Science.gov

Sample records for academic public health

  1. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    PubMed

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative.

  2. Evolution of the Academic Health Department through public health academic and practice collaborations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy F; Quade, Thomas; Dwinnells, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, the Office of Public Health Practice was chartered at Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED). Through this office, public health practitioners and academics have engaged in informal collaborations, formal collaborations, and formal agreements. Projects that have helped public health practitioners included a sanitarian preparation course, educational opportunities, and shared faculty arrangements. The academic programs have benefited through support in accreditation activities, teaching and precepting of public health and medical students, and advice on community-oriented curriculum. Formal affiliation agreements have been developed between the medical school and 5 local health departments, and public health practitioners have been given faculty appointments. Factors that have resulted in the longevity of Academic Health Department relationships through the Office of Public Health Practice include individuals dedicated to these relationships, agencies willing to support collaborative efforts, mutually beneficial activities, and a culture conducive to continued engagement.

  3. Evolution of the Academic Health Department through public health academic and practice collaborations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy F; Quade, Thomas; Dwinnells, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, the Office of Public Health Practice was chartered at Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED). Through this office, public health practitioners and academics have engaged in informal collaborations, formal collaborations, and formal agreements. Projects that have helped public health practitioners included a sanitarian preparation course, educational opportunities, and shared faculty arrangements. The academic programs have benefited through support in accreditation activities, teaching and precepting of public health and medical students, and advice on community-oriented curriculum. Formal affiliation agreements have been developed between the medical school and 5 local health departments, and public health practitioners have been given faculty appointments. Factors that have resulted in the longevity of Academic Health Department relationships through the Office of Public Health Practice include individuals dedicated to these relationships, agencies willing to support collaborative efforts, mutually beneficial activities, and a culture conducive to continued engagement. PMID:24667189

  4. Safety and Health Concerns in Academic and Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Dorothy M.

    The library is a relatively safe work place, but no place is completely free from hazards. This paper examines the major health and safety concerns of staff and patrons of academic and public libraries, based on a literature review of approximately 60 articles. According to this literature, general safety hazards are not considered a major problem…

  5. Building public health capacity in Madhya Pradesh through academic partnership

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Anjali; Negandhi, Himanshu; Zodpey, Sanjay; Vyas, Nidhi; Agnani, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in partnerships is a strategic means of achieving objectives common to each partner. The Post Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management (PGDPHM) partners in consultation with the government and aims to strengthen the public health managerial capacity. This case study examines the PGDPHM program conducted jointly by the Public Health Foundation of India and the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) at the State Institute of Health Management and Communication, Gwalior, which is the apex training and research institute of the state government for health professionals. This is an example of collaborative partnership between an academic institution and the Department of Public Health and Family Welfare, GoMP. PGDPHM is a 1-year, fully residential course with a strong component of field-based project work, and aims to bridge the gap in public health managerial capacity of the health system through training of health professionals. The program is uniquely designed in the context of the National Rural Health Mission and uses a multidisciplinary approach with a focus on inter-professional education. The curriculum is competency driven and health systems connected and the pedagogy uses a problem-solving approach with multidisciplinary faculty from different programs and practice backgrounds that bring rich field experience to the classroom. This case study presents the successful example of the interface between academia and the health system and of common goals achieved through this partnership for building capacity of health professionals in the state of Madhya Pradesh over the past 3 years. PMID:25128807

  6. Disease Surveillance and the Academic, Clinical, and Public Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rebmann, Catherine A.; Schuchat, Anne; Hughes, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs), a population-based network involving 10 state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, complement and support local, regional, and national surveillance and research efforts. EIPs depend on collaboration between public health agencies and clinical and academic institutions to perform active, population-based surveillance for infectious diseases; conduct applied epidemiologic and laboratory research; implement and evaluate pilot prevention and intervention projects; and provide capacity for flexible public health response. Recent EIP work has included monitoring the impact of a new conjugate vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease, providing the evidence base used to derive new recommendations to prevent neonatal group B streptococcal disease, measuring the impact of foodborne diseases in the United States, and developing a systematic, integrated laboratory and epidemiologic method for syndrome-based surveillance. PMID:12890317

  7. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health to Kentucky’s LHDs seeking national public health accreditation. PMID:25806362

  8. Academic freedom and academic duty to teach social justice: a perspective and pedagogy for public health nursing faculty.

    PubMed

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Taylor, Janette Y; Kneipp, Shawn M; Canales, Mary K

    2007-01-01

    Public health nursing practice is rooted in the core value of social justice. Nursing faculty whose expertise is in public health are often the content experts responsible for teaching this essential, yet potentially controversial, value. Contemporary threats to academic freedom remind us that the disciplinary autonomy and academic duty to teach social justice may be construed as politically ideological. These threats are of particular concern when faculty members guide students through a scientific exploration of sociopolitical factors that lead to health-related social injustices and encourage students to improve and transform injustices in their professional careers. This article (a) reviews recent challenges to academic freedom that influence social justice education, (b) explores academic freedom and duty to teach social justice within the discipline of nursing, and (c) proposes a praxis-based approach to social justice education, which is grounded in transformative pedagogy.

