitarian reconstructive plastic surgery mission?].

    PubMed

    Micheau, P; Lauwers, F

    1999-02-01

    What is the place of plastic and reconstructive surgery within the field of general surgery in developing countries? A limited personal experience (15 missions, 220 operated patients), and a more extensive experience of colleagues working in the field for several years, constitute the starting point for discussion. General surgery represented 80% of all surgical activity in the 1970s, but has progressively become more specialized. Analysis of the type of operations shows that the most frequent techniques are simple procedures (skin grafts, local autoplasties). "Basic" plastic surgery corresponds to local possibilities and the population's real needs. The authors describe the demands usually encountered during their missions (Africa, South East Asia). They emphasize the long-term involvement of the same team, at the same site, with the same program to pass on knowledge and, for the surgeon, to experience the richness of another world.

  17. [Two French pioneers of plastic surgery: François Dubois and Raymond Passot].

    PubMed

    Derquenne, François

    2015-01-01

    After World War, especially during the interwar years, new plastic surgical techniques were highly developed by I two French surgeons: Dr Raymond Passot, a pupil of Pr Hippolyte Morestin, Head of surgery department in Val-de-Grâce military hospital, Father of the Gueules cassées and Dr François Dubois, a pupil of Pr Sébileau, head of ear nose throat disorders department at Lariboisière Hospital in Paris. By the way of papers, publications and interviews to media, they described new French cosmetic techniques (rhitidectomy, sutures, liposuccion) and extensively developed this outpatient surgery. They used to renove famous actresse's and actors' face and nose and those of hundreds of patients. They participate to French societies of plastic surgery meetings and publications. Their enthusiastic dare largely participated to the current success of cosmetic surgery in France.

  18. A Systematic Review of Ethical Principles in the Plastic Surgery Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Pushman, Allison G.; Bellfi, Lillian T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To perform a systematic review to identify articles that discuss ethical issues relating to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery and to evaluate whether ethical issues are underrepresented in the plastic surgery literature. Methods: Four medical databases were selected to search through the medical literature with specific inclusion criteria to disqualify irrelevant articles from the study. Appropriate articles were extracted, and their quality and validity were assessed by multiple investigators to maximize reproducibility. The data were then synthesized and analyzed for associations amongst the ethical principles. Results: Out of a total library search of >100,000 plastic surgery oriented articles, only 110 clearly focused on ethical principles. Autonomy (53%) was the most common major theme, whereas distributive justice (15%) represented the least frequently emphasized ethical principle. The proportions of each ethical principle were tested against each other for equality using Cochran's Q test; the Q test reached statistical significance (Q = 67.04, df =3, P < 0.0001), indicating that the ethical principles were not discussed equally in plastic surgery literature, which was expected because autonomy represented 53% of the manuscripts whereas distributive justice represented only 15% of manuscripts. When examining both major and minor themes, over half of the articles (61%) addressed 2 or more ethical principles. Beneficence and nonmaleficence were strongly associated (Pearson's x2 = 55.38, df =1, P<0.0001). Conclusions: Despite the extensive amount of ethical issues that plastic surgeons face, a relatively small proportion of plastic surgery literature was dedicated to discussing ethical principles. PMID:20009860

  19. Dealing with tattoos in plastic surgery. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Malca, N; Boulart, L; Noel, W; de Runz, A; Chaouat, M; Mimoun, M; Boccara, D

    2017-04-01

    Not only has tattooing been socially performed for thousands of years, but it has also been part and parcel of medical practice since antiquity. In our day and age, plastic surgeons are ever more frequently compelled to deal with tattooing - and with tattoo removal procedures, as well. While the process itself may appear harmless, it is not without risk and necessitates use of suitable tools and management by expert hands.

  20. The Value of Postconditioning in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Weng, Weidong; Zhang, Feng; Lineaweaver, William C; Gao, Weiyang; Yan, Hede

    2016-05-01

    Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by abrupt restoration of circulation after prolonged ischemia has still been an unsolved problem in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The concept of postconditioning (post-con), which has been well described in cardiovascular surgery, has been recently introduced in plastic and reconstructive surgery. As an "after-injury strategy," post-con may be a promising approach to reduce I/R injury and improve flap survival after ischemia. Methods A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases of PubMed and web of science to identify all the studies regarding the application of the post-con technique in plastic and reconstructive surgery between 1950 and 2015. Inclusion criteria were English articles with clear reporting the post-con techniques and detailed outcomes. Results In total, 476 articles were identified and 18 studies reporting post-con in plastic and reconstructive surgery met the inclusion criteria in this review, including 11 studies of mechanical post-con, 3 studies of pharmacological post-con, 1 study of both mechanical and pharmacological post-con, and 3 studies of remote post-con. All these studies reported protective effects of any kind of post-con techniques in I/R injuries and could improve flap survivals. Conclusion In general, the strategy of post-con may effectively reduce I/R injury and improve the survival of flaps after ischemia in animal studies, yet no consensus regarding the exact technical details (intervention timing, cycles, intermittent duration, etc.) has been reached. Further studies aiming to explore its mechanisms as well as specific methodology are required before clinical application in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  1. Combined Soft and Hard Tissue Peri-Implant Plastic Surgery Techniques to Enhance Implant Rehabilitation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Baltacıoğlu, Esra; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bağış, Nilsun; Aydın, Güven; Yuva, Pınar; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Bağış, Bora

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents an implant-aided prosthetic treatment in which peri-implant plastic surgery techniques were applied in combination to satisfactorily attain functional aesthetic expectations. Peri-implant plastic surgery enables the successful reconstruction and restoration of the balance between soft and hard tissues and allows the option of implant-aided fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:25489351

  2. 76 FR 65200 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee scheduled for December...

  3. 75 FR 47606 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the...

  4. 75 FR 61507 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Amendment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. This meeting was...: In the Federal Register of August 16, 2010, FDA announced that a meeting of the General and...

  5. 75 FR 1395 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Amendment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. This...

  6. The Evolution of Organized Plastic Surgery in the United States and Its Role as a Global Partner.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert X

    2015-06-01

    The medical environment in the United States is evolving rapidly and the stresses that plastic surgeons face are mounting. These changes and stresses are not unique to the United States but rather are impacting our specialty globally. In order to help its members meet these challenges and to remain relevant, organized plastic surgery in the United States must evolve. In addition, as the nation whose plastic surgery organizations have the largest infrastructure to support their membership, organized plastic surgery in the United States could make a significant contribution to helping our international colleagues. Various challenges facing plastic surgeons in the United States and throughout the world are discussed as well as possible roles that organized plastic surgery can play to support practicing surgeons around the globe.

  7. 76 FR 43119 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Focused Ultrasound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 878 Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery... Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, Rm. 1436, Silver...

  8. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  9. Parents Speak Out: Facial Plastic Surgery for Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative study examined comments of 250 parents of children with Down syndrome concerning facial plastic surgery as a means of improving the physical functioning, appearance, and social acceptance of these children. Most respondents viewed improvement of negative societal attitudes toward individuals with Down syndrome and futhering their…

  10. Quality of Life and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Rodrigo; Blaya, Carolina; Tenório, Juliana L C; Saltz, Renato; Ely, Pedro B; Ferrão, Ygor A

    2016-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in plastic surgery. However, authors use different scales to address this subject, making it difficult to compare the outcomes. To address this discrepancy, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and a random effect meta-analysis.

  11. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach: successful use of leeches in plastic surgery in the 1820s.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R T

    2000-04-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) regularly and successfully utilised leeches in sophisticated plastic surgery in Berlin in the 1820s and 1830s, well before anaesthesia, antisepsis and antibiotics. Inexplicably, it took nearly another 150 years before the use of leeches in this context was revived.

  12. A systematic review of the factors predicting the interest in cosmetic plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Milothridis, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2016-01-01

    Background: A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Methods: Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Results: Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social networks, their psychological characteristics, such as body image, self-esteem and other personality traits and for specific psychopathology and found that these may either positively or negatively predict their motivation to seek and undergo a cosmetic procedure. Conclusions: The review examined the psychosocial characteristics associated with an interest in cosmetic surgery. Understanding cosmetic patients’ characteristics, motivation and expectation for surgery is an important aspect of their clinical care to identify those patients more likely to benefit most from the procedure. PMID:28216822

  13. Factors Impacting Successfully Competing for Research Funding: An Analysis of Applications Submitted to The Plastic Surgery Foundation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Keith M.; Giladi, Aviram M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Federal research funding is decreasing, forcing specialty organizations to have an increasingly important position in developing and fostering research.1,2 As the research and innovation arm of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, The Plastic Surgery Foundation (PSF) has a key role in supporting promising plastic surgery research. Understanding the grant review process, as well as factors that contribute to funding well-written grant funding applications, is paramount for aspiring academic surgeons. METHODS All research grant applications submitted to The PSF in 2012 and 2013 were evaluated. Each reviewer comment was independently assessed by two study team members and classified into key weakness categories. Chi-square test compared results between funded and unfunded grants. Linear regression identified which critique elements corresponded to changes in scores, and logistic regression identified elements that predicted funding. RESULTS We analyzed 1,764 comments from 240 applications. Of these, 55 received funding. Funded grants had significantly fewer reviewer comments in 4 of 5 weakness categories. As expected, funded grants received better (lower) scores. Concerns in the categories of “plan for execution” and “other elements/granstmanship” significantly affected score as well as odds of funding. CONCLUSION Ensuring that a grant addresses all required elements is important for receiving a low reviewer score. Our study demonstrates that “plan for execution” and “grantsmanship” influence reviewer scoring more than others. Investigators must clearly address items associated with conducting their experiments and performing the analysis. Investigators must also give equal attention to elements of overall quality and completeness to optimize chances of funding. PMID:25626827

  14. Factors Impacting Successfully Competing for Research Funding: An Analysis of Applications Submitted to The Plastic Surgery Foundation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Keith M.; Giladi, Aviram M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Federal research funding is decreasing, forcing specialty organizations to have an increasingly important position in developing and fostering research.1,2 As the research and innovation arm of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, The Plastic Surgery Foundation (PSF) has a key role in supporting promising plastic surgery research. Understanding the grant review process, as well as factors that contribute to funding well-written grant funding applications, is paramount for aspiring academic surgeons. METHODS All research grant applications submitted to The PSF in 2012 and 2013 were evaluated. Each reviewer comment was independently assessed by two study team members and classified into key weakness categories. Chi-square test compared results between funded and unfunded grants. Linear regression identified which critique elements corresponded to changes in scores, and logistic regression identified elements that predicted funding. RESULTS We analyzed 1,764 comments from 240 applications. Of these, 55 received funding. Funded grants had significantly fewer reviewer comments in 4 of 5 weakness categories. As expected, funded grants received better (lower) scores. Concerns in the categories of “plan for execution” and “other elements/granstmanship” significantly affected score as well as odds of funding. CONCLUSION Ensuring that a grant addresses all required elements is important for receiving a low reviewer score. Our study demonstrates that “plan for execution” and “grantsmanship” influence reviewer scoring more than others. Investigators must clearly address items associated with conducting their experiments and performing the analysis. Investigators must also give equal attention to elements of overall quality and completeness to optimize chances of funding. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III PMID:25254759

  15. An analysis of leading, lagging, and coincident economic indicators in the United States and its relationship to the volume of plastic surgery procedures performed.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Ian C; Pastor, Craig J; Paik, Angie M

    2012-10-01

    In plastic surgery, 2 predominant practice environments exist, namely, the academic setting and private practice. These 2 groups cater their practice toward the needs and demands of 2 very different patient populations. The goal of this paper is to examine well-established economic indicators and delineate their relationship, if any, with the volume of different plastic surgical procedures performed in the United States. Information from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons' annual reports on plastic surgery statistics was collected from the year 2000 through 2010 and compared to readily available and established economic indicators. There was a significant positive relationship with total cosmetic procedures and gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, personal income, consumer price index (CPI) (all), and CPI (medical). There was a significant positive relationship between cosmetic surgical procedures and the issuance of new home permits and the average prime rate charged by banks. There was a significant positive relationship with cosmetic minimally invasive procedures and GDP, GDP per capita, personal income, CPI (all), and CPI (medical). There was a significant negative relationship between reconstructive procedures and GDP, GDP per capita, personal income, CPI (all), and CPI (medical). Cosmetic minimally invasive procedures seem to be decided on relatively quickly during good economic times. Cosmetic surgical procedures seem to be more planned and less related to the economic environment. The plastic surgeon may use this relationship to tailor the focus of his or her practice to be best situated for economic fluctuations.

  16. Third generation cellular multimedia teleconsultations in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Farber, Nimrod; Haik, Josef; Liran, Alon; Weissman, Oren; Winkler, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a study to test whether new third generation (3G) mobile phones could be integrated into service as a working tool between plastic surgeons. During an eight-month period, 58 multimedia consultations were performed involving 57 patients. The majority of the consultations were for trauma or wounds. All consultations comprised a digital photograph taken with the integrated camera and sent via the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). In 86% of the cases the residents reported that multimedia information contributed to their ability to independently handle similar cases in future. Satisfaction scores were high among all participants. We believe that a multimedia consultation in a hospital setting adds information to an ordinary telephone call, thus decreasing medico-legal risks. We recommend it for routine use.

  17. Emerging trends in social media and plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gould, Daniel J; Leland, Hyuma A; Ho, Adelyn L; Patel, Ketan M

    2016-12-01

    Social media has increasingly changed the landscape of medicine and surgery and is rapidly expanding its influence in most peoples' lives. The average person spends nearly 2 hours per day using social media, consuming information about everything from family updates to entertainment news to presidential elections. The concentration of consumers on social media platforms has resulted in direct medicine and medical products marketing to consumers. Similarly, social media is increasingly becoming a platform for interaction between physicians and potential patients. Some physicians have taken this opportunity to better educate patients, while allowing patients to learn more about their surgeons online. These tools can increase internet traffic online to bonafide internet sites, as well as bolster marketing for many hospitals, hospital systems, and individual doctors. It can also serve to increase knowledge about procedures and conditions through direct outreach to patients. Social media is a powerful tool which needs to be utilized wisely to avoid pitfalls.

  18. Emerging trends in social media and plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Hyuma A.; Ho, Adelyn L.; Patel, Ketan M.

    2016-01-01

    Social media has increasingly changed the landscape of medicine and surgery and is rapidly expanding its influence in most peoples’ lives. The average person spends nearly 2 hours per day using social media, consuming information about everything from family updates to entertainment news to presidential elections. The concentration of consumers on social media platforms has resulted in direct medicine and medical products marketing to consumers. Similarly, social media is increasingly becoming a platform for interaction between physicians and potential patients. Some physicians have taken this opportunity to better educate patients, while allowing patients to learn more about their surgeons online. These tools can increase internet traffic online to bonafide internet sites, as well as bolster marketing for many hospitals, hospital systems, and individual doctors. It can also serve to increase knowledge about procedures and conditions through direct outreach to patients. Social media is a powerful tool which needs to be utilized wisely to avoid pitfalls. PMID:28090511

  19. Herbal medications and plastic surgery: a hidden danger.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arvind; Lahiri, Anindya

    2014-04-01

    Herbal medicine is a multibillion-pound industry, and surveys suggest that ~10% of the UK population uses herbal supplements concurrently with prescription medications. Patients and health care practitioners are often unaware of the adverse side effects of herbal medicines. In addition, because many of these herbal supplements are available over the counter, many patients do not disclose these when listing medications to health care providers. A 39-year-old nurse underwent an abdominoplasty with rectus sheath plication after weight loss surgery. Postoperatively, she experienced persistent drain output, and after discharge, a seroma developed requiring repeated drainage in the clinic. After scar revision 10 months later, the woman bled postoperatively, requiring suturing. Again, a seroma developed, requiring repeated drainage. It was discovered that the patient had been taking a herbal menopause supplement containing ingredients known to have anticoagulant effects. Complementary medicine is rarely taught in UK medical schools and generally not practiced in UK hospitals. Many supplements are known to have anticoagulant, cardiovascular, and sedative effects. Worryingly, questions about herbal medicines are not routinely asked in clinics, and patients do not often volunteer such information. With the number and awareness of complementary medications increasing, their usage among the population is likely to increase. The authors recommend specific questioning about the use of complementary medications and consideration of ceasing such medications before surgery. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. Medical Specialty Society Sponsored Data Registries – Opportunities in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Keith M.; Crotty, Catherine A.; Simmons, Christopher J.; Neumeister, Michael W.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical data registries are commonly used worldwide and are implemented for a variety of purposes ranging from physician or facility clinic logs for tracking patients, collecting outcomes data, to measuring quality improvement or safety of medical devices. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has used data collected through registries to facilitate the drug and device regulatory process, ongoing surveillance during the product life-cycle, and for disease appraisals. Furthermore, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in certain instances, base registry participation and submitting data to registries as factors for reimbursement decisions. The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of clinical data registries, the role that medical specialty societies, in particular the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and The Plastic Surgery Foundation, can have in the development and management of registries, and the opportunities for registry use in Plastic Surgery. As outcomes data are becoming essential measures of quality healthcare delivery, participating in registry development and centralized data collection has become a critical effort for Plastic Surgery to engage in to proactively participate in the national quality and performance measurement agenda. PMID:23806935

  1. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Survey of Current Practice among Plastic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Koolen, Pieter G. L.; Ashraf, Azra A.; Kim, Kuylhee; Mureau, Marc A. M.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in plastic surgery have become increasingly popular particularly for breast reconstruction. Despite their advantages, questions exist regarding their association with a possible increased incidence of complications. We describe a collective experience of plastic surgeons’ use of ADMs in reconstructive breast surgery using an internet-based survey. Methods: Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons were recruited through voluntary, anonymous participation in an online survey. The web-based survey garnered information about participant demographics and their experience with ADM use in breast reconstruction procedures. After responses were collected, all data were anonymously processed. Results: Data were ascertained through 365 physician responses of which 99% (n = 361) completed the survey. The majority of participants were men (84.5%) between 51 and 60 years (37.4%); 84.2% used ADM in breast reconstruction, including radiated patients (79.7%). ADM use was not favored for nipple reconstruction (81.5%); 94.6% of participants used drains, and 87.8% administered antibiotics postoperatively. The most common complications were seroma (70.9%) and infection (16%), although 57.4% claimed anecdotally that overall complication rate was unchanged after incorporating ADM into their practice. High cost was a deterrent for ADM use (37.5%). Conclusions: Plastic surgeons currently use ADM in breast reconstruction for both immediate and staged procedures. Of those responding, a majority of plastic surgeons will incorporate drains and use postoperative antibiotics for more than 48 hours. PMID:25973359

  2. Portable and accurate 3D scanner for breast implant design and reconstructive plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigotti, Camilla; Borghese, Nunzio A.; Ferrari, Stefano; Baroni, Guido; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    1998-06-01

    In order to evaluate the proper breast implant, the surgeon relies on a standard set of measurements manually taken on the subject. This approach does not allow to obtain an accurate reconstruction of the breast shape and asymmetries can easily arise after surgery. The purpose of this work is to present a method which can help the surgeon in the choice of the shape and dimensions of a prosthesis allowing for a perfect symmetry between the prosthesis and the controlateral breast and can be used as a 3D visual feedback in plastic surgery.

  3. So You Have a Research Idea: A Survey of Databases Available for Plastic Surgery Research.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Casale, Mia T; Kim, John Y S; Khavanin, Nima; Gutowski, Karol A; Gosain, Arun K

    2016-02-01

    Plastic surgery research using large databases has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. With the magnitude and breadth of information available in these databases, researchers are able to more easily answer a wide variety of research questions. This study sought to provide a comprehensive comparative analysis of the relevant databases for plastic surgery research. Database information, data collection methods, acquisition details, and variable availability were collected for 19 large databases. Examples of potential future research utility were ascribed to each database based on this comprehensive analysis. With a greater understanding of the content, strengths, and limitations of these databases, researchers will be better equipped to select the most appropriate database to answer a specific research question.

  4. Evidence-Based Plastic Surgery: Its Rise, Importance, and a Practical Guide.

    PubMed

    Agha, Riaz A; Orgill, Dennis P

    2016-03-01

    There is a perfect storm developing in 21st century healthcare; rising complexity and patient expectations in the context of fiscal restraint. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) may be the best-kept secret in dealing with the "storm." Such an approach prefers management pathways that deliver better outcomes at less relative cost. In this article, the rise of EBM, its significance, a guide to practicing it, and its future in the field of plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgery are presented.

  5. Financial conflicts of interest in plastic surgery: background, potential for bias, disclosure, and transparency.

    PubMed

    Luce, Edward A

    2015-04-01

    Relationships between physicians and industry, whether it be pharmaceutical companies, medical device manufacturers, or purveyors of medical technology, contain both an element of potential for good and a potential for harm. Certainly, the potential for good is realized when the collaboration results in improved plastic surgery patient care due to product and technology development. If the collaboration contains a financial component, the potential for harm exists in the form of a financial conflict of interest on the part of the physician. Recently, considerable discussion has been directed toward the pervasiveness of financial conflict of interest in all three arenas of the profession of medicine: education, research, and clinical practice, although an overlap exists among all three with respect to the issue of conflict of interest. This article will focus on conflict of interest in plastic surgery education, both continuing medical education for practitioners and graduate medical education for plastic surgery residents, as well as conflict of interest in research, such as conflicts related to publications in our literature.

  6. Clinical applications of dynamic infrared thermography in plastic surgery: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    John, Hannah Eliza; Niumsawatt, Vachara; Whitaker, Iain S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infrared thermography (IRT) has become an increasingly utilized adjunct to more expensive and/or invasive investigations in a range of surgical fields, no more so than in plastic surgery. The combination of functional assessment, flow characteristics and anatomical localization has led to increasing applications of this technology. This article aims to perform a systematic review of the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery. Methods A systematic literature search using the keywords ‘IRT’ and ‘dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT)’ has been accomplished. A total of 147 papers were extracted from various medical databases, of which 34 articles were subjected to a full read by two independent reviewers, to ensure the papers satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies focusing on the use of IRT in breast cancer diagnosis were excluded. Results A systematic review of 29 publications demonstrated the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery today. They include preoperative planning of perforators for free flaps, post operative monitoring of free flaps, use of IRT as an adjunct in burns depth analysis, in assessment of response to treatment in hemangioma and as a diagnostic test for cutaneous melanoma and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Conclusions Modern infrared imaging technology with improved standardization protocols is now a credible, useful non-invasive tool in clinical practice. PMID:27047781

  7. 3D animation of facial plastic surgery based on computer graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan

    2013-12-01

    More and more people, especial women, are getting desired to be more beautiful than ever. To some extent, it becomes true because the plastic surgery of face was capable in the early 20th and even earlier as doctors just dealing with war injures of face. However, the effect of post-operation is not always satisfying since no animation could be seen by the patients beforehand. In this paper, by combining plastic surgery of face and computer graphics, a novel method of simulated appearance of post-operation will be given to demonstrate the modified face from different viewpoints. The 3D human face data are obtained by using 3D fringe pattern imaging systems and CT imaging systems and then converted into STL (STereo Lithography) file format. STL file is made up of small 3D triangular primitives. The triangular mesh can be reconstructed by using hash function. Top triangular meshes in depth out of numbers of triangles must be picked up by ray-casting technique. Mesh deformation is based on the front triangular mesh in the process of simulation, which deforms interest area instead of control points. Experiments on face model show that the proposed 3D animation facial plastic surgery can effectively demonstrate the simulated appearance of post-operation.

  8. Big Data and Machine Learning in Plastic Surgery: A New Frontier in Surgical Innovation.

    PubMed

    Kanevsky, Jonathan; Corban, Jason; Gaster, Richard; Kanevsky, Ari; Lin, Samuel; Gilardino, Mirko

    2016-05-01

    Medical decision-making is increasingly based on quantifiable data. From the moment patients come into contact with the health care system, their entire medical history is recorded electronically. Whether a patient is in the operating room or on the hospital ward, technological advancement has facilitated the expedient and reliable measurement of clinically relevant health metrics, all in an effort to guide care and ensure the best possible clinical outcomes. However, as the volume and complexity of biomedical data grow, it becomes challenging to effectively process "big data" using conventional techniques. Physicians and scientists must be prepared to look beyond classic methods of data processing to extract clinically relevant information. The purpose of this article is to introduce the modern plastic surgeon to machine learning and computational interpretation of large data sets. What is machine learning? Machine learning, a subfield of artificial intelligence, can address clinically relevant problems in several domains of plastic surgery, including burn surgery; microsurgery; and craniofacial, peripheral nerve, and aesthetic surgery. This article provides a brief introduction to current research and suggests future projects that will allow plastic surgeons to explore this new frontier of surgical science.

  9. Plastic surgery in the undergraduate curriculum: the importance of considering students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Burd, Andrew; Chiu, Tor; McNaught, Carmel

    2004-12-01

    As the undergraduate medical curriculum becomes increasingly crowded the competition for time inevitably increases and surgical specialties have decreasing representation. Plastic surgery is regarded with some confusion in terms of its relevance to the generic doctor. Plastic surgeons have no doubt about the relevance of the specialty to undergraduates. Others see this as a very technical specialty dealing with complex reconstructions and surgical interventions or, as a rather indulgent specialty focusing mainly on glamour and cosmesis. This study focuses on students' perceptions of an undergraduate teaching program in plastic surgery. The reality is that highly pressured undergraduates do not have the luxury of time to consider the finer details of the specialties to which they are exposed. Their priority is to pass their examinations and, having addressed that concern, further information becomes an acceptable bonus. The conclusion is that if plastic surgeons are going to gain greater involvement in the undergraduate curriculum they must start with involvement in examinations and assessments. The students will then ensure that adequate and appropriate teaching time is allocated.

  10. [Some similarities between the work of M.C. Escher and plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Marck, K W

    2002-12-21

    At first sight there would appear to be no similarities between the work of the Dutch graphic artist M.C. Escher and plastic surgery. M.C. Escher was a gifted graphic artist who produced a large collection of work. Most of his fame is due to the works that play with symmetry, space and infinity and leave the viewer astounded. However, how Escher came to produce these works is less well known. A theory which he developed himself formed the basis of the regular plane division. It later became apparent that this theory almost completely agreed with the mathematics of plane division. Two movements (isometries) defined in mathematics, translation and rotation, are equivalent to two techniques for transferring local skin in plastic surgery, namely, advancement and transposition. Escher's performance on the plane of a sheet of paper and a plastic surgeon's performance on the plane of the skin, therefore have a similar mathematical background. Escher has visualised these mathematical rules in an unusual and artistic manner, whereas plastic surgeons apply these rules in the grace of an elastic and healing nature.

  11. Do Quantitative Measures of Research Productivity Correlate with Academic Rank in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?

    PubMed

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Dodson, Thomas B; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Calotta, Nicholas; Peacock, Zachary S

    2015-08-01

    Academic promotion is linked to research productivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between quantitative measures of academic productivity and academic rank among academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the United States. The predictor variables were categorized as demographic (gender, medical degree, research doctorate, other advanced degree) and quantitative measures of academic productivity (total number of publications, total number of citations, maximum number of citations for a single article, I-10 index [number of publications with ≥ 10 citations], and h-index [number of publications h with ≥ h citations each]). The outcome variable was current academic rank (instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, professor, or endowed professor). Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed to evaluate associations between the predictors and academic rank. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were computed to identify thresholds for academic promotion. The sample consisted of 324 academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons, of whom 11.7% were female, 40% had medical degrees, and 8% had research doctorates. The h-index was the most strongly correlated with academic rank (ρ = 0.62, p < 0.001). H-indexes of ≥ 4, ≥ 8, and ≥ 13 were identified as thresholds for promotion to associate professor, professor, and endowed professor, respectively (p < 0.001). This study found that the h-index was strongly correlated with academic rank among oral and maxillofacial surgery faculty members and thus suggests that promotions committees should consider using the h-index as an additional method to assess research activity.