  9. Building sustainable community partnerships into the structure of new academic public health schools and programs.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Monica; Gillman, Laura B; Boumbulian, Paul; Davis, Marsha; Galen, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    We describe and assess how the College of Public Health at the University of Georgia, established in 2005, has developed formal institutional mechanisms to facilitate community-university partnerships that serve the needs of communities and the university. The College developed these partnerships as part of its founding; therefore, the University of Georgia model may serve as an important model for other new public health programs. One important lesson is the need to develop financial and organizational mechanisms that ensure stability over time. Equally important is attention to how community needs can be addressed by faculty and students in academically appropriate ways. The integration of these 2 lessons ensures that the academic mission is fulfilled at the same time that community needs are addressed. Together, these lessons suggest that multiple formal strategies are warranted in the development of academically appropriate and sustainable university-community partnerships.

  10. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.

  11. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25854958

  12. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries.

    PubMed

    Hollander, S M

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC-accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, "general public" was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele.

  13. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.

  14. Public Health, Academic Medicine, and the Alcohol Industry’s Corporate Social Responsibility Activities

    PubMed Central

    Robaina, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry’s economic interests. PMID:23237151

  15. Public-academic partnerships: a program to improve the quality of antipsychotic prescribing in a community mental health system.

    PubMed

    Brunette, Mary F; de Nesnera, Alexander; Swain, Karin; Riera, Erik G; Lotz, Doris; Bartels, Stephen J

    2011-09-01

    State mental health authorities can use public-academic partnerships to create professional roles in which leaders can track trends, identify problems, and carry out quality improvement projects to address key issues. Leaders with positions in both academic institutions and state mental health authorities ensure access to resources, technical expertise, and key relationships to improve quality. The authors describe a public-academic partnership in New Hampshire and a quality improvement program it carried out. The program encourages providers at community mental health centers to adopt prescribing practices that limit the cardiometabolic side effects of antipsychotic medicines.

  16. Strengthening public health education in population and reproductive health through an innovative academic partnership in Africa: the Gates partners experience.

    PubMed

    Oni, Gbolahan; Fatusi, Adesegun; Tsui, Amy; Enquselassie, Fikre; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer; Taulo, Frank; Quakyi, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Poor reproductive health constitutes one of the leading public health problems in the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We report here an academic partnership that commenced in 2003 between a US institution and six universities in SSA. The partnership addresses the human resources development challenge in Africa by strengthening public health education and research capacity to improve population and reproductive health (PRH) outcomes in low-resource settings. The partnership's core activities focused on increasing access to quality education, strengthening health research capacity and translating scholarship and science into policy and practices. Partnership programmes focused on the educational dimension of the human resources equation provide students with improved learning facilities and enhanced work environments and also provide faculty with opportunities for professional development and an enhanced capacity for curriculum delivery. By 2007, 48 faculty members from the six universities in SSA attended PRH courses at Johns Hopkins University, 93 PRH courses were offered across the six universities, 625 of their master's students elected PRH concentrations and 158 had graduated. With the graduation of these and future student cohorts, the universities in SSA will systematically be expanding the number of public health practitioners and strengthening programme effectiveness to resolve reproductive health needs. Some challenges facing the partnership are described in this article.

  17. Do academic knowledge brokers exist? Using social network analysis to explore academic research-to-policy networks from six schools of public health in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C

    2016-06-01

    The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role-serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as 'inter-group connectors'. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the 'connector/betweenness' measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional 'betweenness centrality', provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health policies. PMID

  18. Do academic knowledge brokers exist? Using social network analysis to explore academic research-to-policy networks from six schools of public health in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C

    2016-06-01

    The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role-serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as 'inter-group connectors'. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the 'connector/betweenness' measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional 'betweenness centrality', provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health policies.

  19. Do academic knowledge brokers exist? Using social network analysis to explore academic research-to-policy networks from six schools of public health in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role—serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as ‘inter-group connectors’. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the ‘connector/betweenness’ measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional ‘betweenness centrality’, provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health

  20. [Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].

    PubMed

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field. PMID:23288072

  1. [Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].

    PubMed

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field.

  2. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that academics see…

  3. A greater voice for academic health sciences libraries: the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' vision.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Alison

    2003-04-01

    The founders of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) envisioned the development of a professional organization that would provide a greater voice for academic health sciences libraries, facilitate cooperation and communication with the Association of American Medical Colleges, and create a forum for identifying problems and solutions that are common to academic health sciences libraries. This article focuses on the fulfillment of the "greater voice" vision by describing action and leadership by AAHSL and its members on issues that directly influenced the role of academic health sciences libraries. These include AAHSL's participation in the work that led to the publication of the landmark report, Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center: Roles for the Library in Information Management; its contributions to the recommendations of the Physicians for the Twenty-first Century: The GPEP Report; and the joint publication with the Medical Library Association of Challenge to Action: Planning and Evaluation Guidelines for Academic Health Sciences Libraries.

  4. Defining the Domain of Geriatric Medicine in an Urban Public Health System Affiliated with an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Christopher M.; Weiner, Michael; Counsell, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The American Geriatrics Society has recommended a reexamination of the roles and deployment of providers with expertise in geriatric medicine. Healthcare systems use a variety of strategies to maximize their geriatric expertise. In general, these health systems tend to focus geriatric medicine resources on a group of older adults that are locally defined as the most in need. This article describes a model of care within an academic urban public health system and describes how local characteristics interact to define the domain of geriatric medicine. This domain is defined using 4 years of data from an electronic medical record combined with data collected from clinical trials. From January 2002 to December 2005, 31,443 adults aged 65 and older were seen at any clinical site within this healthcare system. The mean age was 75 (range 65–105); 61% were women; 35% African American, and 2% Hispanic. The payer mix was 80% Medicare and 17% Medicaid. The local geriatric medicine program includes sites of care in inpatient, ambulatory, nursing home, and home-based settings. By design, this geriatric medicine clinical practice complements the care provided to older adults by the primary care practice. Primary care physicians tend to cede care to geriatric medicine for older adults with advanced disability or geriatric syndromes. This is most apparent for older adults in nursing facilities or those requiring home-based care. There is a dynamic interplay between design features, reputation, and capacity that modulates volume, location, and type of patients seen by geriatrics. PMID:18795983

  5. Academic family health teams

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Talbot, Yves; Permaul, Joanne; Tobin, Anastasia; Moineddin, Rahim; Blaine, Sean; Bloom, Jeff; Butt, Debra; Kay, Kelly; Telner, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore patients’ perceptions of primary care (PC) in the early development of academic family health teams (aFHTs)—interprofessional PC teams delivering care where family medicine and other health professional learners are trained—focusing on patients’ perceptions of access and patients’ satisfaction with services. Design Self-administered survey. Setting Six aFHTs in Ontario. Participants Adult patients attending appointments and administrators at each of the aFHTs. Main outcome measures Answers to questions about access from the Primary Care Assessment Tool Adult Expanded Version, the Primary Care Assessment Survey, and research team questions. Results The response rate was 47.3% (1026 of 2167). The mean (SD) Primary Care Assessment Tool first-contact accessibility score was 2.28 (0.36) out of 4, with 96.5% of patients rating access less than 3, which was the minimum expected level of care. Two-thirds (66.6%) indicated someone from their aFHTs would definitely or probably see them the same day if they were sick, 56.8% could definitely or probably get advice quickly by telephone, and 14.5% indicated it was definitely or probably difficult to be seen by their primary health care provider (HCP). Additionally, 46.9% indicated they would like to get medical advice by e-mail. For a routine or follow-up visit, 73.4% would be willing to see another aFHT physician if their regular provider were unavailable, while only 48.3% would see a nonphysician HCP. If sick, 88.2% would see another aFHT physician and 55.2% would see a nonphysician HCP. Most (75.3%) were satisfied with access to their regular HCP. Conclusion Although patients are generally satisfied with care, there is room for improvement in access. Strategies are needed to enhance access to care, including addressing appropriate roles and scopes of practice for nonphysician HCPs. The accessibility challenges for aFHTs will likely affect new family physicians and other HCPs training in

  6. Student Health and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11 Resources Health and Academics Data and Statistics Bullying and Absenteeism: Information for State and Local Education Agencies [PDF - 624 KB] Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ...

  7. Academic family health teams

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Talbot, Yves; Permaul, Joanne; Tobin, Anastasia; Moineddin, Rahim; Blaine, Sean; Bloom, Jeff; Butt, Debra; Kay, Kelly; Telner, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore patients’ perceptions of primary care (PC) in the early development of academic family health teams (aFHTs)—interprofessional PC teams delivering care where family medicine and other health professional learners are trained—focusing on the 4 core domains of PC. Design Self-administered survey using the Primary Care Assessment Tool Adult Expanded Version (PCAT), which addresses 4 core domains of PC (first contact, continuity, comprehensiveness, and coordination). The PCAT uses a 4-point Likert scale (from definitely not to definitely) to capture patients’ responses about the occurrence of components of care. Setting Six aFHTs in Ontario. Participants Adult patients attending appointments and administrators at each of the aFHTs. Main outcome measures Mean PCAT domain scores, with a score of 3 chosen as the minimum expected level of care. Multivariate log binomial regression models were used to estimate the adjusted relative risks of PCAT score levels as functions of patient- and clinic-level characteristics. Results The response rate was 47.3% (1026 of 2167). The mean age of respondents was 49.6 years, and most respondents were female (71.6%). The overall PC score (2.92) was just below the minimum expected care level. Scores for first contact (2.28 [accessibility]), coordination of information systems (2.67), and comprehensiveness of care (2.83 [service available] and 2.36 [service provided]) were below the minimum. Findings suggest some patient groups might not be optimally served by aFHTs, particularly recent immigrants. Characteristics of aFHTs, including a large number of physicians, were not associated with high performance on PC domains. Distributed practices across multiple sites were negatively associated with high performance for some domains. The presence of electronic medical records was not associated with improved performance on coordination of information systems. Conclusion Patients of these aFHTs rated several

  8. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  9. Examining the Public Face of Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Language is an important way of presenting an identity, either individual or group. This paper explores the language used in the presentation of the identity of academic development. The study is based on an analysis of websites from academic development centres in the UK and Australia and outlines the public ways in which academic developers…

  10. Educating the public about research funded by the National Institutes of Health using a partnership between an academic medical center and community-based science museum.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E