  12. Analysis of Malpractice Claims Associated with Surgical Site Infection in the Field of Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative infections are rare after plastic surgery; however, when present, they can affect the aesthetic outcome. Currently, many malpractice lawsuits are associated with surgical site infection. The present study aimed to analyze malpractice claims associated with surgical site infection in the field of plastic surgery through a review of Korean precedents. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and legal judgment in these cases. Most claimants were women, and claims were most often related to breast surgery. The common complications related to surgical site infection were deformity, scar, and asymmetry. Among the 40 cases, 34 were won by the plaintiff, and the mean claim settlement was 2,832,654 KRW (USD 2,636.6). The reasons for these judgements were as follows: 1) immediate bacterial culture tests were not performed and appropriate antibiotics were not used; 2) patients were not transferred to a high-level hospital or the infection control department was not consulted; 3) surgical site infection control measures were not appropriate; and 4) surgical procedures were performed without preoperative explanation about surgical site infection. The number of claims owing to surgical site infection after surgery is increasing. Infection handling was one of the key factors that influenced the judgement, and preoperative explanation about the possibility of infection is important. The findings will help surgeons achieve high patient satisfaction and reduce liability concerns. PMID:27822936

  13. Journalism and Academic Surgery: The Denver Post and The American Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K

    2015-07-01

    Publication in professional journals is where advancements in surgery are reported and verified. Thus academic surgery holds common ground with journalism, where the principles of service, communication, and integrity are the basis of their public trust and standing in society. Writing for the Denver Post the author learned lessons that are relevant to academic surgery. Facts have to be solid. There are important issues to be discussed. Articles have to be interesting and not tiresome to read. And if it's something new--the essence of news--get it out there first. The American Surgeon embodies the same principles. The journal is a place where members of the Southeastern Surgical Congress discuss important matters, like surgical education, and share stories of interest, like a Japanese surgeon trying to treat victims of nuclear war. It is accessible yet disciplined, dedicated to advancing our field and fostering fellowship and communication among its members.

  14. 76 FR 39882 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic...

  15. 75 FR 36102 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic...

  16. 78 FR 30928 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic...

  17. 75 FR 49940 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic...

  18. 78 FR 16684 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic...

  19. 76 FR 14415 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic...

  20. 77 FR 20642 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic...

  1. Patient Safety in Plastic Surgery: Identifying Areas for Quality Improvement Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Rhoads, Kim F.; Curtin, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Improving quality of healthcare is a global priority. Before quality benchmarks are established, we first must understand rates of adverse events. This project assessed risk-adjusted rates of inpatient adverse events for soft tissue reconstructive procedures. Methods Patients receiving soft tissue reconstructive procedures from 2005–2010 were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Inpatient adverse events were identified using patient safety indicators (PSI), established measures developed by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Results We identified 409,991 patient with soft tissue reconstruction and 16,635 (4.06%) had a PSI during their hospital stay. PSIs were associated with increased risk-adjusted mortality, longer length of stay, and decreased routine disposition (p<.01). Patient characteristics associated with a higher risk-adjusted rate per 1,000 patients at risk (RAR) included older age, men, non-white, and public payer (p<.05). Overall, plastic surgery patients had significantly lower RAR compared to other surgical inpatients for all events evaluated except for failure to rescue and postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma, which were not statistically different. RAR of hematoma hemorrhage were significantly higher in patients receiving size-reduction surgery, and these rates were further accentuated when broken down by gender and payer. Conclusions In general, plastic surgery patients had lower rates of in-hospital adverse events than other surgical disciplines, but PSIs were not uncommon. With the establishment of national basal PSI rates in plastic surgery patients, benchmarks can be devised and target areas for quality improvement efforts identified. Further prospective studies should be designed to elucidate the drivers of adverse events identified in this population. PMID:24108144

  2. Patient safety in plastic surgery: identifying areas for quality improvement efforts.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; McDonald, Kathryn M; Rhoads, Kim F; Curtin, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    Improving quality of health care is a global priority. Before quality benchmarks are established, we first must understand rates of adverse events (AEs). This project assessed risk-adjusted rates of inpatient AEs for soft tissue reconstructive procedures.Patients receiving soft tissue reconstructive procedures from 2005 to 2010 were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Inpatient AEs were identified using patient safety indicators (PSIs), established measures developed by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.We identified 409,991 patients with soft tissue reconstruction and 16,635 (4.06%) had a PSI during their hospital stay. Patient safety indicators were associated with increased risk-adjusted mortality, longer length of stay, and decreased routine disposition (P < 0.01). Patient characteristics associated with a higher risk-adjusted rate per 1000 patients at risk included older age, men, nonwhite, and public payer (P < 0.05). Overall, plastic surgery patients had significantly lower risk-adjusted rate compared to other surgical inpatients for all events evaluated except for failure to rescue and postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma, which were not statistically different. Risk-adjusted rates of hematoma hemorrhage were significantly higher in patients receiving size-reduction surgery, and these rates were further accentuated when broken down by sex and payer. In general, plastic surgery patients had lower rates of in-hospital AEs than other surgical disciplines, but PSIs were not uncommon. With the establishment of national basal PSI rates in plastic surgery patients, benchmarks can be devised and target areas for quality improvement efforts identified. Further prospective studies should be designed to elucidate the drivers of AEs identified in this population.

  3. Gender inequality in career advancement for females in Japanese academic surgery.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the participation of women in medicine has increased from 10.6% (1986) to 19.7% (2012) in Japan. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the top tiers of academic medicine. We highlight gender inequality and discuss the difficulties faced by female surgeons in Japanese academic surgery. Using anonymous and aggregate employment data of medical doctors at Kyoto University Hospital from 2009 and 2013, and a commercially-published faculty roster in 2012-2013, we compared gender balance stratified by a professional and an academic rank. The numbers of total and female doctors who worked at Kyoto University Hospital were 656 and 132 (20.1%) in 2009 and 655 and 132 (20.2%) in 2013, respectively. Approximately half the men (n = 281) were in temporary track and the rest (n = 242) were in tenure track, but only one fifth of women (n = 24) were in tenure track compared to 108 women in temporary track (p < 0.0001) in 2013. There were three female associate professors in basic medicine (8.1%), two female professors in clinical non-surgical medicine (3.9%) and one female lecturer in clinical surgical medicine (2.3%) in 2012. Fewer female doctors were at senior positions and at tenure positions than male doctors at Kyoto University Hospital. There were no female associate and full professors in surgery. The status of faculty members indicates the gender differences in leadership opportunities in Japanese academic surgery.

  4. Caprini Scores, Risk Stratification, and Rivaroxaban in Plastic Surgery: Time to Reconsider Our Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Limited data are available regarding the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism in plastic surgery patients. In an effort to identify patients at greater risk, some investigators promote individual risk assessment using Caprini scores. However, these scores do not correlate with relative risk values. Affected patients cannot be reliably predicted (97% false positive rate). Caprini scores make many body contouring patients candidates for chemoprophylaxis, an intervention that introduces risks related to anticoagulation. Caprini has financial conflicts with several companies that manufacture products such as enoxaparin, commonly used for chemoprophylaxis. Rivaroxaban, taken orally, has been used by some plastic surgeons as an alternative to enoxaparin injections. However, this medication is not United States Food and Drug Administration approved for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in plastic surgery patients, and a reversal agent is unavailable. This article challenges the prevailing wisdom regarding individual risk stratification and chemoprophylaxis. Alternative methods to reduce risk for all patients include safer anesthesia methods and Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Clinical findings alone are unreliable in diagnosing deep venous thromboses. Only by using a reliable diagnostic tool such as Doppler ultrasound are we able to learn more about the natural history of this problem in our patients. Such knowledge is likely to better inform our treatment recommendations. PMID:27482481

  5. Caprini Scores, Risk Stratification, and Rivaroxaban in Plastic Surgery: Time to Reconsider Our Strategy.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Limited data are available regarding the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism in plastic surgery patients. In an effort to identify patients at greater risk, some investigators promote individual risk assessment using Caprini scores. However, these scores do not correlate with relative risk values. Affected patients cannot be reliably predicted (97% false positive rate). Caprini scores make many body contouring patients candidates for chemoprophylaxis, an intervention that introduces risks related to anticoagulation. Caprini has financial conflicts with several companies that manufacture products such as enoxaparin, commonly used for chemoprophylaxis. Rivaroxaban, taken orally, has been used by some plastic surgeons as an alternative to enoxaparin injections. However, this medication is not United States Food and Drug Administration approved for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in plastic surgery patients, and a reversal agent is unavailable. This article challenges the prevailing wisdom regarding individual risk stratification and chemoprophylaxis. Alternative methods to reduce risk for all patients include safer anesthesia methods and Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Clinical findings alone are unreliable in diagnosing deep venous thromboses. Only by using a reliable diagnostic tool such as Doppler ultrasound are we able to learn more about the natural history of this problem in our patients. Such knowledge is likely to better inform our treatment recommendations.

  6. Implications for human adipose-derived stem cells in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Derek A; Salibian, Ara A; Widgerow, Alan D; Evans, Gregory R D

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a subset of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that possess many of the same regenerative properties as other MSCs. However, the ubiquitous presence of ADSCs and their ease of access in human tissue have led to a burgeoning field of research. The plastic surgeon is uniquely positioned to harness this technology because of the relative frequency in which they perform procedures such as liposuction and autologous fat grafting. This review examines the current landscape of ADSC isolation and identification, summarizes the current applications of ADSCs in the field of plastic surgery, discusses the risks associated with their use, current barriers to universal clinical translatability, and surveys the latest research which may help to overcome these obstacles. PMID:25425096

  7. The Current Role of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Parisa; Dean, David; Skoracki, Roman; Koolen, Pieter G L; Paul, Marek A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Lin, Samuel J

    2016-01-21

    Since the advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the 1980s, it is now possible to produce physical objects from digital files and create 3D objects by adding one layer at a time following a predetermined pattern. Due to the continued development of inexpensive and easy- to- use 3D printers and bioprinting, this technique has gained more momentum over time, especially in the field of medicine. This paper reviews the current and possible future application of 3D printing technology within the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  8. Global contributions to Annals of Plastic Surgery: authorship in an English language journal by international colleagues.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lee; Lineaweaver, William

    2012-06-01

    We reviewed the contributor demographics of recent volumes of Annals of Plastic Surgery to quantify the contributions of authors from countries where the primary language is not English. For 2 volumes of Annals (63 and 65), such authors contributed 57% of the total articles published. Within the new section format of volume 66, authors from non-English language countries accounted for 60% of all original articles with substantial and often dominant representation in all sections. This survey shows that Annals publishes articles from an international population of contributors with effective inclusion of authors from countries with primary languages other than English.

  9. A Simple Method for International Standardization of Photographic Documentation for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung Chul

    2017-02-03

    Due to the lack of internationally standardized, objective, and scientific photographic standardization methods, differences in photographic documents have gravely affected the truth of surgical outcomes by visual misperception or illusion, thus hindering the development of plastic surgery clinically and scholastically. Here I suggest a simple method for standardization of facial photographs. The method consists of an imaginary transverse line (tentatively the "PSA line") rather than the Frankfort horizontal plane and uses a white background with black grids and standard RGB with CMYK circles. This simplified method of photographic standardization would help our professional society to make international standards on facial photographic documentation to maintain scholastic ethics, conscience, and morals.

  10. Evidence-Based Plastic Surgery: Its Rise, Importance, and a Practical Guide

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Riaz A.; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2016-01-01

    There is a perfect storm developing in 21st century healthcare; rising complexity and patient expectations in the context of fiscal restraint. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) may be the best-kept secret in dealing with the “storm.” Such an approach prefers management pathways that deliver better outcomes at less relative cost. In this article, the rise of EBM, its significance, a guide to practicing it, and its future in the field of plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgery are presented. PMID:26746230

  11. [Factitious disorder and self-mutilation in hand and plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sproedt, J; von Campe, A; Bonaccio, M; Grünert, J G

    2010-02-01

    Self-mutilation in the context of factitious disorder can lead to prolonged and complicated treatment in every medical field. Because of a prevalence of 1-5% in hospitalised patients, it is important to be aware of this disorder to protect patients from self- and foreign-induced harm. Often the patient history gives important hints. The different manifestations of this disorder, the specific doctor-patient relationship, several techniques of confrontation and current treatment are presented. Clinical cases from the fields of hand and plastic surgery are presented.

  12. Plasticity in the developing brain: intellectual, language and academic functions in children with ischaemic perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Angela O; Spilkin, Amy M; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A

    2008-11-01

    The developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. A number of investigators have demonstrated that intellectual and language skills may be in the normal range in children following unilateral perinatal stroke. Questions have been raised, however, about whether these skills can be maintained at the same level as the brain matures. This study aimed to examine the stability of intellectual, academic and language functioning during development in children with perinatal stroke, and to resolve the inconsistencies raised in previous studies. Participants were 29 pre-school to school-age children with documented unilateral ischaemic perinatal stroke and 24 controls. Longitudinal testing of intellectual and cognitive abilities was conducted at two time points. Study 1 examined IQ, academic skills and language functions using the same test version over the test-retest interval. Study 2 examined IQ over a longer test-retest interval (pre-school to school-age), and utilized different test versions. This study has resulted in important new findings. There is no evidence of decline in cognitive function over time in children with perinatal unilateral brain damage. These results indicate that there is sufficient ongoing plasticity in the developing brain following early focal damage to result in the stability of cognitive functions over time. Also, the presence of seizures limits plasticity such that there is not only significantly lower performance on intellectual and language measures in the seizure group (Study 1), but the course of cognitive development is significantly altered (as shown in Study 2). This study provides information to support the notion of functional plasticity in the developing brain; yields much-needed clarification in the literature of prognosis in children with early ischaemic perinatal stroke; provides evidence that seizures limit plasticity during development; and avoids many of the confounds in prior studies. A greater

  13. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880

  14. Clinical application of three-dimensional printing technology in craniofacial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.

  15. Mentoring women in academic surgery: overcoming institutional barriers to success.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Eddie L

    2006-09-01

    Women now comprise 50% of Caucasian matriculants to medical school; 66.6% of African Americans, 48% of Hispanics and 51.3% of Asians beginning medical school are also women. This trend is likely to continue since women now earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees, and they earn more degrees in the health professions and biological sciences than men. Black and Hispanic women now earn 66% and 60% of bachelor's degrees in their respective ethnic groups. Overall, women are concentrated at the lowest faculty ranks at medical schools, with 70% holding the rank of instructor or assistant professor. Women continue to experience difficulty with recruitment, retention, promotion and pay issues compared to men. They also experience additional gender-specific issues, including primary responsibility for rearing families and quality-of-life issues in some specialties, including most of the surgical disciplines. Clearly, there is an evolving population shift at work here; the pool of candidates for medical school faculty positions is likely to be evenly split between men and women for Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians, while the African-American pool is likely heavily weighted in favor of the women. Women are beginning to garner more Latin honors recognition at graduation as well and the definition of the "best and the brightest" is being redefined. Therefore, institutions must continue to identify the barriers that deter women from entering surgery, to develop research tools to understand how to improve the process of developing leadership skills among women and to insure a "buy-in" of their male counterparts when components of the plan are being implemented.

  16. A review of prophylactic antibiotics use in plastic surgery in China and a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge-hong; Hou, Dian-ju; Fu, Hua-dong; Guo, Jing-ying; Guo, Xiao-bo; Gong, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for plastic surgical procedures at our hospital, and to perform a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery. The records of patients who received plastic surgical procedures with Class I surgical incisions between 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A systematic literature review was conducted for studies examining the use of prophylactic antibiotics for Class I surgical wounds. A total of 13,997 cases with Class I surgical incisions were included. Prophylactic antibiotics were given in 13,865 cases (99.1%). The antibiotics used were primarily cefuroxime, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin sodium, and gentamicin. The average duration of administration was 4.84 ± 3.07 (range, 1-51) days. Antibiotics were administered postoperatively in >99% of cases while preoperative antibiotic administration was only given in 32 cases (0.23%). Wound infections occurred in 21 cases for an overall infection rate of 0.15%. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. There was marked variation in the timing of antibiotic administration with antibiotics given pre-, peri-, and postoperatively. Of studies that compared the use of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo, a reduction in wound infections was noted in 4 trials and no difference was noted in 6 trials. No significant difference in infection rates was shown between the prophylactic and postoperative arms. In conclusion, prophylactic antibiotics are overused in plastic surgical procedures. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgical procedures are needed.

  17. A study of the personal use of digital photography within plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    McG Taylor, D; Foster, E; Dunkin, C S J; Fitzgerald, A M

    2008-01-01

    The advent of digital photography has greatly increased the use of medical illustration within specialties dealing with visible pathologies. It offers improved communication between medical professionals, education and counselling of their patients and forms an important aspect of their medical records. With the increased availability of digital cameras there is an increased tendency for clinicians to take digital photographs of patients themselves. In doing so, clinicians take on the responsibility to act in accordance with the regulations governing this practice issued by the UK Department of Health. This study sought to investigate the prevalence of this practice by way of an anonymous questionnaire distributed to three representative plastic surgery units within the UK. It looked at the awareness of and compliance with the present governing regulations. The results showed that of the 60 distributed questionnaires, 30 of 42 respondents took digital photographs of patients themselves. Photographs were taken for the purposes of inclusion in the medical records, education, development of personal libraries and publication. Consent was usually taken but was often only in a verbal form. Processing, storage and security measures highlighted potential risks for breaches in confidentiality. Knowledge relating to the NHS Confidentiality Code of Practice, the Data Protection Act and the need for registration with the Data Commissioner when acting in a private capacity were often not known. This small study highlights a number of important points surgeons need to be aware of when taking photographs of patients themselves and makes recommendations for its practice within a plastic surgery department.

  18. Variables Influencing the Depth of Conscious Sedation in Plastic Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonwoo; Park, Hyochun; Kim, Hoonnam

    2017-01-01

    Background Conscious sedation has been widely utilized in plastic surgery. However, inadequate research has been published evaluating adequate drug dosage and depth of sedation. In clinical practice, sedation is often inadequate or accompanied by complications when sedatives are administered according to body weight alone. The purpose of this study was to identify variables influencing the depth of sedation during conscious sedation for plastic surgery. Methods This prospective study evaluated 97 patients who underwent plastic surgical procedures under conscious sedation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and glucose levels were measured. Midazolam and ketamine were administered intravenously according to a preset protocol. Bispectral index (BIS) recordings were obtained to evaluate the depth of sedation 4, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after midazolam administration. Associations between variables and the BIS were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results Alcohol intake and female sex were positively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01). Age was negatively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01). Body mass index (P=0.263), creatinine clearance (P=0.832), smoking history (P=0.398), glucose (P=0.718), AST (P=0.729), and ALT (P=0.423) were not associated with the BIS. Conclusions Older patients tended to have a greater depth of sedation, whereas females and patients with greater alcohol intake had a shallower depth of sedation. Thus, precise dose adjustments of sedatives, accounting for not only weight but also age, sex, and alcohol consumption, are required to achieve safe, effective, and predictable conscious sedation. PMID:28194341

  19. Generation Y and the Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency Match: A Cross-sectional Study of the 2011 Match Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastic surgery is the most competitive specialty in medicine. We sought to identify factors associated with the successful match of generation Y applicants into integrated plastic surgery residency. Methods: We utilized the most recent data from the Charting Outcomes in the Match published by the National Resident Matching Program in 2011. We had data on US senior or independent applicant status, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) status, attendance of top 40 medical schools, advanced degree status, and number of contiguous ranks within plastic surgery. Our main outcome measure was match status. Results: A total of 81 out of 197 applicants (41.1%) successfully matched into integrated plastic surgery in the 2011 main match. US seniors matched at a significantly higher rate compared to independent applicants (44.0% vs 24.1%, P = 0.044). Matched US seniors were more likely to have AOA membership compared to unmatched US seniors (45.9% vs 27.7%, P = 0.014) and attend a top 40 medical school (52.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.022). There were no differences in terms of advanced degrees between matched and unmatched US seniors. Unmatched US seniors were more likely to have 3 or fewer contiguous ranks of plastic surgery residency programs than matched US seniors (86.2% vs 68.9%, P = 0.007). Conclusions: US senior status, AOA membership, and attendance at a top 40 medical school are predictors of matching into integrated plastic surgery. Program directors need to be aware of the background of the millennial applicants to recruit and maintain top residents. PMID:25289227

  20. Determining the Drivers of Academic Success in Surgery: An Analysis of 3,850 Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Valsangkar, Nakul P.; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Kim, Bradford J.; Blanton, Casi; Joshi, Mugdha M.; Bell, Teresa M.; Nakeeb, Attila; Dunnington, Gary L.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine drivers of academic productivity within U.S. departments of surgery. Methods Eighty academic metrics for 3,850 faculty at the top 50 NIH-funded university- and 5 outstanding hospital-based surgical departments were collected using websites, Scopus, and NIH RePORTER. Results Mean faculty size was 76. Overall, there were 35.3% assistant, 27.8% associate, and 36.9% full professors. Women comprised 21.8%; 4.9% were MD-PhDs and 6.1% PhDs. By faculty-rank, median publications/citations were: assistant, 14/175, associate, 39/649 and full-professor, 97/2250. General surgery divisions contributed the most publications and citations. Highest performing sub-specialties per faculty member were: research (58/1683), transplantation (51/1067), oncology (41/777), and cardiothoracic surgery (48/860). Overall, 23.5% of faculty were principal investigators for a current or former NIH grant, 9.5% for a current or former R01/U01/P01. The 10 most cited faculty (MCF) within each department contributed to 42% of all publications and 55% of all citations. MCF were most commonly general (25%), oncology (19%), or transplant surgeons (15%). Fifty-one-percent of MCF had current/former NIH funding, compared with 20% of the rest (p<0.05); funding rates for R01/U01/P01 grants was 25.1% vs. 6.8% (p<0.05). Rate of current-NIH MCF funding correlated with higher total departmental NIH rank (p < 0.05). Conclusions Departmental academic productivity as defined by citations and NIH funding is highly driven by sections or divisions of research, general and transplantation surgery. MCF, regardless of subspecialty, contribute disproportionally to major grants and publications. Approaches that attract, develop, and retain funded MCF may be associated with dramatic increases in total departmental citations and NIH-funding. PMID:26177096

  1. Eugène Apert and his contributions to plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dennis S; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-03-01

    French pediatrician Eugène Apert is best known for his 1906 description of the eponymous Apert Syndrome: the widely recognized congenital condition that is known as acrocephalosyndactyly, which is characterized by distinct craniofacial deformities and bilateral syndactyly of the hands and feet. Subsequent efforts to study and treat this condition have led to contributions from numerous medical and surgical specialties under the guidance of plastic surgery. Apert's influence on medicine, however, extends far beyond what can be appreciated by the impact of his eponymous syndrome. Considered one of France's eminent pediatricians, Apert additionally made important contributions to the study of adult diseases. He was also a founding member of the French Eugenics Society, serving as its secretary general and president in a tenure that lasted for most of his career. Apert's medical contributions within the context of this scientific ideology make him an important and potentially controversial figure in medicine.

  2. The performance and publication of cost-utility analyses in plastic surgery: Making our specialty relevant.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Achilleas; Ignacy, Teegan A; Ziolkowski, Natalia; Voineskos, Sophocles

    2012-01-01

    Increased spending and reduced funding for health care is forcing decision makers to prioritize procedures and redistribute funds. Decision making is based on reliable data regarding the costs and benefits of medical and surgical procedures; such a study design is known as an economic evaluation. The onus is on the plastic surgery community to produce high-quality economic evaluations that support the cost effectiveness of the procedures that are performed. The present review focuses on the cost-utility analysis and its role in deciding whether a novel technique/procedure/technology should be accepted over one that is prevalent. Additionally, the five steps in undertaking a cost-utility (effectiveness) analysis are outlined.

  3. Reporting the level of evidence in the Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Why is it important?

    PubMed

    Thoma, Achilleas; Ignacy, Teegan A; Li, Yu Kit; Coroneos, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The levels of evidence (LOE) table has been increasingly used by many surgical journals and societies to emphasize the importance of proper study design. Since their origin, LOE have evolved to consider multiple study designs and also the rigour of not only the study type but multiple aspects of its design. The use of LOE aids readers in appraising the literature while encouraging clinical researchers to produce high-quality evidence. The current article discusses the benefits and limitations of the LOE, as well as the LOE of articles published in the Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery (CJPS). Along with an assessment of the LOE in the CJPS, the authors have provided recommendations to improve the quality and readability of articles published in the CJPS.

  4. Development of Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Orgill, Dennis; Ghazinouri, Roya; Ciociolo, George; Laskowski, Karl; Greenberg, Jeffery O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: With rising cost of healthcare, there is an urgent need for developing effective and economical streamlined care. In clinical situations with limited data or conflicting evidence-based data, there is significant institutional and individual practice variation. Quality improvement with the use of Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) might be beneficial in such scenarios. The SCAMPs method has never before been reported to be utilized in plastic surgery. Methods: The topic of immediate breast reconstruction was identified as a possible SCAMPs project. The initial stages of SCAMPs development, including planning and implementation, were entered. The SCAMP Champion, along with the SCAMPs support team, developed targeted data statements. The SCAMP was then written and a decision-tree algorithm was built. Buy-in was obtained from the Division of Plastic Surgery and a SCAMPs data form was generated to collect data. Results: Decisions pertaining to “immediate implant-based breast reconstruction” were approved as an acceptable topic for SCAMPs development. Nine targeted data statements were made based on the clinical decision points within the SCAMP. The SCAMP algorithm, and the SDF, required multiple revisions. Ultimately, the SCAMP was effectively implemented with multiple iterations in data collection. Conclusions: Full execution of the SCAMP may allow better-defined selection criteria for this complex patient population. Deviations from the SCAMP may allow for improvement of the SCAMP and facilitate consensus within the Division. Iterative and adaptive quality improvement utilizing SCAMPs creates an opportunity to reduce cost by improving knowledge about best practice. PMID:26495223

  5. Student Teachers' Evaluations of Slides of Children with Down Syndrome: Impact of Facial Plastic Surgery, Labelling and Factual Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkabetz, R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the impact of facial plastic surgery, labeling (mentally retarded, normal, Down's syndrome), and level of knowledge of Down's syndrome on 127 student teachers' evaluations of slides of persons with such characteristics. Although there was no overall significant main effect for the pre-post operation condition, there was a…

  6. Plastic Surgery and Acellular Dermal Matrix: Highlighting Trends from 1999 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Daar, David A; Gandy, Jessica R; Clark, Emily G; Mowlds, Donald S; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has ushered in a rapidly expanding global discussion regarding acellular dermal matrix (ADM) applications, economic analyses, technical considerations, benefits, and risks, with recent emphasis on ADM use in breast surgery. This study aims to evaluate global trends in ADM research using bibliometric analysis. The top nine Plastic Surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of the nine journals between 1999 and 2013 was accessed to compile a database of articles discussing ADM. Publications were further classified by IF, authors’ geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). Productivity index and productivity share were calculated for each region. In total, 256 ADM articles were accessed. The annual global publication volume increased significantly by 4.2 (0.87) articles per year (p<0.001), with a mean productivity index of 36.3 (59.0). The mean impact factor of the nine journals increased significantly from 0.61 (0.11) to 2.47 (0.99) from 1993 to 2013 (p<0.001). Despite this increase in the global ADM literature, the majority of research was of weaker LOE (level I: 2.29% and level II: 9.17%). USA contributed the most research (87%), followed by Asia (4.76%) and Western Europe (4.71%). USA contributed the greatest volume of research. Regarding clinical application of ADM, the majority of publications focused on ADM use in breast surgery, specifically breast reconstruction (154 articles, 60.2%). The majority of research was of lower LOE; thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the body of literature, particularly with regard to cost analysis. PMID:27579264

  7. Globalization of Craniofacial Plastic Surgery: Foreign Mission Programs for Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Laub, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract International Humanitarian Interchanges are a bona fide component of surgery and medicine. Additionally, these programs also provide substantial benefit both to the doers and the recipients. The foreign mission program is potentially a weapon of foreign policy which is underutilized and underestimated. Physician job dissatisfaction is increasing. However, the happiness and satisfaction of the participants in the short-term multidisciplinary trips, repeated, well-organized and respectful, with rather complete integration of the surgical system of the sister countries (“Plan B”), approaches 100%. The theory of the International Humanitarian Interchanges is based on substance, on medical theory. These trips are particularly successful in interchanges with medium-resourced countries. Furthermore, the academic visiting professor (“Plan A”: hi-resource place to hi-resource place), the One Man Can Save the World model (“Plan C”: to the low-resource place), and the intriguing Horton Peace Plan have possibilities for long-term benefit to the doer, recipient, the field of surgery, and the body of knowledge. In all of these, our country and the family of nations advance. The theoretical basis is not always religious nor the grand strategy plan; both have either proselytizing or political dominance as primary motives, and are mentioned as historically helpful. PMID:26080114

  8. Globalization of Craniofacial Plastic Surgery: Foreign Mission Programs for Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Laub, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    International Humanitarian Interchanges are a bona fide component of surgery and medicine. Additionally, these programs also provide substantial benefit both to the doers and the recipients.The foreign mission program is potentially a weapon of foreign policy which is underutilized and underestimated.Physician job dissatisfaction is increasing. However, the happiness and satisfaction of the participants in the short-term multidisciplinary trips, repeated, well-organized and respectful, with rather complete integration of the surgical system of the sister countries ("Plan B"), approaches 100%.The theory of the International Humanitarian Interchanges is based on substance, on medical theory. These trips are particularly successful in interchanges with medium-resourced countries.Furthermore, the academic visiting professor ("Plan A": hi-resource place to hi-resource place), the One Man Can Save the World model ("Plan C": to the low-resource place), and the intriguing Horton Peace Plan have possibilities for long-term benefit to the doer, recipient, the field of surgery, and the body of knowledge. In all of these, our country and the family of nations advance.The theoretical basis is not always religious nor the grand strategy plan; both have either proselytizing or political dominance as primary motives, and are mentioned as historically helpful.