    2009-08-01

    The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the public's health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the public's understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors. PMID:19350373

  11. Institutionalizing the academic health department within the context of the 3-fold academic mission.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Bryant, Thomas; Harmon, Robert G; Wood, David L

    2014-01-01

    A mature model of an academic health department (AHD) that has been institutionalized over 2 decades is described within the context of the 3-fold traditional mission of academics (teaching, research, and service/practice). This adaptive model for AHDs, based on mutual benefits that can be viewed through the lenses of both the academic health center mission and the public health functions and services, has important implications for AHD sustainability. Continued collaboration in any academic-public health partnership will depend in part on the commitments of the changing leadership. However, institutionalizing support for the academic mission enables this collaboration to transcend changing leadership styles and priorities. The collaboration of Duval County Health Department and University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville is an example of a model of AHD that has endured major changes in leadership within both the academic center and the Duval County Health Department. PMID:24667196

  12. An academic, business, and community alliance to promote evidence-based public health policy: the case of primary seat belt legislation.

    PubMed

    Goldzweig, Irwin A; Schlundt, David G; Moore, Wayne E; Smith, Patricia E; Zoorob, Roger J; Levine, Robert S

    2013-08-01

    An academic, business, and community alliance comprising 285 organizations, including 43 national groups represented on a Blue Ribbon Panel organized by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation, targeted Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Wisconsin for high involvement/intervention consisting of community organization and other political action to support passage of primary seat belt laws. State-level alliance activities began in January 2003. All six states enacted a primary seat belt law between 2004 and 2009. From January 2003 to May 2010, passage of primary legislation was 4.5 times as likely (95% CI 1.90, 10.68) in states with high versus low alliance involvement. Positive interaction between high alliance involvement and offers of federal incentives may have occurred as well. This evidence of success suggests that academic-business-community alliances for action to promote evidence-based public health policy may be effective.

  13. Academic Public Service Web Sites and the Future of Virtual Academic Public Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Ellen; Hibbitts, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Some faculty have started to use the Internet as a bridge to the public instead of merely to each other. Leveraging their specialist knowledge and their academic authority against perceived public needs, they have created another type of academic Web site on their institutional servers--the academic public service Web site (APSWS). APSWS is an…

  14. Public Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earth observations can be used to address human health concerns in many ways: projecting occurrence of disease or disease outbreaks; rapid detection and tracking of events; construction of risk maps; targeting interventions; and enhancing knowledge of human health-environment int...

  15. Critical Connections: Health and Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Shannon L.; Merlo, Caitlin L.; Basch, Charles E.; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Wechsler, Howell

    2015-01-01

    Background: While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework…

  16. Critical Connections: Health and Academics

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Basch, Charles E; Wentzel, Kathryn R; Wechsler, Howell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework as a way to address health-related barriers to learning. METHODS A literature review was conducted on the association between student health and academic achievement. RESULTS Most of the evidence examined the association between student health behaviors and academic achievement, with physical activity having the most published studies and consistent findings. The evidence supports the need for school health services by demonstrating the association between chronic conditions and decreased achievement. Safe and positive school environments were associated with improved health behaviors and achievement. Engaging families and community members in schools also had a positive effect on students' health and achievement. CONCLUSIONS Schools can improve the health and learning of students by supporting opportunities to learn about and practice healthy behaviors, providing school health services, creating safe and positive school environments, and engaging families and community. This evidence supports WSCC as a potential framework for achieving national educational and health goals. PMID:26440816

  17. Educating the Public About Research Funded by the National Institutes of Health Using a Partnership Between an Academic Medical Center and Community-based Science Museum

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C.; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the public’s health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the public’s understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors. PMID:19350373

  18. Effects of public health nursing participation in selected academic courses on self-reported functions and competencies: a collaborative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lundy, K S; Bender, K W; Powell, C

    1993-03-01

    A profile of the education levels of practicing public health nurses (PHNs) in Mississippi in 1988 indicated that 71% of those nurses were prepared in associate degree or diploma programs. Since these programs typically do not provide formal academic courses in community health nursing, nurses currently enter the workplace with insufficient preparation for this increasingly complex role. A collaborative pilot study between the agency and a state-supported school of nursing evaluated the impact of participating in selected components of an academic community health nursing program on the self-reported competencies and functions of beginning PHNs. Twelve PHNs who were employed during six months in the geographic area contiguous to the school were selected to attend 10 classroom sessions on basic topics applicable to the generic PHN role in a southern state. A control group of 12 PHNs hired during the same period of time was also selected. Both groups completed an instrument on functions and competencies before and after the course. A significant difference was seen in certain functions and competencies between attenders and nonattenders.

  19. Academic freedom and global health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Donald

    2012-02-01

    There is a tension between the preservation of academic freedom and the economic context in which the university currently finds itself. This tension embodies serious threats to global health as a result of three overlapping phenomena which impede the production and diffusion of valuable knowledge about health. These phenomena, the privatisation, commercialisation and instrumentalisation of knowledge are identified and examined in this paper in relation to human rights and international morality.

  20. Academic and Public Library Buildings, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three articles on library buildings present Library Journal's annual architectural survey of completed public and academic library buildings and library projects in progress; guidelines for leasing a shared library facility, and a description of a successful public library building project in Michigan are also discussed. (EM)

  1. A comparison of academic curricula in the MPH and MHA-type degrees in health administration at the accredited schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Singh, D A; Stoskope, C H; Ciesla, J R

    1996-01-01

    Based on a survey of the departments of health services administration in accredited schools of public health, this study presents (1) a profile of the M.P.H. and M.H.A. (and similar) programs concentrating in health administration, and (2) a comparison of the M.P.H. and M.H.A. degrees. All 27 schools currently accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) are represented in this research. The curriculum from each school was broken down and classified into eight components: (1) epidemiology, (2) statistics, (3) accounting/finance, (4) management theory, (5) management application, (6) public health policy, (7) electives, and (8) other. That the M.H.A. programs compared to the M.P.H. programs, have higher course requirements to furnish skills in business management and quantitative/analytical areas is the main hypothesis tested. Statistically significant differences were found in seven of the eight curriculum components for M.P.H. and M.H.A. degrees. Overall, the M.H.A. degree was found to be more rigorous in applied management and analytical courses. Implications and recommendations are discussed. PMID:10166709

  2. Reinventing public health.

    PubMed

    Lee, P; Paxman, D

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is a review of the current state of public health in light of the social, political, economic, scientific, and technological changes buffeting the United States. As an assessment of progress in current public health efforts, we address the five major issues in public health for the 1990s raised by Breslow (8): reconstruction of public health; setting objectives for public health; from disease control to health promotion; determinants of health and health policy; continuing social inequities and their impacts on health; and the health implications of accelerating developments in technology. Finally, we look to the twenty-first century and provide five clear paths necessary to strengthen the capacity of public health agencies to protect and improve the health status of the population. PMID:9143710

  3. Reinventing the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D

    2005-11-01

    Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives. PMID:16249294

  4. Reinventing the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D

    2005-11-01

    Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives.

  5. Academic health departments: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Conte, Christopher; Chang, Carol S; Malcolm, Jan; Russo, Pamela G

    2006-01-01

    In August of 2003, 23 institutions submitted proposals to build closer ties between state and local public health departments and schools of public health in response to a solicitation from the Association of Schools of Public Health supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This article describes the strategies proposed to build collaboration between public health academia and practice. Qualitative analysis discerned five principal approaches: the development of comprehensive planning processes; reform of the way practica are planned and implemented; the identification and nurturing of boundary-spanning individuals in academia and health agencies; the fostering of new approaches to joint research; and workforce development programs. Major themes that emerged included the importance of achieving a balance of power between academic and health department partners; the need to address cultural differences between institutions; a conviction that efforts at institutional change require both strong leadership and the cultivation of boundary spanners farther down the chain of command; and the idea that prospects for success may be improved if faculty and practitioners have tangible incentives to collaborate.

  6. Training Public Health Advisors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pamela A.; Brusuelas, Kristin M.; Baden, Daniel J.; Duncan, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  7. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims.

  8. Public-academic partnerships: the University of Hawai'i Rural Health Collaboration: partnerships to provide adult telepsychiatry services.

    PubMed

    Helm, Susana; Koyanagi, Chad; Else, 'Iwalani; Horton, Michelle; Fukuda, Michael

    2010-10-01

    To address the twofold problem of mental health disparities and limited access to health resources in rural areas, the University of Hawai'i Rural Health Collaboration aims to increase access to behavioral health services to rural areas across the state, primarily via telepsychiatry. The authors highlight lessons learned in regard to forging a university-community partnership, specifically community engagement for patient referral, the shift toward integrated services and away from a specialty clinic model, the importance of community diversity and contextual relevance, and ethical research and practice with indigenous communities. PMID:20889630

  9. Targeted marketing and public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  10. Targeted marketing and public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies. PMID:20070196

  11. Public Use of Academic Libraries in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulley, Lucretia; Ream, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The directors of 40 academic libraries in Virginia were surveyed to obtain information on their practices relating to public access, services, and fees in their libraries. Complete or partial responses were received from 21 libraries in private institutions and 14 from state-supported institutions. These responses indicate that all of the…

  12. Public-Academic Partnerships: A Rapid Small-Grant Program for Policy-Relevant Research: Motivating Public-Academic Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Simpson, Helen B.; Herman, Daniel B.; Stroup, T. Scott; Skrobala, Anne M.; Sederer, Lloyd I.; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research. PMID:23370621

  13. Public-academic partnerships: the Beck Initiative: a partnership to implement cognitive therapy in a community behavioral health system.

    PubMed

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Buchhofer, Regina; McLaulin, J Bryce; Evans, Arthur C; Beck, Aaron T

    2009-10-01

    The Beck Initiative is a partnership between researchers and clinicians at a large university and an urban behavioral health managed care system. Both partners share a commitment to ensuring that consumers in the community have access to competently delivered, individualized, evidence-based mental health care and that the providers who serve them have the support they need to deliver high-quality evidence-based treatments. Central features of the program are individualized training and consultation in cognitive therapy for each provider agency and policies to promote the sustainability of the initiative and its continuing evolution to meet the needs of providers and consumers.

  14. Public-academic partnerships: improving depression care for disadvantaged adults by partnering with non-mental health agencies.