  9. Establishing a multidisciplinary academic cosmetic center.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venkat K; Schmid, Daniel B; Hanson, Summer E; Bentz, Michael L

    2011-12-01

    The demand for cosmetic services has risen rapidly in recent years, but has slowed down with the current economic downturn. Managed care organizations and Medicare have been steadily reducing their reimbursements for physician services. The payment for reconstructive surgical procedures has been decreasing and is likely to worsen with healthcare reform, and many plastic surgery residency programs are facing fiscal challenges. An adequate volume of patients needing cosmetic services is necessary to recruit and train the best candidates to the residency programs. Self-pay patients will help ensure the fiscal viability of plastic surgery residency programs. Attracting patients to an academic healthcare center will become more difficult in a recession without the appropriate facilities, programs, and pricing strategies. Setting up a modern cosmetic services program at an academic center has some unique challenges, including funding, academic politics, and turf. The authors opened a free-standing academic multidisciplinary center at their medical school 3 years ago. The center is an off-site, 13,000-sq ft facility that includes faculty from plastic surgery, ear, nose, and throat, dermatology, and vascular surgery. In this article, the authors discuss the process of developing and executing a plan for starting an aesthetic services center in an academic setting. The financing of the center and factors in pricing services are discussed. The authors show the impact of the center on their cosmetic surgery patient volumes, resident education, and finances. They expect that their experience will be helpful to other plastic surgery programs at academic medical centers.

  10. Implementing a robotics curriculum at an academic general surgery training program: our initial experience.

    PubMed

    Winder, Joshua S; Juza, Ryan M; Sasaki, Jennifer; Rogers, Ann M; Pauli, Eric M; Haluck, Randy S; Estes, Stephanie J; Lyn-Sue, Jerome R

    2016-09-01

    The robotic surgical platform is being utilized by a growing number of hospitals across the country, including academic medical centers. Training programs are tasked with teaching their residents how to utilize this technology. To this end, we have developed and implemented a robotic surgical curriculum, and share our initial experience here. Our curriculum was implemented for all General Surgical residents for the academic year 2014-2015. The curriculum consisted of online training, readings, bedside training, console simulation, participating in ten cases as bedside first assistant, and operating at the console. 20 surgical residents were included. Residents were provided the curriculum and notified the department upon completion. Bedside assistance and operative console training were completed in the operating room through a mix of biliary, foregut, and colorectal cases. During the fiscal years of 2014 and 2015, there were 164 and 263 robot-assisted surgeries performed within the General Surgery Department, respectively. All 20 residents completed the online and bedside instruction portions of the curriculum. Of the 20 residents trained, 13/20 (65 %) sat at the Surgeon console during at least one case. Utilizing this curriculum, we have trained and incorporated residents into robot-assisted cases in an efficient manner. A successful curriculum must be based on didactic learning, reading, bedside training, simulation, and training in the operating room. Each program must examine their caseload and resident class to ensure proper exposure to this platform.

  11. Accuracy of patient's turnover time prediction using RFID technology in an academic ambulatory surgery center.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Maillet, Florence; Debes, Claire; Garnier, Fanny; Dufeu, Nicolas; Sciard, Didier; Beaussier, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Patients flow in outpatient surgical unit is a major issue with regards to resource utilization, overall case load and patient satisfaction. An electronic Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) was used to document the overall time spent by the patients between their admission and discharge from the unit. The objective of this study was to evaluate how a RFID-based data collection system could provide an accurate prediction of the actual time for the patient to be discharged from the ambulatory surgical unit after surgery. This is an observational prospective evaluation carried out in an academic ambulatory surgery center (ASC). Data on length of stay at each step of the patient care, from admission to discharge, were recorded by a RFID device and analyzed according to the type of surgical procedure, the surgeon and the anesthetic technique. Based on these initial data (n = 1520), patients were scheduled in a sequential manner according to the expected duration of the previous case. The primary endpoint was the difference between actual and predicted time of discharge from the unit. A total of 414 consecutive patients were prospectively evaluated. One hundred seventy four patients (42%) were discharged at the predicted time ± 30 min. Only 24% were discharged behind predicted schedule. Using an automatic record of patient's length of stay would allow an accurate prediction of the discharge time according to the type of surgery, the surgeon and the anesthetic procedure.

  12. Tissue-Engineered Solutions in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Principles and Practice.

    PubMed

    Al-Himdani, Sarah; Jessop, Zita M; Al-Sabah, Ayesha; Combellack, Emman; Ibrahim, Amel; Doak, Shareen H; Hart, Andrew M; Archer, Charles W; Thornton, Catherine A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in microsurgery, imaging, and transplantation have led to significant refinements in autologous reconstructive options; however, the morbidity of donor sites remains. This would be eliminated by successful clinical translation of tissue-engineered solutions into surgical practice. Plastic surgeons are uniquely placed to be intrinsically involved in the research and development of laboratory engineered tissues and their subsequent use. In this article, we present an overview of the field of tissue engineering, with the practicing plastic surgeon in mind. The Medical Research Council states that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering "holds the promise of revolutionizing patient care in the twenty-first century." The UK government highlighted regenerative medicine as one of the key eight great technologies in their industrial strategy worthy of significant investment. The long-term aim of successful biomanufacture to repair composite defects depends on interdisciplinary collaboration between cell biologists, material scientists, engineers, and associated medical specialties; however currently, there is a current lack of coordination in the field as a whole. Barriers to translation are deep rooted at the basic science level, manifested by a lack of consensus on the ideal cell source, scaffold, molecular cues, and environment and manufacturing strategy. There is also insufficient understanding of the long-term safety and durability of tissue-engineered constructs. This review aims to highlight that individualized approaches to the field are not adequate, and research collaboratives will be essential to bring together differing areas of expertise to expedite future clinical translation. The use of tissue engineering in reconstructive surgery would result in a paradigm shift but it is important to maintain realistic expectations. It is generally accepted that it takes 20-30 years from the start of basic science research to clinical utility

  13. Medical borderlands: engineering the body with plastic surgery and hormonal therapies in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Alexander; Sanabria, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores medical borderlands where health and enhancement practices are entangled. It draws on fieldwork carried out in the context of two distinct research projects in Brazil on plastic surgery and sex hormone therapies. These two therapies have significant clinical overlap. Both are made available in private and public healthcare in ways that reveal the class dynamics underlying Brazilian medicine. They also have an important experimental dimension rooted in Brazil's regulatory context and societal expectations placed on medicine as a means for managing women's reproductive and sexual health. Off-label and experimental medical use of these treatments is linked to experimental social use: how women adopt them to respond to the pressures, anxieties and aspirations of work and intimate life. The paper argues that these experimental techniques are becoming morally authorized as routine management of women's health, integrated into mainstream Ob-Gyn healthcare, and subtly blurred with practices of cuidar-se (self-care) seen in Brazil as essential for modern femininity. PMID:25175295

  14. Introduction of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery FACE TO FACE Database.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Manoj T; Rousso, Joseph J; Hu, Shirley; Brown, Ryan F; Moscatello, Augustine L; Finn, J Charles; Patel, Neha A; Kadakia, Sameep P; Wood-Smith, Donald

    2017-03-29

    The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery FACE TO FACE database was created to gather and organize patient data primarily from international humanitarian surgical mission trips, as well as local humanitarian initiatives. Similar to cloud-based Electronic Medical Records, this web-based user-generated database allows for more accurate tracking of provider and patient information and outcomes, regardless of site, and is useful when coordinating follow-up care for patients. The database is particularly useful on international mission trips as there are often different surgeons who may provide care to patients on subsequent missions, and patients who may visit more than 1 mission site. Ultimately, by pooling data across multiples sites and over time, the database has the potential to be a useful resource for population-based studies and outcome data analysis. The objective of this paper is to delineate the process involved in creating the AAFPRS FACE TO FACE database, to assess its functional utility, to draw comparisons to electronic medical records systems that are now widely implemented, and to explain the specific benefits and disadvantages of the use of the database as it was implemented on recent international surgical mission trips.

  15. [Medical borderlands: engineering the body with plastic surgery and hormonal therapies in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Alexander; Sanabria, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores medical borderlands where health and enhancement practices are entangled. It draws on fieldwork carried out in the context of two distinct research projects in Brazil on plastic surgery and sex hormone therapies. These two therapies have significant clinical overlap. Both are made available in private and public healthcare in ways that reveal the class dynamics underlying Brazilian medicine. They also have an important experimental dimension rooted in Brazil's regulatory context and societal expectations placed on medicine as a means for managing women's reproductive and sexual health. Off-label and experimental medical use of these treatments is linked to experimental social use: how women adopt them to respond to the pressures, anxieties and aspirations of work and intimate life. The paper argues that these experimental techniques are becoming morally authorized as routine management of women's health, integrated into mainstream Ob-Gyn healthcare, and subtly blurred with practices of cuidar-se (self-care) seen in Brazil as essential for modern femininity.

  16. Esthetic impact of gingival plastic surgery from the dentistry students’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ayyildiz, Erdem; Tan, Enes; Keklik, Hakan; Demirtag, Zulfikar; Celebi, Ahmet Arif; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the this study was to evaluate the perception of smile esthetics and alterations in cases of gingival plastic surgery for correction of a gummy smile, by means of alterations in smile photograph among dentistry degree students. Materials and Methods: A frontal smile photograph of a 40-year-old woman having normal occlusion was used with diverse compositions of gingival exposure level and crown length of maxillary teeth. The eight photographs were evaluated by 216 dentistry students in five class groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th classes). Results: The results revealed that almost all of the class’ students perceived differences between images, additionally, the highest percentage of students that answered “no difference” was 12% at 1st class’ students. 1st and 2nd class’ students most liked photograph which is 2.5 mm gingival display and 3rd class students liked two different photographs which are 2.5 mm gingival display and 2 mm gingival display whereas 4th class students preferred two different photographs which are 1.5 mm gingival display and 1 mm gingival display, 5th class students preferred photograph which is 1.5 mm gingival display as the most. Conclusion: Esthetic perception of smile improve as a student passes to higher study classes in terms of gingival exposure. The harmonious display of gingiva exhibits an important effect in the smile esthetics rather than reduced or excessive display. PMID:27403061

  17. A model for university-based international plastic surgery collaboration builds local sustainability.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, William Tyler; Agbenorku, Pius; Olson, Joshua; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Agarwal, Jayant P; Rockwell, William Bradford

    2015-04-01

    This article aimed to assess the sustainability from collaboration between international plastic surgery consultants and a hospital of a developing country in the promotion and delivery of quality health care to the local population. Humanitarian medical missions have evolved in structure and volume during the last 40 years. Medical mission trips were initially designed to treat local populations and help decrease the burden of disease. A limited number of the local population benefited from the mission. Some mission trips evolved from not only treating the local population but also teaching local physicians. These trips produced some local sustainability. Host physicians carried on a broader range of care after the mission trip had departed. Further evolution of these medical trips involves not only care and teaching but also involvement of host medical students and residents. Regularly scheduled Internet-based consultations and educational conferences expand the educational opportunities. The sustainability of medical trips based on this model is maximized. This process still has limitations: a limited number of the local population are treated during the in-country 1-week visits, Internet reliability may limit the transmission or quality of conferences, and differences in hospital resource availability may limit transference of US techniques to other hospitals.

  18. Tissue-Engineered Solutions in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Principles and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Himdani, Sarah; Jessop, Zita M.; Al-Sabah, Ayesha; Combellack, Emman; Ibrahim, Amel; Doak, Shareen H.; Hart, Andrew M.; Archer, Charles W.; Thornton, Catherine A.; Whitaker, Iain S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in microsurgery, imaging, and transplantation have led to significant refinements in autologous reconstructive options; however, the morbidity of donor sites remains. This would be eliminated by successful clinical translation of tissue-engineered solutions into surgical practice. Plastic surgeons are uniquely placed to be intrinsically involved in the research and development of laboratory engineered tissues and their subsequent use. In this article, we present an overview of the field of tissue engineering, with the practicing plastic surgeon in mind. The Medical Research Council states that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering “holds the promise of revolutionizing patient care in the twenty-first century.” The UK government highlighted regenerative medicine as one of the key eight great technologies in their industrial strategy worthy of significant investment. The long-term aim of successful biomanufacture to repair composite defects depends on interdisciplinary collaboration between cell biologists, material scientists, engineers, and associated medical specialties; however currently, there is a current lack of coordination in the field as a whole. Barriers to translation are deep rooted at the basic science level, manifested by a lack of consensus on the ideal cell source, scaffold, molecular cues, and environment and manufacturing strategy. There is also insufficient understanding of the long-term safety and durability of tissue-engineered constructs. This review aims to highlight that individualized approaches to the field are not adequate, and research collaboratives will be essential to bring together differing areas of expertise to expedite future clinical translation. The use of tissue engineering in reconstructive surgery would result in a paradigm shift but it is important to maintain realistic expectations. It is generally accepted that it takes 20–30 years from the start of basic science research to clinical utility

  19. Prophylactic plastic surgery closure of neurosurgical scalp incisions reduces the incidence of wound complications in previously-operated patients treated with bevacizumab (Avastin®) and radiation.

    PubMed

    Golas, Alyssa Reiffel; Boyko, Tatiana; Schwartz, Theodore H; Stieg, Philip E; Boockvar, John A; Spector, Jason A

    2014-09-01

    Neurosurgical craniotomy, craniectomy, or other trans-galeal interventions are performed for a variety of indications, including the resection of benign or malignant tumors, hematoma evacuation, and for the management of intractable seizure disorders. Despite an overall low complication rate of intervention, wound healing complications such as dehiscence, surgical site infection, and cerebrospinal fluid leak are not uncommon. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent scalp incision closure at a single institution by a single plastic surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Sixty patients (83 procedures) were included in the study. Fifty-seven patients (95.0 %) underwent previous craniotomy, craniectomy, or other trans-galeal procedure. Of the total 60 patients, 35 patients received preoperative radiation. Sixteen patients received bevacizumab prior to their index case, while 12 received bevacizumab postoperatively. Ten patients (16.7 %) required additional plastic surgical intervention for wound complications after their index plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgery was consulted prophylactically in 34 patients (38 procedures). When plastic surgery was consulted prophylactically, 4 patients (11.8 %) required further wound revision. None of the 14 patients who underwent prophylactic plastic surgery closure for previous scalp incision, preoperative bevacizumab, and XRT administration required re-intervention. Plastic surgery closure of complex scalp incisions reduces the incidence of wound complications among patients who underwent previous neurosurgical intervention, XRT administration, and preoperative bevacizumab administration. This is particularly true when plastic surgery closure is performed "prophylactically." Further collaboration between the neurosurgical and plastic surgery teams is therefore warranted, particularly in the setting of these high-risk cases.

  20. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in the Treatment of Oncological Perineal and Genital Defects

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Rebekka; Horch, Raymund E.; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P.

    2015-01-01

    Defects of the perineum may result from ablative procedures of different malignancies. The evolution of more radical excisional surgery techniques resulted in an increase in large defects of the perineum. The perineogenital region per se has many different functions for urination, bowel evacuation, sexuality, and reproduction. Up-to-date individual and interdisciplinary surgical treatment concepts are necessary to provide optimum oncological as well as quality of life outcome. Not only the reconstructive method but also the timing of the reconstruction is crucial. In cases of postresectional exposition of e.g., pelvic or femoral vessels or intrapelvic and intra-abdominal organs, simultaneous flap procedure is mandatory. In particular, the reconstructive armamentarium of the plastic surgeon should include not only pedicled flaps but also free microsurgical flaps so that no compromise in terms of the extent of the oncological resection has to be accepted. For intra-abdominally and/or pelvic tumors of the rectum, the anus, or the female reproductive system, which were resected through an abdominally and a sacrally surgical access, simultaneous vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap reconstruction is recommendable. In terms of soft tissue sarcoma of the pelvic/caudal abdomen/proximal thigh region, two-stage reconstructions are possible. This review focuses on the treatment of perineum, genitals, and pelvic floor defects after resection of malignant tumors, giving a distinct overview of the different types of defects faced in this region and describing a number of reconstructive techniques, especially VRAM flap and pedicled flaps like antero-lateral thigh flap or free flaps. Finally, this review outlines some considerations concerning timing of the different operative steps. PMID:26500887

  1. One-Stop Clinic Utilization in Plastic Surgery: Our Local Experience and the Results of a UK-Wide National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Mark; Coelho, James; Gujral, Sameer; McKay, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. “See and treat” one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service. PMID:26236502

  2. One-Stop Clinic Utilization in Plastic Surgery: Our Local Experience and the Results of a UK-Wide National Survey.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Mark; Coelho, James; Gujral, Sameer; McKay, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. "See and treat" one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service.

  3. A brief history of the development of plastic surgery in The Netherlands East-Indies from World War I until the independence of Indonesia (1914-1950).

    PubMed

    Haeseker, B

    1990-05-01

    This study of surgical operations published in the Medical Journal of the Netherlands East-Indies over the period 1914-1950, supplemented with a series of interviews with retired Dutch East-Indian surgeons and their relatives, shows a vivid interest in plastic surgery from World War I until the independence of Indonesia. One can conclude that plastic surgery was performed more frequently and on a larger scale than in Holland, due to a larger number of patients, specific tropical pathology and often a longer patient delay, requiring extensive reconstructive procedures. The East-Indian publications on plastic surgical topics outnumber the Dutch ones enormously.

  4. Interactive navigation-guided ophthalmic plastic surgery: navigation enabling of telescopes and their use in endoscopic lacrimal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Singh, Swati; Naik, Milind N; Kaliki, Swathi; Dave, Tarjani Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to report the preliminary experience of using telescopes, which were enabled for navigation guidance, and their utility in complex endoscopic lacrimal surgeries. Methods Navigation enabling of the telescope was achieved by using the AxiEM™ malleable neuronavigation shunt stylet. Image-guided dacryolocalization was performed in five patients using the intraoperative image-guided StealthStation™ system in the electromagnetic mode. The “look ahead” protocol software was used to assist the surgeon in assessing the intraoperative geometric location of the endoscope and what lies ahead in real time. All patients underwent navigation-guided powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. The utility of uninterrupted navigation guidance throughout the surgery with the endoscope as the navigating tool was noted. Results Intraoperative geometric localization of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct could be easily deciphered. Constant orientation of the lacrimal drainage system and the peri-lacrimal anatomy was possible without the need for repeated point localizations throughout the surgery. The “look ahead” features could accurately alert the surgeon of anatomical structures that exists at 5, 10 and 15 mm in front of the endoscope. Good securing of the shunt stylet with the telescope was found to be essential for constant and accurate navigation. Conclusion Navigation-enabled endoscopes provide the surgeon with the advantage of sustained stereotactic anatomical awareness at all times during the surgery. PMID:27920491

  5. America's fertile frontier: how America surpassed Britain in the development and growth of plastic surgery during the interwar years of 1920-1940.

    PubMed

    Fraser, James F; Hultman, Charles Scott

    2010-05-01

    Most historians agree that modern plastic surgery was born out of the efforts of reconstructive surgeons in World War I (WW I). In a single British hospital, over 8000 wounded soldiers were treated for disfiguring facial wounds. These gruesome injuries provided surgeons with enough cases to make unprecedented advances in tissue reconstruction. After the war, however, surgeons returned to civilian society where they found relatively few cases to support their new niche. In England, plastic surgery failed to establish itself while, in the United States, plastic surgeons had much greater success in founding their new specialty. Emphasizing this trend is the staggering statistic that, at the outbreak of World War II (WW II), the US boasted 60 trained plastic surgeons compared with only 4 in Britain. This article analyzes a variety of primary sources (speeches, journal articles, letters, and live interviews) obtained from several libraries and special collections to argue that the relative success of US plastic surgery in the interwar period (1920-1940) can be attributed to (1) the efforts of pioneering American plastic surgeons (Varaztad Kazanjian, Vilray Blair, and John Davis), (2) the post-Flexner report restructuring of US medical training, and (3) a much warmer reception both by the US public and general surgical community to plastic surgery.

  6. EURAPS at 20 years. A brief history of European Plastic Surgery from the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive to the European Association of Plastic Surgeons (EURAPS).

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Kon, Moshe

    2010-06-01

    By the end of WWI, plastic surgery had reached unexpected heights. The high quality of the work done for soldiers with facial injuries and burns, either as an emergency or as a delayed procedure, demonstrated that this new discipline was honourable, worthwhile and socially crucial, thus deserving official recognition and independence. The establishment of new plastic surgery centres, scientific societies and specialised journals were the key to success for the achievement of this goal. In 1936, the Belgian Maurice Coelst (1894-1963) founded the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, the first supranational society, with the aim of gathering once a year all those interested in this new branch of surgery and favouring confrontation of ideas by showing innovative clinical procedures. The very successful first Congress with a large international participation was held in Brussels, with Coelst as the president, the second in London, in 1937, organised by Kilner and the third in Milano, in 1938, arranged by Sanvenero Rosselli. Even live surgery was performed during the meetings. The beginning of the WWII stopped the Societé's activities, which were never resumed. In the late 1980s, when plastic surgery reached its zenith, the necessity was felt to create a new supranational society, different in its purpose from the existing European Section of IPRAS, later European Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS), an organisation where all the official European plastic surgery societies merged automatically. The aim was to promote the excellence of plastic surgery in Europe, to furnish an annual forum for the selection of the best scientific works presented at national societies and to stimulate research and education at a European level. Established in 1989, 53 years after the foundation of the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, it was named the European Association of Plastic Surgeons (EURAPS). The first scientific meeting took place

  7. Evaluation of the Current Perspectives on Letters of Recommendation for Residency Applicants among Plastic Surgery Program Directors

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, K.; Mahabir, R. C.; Song, J.; Verheyden, C. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The goals of this project were to evaluate the current perspective on letters of recommendation and to assess the need for, and acceptance of, a more standardized letter of recommendation (LOR). Methods. An eight-question survey was distributed to plastic surgery program directors. A five-point Likert scale was selected as a means of quantifying the participants' responses to the survey. Results. Twenty-eight of 71 program directors (39.4%) completed the survey. The majority of participants felt that current LOR did not offer a realistic way to compare applicants (mean ± SD, 2.9 ± 0.8). While most agreed that increasing the objectivity of LOR would be valuable in comparing applicants (mean ± SD, 4.1 ± 0.9), the overall average response to whether a more standardized letter format would improve the resident selection process remained only slightly better than neutral (mean ± SD, 3.5 ± 1.2). Most of the chairmen supported the notion that familiarity with the author of the LOR strengthened the recommendation (mean ± SD, 4.5 ± 0.6). Conclusion. The majority of plastic surgery program directors would like more objectivity in comparing applicants but are ambivalent about a standardized letter of recommendation. PMID:22570782

  8. Multiaxial mechanical properties and constitutive modeling of human adipose tissue: a basis for preoperative simulations in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Gerhard; Eder, Maximilian; Kovacs, Laszlo; Pathak, Heramb; Bonitz, Lars; Mueller, Christoph; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2013-11-01

    A preoperative simulation of soft tissue deformations during plastic and reconstructive surgery is desirable to support the surgeon's planning and to improve surgical outcomes. The current development of constitutive adipose tissue models, for the implementation in multilayer computational frameworks for the simulation of human soft tissue deformations, has proved difficult because knowledge of the required mechanical parameters of fat tissue is limited. Therefore, for the first time, human abdominal adipose tissues were mechanically investigated by biaxial tensile and triaxial shear tests. The results of this study suggest that human abdominal adipose tissues under quasi-static and dynamic multiaxial loadings can be characterized as a nonlinear, anisotropic and viscoelastic soft biological material. The nonlinear and anisotropic features are consequences of the material's collagenous microstructure. The aligned collagenous septa observed in histological investigations causes the anisotropy of the tissue. A hyperelastic model used in this study was appropriate to represent the quasi-static multiaxial mechanical behavior of fat tissue. The constitutive parameters are intended to serve as a basis for soft tissue simulations using the finite element method, which is an apparent method for obtaining promising results in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  9. The Legal Doctrine on 'Limitation of Liability' in the Precedent Analysis on Plastic Surgery Medical Malpractice Lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo Young; Pak, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Eun; Kang, So Ra

    2015-12-01

    This study intended to review the precedents on plastic surgery medical malpractice lawsuits in lower-court trials, classify the reasons of 'limitation of liability' by type, and suggest a standard in the acknowledgement of limitation of liability ratio. The 30 lower-court's rulings on the cases bearing the medical negligence of the defendants acknowledged the liability ratio of the defendants between 30% and 100%. Ten cases ruled that the defendants were wholly responsible for the negligence or malpractice, while 20 cases acknowledged the limitation of liability principle. In the determination of damage compensation amount, the court considered the cause of the victim side, which contributed in the occurrence of the damage. The court also believed that it is against the idea of fairness to have the assailant pay the whole compensation, even there is no victim-side cause such as previous illness or physical constitution of the patient, and applies the legal doctrine on limitation of liability, which is an independent damage compensation adjustment system. Most of the rulings also limited the ratio of responsibility to certain extent. When considering that the legal doctrine on limitation of liability which supports concrete validity for the fair sharing of damage, the tangible classification of causes of limitation of liability suggested in this study would be a useful tool in forecasting the ruling of a plastic surgery medical malpractice lawsuit.