    PubMed

    Dobransky-Fasiska, Deborah; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Pincus, Harold Alan; Castillo, Enrico; Lee, Brenda E; Walnoha, Adrienne L; Reynolds, Charles F; Brown, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Reaching disadvantaged adults who need mental health care is challenging, partly because of mistrust of institutions, cultural insensitivity, and stigma. Researchers from Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic and leaders of 11 non-mental health community organizations formed a partnership to improve depression care, especially for elders and individuals from difficult-to-reach racial and ethnic minority groups. The overarching goal is to reduce disparities by providing and improving care. This column describes challenges overcome in working with a heterogeneous group of agencies to address issues of mental illness, stigma, inadequate staff training, and privacy--challenges that influenced the direction of research and ensuing projects.

  15. Forming an academic health department: a case example.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Charles B; Buchanan, Martha L; Grubaugh, Julie H; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2014-01-01

    The disconnect between public health practice and its academic base has major implications for training and hiring the future public health workforce, for practice-based research, and ultimately for improving the public's health. To bridge this disconnect, the University of Tennessee Department of Public Health and the Knox County Health Department established an academic health department in early 2011 through a memorandum of understanding. This action followed a long history of informal collaborations, built on mutual trust. The memorandum of understanding identified the scope of academic health department activities, clarified responsibilities of each organization, and created a shared coordinator position. Accomplishments during the first 18 months include improving the efficiency and effectiveness of student field placements; establishing collaborative learning sessions delivered jointly by University of Tennessee Department of Public Health faculty and Knox County Health Department staff; and exploring opportunities for practice-based research. The shared coordinator position and an active steering committee are considered fundamental to achieving sustainable academic-practice linkages.

  16. Academic Incivility among Health Sciences Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Melissa; Hill, Lilian H.

    2015-01-01

    Academic health centers are under pressure to graduate more health professionals and, therefore, must retain talented faculty members who can educate students in respective disciplines. Faculty-to-faculty incivility is especially relevant to academic medical centers because faculty in the health professions must not only meet university tenure and…

  17. The Emergency Public Relations Protocol: How to Work Effectively on Controversial Projects in an Academic Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Rosser, B R Simon; Kilian, Gunna; West, William G

    2013-03-01

    Certain research topics - including studies of sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV risk -- are more likely to be scrutinized by the media and groups opposed to this area of research. When studying topics that others might deem controversial, it is critical that researchers anticipate potential negative media events prior to their occurrence. By developing an Emergency Public Relations Protocol at the genesis of a study, researchers can identify and plan for events that might result in higher scrutiny. For each identified risk, a good protocol details procedures to enact before, during and after a media event. This manuscript offers recommendations for developing a protocol based on both Situational Crisis Communication Theory and our experience as an HIV prevention research group who recently experienced such an event. The need to have procedures in place to monitor and address social media is highlighted.

  18. The Emergency Public Relations Protocol: How to Work Effectively on Controversial Projects in an Academic Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, B. R. Simon; Kilian, Gunna; West, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Certain research topics - including studies of sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV risk -- are more likely to be scrutinized by the media and groups opposed to this area of research. When studying topics that others might deem controversial, it is critical that researchers anticipate potential negative media events prior to their occurrence. By developing an Emergency Public Relations Protocol at the genesis of a study, researchers can identify and plan for events that might result in higher scrutiny. For each identified risk, a good protocol details procedures to enact before, during and after a media event. This manuscript offers recommendations for developing a protocol based on both Situational Crisis Communication Theory and our experience as an HIV prevention research group who recently experienced such an event. The need to have procedures in place to monitor and address social media is highlighted. PMID:23565067

  19. The Emergency Public Relations Protocol: How to Work Effectively on Controversial Projects in an Academic Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Rosser, B R Simon; Kilian, Gunna; West, William G

    2013-03-01

    Certain research topics - including studies of sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV risk -- are more likely to be scrutinized by the media and groups opposed to this area of research. When studying topics that others might deem controversial, it is critical that researchers anticipate potential negative media events prior to their occurrence. By developing an Emergency Public Relations Protocol at the genesis of a study, researchers can identify and plan for events that might result in higher scrutiny. For each identified risk, a good protocol details procedures to enact before, during and after a media event. This manuscript offers recommendations for developing a protocol based on both Situational Crisis Communication Theory and our experience as an HIV prevention research group who recently experienced such an event. The need to have procedures in place to monitor and address social media is highlighted. PMID:23565067

  20. Tobacco use among fourth year Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) students of the College of Public Health: University of the Philippines Manila, academic year 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Guevarra, Jonathan P; Cordova, Renerio Q; Mercado, Chris Erwin G; Asaad, Abubakar S

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the prevalence of tobacco use among graduating Public Health students at the College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila. It also describes the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, attitudes, behaviors and smoking cessation training of students. This study used a descriptive cross-sectional study design, adapting a standard questionnaire, pretested and administered to 52 Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) students at the College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila. Data generated from the survey were encoded using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and analyzed using Stata version 12. The prevalence of smoking among 4th year BSPH students was 5.8 % (current smokers). In the past 7 days, respondents have been exposed to secondhand smoke (44 % where they live; 79 % in places other than where they live). Majority were aware of the official policy on smoking ban in school, however, 80 % said that the policy is not enforced. Majority had favorable attitudes in terms of banning tobacco sales to adolescents, banning advertising of tobacco products, banning smoking in restaurants, discos/bars/pubs and enclosed public places. Majority of the respondents also believed that health professionals should get specific training on cessation techniques, that they do serve as role models, and that they have a role in giving advice about smoking cessation. More than three-quarters (76.9 %) of students said that health professionals who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit. Most of the graduating students learned about the dangers of smoking, importance of obtaining tobacco use history, and providing educational support materials in their public health education but only a few received formal training about smoking cessation approaches. The implementation of the no-smoking policy of the university must be revisited. Smoking cessation approaches should be incorporated in the public health curriculum and the role

  1. Essential Elements of an Academic Program for Whatcom County Public School Students Challenged with Social/Emotional and/or Chronic Mental Health Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell-Jenkins, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    This study identifies essential program elements for Whatcom Discovery Center, a Northwest Educational Service District cooperative program providing academic and social/emotional development services to students who are challenged with severe social/emotional and/or chronic mental health disorders. The seven (7) Superintendents and seven (7)…

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  3. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. PMID:24724541

  4. Medical apps: public and academic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krieger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Medical apps have featured in popular websites and mainstream news media in recent months. However, there has been almost no mention of these tools in journals focusing on relevant ethical or social issues, including conflict of interest, the role of politics in science, and technological oversight. This essay examines the role that these philosophical issues might play in answering both public and academic questions about these pieces of emergent technology.

  5. Academic Stress, Supportive Communication, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGeorge, Erina L.; Samter, Wendy; Gillihan, Seth J.

    2005-01-01

    Academic stress is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes, including depression and physical illness. The current study examined the capacity of supportive communication reported as being received from friends and family to buffer the association between academic stress and health. College students completed measures of academic…

  6. The Role of the Public Health Official in Communicating Public Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, Enrique; de la Fuente, Luis; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L.; de Mateo, Salvador; Pascual, Cruz; Sánchez-Payá, José; Ronda, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing views on the role of public health professionals refer to professionals in the academic world, without taking into account the fact that many public health professionals are government employees. For example, the American Public Health Association states that public health professionals play an active role in communicating public health information to nonscientific audiences, such as the general population or the mass media. We propose that public health officials have an important responsibility to promote the practice of public health. However, they must do so within the bureaucracy. Any actions that public health officials wish to take as advocates of particular public health activities should be carried out independent of their role as government officials. PMID:17413063

  7. Public psychiatry fellowships: a developing network of public-academic collaborations.

    PubMed

    Le Melle, Stephanie; Mangurian, Christina; Ali, Osman M; Giggie, Marisa A; Hadley, Trevor; Lewis, Marshall E; Runnels, Patrick; Sowers, Wesley; Steiner, Jeanne L; Trujillo, Manuel; Ranz, Jules M

    2012-09-01

    In response to the expanding public behavioral health care system, a network of 15 public-community psychiatry fellowships has developed over the past six years. The fellowship directors meet yearly to sustain and develop fellowships to recruit and retain psychiatrists in the public sector. This column describes five types of public-academic collaborations on which the fellowships are based. The collaborations focus on structural and fiscal arrangements; recruitment and retention; program evaluation, program research, and policy; primary care integration; and career development. These collaborations serve to train psychiatrists who will play a key role in the rapidly evolving health care system. PMID:22949018

  8. Public psychiatry fellowships: a developing network of public-academic collaborations.

    PubMed

    Le Melle, Stephanie; Mangurian, Christina; Ali, Osman M; Giggie, Marisa A; Hadley, Trevor; Lewis, Marshall E; Runnels, Patrick; Sowers, Wesley; Steiner, Jeanne L; Trujillo, Manuel; Ranz, Jules M

    2012-09-01

    In response to the expanding public behavioral health care system, a network of 15 public-community psychiatry fellowships has developed over the past six years. The fellowship directors meet yearly to sustain and develop fellowships to recruit and retain psychiatrists in the public sector. This column describes five types of public-academic collaborations on which the fellowships are based. The collaborations focus on structural and fiscal arrangements; recruitment and retention; program evaluation, program research, and policy; primary care integration; and career development. These collaborations serve to train psychiatrists who will play a key role in the rapidly evolving health care system.

  9. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection.

  10. What Ails Public Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcabes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…

  11. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Chosy, Julia; Benson, Katherine; Belen, Dulce; Starr, Ranjani; Lowery St John, Tonya; Starr, Ranjani R; Ching, Lance K

    2015-01-01

    Data form the framework around which important public health decisions are made. Public health data are essential for surveillance and evaluating change. In Hawai‘i, public health data come from a multitude of sources and agencies. The Hawai‘i Health Data Warehouse (HHDW) was created to pull those data into a single location and to present results in a form that is easy for the public to access and utilize. In the years since its creation, HHDW has built a second consumer-focused web site, Hawai‘i Health Matters, and is now introducing new functionality on the original site that allows users to define their own enquiry. The newly adopted Indicator-Based Information System (IBIS) uses a web interface to perform real-time data analysis and display results. This gives users the power to examine health data by a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic dimensions, permitting them to pinpoint the data they need. PMID:26568903

  12. Building a sustainable Academic Health Department: the South Carolina model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Waddell, Lisa; Kyle, Joseph; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited resources available to public health, it is critical that university programs complement the development needs of agencies. Unfortunately, academic and practice public health entities have long been challenged in building sustainable collaborations that support practice-based research, teaching, and service. The academic health department concept offers a promising solution. In South Carolina, the partners started their academic health department program with a small grant that expanded into a dynamic infrastructure that supports innovative professional exchange and development programs. This article provides a background and describes the key elements of the South Carolina model: joint leadership, a multicomponent memorandum of agreement, and a shared professional development mission. The combination of these elements allows the partners to leverage resources and deftly respond to challenges and opportunities, ultimately fostering the sustainability of the collaboration.