  10. The Legal Doctrine on 'Limitation of Liability' in the Precedent Analysis on Plastic Surgery Medical Malpractice Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    Kang, So Ra

    2015-01-01

    This study intended to review the precedents on plastic surgery medical malpractice lawsuits in lower-court trials, classify the reasons of 'limitation of liability' by type, and suggest a standard in the acknowledgement of limitation of liability ratio. The 30 lower-court's rulings on the cases bearing the medical negligence of the defendants acknowledged the liability ratio of the defendants between 30% and 100%. Ten cases ruled that the defendants were wholly responsible for the negligence or malpractice, while 20 cases acknowledged the limitation of liability principle. In the determination of damage compensation amount, the court considered the cause of the victim side, which contributed in the occurrence of the damage. The court also believed that it is against the idea of fairness to have the assailant pay the whole compensation, even there is no victim-side cause such as previous illness or physical constitution of the patient, and applies the legal doctrine on limitation of liability, which is an independent damage compensation adjustment system. Most of the rulings also limited the ratio of responsibility to certain extent. When considering that the legal doctrine on limitation of liability which supports concrete validity for the fair sharing of damage, the tangible classification of causes of limitation of liability suggested in this study would be a useful tool in forecasting the ruling of a plastic surgery medical malpractice lawsuit. PMID:26713045

  11. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Intellectual, Language and Academic Functions in Children with Ischaemic Perinatal Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Angela O.; Spilkin, Amy M.; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A.

    2008-01-01

    The developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. A number of investigators have demonstrated that intellectual and language skills may be in the normal range in children following unilateral perinatal stroke. Questions have been raised, however, about whether these skills can be maintained at the same level as the brain…

  12. [Analysis of the application and funding projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China in the field of burns and plastic surgery from 2010 to 2016].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z C; Dou, D; Wang, X Y; Xie, D H; Yan, Z C

    2017-02-20

    We analyzed the data of application and funding projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) during 2010-2016 in the field of burns and plastic surgery and summarized the NSFC funding pattern, the research hotspots, and weaknesses in this field. The NSFC has funded 460 projects in the field of burns and plastic surgery, with total funding of RMB 227.96 million. The scientific issues involved in the funding projects include orthotherapy against malformations, wound repair, basic research of burns, skin grafting, scars prevention, and regeneration of hair follicle and sweat glands. The research techniques involved in the funding projects are diversified. NSFC plays an important role in the scientific research and talents training in the field of burns and plastic surgery.

  13. The evils of nicotine: an evidence-based guide to smoking and plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Brian

    2013-05-01

    As nearly 1 of 5 adult Americans are smokers, plastic surgeons should be familiar with the effect of smoking on perioperative risk, the importance of smoking cessation, and the tools to help patients quit. Cigarette smoke contains over 250 known toxins, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and nitric oxide, which all are known to impair wound healing, through multiple mechanisms. The relationship of smoking and delayed postoperative wound healing has been established in numerous prospective and retrospective cohort studies (level 2 and 3 evidence), and has been demonstrated across a wide range of surgical disciplines and procedures, including many common plastic surgical procedures. The ameliorating effects of cessation are supported by level 1 evidence, which suggests that the optimal duration of preoperative cessation is 4 weeks or longer. Nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation medications are effective aids for quitting and should be familiar to plastic surgeons.

  14. Establishing a profitable skin care practice in a facial plastic surgery office.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Edwin A

    2010-11-01

    Facial plastic surgeons seeking information about establishing and maintaining a first-rate skin care program and practice in their office will learn practice management tips and business advice. This content begins with presenting steps in patient evaluation and continues through development of a care plan. Discussion includes approach to skin care products, sunscreen, and related preventive and restorative methods. Detailed discussion is included of developing a personalized skin care plan. The content concludes with essential business tips and marketing advice for the facial plastic surgeon to include skin care in the surgical practice, including the way in which these are handled in the author's practice.

  15. Examining the validity of the ACS-NSQIP Risk Calculator in plastic surgery: lack of input specificity, outcome variability and imprecise risk calculations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cassandra; Campwala, Insiyah; Gupta, Subhas

    2017-03-01

    American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) created the Surgical Risk Calculator, to allow physicians to offer patients a risk-adjusted 30-day surgical outcome prediction. This tool has not yet been validated in plastic surgery. A retrospective analysis of all plastic surgery-specific complications from a quality assurance database from September 2013 through July 2015 was performed. Patient preoperative risk factors were entered into the ACS Surgical Risk Calculator, and predicted outcomes were compared with actual morbidities. The difference in average predicted complication rate versus the actual rate of complication within this population was examined. Within the study population of patients with complications (n=104), the calculator accurately predicted an above average risk for 20.90% of serious complications. For surgical site infections, the average predicted risk for the study population was 3.30%; this prediction was proven only 24.39% accurate. The actual incidence of any complication within the 4924 patients treated in our plastic surgery practice from September 2013 through June 2015 was 1.89%. The most common plastic surgery complications include seroma, hematoma, dehiscence and flap-related complications. The ACS Risk Calculator does not present rates for these risks. While most frequent outcomes fall into general risk calculator categories, the difference in predicted versus actual complication rates indicates that this tool does not accurately predict outcomes in plastic surgery. The ACS Surgical Risk Calculator is not a valid tool for the field of plastic surgery without further research to develop accurate risk stratification tools.

  16. Shame and self-acceptance in continued flux: qualitative study of the embodied experience of significant weight loss and removal of resultant excess skin by plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fran; Farrants, Jacqui R

    2013-09-01

    This study explored the embodied experience of body change using a qualitative design. Eight previous plastic surgery patients of a London hospital took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews 1 year post a plastic surgery procedure to remove excess skin around their abdomen, resulting from weight loss. Participant interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two sub-themes titled 'Shame of the hidden body' and 'Lack of acceptance; the future focused body' are presented in this article. Findings are considered in relation to theories of 'Body Shame' and in the current cultural context.

  17. [A web-based e-learning tool in academic teaching of trauma surgery. First experiences and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Citak, M; Haasper, C; Behrends, M; Kupka, T; Kendoff, D; Hüfner, T; Matthies, H K; Krettek, C

    2007-04-01

    There are lots of possibilities for universities to offer contents of teaching to students by the Internet. Often the students can download slides or a special lecture note from the intranet of the university. Another way is to make a movie of the lecture and post this lecture movie on the Internet. In the Hanover Medical School we employed an alternative. It was developed by the Trauma Surgery Clinic and the Institute of Medical Informatics at the Hanover Medical School. Our goal was to use just one web-based content resource for the lecture and for the work at home. The Institute of Medical Informatics used a web-based content management system (CMS) Schoolbook to implement this e-learning application.Since October 2005 the Trauma Surgery Schoolbook has been used in the lecture on trauma surgery in all terms, and we evaluated the academic year 2005/2006. The results of the evaluation showed us that the students were very interested in using this e-learning application. The possibility to reinforce the learning material at home is a good chance for the students. Also the organisation of lectures was improved because the materials were all in one place. The lecturer needs to learn several new tasks, but we also got a positive response. Our experiences of the last academic year showed that it was a good way to use one web-based content resource for teaching and learning in the context of a lecture.

  18. Parents' and Doctors' Attitudes toward Plastic Facial Surgery for Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shlomo; Kravetz, Shlomo; Marks, Yoval

    1997-01-01

    A study of 42 Israeli parents of children with Down syndrome and 48 family doctors found no differences between the parents and doctors regarding support for facial surgery. However, parents who showed less acceptance of their child expressed more support for the operation than parents who showed more acceptance. (Author/CR)

  19. Predictors and causes of unplanned re-operations in outpatient plastic surgery: a multi-institutional analysis of 6749 patients using the 2011 NSQIP database.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seokchun; Jordan, Sumanas W; Jain, Umang; Kim, John Y S

    2014-08-01

    Studies that evaluate the predictors and causes of unplanned re-operation in outpatient plastic surgery. This study retrospectively reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) and identified all plastic surgery outpatient cases performed in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilised to identify independent risk factors and causes of unplanned reoperations. Of the 6749 outpatient plastic surgery cases identified, there were 125 (1.9%) unplanned re-operations (UR). Regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index (BMI, OR = 1.041, 95% CI = 1.019-1.065), preoperative open wound/wound infection (OR = 3.498, 95% CI = 1.593-7.678), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 (OR = 2.235, 95% CI = 1.048-4.765), and total work relative value units (RVU, OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 1.005-1.024) were significantly predictive of UR. Additionally, the presence of any complication was significantly associated with UR (OR = 15.065, 95% CI = 5.705-39.781). In an era of outcomes-driven medicine, unplanned re-operation is a critical quality indicator for ambulatory plastic surgery facilities. The identified risk factors will aid in surgical planning and risk adjustment.

  20. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  1. The place of research and the role of academic surgeons in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M J; Schmid, C; Scheld, H H

    2004-04-01

    The development of the discipline of cardiac surgery was, to a large extent, guided by the vision and research of its pioneers. On the basis of their efforts, all the different areas of cardiac surgery were able to evolve including coronary artery bypass grafting, heart valve surgery, surgery of the aorta, congenital heart surgery, surgery for rhythm disorders including the implantation of pacemakers and defibrillators, and surgical treatment of advanced heart failure (for example, heart transplantations and mechanical circulatory support). The continued existence of cardiac surgery and its role in medicine in general will depend, to a significant extent, on the future research activities of its protagonists. Cardiac surgeon-scientists will play a pivotal role since they combine clinical experience with scientific knowledge and intuition which make them able to direct research to topics which will matter in the future. However, research costs money, and state or national funds will be not sufficient to support research as much as is necessary. Funding from third parties such as industry will increasingly be required. Due to this, however, the cardiac surgeon-scientist faces various challenges such as the evaluation of his skill in acquiring funds, conflicts with current ethical standards, conflicts of interest when receiving money from industry, and, as a result of the tough competition in this field, the temptation to commit fraud. The head of a department of cardiac surgery holds an important function as his initiative is decisive for the development of visions for the future and for the employment of surgeon-scientists who pursue visionary research. It will take the combined efforts of surgeon-scientists and departmental heads not only to maintain but to extend the position of cardiac surgery in medicine and society even further.

  2. The role of chairman and research director in influencing scholarly productivity and research funding in academic orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Stavrakis, Alexandra I; Patel, Ankur D; Burke, Zachary D C; Loftin, Amanda H; Dworsky, Erik M; Silva, Mauricio; Bernthal, Nicholas M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what orthopaedic surgery department leadership characteristics are most closely correlated with securing NIH funding and increasing scholarly productivity. Scopus database was used to identify number of publications/h-index for 4,328 faculty, department chairs (DC), and research directors (RD), listed on departmental websites from 138 academic orthopaedic departments in the United States. NIH funding data was obtained for the 2013 fiscal year. While all programs had a DC, only 46% had a RD. Of $54,925,833 in NIH funding allocated to orthopaedic surgery faculty in 2013, 3% of faculty and 31% of departments were funded. 16% of funded institutions had a funded DC whereas 65% had a funded RD. Department productivity and funding were highly correlated to leadership productivity and funding(p< 0.05). Mean funding was $1,700,000 for departments with a NIH-funded RD, $104,000 for departments with an unfunded RD, and $72,000 for departments with no RD. These findings suggest that orthopaedic department academic success is directly associated with scholarly productivity and funding of both DC and RD. The findings further highlight the correlation between a funded RD and a well-funded department. This does not hold for an unfunded RD.

  3. Periodontal plastic surgery for management of cleft alveolar ridge: a case report.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit A; Yeltiwar, Ramreddy K

    2012-02-01

    Cleft lips, alveoli, and palates are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck region, all of which often can be managed successfully when presented at a young age. It is a common belief that clefts in the alveolar ridge should be treated with the help of bone grafting materials. This could be the best option when the cleft is to be treated in early age, when the patient is still developing and has high regenerative potential. However, in adults, the literature supports the fact that bone grafting in alveolar clefts has a higher chance for failure. The present case report exemplifies a periodontal plastic surgical procedure involving a combination of connective tissue and free gingival grafting to restore the form and function of a cleft alveolar ridge in an adult patient.

  4. New and emerging uses of barbed suture technology in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Allen D

    2013-09-01

    Barbed sutures first received US Food and Drug Administration approval for soft tissue approximation in 2005 and early adopters readily embraced this device to develop new techniques. It has become apparent that the advantages are more than just "skin deep." Superficial and deep fascia, cartilage, tendon, joint capsule, and fibrous periprosthetic capsules can also be manipulated. Barbed sutures have revolutionized our approach to facial rejuvenation and body contouring by enhancing our ability to quilt and powerfully lift tissue. The elimination of surgical drains and shorter surgical times has made this a true boon for plastic surgeons as well as many other surgical specialists. This article summarizes some of the current and evolving applications of this exciting new tool.

  5. Plastic surgery waiting list--the numbers game fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    McGregor, J C

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated the importance of work load and operating time in helping to manage a waiting list. While analysis of a waiting list based solely on numbers cannot give an accurate assessment it is only this and "the waiting time" to surgery (apparently irrespective of clinical priorities) that seem to matter to the government, the Trust Hospitals, and to the public. This study examines case numbers on a waiting list over a two year period and links this to the preceding six months elective operations. Further insight into a waiting list construction can be obtained because of the clinical need for some degree of prioritisation, particularly because of malignancies, it is obvious why the bare waiting list numbers and composition can give a false impression of the true situation. The secondary effect on waiting time for less urgent cases can thus be more readily explained. Some form of rationing may be the answer.

  6. [Prepuce plastic surgery, known as the Lille operation, in distal hypospadias. Apropos of 138 cases].

    PubMed

    Wallon, P; Saint-Supery, G; Bucco, P

    1984-01-01

    Distal hypospadias with meatus situated on the glans, in the balano-penile furrow, even on the distal part of the shaft, are the most frequent hypospadias. Without chordee, it's only a cosmetic handicap. The aim of surgery is to produce the esthetic appearance of a normal penis. In France, circumcision is not usual and most people prefer a child with prepuce. The best technique in this case is to keep the meatus in its hypospadial situation and get the prepuce circular with a ventral suture. It's an easy technique. The hospital stay is short, 2 or 3 days, without any diversion of the urine. This operation is made when the child is about 3 years. Saint-Aubert described this procedure in 1967. The authors present their technique and results. Since 1971, 138 boys underwent this operation with few complications: 2% of fistulas and 2% of phimosis on the last hundred of cases.

  7. Career and Professional Satisfaction of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residents, Academic Surgeons, and Private Practitioners: Does Gender Matter?

    PubMed

    Marti, Kyriaki C; Lanzon, Jesse; Edwards, Sean P; Inglehart, Marita R

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether male vs. female oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents, academic surgeons (i.e., faculty members), and private practitioners in the U.S. differed in their general career satisfaction and job/professional satisfaction. Survey data were collected in 2011-12 from 267 OMS residents (response rate 55%), 271 OMS academic surgeons (response rate 31%), and 417 OMS private practitioners (response rates 13% web-based survey and 29% postal mail survey). The results showed that while the male vs. female OMS private practitioners and academic surgeons did not differ in their career satisfaction, the female residents had a lower career satisfaction than the male residents (on four-point scale with 4=most satisfied: 3.03 vs. 3.65; p<0.01). The male vs. female OMS private practitioners and academic surgeons also did not differ in their job satisfaction. However, the female residents agreed on average less that they were able to practice OMS in the way they want, felt less proud to be an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, were less satisfied with their career, and were more likely to consider a career change in the next five years than the male residents. While these male and female oral and maxillofacial surgeons in private practice and academia did not differ in their career and job satisfaction, the male and female residents differed significantly, with female residents reporting a significantly poorer career and job satisfaction than male residents. Future research needs to explore ways to improve career and professional satisfaction of female OMS residents.

  8. [Contribution of the physical and rehabilitation medicine in pediatric plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Gottrand, L; Devinck, F; Martinot Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

    2016-10-01

    Physical, non-painful processes guide the scar reshaping in children in order to prevent growth anomalies due to cutaneous shrinkage. The objective of the surgical treatment, coordinated with the reeducation care, is to improve the physical abilities of the skin, to restore the function and avoid the deformations. Reeducation uses various techniques (i.e. sensitive-motility, massage and mobilizations) with or without physical agent (water, aspiration and touch-drive technique). Posture and positioning rely on the small or major aids, from orthosis to prosthesis. Compression is obtained by the adjustment of aids on molding and compression garment. Indications of the reeducation treatment depend on the timing of cutaneous covering and the advance of the healing process. It also depends on the underlying condition including skin traumas (frictions, wounds, burns), skin surgeries (purpura fulminans consequences, skin graft reconstruction after giant nevus resection, malignant lesion or vascular malformations). The final goal is the rehabilitation and development of the child and the adolescent in its entire somatopsychic dimension.

  9. Implications of Rheumatic Disease and Biological Response-Modifying Agents in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tsai, David M; Borah, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    The preoperative evaluation for any reconstructive or aesthetic procedure requires a detailed history of existing medical conditions and current home medications. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and psoriasis is high, but the impact of these chronic illnesses on surgical outcome and the side effects of the powerful medications used for treatment are often underappreciated. In this review, the authors highlight key perioperative considerations specific to rheumatologic diseases and their associated pharmacologic therapies. In particular, the authors discuss the perioperative management of biological response-modifying agents, which have largely become the new standard of therapy for many rheumatic diseases. The literature reveals three key perioperative concerns with biological therapy for rheumatic disease: infection, wound healing delays, and disease flare. However, data on specific perioperative complications are lacking, and it remains controversial whether withholding biological therapy before surgery is of benefit. The risk of these adverse events is influenced by several factors: age, sex, class of biological agent, duration of exposure, dosage, onset and severity of disease, and type of surgical procedure. Overall, it remains best to develop an individualized plan. In younger patients with recent onset of biological therapy, it is reasonable to withhold therapy based on 3 to 5 half-lives of the specific agent. In older patients with a substantial history of rheumatic disease, the decision to discontinue therapy must be weighed and decided carefully in conjunction with the rheumatologist.

  10. Use of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate for skin closure in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, D M; O'Grady, K; Desai, D; Bagal, A

    1998-11-01

    Octyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a long carbon chain cyanoacrylate derivative that is stronger and more pliable than its shorter chain derivatives. One hundred and eleven patients underwent elective surgical procedures by the same surgeon using either octyl-2-cyanoacrylate or sutures for skin closure at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Most patients underwent excision of benign skin lesions with a mean wound size of 112 mm3. Patients were randomized into either control (vertical mattress suture closure) or test groups (closure with octyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Surgical judgment was used to determine which wounds in each group required application of subcutaneous sutures to relieve tension and aid in skin edge eversion. Generally, full-thickness (through dermis) wounds larger than 1 cm3 required the use of subcutaneous sutures. The time required to close the epidermis with suture (mean, 3 minutes and 47 seconds) was about four times that of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (mean, 55 seconds). Wounds were evaluated at 5 to 7 days for infection, wound dehiscence, or tissue reaction, and at 90 days using the modified Hollander wound evaluation scale. At 1 year, photographs of the wounds were evaluated by two facial plastic surgeons that graded the cosmetic outcome using a previously validated visual analog scale. There were no instances of wound dehiscence, hematoma, or infection in either group. Results of wound evaluation at 90 days determined by the modified Hollander scal revealed equivalent cosmetic results in both groups. Results of the visual analog scale ratings showed scores of 21.7 +/- 16.3 for the 49 patients treated with octyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 29.2 +/- 17.7 for the 51 control patients treated with sutures. The lower visual analog scale score represented a superior cosmetic outcome at 1 year with the octyl-2-cyanoacrylate as compared with sutures. This difference is statistically significant at p = 0.03. Additionally, patient satisfaction was very high in the group treated

  11. Thomas Ferrar, MB, LRCSI (1797-1837): the absentee professor of surgery at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution.

    PubMed Central

    Froggatt, P.

    1996-01-01

    Thomas Ferrar was the second professor of surgery in the short-lived (1835-1849) medical school of the Royal Belfast Academical Institution. Appointed on 5 July 1836 he failed to turn up for the winter session and was accordingly discharged on 29 November. He died in Sligo in the following June aged 39. Nothing has been written about Ferrar who survives as a mere foot-note in Belfast medical history. The events leading to his dismissal are, however, unusual, equivocal, and worth recounting. The facts suggest that the Institution was clearly justified in its action but that Ferrar emerges with some credit for a certain if misplaced high-mindedness though overshadowed by his patent derelictions. Images Figure PMID:8979785

  12. Breast Reduction Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It's important to understand what breast reduction ... risk of complications from breast reduction surgery. Your plastic surgeon will likely: Evaluate your medical history and ...

  13. Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in bilinear elastic-plastic media, and the implications to short-pulsed laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujan, E.-A.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.

  14. Working toward benchmarks in orthopedic OR efficiency for joint replacement surgery in an academic centre

    PubMed Central

    Beaulé, Paule E.; Frombach, Aaron A.; Ryu, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background The introduction of 4-joint operating rooms (ORs) to meet provincial wait time targets represented a major change in practice, providing an opportunity to optimize patient care within an OR time allotment of 8 hours. We reviewed our success rate completing 4 joint replacements within 8 hours and defined benchmarks for successful completion. Methods We reviewed the surgeries performed in the 4-joint ORs between May and October 2012. Using prospectively collected data from the Surgical Information Management System, each surgery time was divided into the following components: anesthesia preparation time (APT), surgical preparation time (SPT), procedure duration, anesthesia finishing time (AFT) and turnover time. We defined success as 4 joint replacements being completed within the allotted time. Results We reviewed 49 4-joint OR days for a total of 196 joint surgeries. Of the 49 days, 24 (49%) were successful. Only 2 surgeons had a success rate greater than 50%. Significant predictors of success were APT (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.16), procedure duration (odds ratio 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.05) and AFT (odds ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34). We calculated probabilities for each component and derived benchmark times corresponding to the probability of 0.60. These benchmarks were APT of 9 min, SPT of 14 min, procedure duration of 68 min, AFT of 4 min and turnover of 15 min. Conclusion We established benchmark times for the successful completion of 4 primary joint replacements within an 8-hour shift. Targeted interventions could maximize OR efficiency and enhance multidisciplinary care delivery. PMID:26574833

  15. Surgical treatment of burns sequelae. our experience in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Pristina, Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Buja, Z; Arifi, H; Hoxha, E; Duqi, S

    2015-09-30

    Burn injuries are very frequent in Kosovo, leading to long-lasting physical, functional, aesthetic, psychological and social consequences directly proportional to the time of healing; the longer it takes for the burn wound to heal, the more serious are the sequelae. The objectives of the present study are to review the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of burn patients presenting with post-burn sequelae and treated at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Pristina, Kosovo, from January 2005 until December 2011. This study included 188 patients with burns sequelae. The following variables were considered: age, sex, anatomical location, pathological types, and surgical procedure. There were 82 men (43.6%) and 106 women (56.4%), ranging in age from 0 to 67 years (mean age 33.5 years), most of the patients were children (139 = 73.9%). Burn contractures were observed in 135 (71.8%) patients, hypertrophic scars in 32 (17%), keloids in 10 (5.3%), alopecia in 6 (3.2%), syndactyly in 12 (6.4%), ectropion in 4 (2.1%) and ear deformity in 1 (0.53%) cases. To correct the deformities the most common choice was the Z-plasty technique, used in 31.4% of cases, followed by Z-plasty+full thickness skin grafts in 21.8%, full thickness skin grafts in 18.1%, tissue expansion in 8%, Z-plasty+local flaps in 4.8%, flaps (local, fascio-cutaneous, radial forearm) in 6.9% and direct closure in 6.4%. Timely wound closure and the development of an individual programme for surgical treatment of burns sequelae are crucial for optimal outcomes in patients with burns.

  16. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... that instill confidence. Do Your Homework Patient Safety Plastic Surgery When you choose a doctor who is ... to procedure selector Why Choose A Board Certified Plastic Surgeon Choose a board-certified plastic surgeon and ...

  17. Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to help. Gummy Smile or Uneven Gum Line Do you feel your teeth look too short ... beautiful. Members Only Content: Not Member Only Select Language Find a Periodontist Advanced Search and International» Recent ...

  18. Can a Plastic Surgeon be a Department Chairman?….Really?

    PubMed

    Neumeister, M W

    2016-04-01

    There is significant responsibility in being a Department of Surgery Chairman within a medical school. The Chairman is appointed by the Dean of Medicine to lead surgery in a path that serves the mission of the school. The Department of Surgery Chairman is charged with facilitating the academic, operational, and programmatic surgical initiatives of the School of Medicine. Traditionally the Chairman of Surgery has been a general surgeon but now our educational and clinical experiences have changed making traditional leadership less intuitive. Plastic surgeons appointed as current Chairman of the Department of Surgery are rare in the United States. Whereas, general surgeons may have less interaction with other surgical sub-specialties today, Plastic surgeons have more interaction crossing all disciplines of surgery. Innovation and creativity that defines our discipline, seems to fit well with Department leadership where strategic planning, vision and curriculum development, and the pursuit of academic and clinical quality remain core essentials to plastic surgery. This article is an editorial of my philosophy as a plastic surgeon leading a Department of Surgery.

  19. [The application of multichannel electrostimulation and nivalin electrophoresis for the rehabilitative treatment of the patient following plastic surgery in the facial region].

    PubMed

    Lazarenko, N N; Gerasimenko, M Iu

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the combined treatment of the patients who underwent plastic surgery for the correction of cosmetic defects in the form of grade II and III senile atrophy of the skin in conjunction with complicated neuropathies of the facial nerve. The essence of the proposed combined treatment consists in using lymphatic drainage massage, medicinal electrophoresis of a nivalin solution, multichannel electrostimulation, and microcurrent therapy with bipolar pulsed currents. The method made it possible to significantly improve the properties of the skin in the facial region, neuro-muscular conductivity, general microcirculation and cerebral circulation in the treated patients.

  20. The Collection of Adipose Derived Stem Cells using Water–Jet Assisted Lipoplasty for their Use in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Purpura, Valeria; Bondioli, Elena; Melandri, Davide; Parodi, Pier C.; Valenti, Luca; Riccio, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The graft of autologous fat for the augmentation of soft tissue is a common practice frequently used in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. In addition, the presence of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) in adipose tissue stimulates the regeneration of tissue in which it is applied after the autologous fat grafting improving the final clinical results. Due to these characteristics, there is an increasing interest in the use of ASCs for the treatment of several clinical conditions. As a consequence, the use of clean room environment is required for the production of cell-based therapies. The present study is aimed to describe the biological properties of adipose tissue and cells derived from it cultured in vitro in clean room environment according to current regulation. The collection of adipose tissue was performed using the water–jet assisted liposuction in order to preserve an high cell viability increasing their chances of future use for different clinical application in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:27921032

  1. Surgical Treatment of 55 Patients with Pressure Ulcers at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo during the Period 2000-2010: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Selmani, Mimoza E; Mekaj, Agon Y; Gashi, Musli M; Buja, Zejn A; Ismajli, Vildane H; Kllokoqi, Adem N; Hoxha, Enver T

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of PUs, the distribution of PUs, common injuries contributing to the occurrence of PUs in patients admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo for surgical interventions of PUs, localization of PUs in body, the topical treatment of pressure ulcers before surgical intervention, the methods of surgical interventions, number of surgical interventions, duration of treatment, complications, and mortality. Materials and Methods. This study includes 55 patients with PUs treated surgically in 2000-2010 period in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Data processing was done with the statistical package In Stat 3. From statistical parameters arithmetic median and standard deviation were calculated. Data testing is done with χ (2)-test and the difference is significant if P < 0.05. Conclusion. Despite preventive measures against PUs, the incidence of Pus remains high.

  2. The American Association of Plastic Surgeons Recent History, with a Review of the Past.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, W Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The American Association of Plastic Surgeons was founded in 1921 and is the oldest of the plastic surgery societies. It was born out of the enthusiasm of reconstructive surgeons who had recently increased in numbers and expanded the scope of their activities as a result of the challenges posed by battle-injured soldiers during World War I. Early meetings were small, focused exclusively on the head and neck, and often included live surgical demonstrations. The Association has grown in size and scope with time, but it has maintained its academic focus. This article focuses on the most recent 15 years of the Association's history, as prior publications have chronicled the history of the organization up to 2000. The organization has remained robust in the new millennium, with the national meetings being its most prominent activity. The format of the meetings has continually been improved to remain relevant and of interest to the membership and other attendees. The organization continues to support the development of young academic plastic surgeons through the Academic Scholars Program. It has established new programs such as the Constable Fellowship to support international exchange and has also sponsored two consensus conferences to help define standards of care in plastic surgery-related issues. The Association annually recognizes significant contributors to the field through the variety of awards that it bestows as well. The mission of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons is to provide scholarly leadership in plastic surgery, and the organization continues to successfully accomplish this mission.

  3. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shape of your breasts. Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering breast augmentation. Discuss ... mammograms or breast x-rays before surgery. The plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. Several ...

  4. [52th Commemoration of French Journal of Plastic Aesthetic Surgery (1956-2007). Fifty-four years of editorial; five Editors-in-chief].

    PubMed

    Cariou, J-L

    2007-08-01

    The french Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (SOF.CPRE) is born December 3th 1952. Initially without "aesthetic", this "key-word" is agreed in 1983 and the symbols are advanced since: SFCPR, SFCPRE, SOF.CPRE. Its official organ, formerly included in Annales de chirurgie (1954-1955), become Annales de chirurgie plastique in 1956, Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique in 1983 and finally Annales de chirurgie plastique esthétique (ACPE) in 1992. Since the origin, five Editors-in-chief succeded: Claude Dufourmentel, Raymond Vilain, Jean-Pierre Lalardrie, Claude Lê-Quang, Jean-Luc Cariou. Four of them are alive, Raymond Vilain is dead. The author relate here the natural story of these five editors who had all a triple route: personnal, surgical and editorial.

  5. What Is Refractive Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  6. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  7. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  8. Indications and Outcomes of the Components Separation Technique in the Repair of Complex Abdominal Wall Hernias: Experience From the Cambridge Plastic Surgery Department

    PubMed Central

    Adekunle, Shola; Pantelides, Nicholas M.; Hall, Nigel R.; Praseedom, Raaj; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The components separation technique (CST) is a widely described abdominal wall reconstructive technique. There have, however, been no UK reports of its use, prompting the present review. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, 13 patients who underwent this procedure by a single plastic surgeon (C.M.M.) were retrospectively evaluated. The indications, operative details, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: There were 7 women and 6 men in the series with a mean age of 53 years (range: 30-80). Patients were referred from a variety of specialties, often as a last resort. The commonest indication for CST was herniation following abdominal surgery. All operations except 1 were jointly performed with general surgeons (for bowel resection, stoma reversal, and hernia dissection). The operations lasted a mean of 5 hours (range: 3-8 hours). There were no major intra- and postoperative problems, except in 1 patient who developed intra-abdominal compartment syndrome, secondary to massive hemorrhage. All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic improvement in their abdominal contours. None of the patients have developed a clinical recurrence after a mean follow-up of 16 months (range: 3-38 months). Conclusions: The components separation technique is an effective method of treating large recalcitrant hernias but appears to be underutilized in the United Kingdom. The management of large abdominal wall defects requires a multidisciplinary approach, with input across a variety of specialities. Liaison with plastic surgery teams should be encouraged at an early stage and the CST should be more widely considered when presented with seemingly intractable abdominal wall defects. PMID:24058718

  9. [Aesthetic surgery].

    PubMed

    Bruck, Johannes C

    2006-01-01

    The WHO describes health as physical, mental and social well being. Ever since the establishment of plastic surgery aesthetic surgery has been an integral part of this medical specialty. It aims at reconstructing subjective well-being by employing plastic surgical procedures as described in the educational code and regulations for specialists of plastic surgery. This code confirms that plastic surgery comprises cosmetic procedures for the entire body that have to be applied in respect of psychological exploration and selection criteria. A wide variety of opinions resulting from very different motivations shows how difficult it is to differentiate aesthetic surgery as a therapeutic procedure from beauty surgery as a primarily economic service. Jurisdiction, guidelines for professional conduct and ethical codes have tried to solve this question. Regardless of the intention and ability of the health insurances, it has currently been established that the moral and legal evaluation of advertisements for medical procedures depends on their purpose: advertising with the intent of luring patients into cosmetic procedures that do not aim to reconstruct a subjective physical disorder does not comply with a medical indication. If, however, the initiative originates with the patient requesting the amelioration of a subjective disorder of his body, a medical indication can be assumed.

  10. [Facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Meningaud, Jean-Paul

    2010-11-20

    The patient who has to sustain facial surgery is doubly concerned by the functional issues of his case and his cosmetic appearance. Fortunately, in the recent period of time, huge advancements have been done permitting to offer a solution in more and more difficult situations. The aim of the present article is to give a panorama of facial plastic surgery for non-specialized physicians. The main aspects of the specialty are approached through the surgical techniques born from the progress of technology and biology. This paper treats issues of orthognatic surgery, endoscopic techniques, osteogenic distraction, different types of graft, cosmetic surgery, skin expander-balloons.

  11. Charles Willems (1859-1930): Belgian military and academic surgeon and first president of the International Society of Surgery.

    PubMed

    De Broe, Luc; Liebermann-Meffert, Dorothea; Van Hee, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Belgian surgeon Charles Willems (1859-1930) played a prominent role in the founding of the Société Internationale de Chirurgie (International Society of Surgery), of which he became the first president in 1902. He kept the office until 1929, when illness obliged him to discontinue. He had an important military career in the Balkan War but especially during World War I. He later became Professor of Surgery at the University of Liège. He produced numerous scientific articles on various surgical subjects and even started a journal that was the forerunner of the World Journal of Surgery. The International Society of Surgery owes a lot to its first president.

  12. Plastic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding. PMID:26556975

  13. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: body dysmorphic disorder in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Lindsay K; Lee, Wendy W; Black, Donald W; Shriver, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that up to 15% of patients in an aesthetic surgery practice have body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), little has been written about the condition in the oculoplastic literature. The authors describe 3 patients with suspected BDD who presented with perceived periocular defects. To appear "Asian," a 39-year-old Hispanic woman underwent over 30 surgeries. She developed disfiguring scars and lagophthalmos with corneal scarring, remained unsatisfied, and tragically committed suicide. A 52-year-old woman with moderate dermatochalasis underwent a blepharoplasty to improve her vision and appearance and help her gain employment. Despite a good outcome, she remained dissatisfied and blamed the surgeon for her unemployment. Finally, a 73-year-old woman presented demanding treatment for brow rhytids causing severe emotional distress. She was denied intervention due to unrealistic expectations. These patients are suspected to be suffering from BDD. Increased awareness is critical as BDD patients often remain unsatisfied after surgical intervention and are in need of psychiatric care.

  14. Lessons from brain mapping in surgery for low-grade glioma: insights into associations between tumour and brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Duffau, Hugues

    2005-08-01

    Surgical treatment of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) aims to maximise the amount of tumour tissue resected, while minimising the risk of functional sequelae. In this review I address the issue of how to reconcile these two conflicting goals. First, I review the natural history of LGG-growth, invasion, and anaplastic transformation. Second, I discuss the contribution of new techniques, such as functional mapping, to our understanding of brain reorganisation in response to progressive growth of LGG. Third, I consider the clinical implications of interactions between tumour progression and brain plasticity. In particular, I show how longitudinal studies (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) could allow us to optimise the surgical risk-to-benefit ratios. I will also discuss controversial issues such as defining surgical indications for LGGs, predicting the risk of postoperative deficit, aspects of operative surgical neuro-oncology (eg, preoperative planning and preservation of functional areas and tracts), and postoperative functional recovery.

  15. Ability of preoperative falls to predict postsurgical outcomes in non-selected patients undergoing elective surgery at an academic medical centre: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdallah, Arbi; McKinnon, Sherry L; Wildes, Troy S; Avidan, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are increasingly recognised for their ability to herald impending health decline. Despite the likely susceptibility of postsurgical patients to falls, a detailed description of postoperative falls in an unselected surgical population has never been performed. One study suggests that preoperative falls may forecast postoperative complications. However, a larger study with non-selected surgical patients and patient-centred outcomes is needed to provide the generalisability and justification necessary to implement preoperative falls assessment into routine clinical practice. The aims of this study are therefore twofold. First, we aim to describe the main features of postoperative falls in a population of unselected surgical patients. Second, we aim to test the hypothesis that a history of falls in the 6 months prior to surgery predicts postoperative falls, poor quality of life, functional dependence, complications and readmission. Methods and analysis To achieve these goals, we study adult patients who underwent elective surgery at our academic medical centre and were recruited to participate in a prospective, survey-based cohort study called Systematic Assessment and Targeted Improvement of Services Following Yearlong Surgical Outcomes Surveys (SATISFY-SOS) (NCT02032030). Patients who reported falling in the 6 months prior to surgery will be considered ‘exposed.’ The primary outcome of interest is postoperative falls within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes include postoperative functional dependence, quality of life (both physical and mental), in-hospital complications and readmission. Regression models will permit controlling for important confounders. Ethics and dissemination The home institution's Institutional Review Board approved this study (IRB ID number 201505035). The authors will publish the findings, regardless of the results. PMID:27655260

  16. The Role of Wound Healing and Its Everyday Application in Plastic Surgery: A Practical Perspective and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ireton, Jordan E.; Unger, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: After surgery it is often recommended that patients should refrain from strenuous physical activity for 4–6 weeks. This recommendation is based on the time course of wound healing. Here, we present an overview of incisional wound healing with a focus on 2 principles that guide our postoperative recommendations: the gain of tensile strength of a wound over time and the effect of mechanical stress on wound healing. Methods: A systematic search of the English literature was conducted using OVID, Cochrane databases, and PubMed. Inclusion criteria consisted of articles discussing the dynamics of incisional wound healing, and exclusion criteria consisted of articles discussing nonincisional wounds. Results: Experiments as early as 1929 laid the groundwork for our postoperative activity recommendations. Research using animal models has shown that the gain in tensile strength of a surgical wound is sigmoidal in trajectory, reaching maximal strength approximately 6 weeks postoperatively. Although human and clinical data are limited, the principles gained from laboratory investigation have provided important insights into the relationship among mechanical stress, collagen dynamics, and the time course of wound healing. Conclusion: Our postoperative activity recommendations are based on a series of animal studies. Clinical research supporting these recommendations is minimal, with the most relevant clinical data stemming from early motion protocols in the orthopedic literature. We must seek to establish clinical data to support our postoperative activity recommendations so that we can maximize the physiologic relationships between wound healing and mechanical stress. PMID:25289204

  17. Gaspare Tagliacozzi, pioneer of plastic surgery and the spread of his technique throughout Europe in "De Curtorum Chirurgia per Insitionem".

    PubMed

    Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Ruggieri, P; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-01-01

    Gaspare Tagliacozzi's innovative surgical technique, which consisted of reconstructing parts of the face by grafting, was masterfully described in the work that made him famous, "De Curtorum Chirurgia per Insitionem." It was published by Gaspare Bindoni the Younger in 1597 in Venice, who was granted the exclusive right to print it by the Senate. However, in the same year in Venice Roberto Meietti published an unauthorized edition; nevertheless, this edition was soon discovered. The great demand for the text even abroad was soon testified by a 3rd edition published in Frankfurt in 1598, similar to the Bindoni edition but in another format and with a different title. This has caused confusion among bibliographers and Authors. Two centuries later, in 1831 in Berlin, a 4th edition was printed, thus suggesting renewed interest in rhinoplasty procedures, which surgeons Van Graefe and Dieffenbach promoted in Germany. However, few people know that the integral text of Tagliacozzi's De Curtorum was also published by Jacques Manget in his "Bibliotheca Chirurgica," printed in Venice in 1721. The name of the illustrator of the three fourteenth-century editions, whose illustrations in the text are compared, is not known. Instead the name of the artist, Tiburzio Passerotti, who painted Tagliacozzi's portrait holding his De Curtorum open at the ninth woodcut shortly before it was printed, is well known. The impact of Tagliacozzi's technique on modern surgery is supported by experience of the last century as well as recent years, mostly in musculoskeletal oncology reconstruction.

  18. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  19. Epidemiology and outcome of burns at the Saud Al Babtain Burns, Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Center, Kuwait: our experience over five years (from 2006 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Khashaba, H A; Al-Fadhli, A N; Al-Tarrah, K S; Wilson, Y T; Moiemen, N

    2012-12-31

    Aim To determine the epidemiology and clinical presentation, and any contributing factors responsible for burns and outcome of care in Kuwait over the 5-yr period January 2006 to December 2010. Patients and methods. The study reviewed 1702 burn patients admitted over the study period to the Saud Al Babtain Burns, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Center, Kuwait. Patient characteristics, including age, sex, type of burn, nationality, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, hospital stay in days, and mortality were recorded. Results. Seventy-one per cent of the 1702 burn patients admitted were males; 540 were children. The majority of patients (64%) had less than 15% TBSA burns and only 14% had more than 50% TBSA burns. Flame burns were the most common cause of burn injuries (60%), followed by scalds (29%). Scalds were most common in children. The mortality rate was 5.75%. Flame burn was the leading cause of mortality. Lethal dose 50 (% TBSA at which a certain group has a 50% chance of survival) for adults (16-40 yr) and for the elderly (>65 yr) was 76.5% and 41.8% TBSA respectively. Conclusion. Burn injury is an important public health concern and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Flame and scald burns are commonly a result of domestic and occupational accidents and they are preventable. Effective initial resuscitation, infection control, and adequate surgical treatment improve outcomes.

  20. A retrospective study of 572 patients with hand burns treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery Kosovo during the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Arifi, Hysni M; Duci, Shkelzen B; Zatriqi, Violeta K; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Haxhiu, Isa I; Mekaj, Agon Y; Gashi, Musli M; Buja, Zejn A; Derguti, Shkelqim H

    2014-01-01

    Hands participate in everyday human activities and they are the most vulnerable parts of a human body. The objective of this study is to understand the common causes of hand burns, the methods of surgical interventions, duration of hospitalization and distribution of hand burns in 11 year period regarding the age. This is a retrospective study that included 572 patients with hand burns treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery Kosovo during the period 2000-2010. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Data processing was done with the statistical package InStat 3. From statistical parameters were calculated structural index, arithmetic median and standard deviation. Data testing is done with X (2) test and the difference is significant if P<0.05. The Ministry of Health of our country should make efforts to organize training for health workers about treatment for minor burns in order to reduce the number of referral patients from other primary (Familiar Medicine) and secondary centers (regional Hospitals).

  1. How to select elderly colorectal cancer patients for surgery: a pilot study in an Italian academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Giampaolo; Pasini, Francesco; Ghignone, Federico; Zattoni, Davide; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Parlanti, Daniele; Montroni, Isacco

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cancer is one of the most common diagnoses in elderly patients. Of all types of abdominal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) is undoubtedly the most frequent. Median age at diagnosis is approximately 70 years old worldwide. Due to the multiple comorbidities affecting elderly people, frailty evaluation is very important in order to avoid over- or under-treatment. This pilot study was designed to investigate the variables capable of predicting the long-term risk of mortality and living situation after surgery for CRC. Methods Patients with 70 years old and older undergoing elective surgery for CRC were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were preoperatively screened using 11 internationally-validated-frailty-assessment tests. The endpoints of the study were long-term mortality and living situation. The data were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis to verify the predictive value of score indices in order to identify possible risk factors. Results Forty-six patients were studied. The median follow-up time after surgery was 4.6 years (range, 2.9-5.7 years) and no patients were lost to follow-up. The overall mortality rate was 39%. Four of the patients who survived (4/28, 14%) lost their functional autonomy. The preoperative impaired Timed Up and Go (TUG), Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status (ECOG PS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) scoring systems were significantly associated with increased long term mortality risk. Conclusion Simplified frailty-assessing tools should be routinely used in elderly cancer patients before treatment in order to stratify patient risk. The TUG, ECOG-PS, IADLs and VES-13 scoring systems are potentially able to predict long-term mortality and disability. Additional studies will be needed to confirm the preliminary data in order to improve management strategies for oncogeriatric surgical patients. PMID:26779367

  2. Pain Management Following Major Intracranial Surgery in Pediatric Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study in Three Academic Children’s Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Lynne G.; Buckley, George M.; Kudchadkar, Sapna R.; Ely, Elizabeth; Stebbins, Emily L.; Dube, Christine; Morad, Athir; Jastaniah, Ebaa A.; Sethna, Navil F.; Yaster, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pain management following major intracranial surgery is often limited by a presumed lack of need and a concern that opioids will adversely affect postoperative outcome and interfere with the neurologic examination. Nevertheless, evidence in adults is accumulating that these patients suffer moderate to severe pain and this pain is often under-treated. The purpose of this prospective, clinical observational cohort study was to assess the incidence of pain, prescribed analgesics, methods of analgesic delivery, and patient/parent satisfaction in pediatric patients undergoing cranial surgery at 3 major university children’s hospitals. Methods After obtaining IRB and parental consent (and when applicable, patient assent), children who underwent cranial surgery for cancer, epilepsy, vascular malformations, and craniofacial reconstruction were studied. Neither intraoperative anesthetic management nor postoperative pain management was standardized, but were based on institutional routine. Patients were evaluated daily by a study investigator and by chart review for pain scores using age appropriate, validated tools (FLACC, Faces Pain Scale-Revised, Wong Baker Faces Scale or Self-Report on a 0–10 scale), for patient/parent satisfaction using a subset of the NRC Picker satisfaction tool and in adolescents a modified QoR-40, and for the frequency, mode of administration, and type of analgesic provided. Finally, the incidence of opioid-induced side effects, specifically nausea, vomiting, pruritus, altered level of consciousness, and need for emergency diagnostic radiologic studies for altered neurologic examination were recorded. Data are provided as mean ± SD. Results Two hundred children (98:102 M:F), averaging 7.8 ± 5.8 years old (range 2 mos to 18.5 yr) and 32.2 ± 23.0 kg (range 4.5 to 111.6 kg) undergoing craniectomy (51), craniotomy (96), and craniofacial reconstruction (53) were studied. Despite considerable variation in mode and route of analgesic

  3. The Rhetorical Limits of the "Plastic Body"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This essay analyzes the "plastic body" as it is produced in the discourse of plastic surgery. The contemporary industry has constructed a popular image of plastic surgery as a readily available and personally empowering means to resolve body image issues, on the presumption that any body can become a "better" body. The ideology underlying the…

  4. Plastic Surgeons Urge Giving Up E-Cigs Before Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... HealthDay News) -- Plastic surgery patients should avoid smoking e-cigarettes for at least four weeks before their procedures, ... reasonable to advise plastic surgery candidates to cease e-cigarette use," said Dr. Peter Taub,, of Mount Sinai ...

  5. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163120.html Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders 10 percent ... News) -- Nearly one in 10 patients seeking facial plastic surgery suffers from a mental illness that distorts ...

  6. Surgical smoke - a health hazard in the operating theatre: a study to quantify exposure and a survey of the use of smoke extractor systems in UK plastic surgery units.

    PubMed

    Hill, D S; O'Neill, J K; Powell, R J; Oliver, D W

    2012-07-01

    Surgeons and operating theatre personnel are routinely exposed to the surgical smoke plume generated through thermal tissue destruction. This represents a significant chemical and biological hazard and has been shown to be as mutagenic as cigarette smoke. It has previously been reported that ablation of 1 g of tissue produces a smoke plume with an equivalent mutagenicity to six unfiltered cigarettes. We studied six human and 78 porcine tissue samples to find the mass of tissue ablated during 5 min of monopolar diathermy. The total daily duration of diathermy use in a plastic surgery theatre was electronically recorded over a two-month period. On average the smoke produced daily was equivalent to 27-30 cigarettes. Our survey of smoke extractor use in UK plastic surgery units revealed that only 66% of units had these devices available. The Health and Safety Executive recommend specialist smoke extractor use, however they are not universally utilised. Surgical smoke inhalation is an occupational hazard in the operating department. Our study provides data to quantify this exposure. We hope this evidence can be used together with current legislation to make the use of surgical smoke extractors mandatory to protect all personnel in the operating theatre.

  7. [Aesthetic surgery and history].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2003-10-01

    The history of aesthetic surgery is linked to that of the 20th century. The first operations allowed by the progress of anesthesia and asepsis are the correction of "prominent ears" by Ely then rhinoplasty with endonasal incision by Roe. Considered by some as a precursor and a quack by others, C.C. Miller was the first surgeon to specialize and write books on the subject. Before world war I, aesthetic surgery was seldom practiced and publications were few. The war was at the origin of several units of maxillo-facial surgery created for the huge number of casualties with face trauma due to trench warfare. Many of those who will become great names in plastic surgery operated in these units: Blair, Davis, Léon Dufourmentel, Virenque, Morestin and Gillies. After the war, American surgeons were regrouped in scientific societies. Plastic surgery was privileged and aesthetic surgery was lifted for "quacks". In France, several surgeons such as Suzanne Noël, Passot, Bourguet, Dartigues showed an important creativity and described several techniques that inspired recent ones. The Dujarier case discredited French aesthetic surgery but did not stop the creation of the first French Society of Plastic Surgery in 1930. World war II led to new orientations. In England, the East Grinstead center with Gillies and McIndoe during and after the war was at the origin of many vocations. After the war, many national and international societies of plastic surgery started to appear. The French Society of Plastic Surgery was born in 1952.

  8. [Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery may increase the risk of surgical site infections. A survey of a Cochrane review].

    PubMed

    Qvist, Niels; Kolmos, Hans Jørn J

    2009-10-05

    In theory, the products act as a barrier, which hinders the spreading of bacteria from the deeper skin layers and hair follicles to the incision. On the other hand, the use of plastic adhesive drapes may promote bacterial overgrowth due to a >greenhouse effect<. This Cochrane review which is based on seven trials showed that there was no evidence that plastic adhesive drapes reduces the surgical site infection rate and some evidence that they increase infection rates in clean operations. Consequently, their use should be abandoned. Further studies are warranted to determine the effect of other adhesive products currently used.

  9. Nanotechnology Tolls the Bell for Plastic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Hajiliasgari, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline, having power to revolutionarize every scientific field to a very deep level which previously thought to be a science fiction. Having a great potential to beneficially change the way a disease is diagnosed, treated and prevented, nanotechnology practically impacts on state of the art healthcare technologies and plays a crucial role in changing the field of surgery. Surgeons are constantly looking for minimally invasive ways to treat their patients, as recovery is faster when a lesser trauma is inflicted upon a patient, scarring is lessened and there are usually fewer complications in the aftermath of the operation. Through nanotechnology, tiny biosensors could be constructed which could take these factors into account, thus shortening the patient recovery period and saving hospitals money, reducing infection rates within the hospital, reducing the waiting lists for operation and allowing doctors to treat more patients in the same period of time. This review employs a thematic analysis of online series of academic papers focuses on the potentials of nanotechnology in surgery, especially in plastic surgery and addresses the possible future prospects of nanotechnology in this field. PMID:25489508

  10. A Band of Surgeons, a Long Healing Line: Development of Craniofacial Surgery in Response to Armed Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    19 John Staige Davis served in the US Army Medical Corps during WWI and argued that plastic surgeons manage all patients requiring complex...patients. Although the historic role of war has to a degree been supplanted by jet travel, electronic communications, and academic medical centers...aesthetics, belying its or igin in violence. Specifically, craniofacial surgery had its genesis in the horrors of war, and the pioneers of the specialty

  11. [Legal Framework of Autologous Fat Usage in Point-of-Care Treatments in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery - Risks of Criminal Prosecution and Infringement of Medical Law Due to Pharmaceutical Regulations].

    PubMed

    Faltus, T

    2016-08-01

    The use of autologous fat, especially for (stem) cell-assisted lipotransfer in plastic and aesthetic surgery, has regularly been regarded as the manufacture and application of so called Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP). However, the in-house production of such pharmaceuticals at the point-of-care (PoC) in the surgeon's practice is not permitted without an official manufacturing license. Therefore, before beginning such treatments, a pharmaceutical manufacturing license has to be granted to the surgeon to avoid criminal prosecution and negative consequences due to infringement of professional regulations. Because such a license is linked to compliance with GMP standard, in-house manufacturing of such pharmaceuticals also implies extra technical and personnel expenses. The surgeon is obliged to check that the available autologous fat based applications are in compliance with pharmaceutical legislation. Repeated infringements of pharmaceutical regulations are incompatible with medical reliability - a prerequisite for the license to practice medicine.

  12. The advent of the restorative plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Carty, Matthew J; Pribaz, Julian J; Talbot, Simon G; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Plastic surgery is presently typified by the existence of discrete clinical identities, namely that of the cosmetic plastic surgeon and the reconstructive plastic surgeon. The emergence of vascularized composite allotransplantation has been accompanied by the development of a third distinct clinical identity, that of the restorative plastic surgeon. The authors describe the core competencies that characterize this new identity, and discuss the implications of the advent of this new professional paradigm.

  13. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter; Vág, János

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7-12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.

  14. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation. PMID:28232940

  15. Ethics and the facial plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    The facial plastic surgeon potentially has a conflict of interest when confronted with the patients requesting surgery, due to the personal gain attainable by agreeing to perform surgery. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential harm the surgeon can inflict by carrying out facial plastic surgery, beyond the standard surgical complications of infection or bleeding. It will discuss the desire for self-improvement and perfection and increase in the prevalence facial plastic surgery. We address the principles of informed consent, beneficence and non-maleficence, as well as justice and equality and how the clinician who undertakes facial plastic surgery is at risk of breaching these principles without due care and diligence.

  16. Plastic Jellyfish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  17. Interactive navigation-guided ophthalmic plastic surgery: the utility of 3D CT-DCG-guided dacryolocalization in secondary acquired lacrimal duct obstructions

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Singh, Swati; Naik, Milind N; Kaliki, Swathi; Dave, Tarjani Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to report the preliminary experience with the techniques and utility of navigation-guided, 3D, computed tomography–dacryocystography (CT-DCG) in the management of secondary acquired lacrimal drainage obstructions. Methods Stereotactic surgeries using CT-DCG as the intraoperative image-guiding tool were performed in 3 patients. One patient had nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) following a complete maxillectomy for a sinus malignancy, and the other 2 had NLDO following extensive maxillofacial trauma. All patients underwent a 3D CT-DCG. Image-guided dacryolocalization (IGDL) was performed using the intraoperative image-guided StealthStation™ system in the electromagnetic mode. All patients underwent navigation-guided powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). The utility of intraoperative dacryocystographic guidance and the ability to localize the lacrimal drainage system in the altered endoscopic anatomical milieu were noted. Results Intraoperative geometric localization of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct could be easily achieved. Constant orientation of the lacrimal drainage system was possible while navigating in the vicinity of altered endoscopic perilacrimal anatomy. Useful clues with regard to modifications while performing a powered endoscopic DCR could be obtained. Surgeries could be performed with utmost safety and precision, thereby avoiding complications. Detailed preoperative 3D CT-DCG reconstructions with constant intraoperative dacryolocalization were found to be essential for successful outcomes. Conclusion The 3D CT-DCG-guided navigation procedure is very useful while performing endoscopic DCRs in cases of secondary acquired and complex NLDOs. PMID:28115826

  18. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face ...

  19. A quantitative comparison of psychological and emotional health measures in 360 plastic surgery candidates: is there a difference between aesthetic and reconstructive patients?

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Clarke, Alex; White, Paul; Sivakumar, Bran; Ong, Juling; Butler, Peter E M

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the utility of the aesthetic and reconstructive categorization for making treatment decisions in patients seeking facial surgery. A total of 360 patients with aesthetic or combined functional aesthetic deficits were included. Validated psychological scales were used as outcome measures. All subjects showed clinically significant levels of appearance-related distress, with highest levels in the aesthetic and lowest levels in the functionally impaired group. Significant gender differences were not found on any psychological measures. A small negative correlation was found between age and distress. These findings challenge the validity of restricting treatment on the basis of an aesthetic distinction, since this is the group demonstrating the highest level of need. Neither age nor gender is a reliable discriminator. Subjective assessment of noticeability of disfigurement and associated psychological distress may be more useful in prioritizing treatment in systems with limited resources.

  20. [Reconstructive surgery in head and neck oncology: indication and technic].

    PubMed

    Kolb, F; Julieron, M

    2005-02-01

    Oncologic cervicofacial surgery and plastic surgery have had a common evolution over the last 50 years where progress erasing from one was beneficial to the other one. We review here the historical evolution of these specialties and present the state of the art of plastic surgery in the field of cervicofacial oncology.

  1. [The birth of modern surgery].

    PubMed

    Nordlander, Nils Brage

    2007-01-01

    In ancient India and Persia surgeons were highly respected and their operating skill with nose plastic and catatact couching is documented. In mediaeval Europe surgery was classified as a handicraft profession and belonged to the barbers guild with the soapcup as symbol, much inferior to the academic trained medical doctors. In war surgery leg amputation after shotwounds demanded great rapidity, since no anestetic but alcohol was available. In the 18th century surgeons becamea accepted as medical doctors e.g. John Hunter in London and OlofAcrel in Stockholm. A great step in the development of surgery was Mortons introduction of eter narcosis 1846. Now surgeons could work carefully without hurry. The next step took Joseph Lister. Born in 1827 he studied medicine in London and then qualified as surgeon at the famous James Syme's clinic in Edinburgh- In 1860 he became professor of surgery in Glasgow. His clinic like all others was afflicted with suppuration, septicemia, erysipelas and gangrene. He happened to read a thesis by Louis Pasteur, who proved that fermentation and putrefaction in wine production were caused by bacteria. Lister saw the similarity with wound suppuration. Carbolic acid was used in wood industri to prevent putrefaction and Lister now introduced this as a mean to cure or prevent suppuration and septicemia. He washed the wound and soaked the bandage with carbolic acid, which he also sprayed in the air of the operation theatre to prevent air carried infection. In 1867 he published his experiences in the Lancet: Out of 11 complicated fractures (where the bone-ends penetrated the skin) 9 healed without complications. Earlier such fractures ended with dead or amputation. The wards were now free from infected wounds. Abroad Listers findings were received with entusiasm, Ernst von Bergmann i Berlin modified the antiseptic method into a aseptic one and sterilized the room, the instruments and clothes and could so avoid the carbolic acid spray, which was

  2. Building an Academic Colorectal Division

    PubMed Central

    Koltun, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Colon and rectal surgery is fully justified as a valid subspecialty within academic university health centers, but such formal recognition at the organizational level is not the norm. Creating a colon and rectal division within a greater department of surgery requires an unfailing commitment to academic concepts while promulgating the improvements that come in patient care, research, and teaching from a specialty service perspective. The creation of divisional identity then opens the door for a strategic process that will grow the division even more as well as provide benefits to the institution within which it resides. The fundamentals of core values, academic commitment, and shared success reinforced by receptive leadership are critical. Attention to culture, commitment, collaboration, control, cost, and compensation leads to a successful academic division of colon and rectal surgery. PMID:25067922

  3. Plastic surgery and burns disasters. What impact do major civilian disasters have upon medicine? Bradford City Football Club stadium fire, 1985, King's Cross Underground fire, 1987, Piper Alpha offshore oil rig disaster, 1988.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Kalpesh R

    2009-06-01

    Major disasters involving multiple casualties are neither new nor infrequent. Such events have important implications for medicine and can provide crucial lessons for the future. However, while the medical aspects of war have received considerable attention, rather less is known about civilian disasters. To redress this imbalance, this article reviews three major British disasters of the 1980s where serious burns injury was a significant feature of the human casualty: the Bradford City Football Club fire of 1985, the King's Cross Underground fire of 1987 and the Piper Alpha oil rig disaster of 1988. Four related themes are used to examine in detail the ways in which these events impacted on medicine: plastics and reconstructive surgery, clinical psychology, disaster management and long-term structural change. Drawing on articles in specialist burns and psychiatric journals, together with the personal communications and recollections of surgeons and psychiatrists involved, it is revealed that while ground-breaking advances are a relative rarity in medicine, numerous small but significant lessons did emerge from these events, although often in subtle and highly specialised fields of medicine.

  4. Outpatient Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outpatient Surgery Share this Page Preparing For Surgery Effects of Anesthesia Children and Anesthesia Pregnancy and Anesthesia Seniors and Anesthesia Surgery Risks Anesthesia Awareness Obesity and Anesthesia Sleep Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery ...

  5. Plastics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  6. Surgery and Research: A Practical Approach to Managing the Research Process.

    PubMed

    Swiatek, Peter R; Chung, Kevin C; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Following a practical project management method is essential in completing a research project on time and within budget. Although this concept is well developed in the business world, it has yet to be explored in academic surgical research. Defining and adhering to a suitable workflow would increase portability, reusability, and therefore efficiency of the research process. In this article, the authors briefly review project management techniques. The authors specifically underline four main steps of project management-definition and organization, planning, execution, and evaluation-using practical examples from their own multidisciplinary plastic surgery research team.

  7. Surgery and Research: A Practical Approach to Managing the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C.; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Following a practical project management method is essential in completing a research project on time and within budget. Although this concept is well developed in the business world, it has yet to be explored in academic surgical research. Defining and adhering to a suitable workflow would increase portability, reusability, and therefore, efficiency of the research process. In this article, we briefly review project management techniques. We specifically underline four main steps of project management: (1) definition and organization, (2) planning, (3) execution, and (4) evaluation, using practical examples from our own multidisciplinary plastic surgery research team. PMID:26710037

  8. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  9. IOL Implants: Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery (Intraocular Lenses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  10. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  11. Cosmetic surgery: medicolegal considerations

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Mauro; Delbon, Paola; Conti, Adelaide; Capasso, Emanuele; Niola, Massimo; Bin, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cosmetic surgery is one of the two branches of plastic surgery. The characteristic of non-necessity of this surgical speciality implies an increased severity in the evaluation of the risk-benefit balance. Therefore, great care must be taken in providing all the information necessary in order to obtain valid consent to the intervention. We analyzed judgments concerning cosmetic surgery found in national legal databases. A document of National Bioethics Committee (CNB) was also analyzed. Conclusion: The receipt of valid, informed consent is of absolute importance not only to legitimise the medical-surgical act, but it also represents the key element in the question concerning the existence of an obligation to achieve certain results/use of certain methods in the cosmetic surgery. PMID:28352816

  12. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care.

  13. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  14. Malformation and plastic surgery in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Ralf; Magritz, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Malformations of the head and neck show a huge variety of clinical symptoms with functional and esthetic consequences. Often times its rehabilitation requires multi-staged and multi-disciplinary procedures and concepts. These must consider eating, speech, mimic expression, hearing and “esthetics” or at least “normality”. A survey of the most common head and neck malformations and their treatment options are presented here. PMID:25587361

  15. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... or bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  16. Academic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  17. Plastic Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments.

  18. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using a ... clot from the pulmonary artery ( pulmonary embolism ) Treat complications of tuberculosis Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be used to treat many of these ...

  19. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  20. Plastics Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 16 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of plastics technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and would…

  1. GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Fibrous glass fillers Binders used in the glass plastic industry Method of manufacturing glass plastics and glass plastic articles Properties of fiberglass Primary areas for use of glass fibre reinforced plastics

  2. Leonardo Fioravanti (1517-1588): a barber-surgeon who influenced the development of reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Santoni-Rugiu, P; Mazzola, R

    1997-02-01

    Surgery in the Middle Ages was practiced by individuals belonging to the guild of barbers, with no basic medical education. The transformation into a scientific branch of medicine began in the sixteenth century. In this process, a great role was the one played by Leonardo Fioravanti. He was a Doctor in Medicine graduated from the University of Bologna. A controversial man, he was also an innovation in many fields of medicine, such as prevention of diseases, pharmacology, therapy, etc., and he was a surgeon himself. On the way back from one of the last Crusades, he visited the Vianeos brothers in Calabria, and he was able to learn from them the technique for reconstructing the nose that had been devised by Antonio Branca in the previous century and still practiced only by barber-surgeons. He published his experience in a book that probably inspired the contemporary, Gaspare Tagliacozzi, Professor at the University of Bologna, and allowed him to become acquainted with this kind of reconstructive surgery. Tagliacozzi understood the value of the method described by Fioravanti and transformed a barber-surgery technique into a remarkable chapter of scientific surgery by divulging in the academic circles the principles of the pedicled flap, which have been the basis for development of modern plastic surgery.

  3. Maze Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to treat an arrhythmia called chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is a fast, irregular heart rhythm ... Surgeons http://www.sts.org/node/2275 Atrial Fibrillation Surgery – Maze Procedure Updated August 2016 Please contact ...

  4. Turbinate surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or part of the lower turbinate is taken out. This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  5. After Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  6. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  7. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  8. Plasticized polyvinylchloride as a temporary dressing for burns.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G; French, G

    1987-01-01

    Plasticized polyvinylchloride film has been used in this burns unit for a long time for dressings before the ward round, before surgery, and when the burned patient is transferred from the casualty department to the burns unit. Plasticized polyvinylchloride film is easy to use, safe, and causes no pain. Most importantly, in the present financial climate, it is cheap. PMID:3103775

  9. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  10. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  11. Academic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Vivian E; Horner, Keith

    2008-07-01

    Since 1988, thirteen dental schools have provided dental undergraduate programmes within the United Kingdom (UK). In 2006, two new dental schools were created supporting dental education in the community. A further new dental school in Scotland will be accepting students in autumn 2008. In the past 25 years, extensive reorganisation of the NHS has resulted in long-term implications for the training of medical and dental academic staff. The number of academic clinicians is below the minimum viable level and external constraints, combined with a lack of suitable applicants, have led to a moratorium on academic recruitment within some Dental Schools. A detailed review of the historical and associated factors which have led to the problems presently besetting academic dentistry are discussed along with the initiatives introduced in the last 10 years to revitalise the speciality. Also, the present and future outlook for academic dentistry in other countries are discussed. Opinion is divided as to the appropriate setting for the training of undergraduate students between those who support community-based dental education and those who believe dental education should remain within research led dental establishments. External factors are moulding an unsatisfactory situation that is proving increasingly unattractive to the potential dental academic and the case for reform is obvious.

  12. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a critical review of current knowledge and contemporary debates.

    PubMed

    Braun, Virginia

    2010-07-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures have gained popularity in the West in recent years. Marketing by surgeons promotes the surgeries, but professional organizations have started to question the promotion and practice of these procedures. Despite some surgeon claims of drastic transformations of psychological, emotional, and sexual life associated with the surgery, little reliable evidence of such effects exists. This article achieves two objectives. First, reviewing the published academic work on the topic, it identifies the current state of knowledge around female genital cosmetic procedures, as well as limitations in our knowledge. Second, examining a body of critical scholarship that raises sociological and psychological concerns not typically addressed in medical literature, it summarizes broader issues and debates. Overall, the article demonstrates a paucity of scientific knowledge and highlights a pressing need to consider the broader ramifications of surgical practices. "Today we have a whole society held in thrall to the drastic plastic of labial rejuvenation."( 1 ) "At the present time, the field of female cosmetic genital surgery is like the old Wild, Wild West: wide open and unregulated"( 2 ).

  13. Laparoscopic surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed laparoscopically, including gallbladder removal (laparoscopic cholecystectomy), esophageal surgery (laparoscopic fundoplication), colon surgery (laparoscopic colectomy), and surgery on ...

  14. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... is and what type of operation is done. Physical changes after surgery can range from little more than a scar to changes in appearance or in how some parts of the body function, which may require physical rehabilitation. For more on surgery as a treatment ...

  15. Current trends in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalliainen, Loree K

    2012-06-01

    Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery.

  16. Refractive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kellum, Keith

    2000-01-01

    The concept of surgically altering the eye to correct refractive errors has been considered for hundreds of years, but only in the past 60 years has interest grown considerably due to the development of modern refractive surgery techniques such as astigmatic keratotomies to correct astigmatism induced by cataract surgery and future technologies currently being investigated. Modern refractive surgery is more involved than setting the correct parameters on the laser. Patient selection and examination, proper technique, and postoperative follow-up for potential complications are essential for a successful refractive procedure. Critical evaluation of new techniques is vital to avoid the pitfall of overly exuberant enthusiasm for new and unproven methods of refractive surgery. Kellum K. Refractive surgery. The Ochsner Journal 2000; 2:164-167. PMID:21765686

  17. [Aesthetic surgery, the liability].

    PubMed

    Branchet, F

    2003-10-01

    Which are the specific risks for the plastic surgeons in aesthetic surgery? There are several: first of all, patients consult by desire and not because of health problems; it is often during difficult moments in their life (job loss.). Moreover, the surgeon must give the most complete information to the patient: he must describe the surgery, the risks (even the most exceptional ones). The surgeons have to "use the best practices": what does it mean? This sentence deals with the idea that the surgeons must have all the necessary skills to perform an aesthetic surgery and to ensure the cares after the operation (experience, diploma, staff, equipment.). They do not have to guarantee a result. As they do not operate in a hurry, they must renounce to a surgery if there is a doubt concerning the risk or the result the patient is waiting for. For years we have been observing that the requests for getting compensations have been left to drift for a lot of reasons (deception with the result, youth not found again.). The capacity to discover the real reasons of an aesthetic surgery, the listening, the courage to refuse to operate if the patient expects too much. depends on the surgeon (and insurer) future quiet. Despite all these precautions, we can notice that each surgeon is involved one time in a 4-years period: he will waste his time (forensic examinations.). As a conclusion, we can say that the respect of the rules of ethics is the key to battle against the increase of files in proceedings.

  18. Advances in mucogingival surgery.

    PubMed

    Prato, G P

    2000-01-01

    The term Mucogingival Surgery was proposed by Friedman in 1957 to indicate any surgery "designed to preserve attached gingiva, to remove frena or muscle attachment, and to increase the depth of the vestibule". The aim of this type of surgery was to maintain an adequate amount of attached gingiva and to prevent continuous loss of attachment. This philosophy was supported by many horizontal observations in humans that confirmed the need for a certain band of attached gingiva to maintain periodontal tissue in a healthy state. Subsequently, clinical and experimental studies by Wennström and Lindhe (1983) demonstrated that as long as plaque buildup is kept under careful control there is no minimum width of keratinised gingiva necessary to prevent the development of periodontal disease. These observations reduce the importance of Mucogingival Surgery. Surgical techniques are used mostly to solve aesthetic problems, since the term "Periodontal Plastic Surgery" has been suggested to indicate surgical procedures performed to correct or eliminate anatomical, developmental or traumatic deformities of the gingiva or alveolar mucosa. More recently the Consensus Report of the American Academy of Periodontology (1996) defines Mucogingival Therapy as "non surgical and surgical correction of the defects in morphology, position and/or amount of soft tissue and underlying bone". This assigns importance to non-surgical therapy and to the bone condition because of its influence on the morphology of the defects. In this respect the Mucogingival Therapy includes: Root coverage procedures, Gingival augmentation, Augmentation of the edentulous ridge, Removing of the aberrant frenulum, Prevention of ridge collapse associated with tooth extraction, Crown lengthening, Teeth that are not likely to erupt, Loss of interdental papilla which presents an aesthetic and/or phonetic problem.

  19. [Aesthetic surgery, medical discourse and health].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco Romão

    2011-05-01

    The increase in plastic surgery interventions in Brazil and the growth of the beauty industry, as well as care of the body and corporal enhancement, are part of a broader process of medical and aesthetic preoccupation with health. According to the Brazilian Plastic Surgery Association there has been a substantial increase in the number of plastic surgery procedures in Brazil. Every year, approximately 350,000 aesthetic surgical interventions are performed in the country. Our work investigated the construction of meaning and value, the use of aesthetic parameters in this construction and how those meanings are appropriated and treated by those representatives of the medical profession who work in the body transformation process, namely plastic surgeons. In this respect, an analysis of the pronouncements and discourse posted on the Brazilian Plastic Surgery Association website was conducted, as it is the regulatory body of the field and is responsible for training professionals and supervising the sector. Analysis of the official content of the website page posted on September 26, 2005 was the basis for this research.

  20. Leading Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin

    This book aims to increase the level of interest and understanding of leadership within the academic context and to demonstrate the relevance of leadership for contemporary United Kingdom universities. The book considers the concept of leadership and its appropriateness and usefulness for nonprofit professional organizations such as universities,…

  1. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  2. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  3. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    DOEpatents

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  4. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  5. Hemorrhoid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002939.htm Hemorrhoid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemorrhoids are swollen veins around the anus. They may ...

  6. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... image Body image and your kids Cosmetic surgery Eating disorders Pregnancy and body image Subscribe to Body Image ... Association of America http://www.adaa.org National Eating Disorders Association National Institute of Mental Health Information Center, ...

  7. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be advised by a podiatrist, depending on your test results or a specific medical condition. Postoperative Care The type of foot surgery performed determines the length and kind of aftercare required ...

  8. Laparoscopic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgeon’s perspective, laparoscopic surgery may allow for easier dissection of abdominal scar tissue (adhesions), less surgical trauma, ... on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos ...

  9. Herniation of the cervical disk in plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo

    2012-12-01

    Herniations of the cervical disk in plastic surgeons are far more common in practice than the paucity of reported cases would indicate. A likely explanation may be the peculiar, nonergonomic positions that plastic surgeons must hold during surgery while wearing a headlight and loupes. From January 2003 to December 2006, at Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan, 4 plastic surgeons experienced herniations of the cervical disk. Magnetic resonance imaging study indicated there was disk herniation or bulging with spinal cord impingement. Two plastic surgeons received cervical diskectomy, corpectomy with strut reconstruction using titanium cages. These 2 surgeons were symptom-free 2 years after their operations. The other 2 plastic surgeons were under conservative physical therapy with persistent symptoms. The clinical evidence indicated that cervical disk herniation is an occupational hazard in plastic surgeons. To prevent prolonged hyperflexion and twisting of the neck, we proposed wearing a cervical brace during surgery for the plastic surgeons at Tri-Service-General Hospital since January 2008. No more plastic surgeons have experienced herniation of the cervical disk since then. The results indicated that wearing a cervical brace may be an effective measure to protect plastic surgeons from cervical disk disease.

  10. Tennis elbow surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given ...

  11. Heart valve surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery - minimally invasive Aortic valve surgery - open Bicuspid aortic valve Endocarditis Heart valve surgery Mitral valve prolapse Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive Mitral valve surgery - open Pulmonary valve stenosis Smoking - tips on how to quit Patient Instructions ...

  12. [Endoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Rushfeldt, Christian; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Aabakken, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Endoscopic surgery of the stomach/gastrointestinal tract was developed in the 1990s in Japan as a minimally invasive method of removing early-stage tumours, using a gastro-/coloscope instead of open or laparoscopic surgery. Its advantages are obvious, in that the patient is spared more major surgery, the hospital saves on resources as well as admission to a ward, and society is spared the costs of days of sickness absence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is considered the most difficult technique, but it allows for the accurate dissection of large tumours. In 1999, Japanese surgeon Takuji Gotoda and his team were the first to perform these types of dissections of early cancers in the rectum using a diathermic needle and a flexible scope.

  13. [Foreskin surgery].

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Maija; Taskinen, Seppo; Ossi, Lindell

    2010-01-01

    Balanitis, phimosis and foreskin adhesions are common indications for foreskin surgery during childhood. In phimosis, the foreskin cannot be drawn behind the glans penis because of the narrow external opening of the former. It is important to be able to distinguish between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, since their treatment is different. In adulthood, the need for surgery can be caused by phimosis, a difficult sequel of paraphimosis, recurrent inflammations of the glans penis and foreskin, diseases and cancers of the skin as well as difficulties at intercourse due to the shortness of the frenulum of the prepuce of the penis.

  14. Acne Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283373

  15. Plastic encapsulated parts

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, T.

    1994-10-01

    Plastic semiconductor packages were characterized as possible alternatives for canned devices, which are susceptible to internal shorts caused by conductive particles. Highly accelerated stress testing (HAST) as well as electrical and mechanical testing were conducted on plastic technology devices.

  16. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  17. [Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics as implant materials].

    PubMed

    Bader, R; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Siebels, W; Mittelmeier, W; Gradinger, R

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics have been used clinically as an implant material for different applications for over 20 years.A review of technical basics of the composite materials (carbon fibers and matrix systems), fields of application,advantages (e.g., postoperative visualization without distortion in computed and magnetic resonance tomography), and disadvantages with use as an implant material is given. The question of the biocompatibility of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics is discussed on the basis of experimental and clinical studies. Selected implant systems made of carbon composite materials for treatments in orthopedic surgery such as joint replacement, tumor surgery, and spinal operations are presented and assessed. Present applications for carbon fiber reinforced plastics are seen in the field of spinal surgery, both as cages for interbody fusion and vertebral body replacement.

  18. Recovering automotive plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article reports on the results of a study on increasing the recycling of plastics in automobiles. Plastics are being used in increasing amounts in vehicles and new methods of retrieving these plastics for recycling are needed to reduce the amount of automotive shredder residue that is currently being sent to residues. The study concentrated on increasing the ease of disassembly and contaminant removal.

  19. Plastics in Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeist, Irving, Ed.

    The evaluation and use of plastics in the construction industry are explained. The contributors offer extensive, timely, and thoroughly researched data on the chemistry, properties, functions, engineering behavior, and specific applications of plastics to building requirements. The major subjects discussed in depth are--(1) the role of plastics in…

  20. Processing of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Spaak, Albert

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

  1. Tomorrow's Plastic World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Averil

    2005-01-01

    Far from being just cheap packaging materials, plastics may be the materials of tomorrow. Plastic can conduct electricity, and this opens up a host of high-tech possibilities in the home and in energy generation. These possibilities are discussed here along with how plastic can be recycled and perhaps even grown.

  2. Replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Bhardwaj, Praveen

    2011-06-01

    The current concepts of replantation surgery, a procedure that has been practiced for half a century, can be discussed in terms of patients' demands and expectations, present indications for the procedure, available evidence that influences decision making, and technical refinements practiced to produce better outcomes.

  3. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  4. Nose Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Improving Form And Function Of The Nose Each year thousands of people undergo surgery of the ... plan to avoid appearing in public for about a week due to swelling and ...

  5. Plastic incunabula -- a tale of Carpue's Tagliacozzi's.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2012-01-01

    Carpue's An Account of Two Successful Operations caused the rebirth of plastic surgery in 1816 over 200 years after the first plastic surgery book was written by Tagliacozzi. Tagliacozzi's book was pirated with both authorized edition and unauthorized editions having been published in 1597. In his book, Carpue reviewed the literature including Tagliacozzi's work. Carpue had Charles Turner, engraver-in-ordinary to the King prepare his books illustrations. Comparing Turner's engraving with those in the original and pirated editions of Tagliacozzi's book shows that Turner duplicated the pirated edition. The author discovered a pirated edition at St. Bartholomew's Medical College Library in 1971 that was signed by Carpue and shows how by comparing the illustrations in it with those in Carpue's book that this was the working copy used by Turner. In 1819 Carpue gave this book to a "B. Turner Jr." who probably was Turner's teenage son who later became a surgeon. In 2011 the author discovered an authorized version of Tagliacozzi's book signed by Carpue at the Lilly Library in Indiana. These books are important links in the history of plastic surgery.

  6. Biodegradability of Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Ugwu, Charles U.; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed. PMID:19865515

  7. Biodegradability of plastics.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  8. [Impact of digital technology on clinical practices: perspectives from surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X J

    2016-04-09

    Digital medical technologies or computer aided medical procedures, refer to imaging, 3D reconstruction, virtual design, 3D printing, navigation guided surgery and robotic assisted surgery techniques. These techniques are integrated into conventional surgical procedures to create new clinical protocols that are known as "digital surgical techniques". Conventional health care is characterized by subjective experiences, while digital medical technologies bring quantifiable information, transferable data, repeatable methods and predictable outcomes into clinical practices. Being integrated into clinical practice, digital techniques facilitate surgical care by improving outcomes and reducing risks. Digital techniques are becoming increasingly popular in trauma surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, imaging and anatomic sciences. Robotic assisted surgery is also evolving and being applied in general surgery, cardiovascular surgery and orthopedic surgery. Rapid development of digital medical technologies is changing healthcare and clinical practices. It is therefore important for all clinicians to purposefully adapt to these technologies and improve their clinical outcomes.

  9. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass; OPCAB; Beating heart surgery; Bypass surgery - heart; CABG; Coronary artery bypass graft; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Coronary bypass surgery; Coronary artery disease - CABG; CAD - CABG; Angina - ...

  10. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  11. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery to Treat Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  12. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  13. How Plastics Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Louis

    2013-03-01

    We encounter plastics every day, but despite their widespread use, amazing range of properties, and basic scientific underpinnings, most physicists--like most people--know relatively little about plastics. In contrast to hard crystalline and amorphous solids (e.g., metals, salts, ceramics, and glasses), we take plastics for granted, select them carelessly, and examine them more closely only on a need-to-know basis. By ignoring plastics until we need them, however, we risk not knowing what we don't know and using the wrong ones. To repurpose a familiar advertisement, ``there's a plastic for that.'' This talk will review some of the basic physics and science of plastics. It will examine the roles of temperature, order, intermolecular forces, entanglements, and linkages in plastics, and how those issues affect the properties of a given plastic. We'll stop along the way to recognize a few of the more familiar plastics, natural and synthetic, and explain some of their mechanical, chemical, and optical properties. The talk will conclude by explaining the remarkable properties of a plastic that has been largely misunderstood since its discovery 70 years ago: Silly Putty.

  14. Our plastic age.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Swan, Shanna H; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2009-07-27

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation.

  15. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty.

  16. Nursing students' perceptions of clients undergoing elective cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leah Beth

    2007-01-01

    Aesthetic obsession is commonplace in current society. Supermarket a isles dedicated to beauty products, makeup, and anti-aging creams seem to expand daily. Television and publications flood the public with messages of what constitutes beauty and how to achieve the ideal. Surgical alteration of the body is swiftly becoming a form of self-care technique along with other heath-promoting behavior. Since 2003, the general acceptance of plastic surgery among all Americans surpassed 50% (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2003). Elective cosmetic surgical procedures have increased by an astounding 444% since 1997 (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2006). This quest for body satisfaction based on modern cultural norms increases the public's need for accurate information and understanding from those in the healthcare profession. Despite a transformation in the general population's conception of cosmetic surgery and its clients, stigma still lies in many individuals, including those in the healthcare profession. As this progressively growing patient population emerges, many in healthcare question their attitudes toward plastic surgery and the patients receiving aesthetic operations. With clients undergoing plastic surgery becoming increasingly visible within the healthcare system, some unique aspects of patient care must be addressed.

  17. Plastics and health risks.

    PubMed

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  19. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  20. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures.

  1. Cutaneous mucormycosis postcosmetic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tarrah, Khaled; Abdelaty, Mahmoud; Behbahani, Ahmad; Mokaddas, Eman; Soliman, Helmy; Albader, Ahdi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mucormycosis is a rare, aggressive, and life-threatening infection that is caused by organisms belonging to the order Mucorales. It is usually acquired through direct means and virtually always affects immunocompromised patients with the port of entry reflecting the site of infection, in this case, cutaneous. Unlike other mucormycoses, patients affected by Apophysomyces elegans (A elegans) are known to be immunocompetent. This locally aggressive disease penetrates through different tissue plains invading adjacent muscles, fascia, and even bone causing extensive morbidity and may prove fatal if treated inadequately. Cutaneous mucormycosis is associated with disruption of cutaneous barriers such as trauma. However, rarely, it may be iatrogenic. No cases have been previously reported postcosmetic surgery, especially one that is so commonly performed, lipofilling. Case Report: The patient is a, previously healthy, 41-year-old middle-eastern female who was admitted to the plastic surgery department 17 days after undergoing cosmetic surgery. She suffered from extensive tissue inflammation and necrosis in both gluteal regions. Following admission, she was initially started on empirical antimicrobial therapy which was changed to an antifungal agent, voriconazole, when preliminary microbiological results showed filamentous fungi. This was discontinued and liposomal amphotericin B was commenced when further mycological analysis identified A elegans. Furthermore, she underwent a total of 10 sessions of extensive debridement to the extent that portions of the sacrum and left femoral head became exposed. Her clinical status and wounds improved with the appropriate management and she remained an inpatient for 62 days. Subsequently, she had defects in both gluteal regions which required reconstructive surgery. Conclusion: A elegans is an uncommon cause of iatrogenic cutaneous mucormycosis. A high index of clinical suspicion is required, especially in the

  2. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  3. Doctors of Thoracic Surgery: The Division of Thoracic Surgery at Toronto General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Keshavjee, Shaf; Spatafora, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Thoracic Surgery at Toronto General Hospital has a history of sustained excellence and commitment to patient care, research and innovation in Thoracic Surgery. Doctors of Thoracic Surgery (DOTSR) continues to be a leading thoracic division training surgeons who practice all over the world--impacting the treatment of patients with thoracic disease. Many leaders in our specialty worldwide have directly or indirectly trained in Toronto. At University Health Network and the University of Toronto, this academic division has continued to contribute and thrive in a highly supportive and productive research and clinical environment.

  4. Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2.1 Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m2. An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999–2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the “normal” range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m2 and extend into the “overweight” range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their

  5. The physical examination in cosmetic surgery: communication strategies to promote the desirability of surgery.

    PubMed

    Mirivel, Julien C

    2008-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is a controversial medical practice that is rapidly expanding in the United States. In 2004 alone, 9.2 million procedures were performed. From breast augmentation to tummy tuck, Americans are taking surgical/medical/health risks to alter their bodily appearance. Although many scholars have criticized the practice, few have looked closely at how plastic surgeons interact with prospective surgical candidates. This essay explores videotaped data of naturally occurring interactions between plastic surgeons and patients seeking to transform their physical appearance. Drawing on action-implicative discourse analysis (Tracy, 2005), the article describes plastic surgeons' embodied and discursive activities during a typical physical examination. The core analysis shows how the patient's body and its aesthetic features can be used by plastic surgeons as interpretive resources to promote the desirability of surgery. By touching excess tissue, pinching it, moving it, or applying tools and artifacts (e.g., tape measurer) on and around the body, plastic surgeons literally bring to life patients' bodily "flaws." Through their multimodal performance, I argue, plastic surgeons mark the desirability of surgical transformation. As medicine meets consumerism, medical activities turn persuasive, incrementally constructing the patient's body as a territory of surgical need.

  6. Monitoring of visual function during parasellar surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W B; Kirsch, W M; Neville, H; Stears, J; Feinsod, M; Lehman, R A

    1976-06-01

    Damage to the visual system is an unfortunate complication of surgery in the area of the optic chiasm. It is now possible tomonitor the functional status of the visual system intreoperatively at regulat intervals. This is accomplished by recording the Visual Evoked Response to flashes of light from light-emitting-eiodes. These diodes are embedded in a special plastic shell which inserts under the eye lids of each eye. Since the light comes from the diodes in the plastic shell, there is no need to disturb the surgical procedure when a test run is desired. A record is obtained by averaging 100 three-per-second flashes.

  7. Management of Surfing Injuries: A Plastic Surgeon's Viewpoint. Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Ross

    1989-01-01

    Describes plastic surgery techniques used to irrigate, debride, and close lacerations caused by surfboards. Head lacerations and nose fractures are the most common injuries. According to a survey, lacerations may be deeper than expected from their surface appearance and wounds may contain surfboard fragments. Injury prevention is discussed. (SM)

  8. Genetics, the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon, and the future.

    PubMed

    Seidman, M D

    2001-01-01

    Predicting the future is a daunting task that is typically reserved for visionaries or tarot card readers. Nonetheless, the challenge is set, and this brief essay will predict how genetics and molecular biology may affect diseases in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  9. Development and implementation of a formalized geriatric surgery curriculum for general surgery residents.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Andrew S; Haney, John C; Henry, Brandon V; Heflin, Mitchell T; Lagoo, Sandhya A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growth of the elderly population, most surgical training programs lack formalized geriatric education. The authors' aim was to implement a formalized geriatric surgery curriculum at an academic medical center. Surgery residents were surveyed on attitudes toward the care of elderly patients and the importance of various geriatric topics to daily practice. A curriculum consisting of 16 didactic sessions was created with faculty experts moderating. After curriculum completion, residents were surveyed to assess curriculum impact. Residents expressed increased comfort in accessing community resources. A greater percentage of residents recognized the significance of delirium and acute renal failure in elderly patients. Implementing a geriatric surgery curriculum geared toward surgery residents is feasible and can increase resident comfort with multidisciplinary care and recognition of clinical conditions pertinent to elderly surgical patients. This initiative also provided valuable experience for geriatric surgery curriculum development.

  10. Detecting plastics in seedcotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase global market share and value the US cotton industry needs to supply cotton lint that is free of contamination. Removing plastic contamination first requires developing a means to detect plastics in seedcotton. This study was conducted to validate a custom Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IM...

  11. Detecting plastics in seedcotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US cotton industry wants to increase market share and value by supplying pure cotton. Removing contamination requires developing a means to detect plastics in seedcotton. This study was conducted to determine if Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) could be used to find small amounts of plastic in ...

  12. Biodegradation of plastics.

    PubMed

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  13. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  14. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  15. Endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, Stuart E

    2012-01-01

    Conventional endodontic therapy is successful approximately 80-85% of the time. Many of these failures will occur after one year. The presence of continued pain, drainage, mobility or an increasing size of a radiolucent area are some of the indications to treat the case surgically. Since many of these cases may have had final restorations placed by the dentist, the salvage of these cases is of importance to the patient. Advances in periapical surgery have included the use of ultrasonic root end preparation. With the use of these piezoelectric devices, a more controlled apical preparation can be achieved. Additionally, isthmus areas between canals can be appropriately prepared and sealed. The precision afforded with these devices reduces the chances for a malpositioned fill and a more successful outcome.

  16. The reminiscences of a plastic surgeon during World War II.

    PubMed

    Penn, J

    1978-01-01

    The experiences of the author while an Officer in the South African Medical Corps are related. During the battle of Britain he was attached to the R.A.M.C. and observed the work of pioneers in modern military plastic surgery. On his return to South Africa, he set up the Brenthurst Military Red Cross Hospital for Plastic Surgery and dealt with many thousands of allied battle casualties--South African, British, French, and Polish. The injuries treated included aircraft and tank burns, facial destructions (particularly the nose and eyes), extensive facial fractures, and limb amputations. Various procedures are mentioned. The first plastic surgical journal in English, The Brenthurst Papers, was produced describing these innovations.

  17. Patient race and the likelihood of undergoing bariatric surgery among patients seeking surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Jones, Daniel B.; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Blackburn, George L.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Hess, Donald T.; Chiodi, Sarah; Robert, Shirley; Bourland, Ashley C.; Wee, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority adults have disproportionately higher rates of obesity than Caucasians but are less likely to undergo bariatric surgery. Recent data suggest that minorities might be less likely to seek surgery. Whether minorities who seek surgery are also less likely to proceed with surgery is unclear. Methods We interviewed 651 patients who sought bariatric surgery at two academic medical centers to examine whether ethnic minorities are less likely to proceed with surgery than Caucasians and whether minorities who do proceed with surgery have higher illness burden than their counterparts. We collected patient demographics and abstracted clinical data from the medical records. We then conducted multivariable analyses to examine the association between race and the likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery within 1 year of initial interview and to compare the illness burden by race and ethnicity among those who underwent surgery. Results Of our study sample, 66 % were Caucasian, 18 % were African-American, and 12 % were Hispanics. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, there were no racial differences in who proceeded with bariatric surgery. Among those who proceeded with surgery, illness burden was comparable between minorities and Caucasian patients with the exception that African-Americans were underrepresented among those with reflux disease (0.4, 95 % CI 0.2–0.7) and depression (0.4, 0.2–0.7), and overrepresented among those with anemia (4.8, 2.4–9.6) than Caucasian patients. Conclusions Race and ethnicity were not independently associated with likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery. Minorities who proceeded with surgery did not clearly have higher illness burden than Caucasian patients. PMID:25492453

  18. Lightweight autoclavable wide-angle contact lens for vitreous surgery.

    PubMed

    Chalam, K V; Gupta, Shailesh K; Agarwal, Swati

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an autoclavable, self-stabilizing, lightweight wide-angle contact lens for vitrectomy. The lens has two optical pieces with perforated plastic casing to sustain a high temperature (150 degrees C) for autoclaving. The lens has a 106 degrees static and 127 degrees dynamic field of view. The footplates and reduced weight (2.4 grams) due to the plastic casing allow self-stabilization of the lens. The open lens design.with high temperature resistant plastic prevents fogging during autoclaving and surgery. The autoclavable, self-stabilizing, lightweight wide-angle contact lens allows visualization of the peripheral retina during surgery and faster sterilization by autoclaving between surgeries without the disadvantage of lens fogging.

  19. Assessment of health care cost for complex surgical patients: review of cost, re-imbursement and revenue involved in pancreatic surgery at a high-volume academic medical centre

    PubMed Central

    Kachare, Swapnil D; Liner, Kendall R; Vohra, Nasreen A; Zervos, Emmanuel E; Hickey, Todd; Fitzgerald, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic surgery is complex with the potential for costly hospitalization. Methods A retrospective review of patients undergoing a pancreatic resection was performed. Results The median age of the study population was 64 years. Half of the cohort was female (51%), and the majority were white (62%). Most patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) (69%). The pre-operative age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index was zero for 36% (n = 50), 1 for 31% (n = 43) and ≥2 for 33% (n = 45). The Clavien–Dindo grading system for post-operative complication was grade I in 17% (n = 24), whereas 45% (n = 62) were higher grades. The medians direct fixed, direct variable, fixed indirect and total costs were $2476, $15 397, $13 207 and $31 631, respectively. There was a positive contribution margin of $7108, whereas the net margin was a loss of $6790. On univariate analyses, age, type of operation and complication grade were associated with total cost (P ≤ 0.05), whereas operation type and complication grade were associated with a net margin (P = 0.01). These findings remained significant on multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusions Increased cost, reimbursement and revenue were associated with type of operation and post-operative complications. PMID:25298015

  20. Analysis of the 50 most cited papers in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Youssef; Fleming, Tara M; Greathouse, Travis; Tholpady, Sunil S

    2015-12-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss the most prominent literature in craniofacial surgery. To do so, using the ISI Web of Science, a ranking by average number of citations per year of the top 50 craniofacial surgery articles was compiled. All plastic surgery journals listed in the "Surgery" category in the ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports 2013 Science Edition were considered. Journal of publication, country of origin, collaborating institutions, topic of interest, and level of evidence were analyzed. The total number of citations ranged from 47 to 1017. Average number of citations per year ranged from 46.2 to 8.6. The oldest article in the top 50 was published in 1988 and the most recent in 2009. The majority of the articles came from Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery with 28 of the 50. The majority of the articles, originated from the United States (56%). Reconstruction of acquired defects was the most commonly examined topic at 46.2%; followed by articles discussing reconstruction of congenital defects (23.1%). The most common level of evidence was level 3. This extensive examination of the craniofacial literature highlights the important part that craniofacial surgery takes in the field of plastic surgery.

  1. [Minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery: surgery 4.0?].

    PubMed

    Feußner, H; Wilhelm, D

    2016-03-01

    Surgery can only maintain its role in a highly competitive environment if results are continuously improved, accompanied by further reduction of the interventional trauma for patients and with justifiable costs. Significant impulse to achieve this goal was expected from minimally invasive surgery and, in particular, robotic surgery; however, a real breakthrough has not yet been achieved. Accordingly, the new strategic approach of cognitive surgery is required to optimize the provision of surgical treatment. A full scale integration of all modules utilized in the operating room (OR) into a comprehensive network and the development of systems with technical cognition are needed to upgrade the current technical environment passively controlled by the surgeon into an active collaborative support system (surgery 4.0). Only then can the true potential of minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery be exploited.

  2. POLYESTER GLASS PLASTICS FOR SHIPBUILDING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLYESTER PLASTICS , SHIP HULLS), (*SHIP HULLS, POLYESTER PLASTICS ), GLASS TEXTILES, REINFORCING MATERIALS, SHIP STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, PROCESSING, CHEMISTRY, HANDBOOKS, BINDERS, USSR

  3. [Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements. (Part 7: The academic carrier of Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka--from elementary school to the graduate school, Imperial University of Tokyo)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2011-12-01

    The background of the higher education of Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka shown on the official resume was disclosed by Dr. Kazuo Naito in 1986, but the courses of the elementary and secondary schools were not described in it. In regard to his lower educational courses, the author referred to the laws and regulations issued by the Ministry of Education of the Japan Government and the Yamaguchi Prefectural Office. Those were often revised with times. The author presumed the elementary school (Murozumi Primary School [the first established primary school at the birthplace; Murozumi, Hikari-City, Yamaguchi Prefecture]) and middle schools (Prefectural Yamaguchi Middle School and Yamaguchi High School) to which he had been admitted. These presumptions were made to explain his whole educational course without unreasonableness. After finishing the first school year of the Yamaguchi High School, he was transferred to the Preparatory Course of the Yamaguchi Higher School (Yamaguchi Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka), because of the amendment of the educational system. Then he was transferred to the Preparatory Course of the Daisan Higher School (Daisan Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka), and to the Preparatory Course of Daiichi Higher School (Daiichi Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka). After his graduation from the Regular Course of the Daiichi Higher School (Daiichi Kotô Chugakkô, Honka), he was admitted to the Medical College of the Imperial University from which he graduated in 1897. In addition, he was a medical student of the Graduate School of the Imperial University of Tokyo just before he left Japan for studying abroad. The whole academic carrier of Dr. Matsuoka is not only clearly clarified, but it is also indicated that he was one of the successful examples of the educational system proposed by Yamaguchi Prefecture in Meiji era which articulated the local primary and middle schools with the Imperial University of Tokyo.

  4. What Is Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Another type of heart surgery is called off-pump, or beating heart, surgery. It's like traditional open- ... heart-lung bypass machine isn't used. Off-pump heart surgery is limited to CABG. Surgeons can ...

  5. Dental Implant Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Dental implant surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots with ... look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures ...

  6. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  7. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of retroperitoneal lymph node surgery called nerve-sparing surgery that is very successful when done by ... children. These men may wish to discuss nerve-sparing surgery with their doctors, as well as sperm ...

  8. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  9. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... LASIK Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Laser Surgery Recovery Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Dec. 12, 2015 Today's refractive ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

  10. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007649.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... surgery are used in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer. Whipple procedure: This is the most common surgery ...

  11. Laser surgery - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  12. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  13. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by ... minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery). The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric ...

  14. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctors recommend weight loss surgery (also known as bariatric surgery ) for very overweight teens if they've tried ... it is at a children's hospital with a bariatric surgery program that involves a team of specialists. Members ...

  15. Gynaecomastia surgery in the Netherlands: what, why, who, where….

    PubMed

    Lapid, Oren; Klinkenbijl, Jean H G; Oomen, Matthijs W N; van Wingerden, Jan J

    2014-05-01

    Gynaecomastia, breast enlargement in men, is common in all age groups. It is operated on by plastic surgeons, general surgeons and paediatric surgeons. It is therefore possible that there is a difference in the populations treated, the indications for surgery and the management used by the different practitioners. We performed a survey in order to assess the approach to treatment of gynaecomastia by the different disciplines. An electronic survey questionnaire was sent to members of the Dutch societies of surgery, paediatric surgery and plastic surgery. We received 105 responses from plastic surgeons, 95 from general surgeons and 15 from paediatric surgeons, representing respective response rates of 38.7%, 23.8% and 42.8%. Plastic surgeons operated on gynaecomastia most frequently. The diagnostic criteria and workup were similar for all disciplines, although general surgeons used more imaging. There was a difference in the side operated on. General surgeons and paediatric surgeons operated mainly on unilateral cases (74% and 52%), while plastic surgeons operated mainly on bilateral cases (85%). Pharmaceutical treatment with Tamoxifen was reported only by general surgeons (13%). All disciplines used mainly the periareolar incision. Plastic surgeons reported more often the use of other surgical approaches as well as adjunctive liposuction and they did not always submit tissue for pathological examination. Perioperative antibiotics, drains and pressure garments were not always used. All disciplines agreed that the most common complication was bleeding, followed by seroma, infection, insufficient results, inverted nipple and nipple necrosis. This survey highlights some differences in the practice of gynaecomastia surgery. The findings appear to point to the fact that the indications are different, being more aesthetic in the case of plastic surgeons. The results of this survey are important in establishing the standard of care and may be helpful for setting guidelines.

  16. Guideline for Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bağhaki, Sema; Soybir, Gürsel Remzi; Soran, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) published the 2012/2013 edition of the book entitled “Best Practices for Hospital & Health-System Pharmacy: Position and Guidance Documents of ASHP” with Bruce Hawkins as the editor. (ISSN: 15558975). Pages 582–667 of this book contain the section: “Therapeutic Guidelines on Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Surgery”. This section includes current clinical developments, evidence and recommendations on the application of standard and effective antimicrobial prophylaxis in adult and pediatric patients, and has significant differences compared to the previous 1999 edition. On pages 632–633, antimicrobial prophylaxis in breast and plastic surgery practice is addressed in detail. This article contains a summary of the recommendations made in ASHP 2012/2013 Report regarding the antimicrobial prophylaxis in breast and plastic surgery applications.

  17. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...

  18. Local anesthetics for facial plastic procedures.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrom, Karen K; Frodel, John L

    2002-02-01

    The use of local anesthetic in facial plastic surgical procedures is well established as an effective and safe mode of anesthesia delivery. Local infiltration of anesthesia may be used alone for minor surgical procedures, or it may be used with general anesthesia or intravenous sedation and analgesia for more complex, lengthy procedures. When considered independently, the use of local anesthetic agents has undeniable limitations. Local anesthetics can cause toxicity and side effects. Injection of local anesthetics for subcutaneous infiltration frequently is painful until sensory anesthesia occurs. Local anesthetics have limited efficacy with respect to the intensity and duration of sensory blockade that can be achieved. In some situations, use of local anesthesia with the maintenance of an awake patient also may be undesirable for the surgeon and impractical for the patient. Despite these shortcomings, local anesthetics are fundamentally ideal for use in facial plastic surgery.

  19. Discount cosmetic surgery: industry trends and strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-08-01

    Discount cosmetic surgery is a topic of interest to plastic surgeons. To understand this trend and its effects on plastic surgeons, it is necessary to review the economics of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery's practice environment, and the broader business principles of service industries. Recent work looked at the economics of the plastic surgery market. This analysis demonstrated that increased local density of plastic surgeons was associated with lower adjusted fees for cosmetic procedures. A survey of plastic surgeons about their practice environment revealed that 93 percent categorized the majority of their patients as very or moderately price-sensitive. Fully 98 percent described their business climate as very or moderately competitive and most plastic surgeons thought they lost a sizable number of cosmetic patients within the last year for reasons of price.A standard industry analysis, when applied to cosmetic surgery, reveals the following: an increased number of surgeons leads to lower fees (reducing their bargaining power as suppliers), patients are price-sensitive (increasing their bargaining power as buyers), and there are few barriers to entry among providers (allowing potential new entrants into the market). Such a situation is conducive to discounting taking hold-and even becoming the industry norm. In this environment, business strategy dictates there are three protocols for success: discounting, differentiation, and focus. Discounting joins the trend toward cutting fees. Success comes from increasing volume and efficiency and thus preserving profits. Differentiation creates an industrywide perception of uniqueness; this requires broadly positioning plastic surgeons as holders of a distinct brand identity separate from other "cosmetic surgeons." The final strategy is to focus on a particular buyer group to develop a market niche, such as establishing a "Park Avenue" practice catering to patients who demand a prestigious surgeon, although this is

  20. The stable status evaluation for female breast implant surgery by calculating related physics parameters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuh-Ping; Hsu, Ko-Wen; Chen, Jing-Shyr

    2008-05-01

    Cosmetic doctor utilizes the position, size and shapes of female's breast to judge whether the breast is under steady-state condition after breast implant plastic surgery. Since, doctor evaluates the breast condition with the subjective discrimination (such as vision, sense of touch) without using the objective physical parameters auxiliary. This study uses the 3D optics scanner editing 3D image to obtain full-scale 3D female breasts image. The CAD system converts the breast position, size and shapes, as the length of the curve between UBL (upper breast line) and NBL (nipple base line), the length of the curve between NBL and LBL (lower breast line), breast volume and breasts congruence rate. The stability after the breast implant plastic surgery is one of the important successful indexes of plastic surgery, so with the continuity analysis the breast curve length, volume and congruence rate can let the doctor really grasp the stability of the breast after plastic surgery.

  1. [Baldness surgery].

    PubMed

    Dardour, J-C; Hennebert, H

    2003-10-01

    Redistribution from hair-rich to hair-poor areas is the fundamental principle of baldness surgery. Success of hair transplantation is based on the fact that transplanted hair follicles will behave as they did in their original area and continue to grow. Three basic techniques are employed: scalp flaps, scalp reductions and hair grafts. Each technique has undergone considerable refinements answering to initial wrong results and criticisms. The typical doll-hair tufted effect of old macro-grafts has disappeared with micro-graft shift. The unaesthetic cheese-like Hippocratic crown donor defect aspect ended when harvesting a long strip of occipital hair bearing scalp. The posteriorly directed hair growth has disappeared by using superiorly based flaps. Respective indications and tension-free closure ensure that the incidence of necrosis is low. Limited results of old scalp reductions have decreased by testing preoperative laxity of the scalp and using extensive undermining of the scalp. The future may release on medical treatment avoiding dihydrotestosterone to act on genetically predisposed follicles avoiding miniaturization of the hair and baldness development. However, when baldness has appeared, as the hair follicle's culture is not actually effective, the state of art is still to plan a surgical strategy using successive stages of this large panel of techniques to reach a natural effect with the best hair orientation and density.

  2. Practice patterns in the perioperative treatment of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty: a survey of facial plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Shadfar, Scott; Deal, Allison M; Jarchow, Andrea M; Yang, Hojin; Shockley, William W

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The common practices used in the perioperative care of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty are diverse and controversial. A consensus statement on the preferred clinical pathway in the perioperative treatment of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty has yet to be approached formally. OBJECTIVES To investigate the perioperative treatment of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty and to identify common practice patterns based on the preferences of leading facial plastic surgeons. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We distributed an online survey to members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Specifically, fellowship directors and academic contact members were anonymously polled and stratified by the number of septorhinoplasties performed annually. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE A cohesive clinical guide to perioperative treatment after rhinoplasty. RESULTS Of the 92 members surveyed, 67 (73%) successfully completed the survey. The distribution of respondents included 43 academicians (64%) and 24 physicians in private practice (36%). Twenty-eight surgeons (42%) performed fewer than 50 rhinoplasties a year and 39 (58%), more than 50, representing 3510 to 4549 septorhinoplasties in total among respondents. Forty-four surgeons (66%) refrained from using any packing, and 41 (61%) used intranasal splints, with polymeric silicone splints the most popular of these (n = 24 [59%]). Sixty-six surgeons (99%) used external nasal splints, including 49 (74%) who used a thermoplastic splint and 49 (74%) who left the external nasal splint in place for 7 days or longer. The most common postoperative interventions to reduce edema and ecchymosis were elevation of the head of bed by 62 (93%), ice packs by 50 (75%), and Arnica montana by 33 (49%). Only 12 surgeons (18%) used postoperative corticosteroids to reduce edema. Fifty-six respondents (84%) prohibited participation in contact sports until at least 6 weeks after surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND

  3. Comparison of prescribing indicators of academic versus non-academic specialist physicians in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadigh-Rad, Laya; Majdi, Leila; Javaezi, Mehrnush; Delirrad, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As chief prescribers, physicians could have a key role in rational drug use. Core prescribing indicators of all physicians have been evaluated in the Islamic Republic of Iran for several years, but no study has assessed the effects of academic status of doctors on their prescribing behaviors. We aimed to compare prescribing indicators of two groups of academic and non-academic specialist physicians working in Urmia, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, prescribing indicators of the total number of 37 academic and 104 non-academic specialist physicians in six medical specialties (infectious diseases, psychiatry, otorhinolaryngology, gynecology, pediatrics and general surgery) were studied during 2012 using Rx-analyzer, a dedicated computer application. A set of five quality indicators was used based on the World Health Organization and International Network for Rational Use of Drugs recommendations. Findings: Totally, 709,771 medications in 269,660 prescriptions were studied. For academic and non-academic specialist physicians, the average number of medications per prescription was 2.26 and 2.65, respectively. Similarly, patients’ encounters with injectable pharmaceuticals were 17.37% and 26.76%, respectively. The corresponding figures for antimicrobial agents were 33.12% and 45.46%, respectively. The average costs of every prescription were 6.53 and 3.30 United States Dollar for academic and non-academic specialist physicians, respectively. All the above-mentioned differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Better prescribing patterns were observed in academic specialist physicians. However, they prescribed medications that were more expensive, while the reason was not investigated in this study. Further studies may reveal the exact causes of these differences. PMID:25984540

  4. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  5. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  6. A Plastic Menagerie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Strain avalanches in plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argon, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Plastic deformation at the mechanism level in all solids occurs in the form of discrete thermally activated individual stress relaxation events. While there are clear differences in mechanisms between dislocation mediated events in crystalline solids and by individual shear transformations in amorphous metals and semiconductors, such relaxation events interact strongly to form avalanches of strain bursts. In all cases the attendant distributions of released energy as amplitudes of acoustic emissions, or in serration amplitudes in flow stress, the levels of strain bursts are of fractal character with fractal exponents in the range from -1.5 to -2.0, having the character of phenomena of self-organized criticality, SOC. Here we examine strain avalanches in single crystals of ice, hcp metals, the jerky plastic deformations of nano-pillars of fcc and bcc metals deforming in compression, those in the plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses, all demonstrating the remarkable universality of character of plastic relaxation events.

  8. Dreaming in plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhov, Marianna; Andelman, David; Shikler, Rafi

    2008-07-01

    Plastic is one of the most versatile materials available. It is cheap, flexible and easy to process, and as a result it is all around us - from our computer keyboards to the soles of our shoes. One of its most common applications is as an insulating coating for electric wires; indeed, plastic is well known for its insulating characteristics. It came as something of a surprise, therefore, when in the late 1970s a new generation of plastics was discovered that displayed exactly the opposite behaviour - the ability to conduct electricity. In fact, plastics can be made with a whole range of conductivities - there are polymer materials that behave like semiconductors and there are those that can conduct as well as metals. This discovery sparked a revolution in the electronics community, and three decades of research effort is now yielding a range of stunning new applications for this ubiquitous material.

  9. Physics in Plastics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ken

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the increasing role of the physicist in plastics technology. Relationships of molecular structure to material behavior, design which is related to the material, and the practical problems of fabricating a material into an article are included. (HM)

  10. Academic Probation Intervention through Academic Assistance Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Michael; Switalski, Rachael

    2008-01-01

    Retaining and aiding students on academic probation is a concern for all institutions of higher education. Students placed on academic probation by Rockingham Community College (RCC) have been encouraged to participate in an intervention program since the summer of 2006. When treated as an aggregate, the data regarding the program indicates that…

  11. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  12. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Member Portal Search Search » Donate | Member Portal | Sign In | Join Membership Join the AAP Coming Home Member Benefits Top 5 Reasons to Join Categories & Dues Academic Partnership Program Current Academic ...

  13. The Need for Plastics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society of Plastics Engineers, Inc., Stamford, CT.

    In view of a lack of trained personnel in the industry, the Plastics Education Foundation proposes that educators (1) add more plastics programs, (2) establish plastics engineering degrees at appropriate 4-year institutions, (3) add plastics processing technology to current engineering curricula, and (4) interest younger students in courses and/or…

  14. Plastic Surgery Challenges in War Wounded II: Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Ian L.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Dearth, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large volume of service members have sustained complex injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). These injuries are complicated by contamination with particulate and foreign materials, have high rates of bacterial and/or fungal infections, are often composite-type defects with massive soft tissue wounds, and usually have multisystem involvement. While traditional treatment modalities remain a mainstay for optimal wound care, traditional reconstruction approaches alone may be inadequate to fully address the scope and magnitude of such massive complex wounds. As a result of these difficult clinical problems, the use of regenerative medicine therapies, such as autologous adipose tissue grafting, stem cell therapies, nerve allografts, and dermal regenerate templates/extracellular matrix scaffolds, is increased as adjuncts to traditional reconstructive measures. Basic and Clinical Science Advances: The beneficial applications of regenerative medicine therapies have been well characterized in both in vitro studies and in vivo animal studies. The use of these regenerative medicine techniques in the treatment of combat casualty injuries has been increasing throughout the recent war conflicts. Clinical Care Relevance: Military medicine has shown positive results when utilizing certain regenerative medicine modalities in treating complex war wounds. As a result, multi-institution clinical trials are underway to further evaluate these observations and reconstruction measures. Conclusion: Successful combat casualty wound care often requires a combination of traditional aspects of the reconstructive ladder/elevator with adoption of various regenerative medicine therapies. Due to the recent OIF/OEF conflicts, a high volume of combat casualties have benefited from adoption of regenerative medicine therapies and increased access to innovative clinical trials. Furthermore, many of these patients have had long-term follow-up to report on clinical outcomes that substantiate current treatment paradigms and concepts within regenerative medicine, reconstructive, and rehabilitation care. These results are applicable to not only combat casualty care but also to nonmilitary patients. PMID:27679752

  15. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Baytinger, V. F. Kurochkina, O. S. Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  16. The Outcomes Movement and Evidence Based Medicine in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Evan.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Evidence based medicine is analyzed from its inception. The authors take the reader through the early formation of ‘scientific medicine’ that has evolved into the multi-purpose tool it has become today. Early proponents and their intentions that sparked evidence base and outcomes are presented: the work of David Sackett, Brian Haynes, Peter Tugwell, and Victor Neufeld is discussed - how they perceived the need for better clinical outcomes that led to a more formalized evidence based practice. The fundamentals are discussed objectively in detail and potential flaws are presented that guide the reader to deeper comprehension. PMID:23506764

  17. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  18. The Minotaur syndrome: plastic surgery of the facial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Morselli, P G

    1993-01-01

    This article remarks on the possibility of recontouring the face by working on the facial skeleton with the sole purpose of softening the facial appearance. The author describes a one-step surgical procedure performed on a 38-year-old man who had serious social problems because of his aggressive and threatening facial appearance that contrasted with his gentle personality. The author coins the term Minotaur Syndrome to describe the discrepancy between the patient's true personality versus his negative facial appearance.

  19. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy: a new plastic surgery procedure.

    PubMed

    Morselli, P G

    2000-10-01

    Bilateral hypertrophy of the temporal muscle can give the impression of a harsh facial appearance that manifests itself as a morphopsychological conflict for the subject involved (Minotaur syndrome). This article describes a new facial aesthetic surgical procedure in the area of the temporal muscle. The author describes the surgical technique and the surgical instrument that he developed specifically for performing aesthetic contouring of the temporal area by reducing the muscle volume discrepancy ("myosuction"). The follow-up results of 11 cases demonstrated that this procedure renders valid results in the overall aesthetic reharmonization of the face and an improvement of individual psychological well-being.

  20. Plastic Surgery Challenges in War Wounded II: Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Ian L; Sabino, Jennifer M; Dearth, Christopher L

    2016-09-01

    Background: A large volume of service members have sustained complex injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). These injuries are complicated by contamination with particulate and foreign materials, have high rates of bacterial and/or fungal infections, are often composite-type defects with massive soft tissue wounds, and usually have multisystem involvement. While traditional treatment modalities remain a mainstay for optimal wound care, traditional reconstruction approaches alone may be inadequate to fully address the scope and magnitude of such massive complex wounds. As a result of these difficult clinical problems, the use of regenerative medicine therapies, such as autologous adipose tissue grafting, stem cell therapies, nerve allografts, and dermal regenerate templates/extracellular matrix scaffolds, is increased as adjuncts to traditional reconstructive measures. Basic and Clinical Science Advances: The beneficial applications of regenerative medicine therapies have been well characterized in both in vitro studies and in vivo animal studies. The use of these regenerative medicine techniques in the treatment of combat casualty injuries has been increasing throughout the recent war conflicts. Clinical Care Relevance: Military medicine has shown positive results when utilizing certain regenerative medicine modalities in treating complex war wounds. As a result, multi-institution clinical trials are underway to further evaluate these observations and reconstruction measures. Conclusion: Successful combat casualty wound care often requires a combination of traditional aspects of the reconstructive ladder/elevator with adoption of various regenerative medicine therapies. Due to the recent OIF/OEF conflicts, a high volume of combat casualties have benefited from adoption of regenerative medicine therapies and increased access to innovative clinical trials. Furthermore, many of these patients have had long-term follow-up to report on clinical outcomes that substantiate current treatment paradigms and concepts within regenerative medicine, reconstructive, and rehabilitation care. These results are applicable to not only combat casualty care but also to nonmilitary patients.

  1. American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... We sponsor several scientific meetings yearly. To help train well qualified physicians, ASOPRS also sponsors specialized fellowship ... and sponsors several scientific meetings yearly. To help train well qualified physicians, ASOPRS also sponsors specialized fellowship ...

  2. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  3. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  4. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  5. Arthur Rainsford Mowlem (1902-1986), plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Arthur Rainsford Mowlem, the junior of the 'big four' plastic surgeons, with Harold Delf Gillies, Thomas Pomfret Kilner and Archibald Hector McIndoe, came to prominence managing casualties of the Second World War. Rainsford Mowlem's ancestor was John Mowlem, the creator of the construction firm. Rainsford worked his passage to the United Kingdom from New Zealand in 1927 and did not return to New Zealand but retired at the age of 60 to enjoy 23 more years in Spain. He was the driving force between 1934 and 1939 at the Plastic Surgery Unit at St James's Hospital, Balham, and instigated the North London Plastic Surgery Unit at Hill End, St Albans, from 1939 to 1953 and subsequently developed the Unit after moving to Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex. After successfully hosting the International Meeting of Plastic Surgeons in London in 1959, he received recognition and honours in America but soon afterwards he surprised colleagues by retiring in 1962. Despite his significant contributions, he did not receive national honours but his life outside surgery was active including Trusteeship of the Mowlem Estate at Swanage in Dorset for 40 years.

  6. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... get enough calories to heal and grow. After heart surgery, most babies and infants (younger than 12 to 15 months) can take ... valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... open heart surgery References Bernstein D. General principles ...

  7. Different Aspects of Informed Consent in Aesthetic Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Providing an informed consent has an important role in promotion of medical treatments and reduction of judiciary litigations in this process. Today with cultural changes and wide propagation that is usually charming, the request for aesthetic surgery has an increasing trend. These problems with complexity of cosmetic surgeries lead to deeper differences of information between plastic surgeons and patients, so the discussion on giving information to a patient is of great importance. Regarding the elective choice of aesthetic surgeries, there is a need on providing a standard informed consent form. There are some problems on advertisements of aesthetic surgeries by non-plastic surgeons, taking insufficient or incorrect information to the patients affecting the patients’ autonomy. In fact, correct operative information should be share with the patients. Probable complications and alternative procedures should be presented to the patient to choose an operative option freely and without any charming. Obtaining a written informed consent can protect researchers and their sponsor institutions from any litigation. Patients with psychiatric problems can not benefit from aesthetic surgery and also they have no competency for giving any informed consent. So psychiatric problems can even worsen the surgical interventions. In this article, fundamentals of plastic surgery to provide an informed consent were reviewed and the legal and ethical considerations were evaluated. PMID:25489529

  8. Maxillary orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Richard E; Ochs, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Maxillary surgery to correct dentofacial deformity has been practiced for almost 100 years. Significant advances have made maxillary surgery a safe and efficient means of correcting midface deformities. Anesthetic techniques, specifically hypotensive anesthesia, have allowed for safer working conditions. Landmark studies have proven manipulation and segmentalization of the maxilla is safe and allowed this surgery to become a mainstay in corrective jaw surgery. This article provides an overview of surgical techniques and considerations as they pertain to maxillary surgery for orthognathic surgery. Segmental surgery, openbite closure, vertical excess, grafting, and a technology update are discussed.

  9. A review of penile elongation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Penile elongation surgery is less commonly performed in the public sector, but involves a collaborative approach between urology and plastic surgery. Congenital and acquired micropenis are the classic surgical indications for penile elongation surgery. The goal of intervention in these patients is to restore a functional penis size in order to allow normal standing micturition, enable satisfying sexual intercourse and improve patient quality of life. Many men seeking elongation actually have normal length penises, but perceive themselves to be small, a psychologic condition termed ‘penile dysmorphophobia’. This paper will review the anatomy and embryology of congenital micropenis and discuss both conservative and surgical management options for men seeking penile elongation therapy. PMID:28217452

  10. [New possibilities in practical education of surgery].

    PubMed

    Kormos, Katalin; Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    The fast spread of laparoscopic surgery in the surgical community also required introduction of new methods of surgical education of these techniques. Training boxes applied for this reason meant a considerable help. The technique of the virtual reality introduced simulation, which is a new possibility in education. For the first time in the history of surgery we can measure medical students' or residents' dexterity and one can get acquainted with a surgical procedure in the form of "serious games". By application of the up-to-date imaging methods we can plan the movements of the surgeon's hand even before the planned operation, practice and repeating can contribute to the safety of the real procedure. Open surgical procedures can be practiced on plastic phantoms mimicking human anatomy and the use of interactive touch devices and e-learning can also contribute to practical education of surgery.

  11. The plasticity of clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Group, F.F.

    1905-01-01

    (1) Sand injures plasticity little at first because the grains are suspended in a plastic mass. It is only when grains are abundant enough to come in contact with their neighbors, that the effect becomes serious, and then both strength and amount of possible flow are injured. (2) Certain rare organic colloids increase the plasticity by rendering the water viscous. (3) Fineness also tends to increase plasticity. (4) Plane surfaces (plates) increase the amount of possible flow. They also give a chance for lubrication by thinner films, thus increasing the friction of film, and the strength of the whole mass. The action of plates is thus twofold ; but fineness may be carried to such an extent as to break up plate-like grains into angular fragments. The beneficial effects of plates are also decreased by the fact that each is so closely surrounded by others in the mass. (5) Molecular attraction is twofold in increasing plasticity. As the attraction increases, the coherence and strength of the mass increase, and the amount of possible deformation before crumbling also increases. Fineness increases this action by requiring more water. Colloids and crystalloids in solution may also increase the attraction. It is thus seen to be more active than any other single factor.

  12. Current status of surgery in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C William; Moy, Ronald L; Roenigk, Randall K; Roenigk, Henry H; Spencer, James M; Tierney, Emily P; Bartus, Cynthia L; Bernstein, Robert M; Brown, Marc D; Busso, Mariano; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kauvar, Arielle N B; Kent, Kathryn M; Krueger, Nils; Landau, Marina; Leonard, Aimee L; Mandy, Stephen H; Rohrer, Thomas E; Sadick, Neil S; Wiest, Luitgard G

    2013-12-01

    An article titled "Current issues in dermatologic office-based surgery" was published in the JAAD in October 1999 (volume 41, issue 4, pp. 624-634). The article was developed by the Joint American Academy of Dermatology/American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Liaison Committee. A number of subjects were addressed in the article including surgical training program requirements for dermatology residents and selected advances in dermatologic surgery that had been pioneered by dermatologists. The article concluded with sections on credentialing, privileging, and accreditation of office-based surgical facilities. Much has changed since 1999, including more stringent requirements for surgical training during dermatology residency, and the establishment of 57 accredited Procedural Dermatology Fellowship Training Programs. All of these changes have been overseen and approved by the Residency Review Committee for Dermatology and the Accreditation Committee for Graduate Medical Education. The fertile academic environment of academic training programs with interaction between established dermatologic surgeons and fellows, as well as the inquisitive nature of many of our colleagues, has led to the numerous major advances in dermatologic surgery, which are described herein.

  13. Optical properties of plastic materials for medical vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanova, N. G.; Kasarova, S. N.; Nikolov, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    Several types of optical polymer materials suitable for ophthalmic or medical vision applications have been studied. We have measured refractive indices of studied plastics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Important optical characteristics as Abbe numbers, dispersion coefficients and curves, principal and relative partial dispersion have been evaluated. Calculated refractometric data at many laser emission wavelengths used for medical surgery, therapy and diagnostics is included. As an example of a medical vision application of plastics, optical design of a micro-triplet for use in disposable endoscopes is presented.

  14. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  15. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  16. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) pioneer in oral maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Knoener, Wibke; Schultheiss, Dirk

    2002-11-01

    After Carl Ferdinand von Graefe laid down the principles of rhinoplasty and related operations it was Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) who became a pioneer of plastic surgery in the 19th century. His biography and scientific work with emphasis on craniofacial surgery are presented in this article on the history of medicine.

  17. Addiction to Cosmetic Surgery: Representations and Medicalization of the Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary social transformations of the body are essentially mediated by medical discourse. With the body conceived of as "soft and modifiable," we are witnessing an unprecedented rise in recourse to medicine in order to validate primarily social conditions. In this context, plastic surgery functions as a modality of social control and…

  18. The Role of Plastic Surgeons in Advancing Development Global

    PubMed Central

    Broer, P. Niclas; Jenny, Hillary E.; Ng-Kamstra, Joshua S.; Juran, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the international community came together to agree on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action for people, the planet, and prosperity. Ambitious and far-reaching as they are, they are built on three keystones: the elimination of extreme poverty, fighting climate change, and a commitment to fighting injustice and inequality. Critical to the achievement of the Agenda is the global realization of access to safe, affordable surgical and anesthesia care when needed. The landmark report by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that between 28 and 32 percent of the global burden of disease is amenable to surgical treatment. However, as many as five billion people lack access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care, a burden felt most severely in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Surgery, and specifically plastic surgery, should be incorporated into the international development and humanitarian agenda. As a community of care providers dedicated to the restoration of the form and function of the human body, plastics surgeons have a collective opportunity to contribute to global development, making the world more equitable and helping to reduce extreme poverty. As surgical disease comprises a significant burden of disease and surgery can be delivered in a cost-effective manner, surgery must be considered a public health priority. PMID:27579265

  19. The Role of Plastic Surgeons in Advancing Development Global.

    PubMed

    Broer, P Niclas; Jenny, Hillary E; Ng-Kamstra, Joshua S; Juran, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    In September 2015, the international community came together to agree on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action for people, the planet, and prosperity. Ambitious and far-reaching as they are, they are built on three keystones: the elimination of extreme poverty, fighting climate change, and a commitment to fighting injustice and inequality. Critical to the achievement of the Agenda is the global realization of access to safe, affordable surgical and anesthesia care when needed. The landmark report by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that between 28 and 32 percent of the global burden of disease is amenable to surgical treatment. However, as many as five billion people lack access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care, a burden felt most severely in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Surgery, and specifically plastic surgery, should be incorporated into the international development and humanitarian agenda. As a community of care providers dedicated to the restoration of the form and function of the human body, plastics surgeons have a collective opportunity to contribute to global development, making the world more equitable and helping to reduce extreme poverty. As surgical disease comprises a significant burden of disease and surgery can be delivered in a cost-effective manner, surgery must be considered a public health priority.

  20. Plastics in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandine, David R.; Holm, D. Andrew

    The materials in this curriculum supplement, developed for middle school or high school science classes, present solid waste problems related to plastics. The set of curriculum materials is divided into two units to be used together or independently. Unit I begins by comparing patterns in solid waste from 1960 to 1990 and introducing methods for…

  1. Hydrodynamic Elastic Magneto Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, M. L.; Levatin, J. A.

    1985-02-01

    The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional elastic-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.

  2. Preserving in Plastic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  3. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  4. Patient education through the Internet: academic and private practice sites.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Tamara D; Bozentka, David J; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2004-04-01

    Although Internet use among patients continues to increase, the quality of disseminated information in orthopaedic surgery often is substandard. We reviewed and compared the web sites of academic orthopaedic surgery departments and private practices and rated their informational content with respect to patient education. Only 11.5% of academic sites and 52% of private practice sites list information on common orthopaedic conditions. Of these, less than 1/3 have information on various topics, and few have links to other patient education sites. Private practice web sites make better use of the Internet to provide patients with practical information about their individual practices. Few sites post the date of last update and those that do often have not been updated for more than 6 months. Academic and private practices underutilize the Internet as an educational resource. Orthopaedic surgeons are missing an important opportunity to provide accurate and reliable information to their patients.

  5. Publishing and academic promotion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    2009-09-01

    Clearly, academic endeavour has to be the single most important criterion for appointment to an academic position and for subsequent promotion. It is rare for excellence either in teaching or clinical practice to offset a poor publication record. However, the pressure to publish and gain related grant income can lead to problems in the normal academic pursuits of a department or institution. These and other related issues will be explored in this editorial.

  6. Current Status of Surgical Planning for Orthognathic Surgery: Traditional Methods versus 3D Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A.; Howell, Lori K.; Boutros, Shadi; Scott, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthognathic surgery has traditionally been performed using stone model surgery. This involves translating desired clinical movements of the maxilla and mandible into stone models that are then cut and repositioned into class I occlusion from which a splint is generated. Model surgery is an accurate and reproducible method of surgical correction of the dentofacial skeleton in cleft and noncleft patients, albeit considerably time-consuming. With the advent of computed tomography scanning, 3D imaging and virtual surgical planning (VSP) have gained a foothold in orthognathic surgery with VSP rapidly replacing traditional model surgery in many parts of the country and the world. What has yet to be determined is whether the application and feasibility of virtual model surgery is at a point where it will eliminate the need for traditional model surgery in both the private and academic setting. Methods: Traditional model surgery was compared with VSP splint fabrication to determine the feasibility of use and accuracy of application in orthognathic surgery within our institution. Results: VSP was found to generate acrylic splints of equal quality to model surgery splints in a fraction of the time. Drawbacks of VSP splint fabrication are the increased cost of production and certain limitations as it relates to complex craniofacial patients. Conclusions: It is our opinion that virtual model surgery will displace and replace traditional model surgery as it will become cost and time effective in both the private and academic setting for practitioners providing orthognathic surgical care in cleft and noncleft patients. PMID:25750846

  7. Burnout in the Plastic Surgeon: Implications and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Christina; Ketteler, Erika; Evans, Gregory

    2016-09-27

    A career as a plastic surgeon is both rewarding and challenging. The road to becoming a surgeon is a long arduous endeavor and can bring significant challenges not only to the surgeon but their family. A study by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) suggested that over 40% of surgeons experience burnout and a recent survey of American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) showed that more than one-fourth of plastic surgeons have signs of professional burnout. Burnout is a state of physical and mental exhaustion. The three main components of burnout are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Exhaustion occurs as a result of emotional demands. Depersonalization refers to a cynical, negative or a detached response to patient care. The reduced accomplishment refers to a belief that one can no longer work effectively. There has been a recent explosion in the literature characterizing burnout within the surgical profession. Reports of burnout, burnout victims, and burnout syndrome are filling the medical literature, books, blogs, and social media across all different specialties. Burnout in a plastic surgeon has negative and potentially fatal repercussions to the surgeon, their family, their patients, their staff, colleagues, coworkers, and their organization. To date, there are a limited number of publications addressing burnout in the plastic surgery community. The goals of this paper are to review the symptoms of burnout, its effect on plastic surgeons, and discuss potential solutions for burnout prevention and physician wellness.

  8. Plastics (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Plastics The Basics Plastics play a ...

  9. Collaborating to increase access to clinical and educational resources for surgery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tomasko, Jonathan M; Adams, Nancy E; Garritano, Frank G; Santos, Mary C; Dillon, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A case study is described in which collaborations between a Department of Surgery, a Department of Information Technology, and an academic health sciences library resulted in the development of an electronic surgical library available at the bedside, the deployment of tablet devices for surgery residents, and implementation of a tablet-friendly user interface for the institution's electronic medical record.

  10. Complications of Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... further intracranial surgeries. Impaired sense of taste or smell : The sense of smell usually improves after the procedure because airflow is ... in their voice after sinus surgery. Impairment of smell or taste: (see above) Infection: The most common ...

  11. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... techniques are used: Percutaneous surgery (through the skin) Robot-assisted surgery If your surgeon can repair your ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... amputation. This is called limb-salvage or limb-sparing surgery . In going over treatment options, it is ... 2016 Treating Bone Cancer Surgery for Bone Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer Chemotherapy for Bone Cancer Targeted ...

  13. Laparoscopic Spine Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Opportunities Exhibit Opportunities Sponsorship Opportunities Log In Laparoscopic Spine Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a SAGES Surgeon Laparoscopic Spine Surgery Your spine surgeon has determined that you ...

  14. Smoking and surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... encouraged. The nicotine will still interfere with the healing of your surgical wound and have the same effect on your general ...

  15. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  16. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around ...

  17. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  18. Hip fracture surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis-hip ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  19. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  20. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  1. Reconstructive Surgery of Auricular Defects: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Alireza; Rasouli, Hamid Reza; Kazemi, Maryam; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite the ongoing advances in surgical procedures and promising progress in bioengineering techniques, auricular reconstruction remains a significant challenge in plastic surgery. There are different causes for acquired auricular defects, including trauma, tumor ablation and burns. The management options for upper, middle and lower third auricular defects are briefly reviewed in the current paper. Evidence Acquisition: Original research papers investigating the plastic surgeons, otolaryngologists and maxillofacial surgeons in approaching the complicated issue of auricular reconstruction published from January 1995 to December 2014 were aggregated and used in the current study. Results: Utilizing autologous stem cell populations to treat craniofacial defects is a promising field of ongoing investigations. Studies show that cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) are highly chondrogenic and can produce elastic reconstructive material with long-term tissue restoration. Conclusions: Auricular reconstruction surgery is a challenging plastic procedure that requires great expertise and expert knowledge of the various techniques available. Novel techniques in the fields of reconstructive bioengineering and regenerative medicine are promising but further research is required before widespread clinical application. PMID:26839867

  2. Plastics Pollution Control Technology Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    various machines, the plastics processor, the pulper, and the compactor, being developed to address the plastics problem firsthand. The Dialogue...incinerators themselves may not be a part of the Navy’s solution to the plastics problem , the space that the incinerators occupy will be useful. It is the... plastics problem although they believe that the Navy will not be in compliance by 1993. They suggested that a change in the law which will allow them to keep

  3. Reducing Navy Marine Plastic Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-28

    pollution. Plastic debris from ships is littering beaches, and killing and debilitating fish and wildlife because they are ingesting plastic , or because...they are becoming entangled in plastic debris . While no one is purposefully causing these impacts, the effects are becoming more pronounced. In the...generate support for shipboard and service-wide activities. The recommendations in this section call for disseminating information about the plastic debris

  4. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  5. [Andy Warhol's plastic nose revision reflected in his work].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Krämer, K S

    2000-10-01

    Andy Warhol underwent dermabrasion in 1957 because of a nasal skin lesion, which is best diagnosed as a rhinophyma on the basis of the available biographical literature. Throughout his creative life, the artist worked on different aspects of plastic surgery especially in the nasal area. As one of the founders of Pop-Art, Warhol left essential marks on the modern society and influenced our standards of aesthetic shapes.

  6. [Andy Warhol's plastic nose revision reflected in his work].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Krämer, K S

    2000-02-01

    Andy Warhol underwent dermabrasion in 1957 because of a nasal skin lesion, which is best diagnosed as a rhinophyma on the basis of the available biographical literature. Throughout his creative life, the artist worked on different aspects of plastic surgery especially in the nasal area. As one of the founders of Pop-Art, Warhol left essential marks on the modern society and influenced our standards of aesthetic shapes.

  7. Botulinum neurotoxins: fundamentals for the facial plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Adelson, Robert Todd

    2007-01-01

    The most commonly performed nonsurgical cosmetic procedure in the facial plastic surgery armamentarium involves the various commercial preparations of botulinum neurotoxins. These drugs have undergone a transformation from public health scourge to near ubiquitous therapeutic modality across the entire medical spectrum. Herein, the history of botulinum neurotoxins is reviewed, including an exploration of their pharmacology, neuromuscular junction physiology, a description of the commercially available preparations, and the recent research concerning the practicalities of their clinical use.

  8. The rise of the cosmetic nation: plastic governmentality and hybrid medical practices in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Alvaro E

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I trace the historical and sociopolitical construction of plastic surgery as a basic health need in Brazil. I argue that plastic surgeons deploy "plastic governmentality" in order to portray their work in public settings as humanitarian in nature, while simultaneously using poor patients as experimental subjects to train new surgeons and develop new techniques. This seemingly contradictory positioning is only possible because aesthetic surgeries are relabeled as reconstructive surgeries, producing a pliable form of statecraft that uses statistics and medical discourse to reinforce the support of the state and civil society for the practice. The form of governance I describe elucidates how the state can become instrumentalized in the benefit of private interests under neoliberalism, and how unprofitable public health needs are rendered invisible by the very biopolitical forms of governance that claim to address those needs.

  9. Plastics Technical Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is intended to assist individuals responsible for developing tech prep programs, lists the occupational, academic, and employability competencies that representatives from education, business/industry, and labor throughout Ohio have identified as being necessary for employment in technician-level positions involving the…

  10. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  11. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated.

  12. Spine surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms should get better in a few weeks. Recovery after laminectomy and fusion surgery is longer. You will not be able ... discharge; Anterior spinal fusion - discharge; Spine surgery - spinal fusion - discharge Images Spinal surgery -- cervical - series References Agrawal BM, Zeidman SM, Rhines L, ...

  13. Plastics for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Describes three plastics projects (which involve making a styrene fishing bobber, an acrylic salad fork and spoon set, and acetate shrink art) designed to provide elementary level students an opportunity to work with plastics and to learn about careers in plastics production and distribution. (TA)

  14. Evaluation of Migraine Surgery Outcomes through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Katie G.; Israel, Jacqueline S.; Ghasemzadeh, Rezvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social media have been used to study many aspects of health and human behavior. Although social media present a unique opportunity to obtain unsolicited patient-reported outcomes, its use has been limited in plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures, including migraine nerve surgery. The goal of this study was to utilize the most popular social media site, Facebook, to evaluate patients’ experience with migraine surgery. Methods: Six months of data regarding nerve surgery, nerve stimulators, and radiofrequency nerve ablation were collected from posts and comments written by members of 2 Facebook groups. Outcomes were classified by degree of resolution of symptoms. Results: A total of 639 posts related to migraine surgery. Of 304 posts commenting on postoperative success of nerve surgery, 16% reported elimination of headaches and 65% significant improvement (81% with complete or significant improvement), 5% partial improvement, 11% no change, and 3% worsening symptoms. Nerve surgery had a higher success rate than nerve stimulators and radiofrequency ablation. Nerve surgery was recommended by 90% of users. Conclusions: The 81% rate of complete or significant improvement of symptoms in this study is close to the 79% to 84% shown in current literature. Similar to the findings of a recent systematic review, surgery is more efficacious compared with nerve stimulators and ablation. This study adds to evidence favoring migraine surgery by removing evaluator bias and demonstrates that surgical outcomes and satisfaction data may be obtained from social media. PMID:27826478

  15. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  16. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    PubMed

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  17. Academic Women in Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Athena

    This paper is an exploratory inquiry into some aspects of protest for sex equality by academic women. The analysis is based on published and unpublished information on sex discrimination in academia, as well as a sample of 65 cases of academic women obtained from a pilot survey. Following introductory material, Part II emphasizes patterns of…

  18. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  19. Leaving the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzius, Jeff; Ard, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    A survey was distributed to former academic librarians to determine why they left the field and which career they pursued afterward. Results suggest that former academic librarians are unhappy with administration, image, and salary. Time spent as librarians helped individuals in their new careers.

  20. Impulsivity and Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…