  13. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  14. Public health and peace.

    PubMed

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  15. Public Relations in Academic Libraries: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for public relations in academic libraries focuses on the results of interviews with 13 library directors on the subject of public relations. Highlights include public relations training; use of academic libraries by community members; public relations activities; fund-raising; and suggestions for further research.…

  16. Training and education for public health: the role of the U.S. Public Health Service.

    PubMed

    Harmon, R G

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 Assistant Secretary for Health Philip R. Lee commissioned an evaluation of U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) activities in training and education for public health (TEPH). Findings revealed significant shortages of professionals and academic faculty in the public health fields of epidemiology, biostatistics, environmental and occupational health, public health nutrition, public health nursing, and preventive medicine. An inventory of PHS activities showed that about $217 million was spent on 151 public health and prevention training programs serving over 141,000 persons in fiscal year 1993. The $217 million amounted to about 18% of the total reported PHS training expenditures of $1.2 billion and about 1% of the total spending of $19.4 billion in fiscal year 1993. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) had the largest training expenditures of $655 and $445 million respectively, but spent only about 7% and 17% on public health and prevention training. Other PHS agencies had larger proportional investments in prevention, but the amounts were smaller. Priority recommendations were provided to Dr. Lee in seven key areas: advanced technology, core public health functions, policy and financing, academic-practice links, educational research, research training, and coordination. Together, these could dramatically increase the PHS proportional investment in TEPH. The PHS has a rich variety of resources for TEPH, but a lack of prioritization, coordination, and planning is causing opportunities to be missed. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): public health, training, education.

  17. Publications in academic medical centers: technology-facilitated culture clash.

    PubMed

    Berner, Eta S

    2014-05-01

    Academic culture has a set of norms, expectations, and values that are sometimes tacit and sometimes very explicit. In medical school and other health professions educational settings, probably the most common norm includes placing a high value on peer-reviewed research publications, which are seen as the major evidence of scholarly productivity. Other features of academic culture include encouraging junior faculty and graduate students to share their research results at professional conferences and lecturing with slides as a major way to convey information. Major values that faculty share with journal editors include responsible conduct of research and proper attribution of others' words and ideas. Medical school faculty also value technology and are often quick to embrace technological advances that can assist them in their teaching and research. This article addresses the effects of technology on three aspects of academic culture: education, presentations at professional meetings, and research publications.The technologies discussed include online instruction, dissemination of conference proceedings on the Internet, plagiarism-detection software, and new technologies deployed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the home of PubMed. The author describes how the ease of deploying new technologies without faculty changing their norms and behavior in the areas of teaching and research can lead to conflicts of values among key stakeholders in the academic medical community, including faculty, journal editors, and professional associations. The implications of these conflicts and strategies for managing them are discussed.

  18. Publications in academic medical centers: technology-facilitated culture clash.

    PubMed

    Berner, Eta S

    2014-05-01

    Academic culture has a set of norms, expectations, and values that are sometimes tacit and sometimes very explicit. In medical school and other health professions educational settings, probably the most common norm includes placing a high value on peer-reviewed research publications, which are seen as the major evidence of scholarly productivity. Other features of academic culture include encouraging junior faculty and graduate students to share their research results at professional conferences and lecturing with slides as a major way to convey information. Major values that faculty share with journal editors include responsible conduct of research and proper attribution of others' words and ideas. Medical school faculty also value technology and are often quick to embrace technological advances that can assist them in their teaching and research. This article addresses the effects of technology on three aspects of academic culture: education, presentations at professional meetings, and research publications.The technologies discussed include online instruction, dissemination of conference proceedings on the Internet, plagiarism-detection software, and new technologies deployed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the home of PubMed. The author describes how the ease of deploying new technologies without faculty changing their norms and behavior in the areas of teaching and research can lead to conflicts of values among key stakeholders in the academic medical community, including faculty, journal editors, and professional associations. The implications of these conflicts and strategies for managing them are discussed. PMID:24667517

  19. Global health: networking innovative academic institutions.

    PubMed

    Pálsdóttir, Björg; Neusy, André-Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Medically underserved communities suffer a high burden of morbidity and mortality, increasing with remoteness where access to health services is limited. Major challenges are the overall shortage and maldistribution of the health workforce. There is a lack of understanding of how academic institutions can best contribute to addressing these health inequities. A new international collaborative of health professions schools, Training for Health Equity Network, is developing and disseminating evidence, challenging assumptions, and developing tools that support health profession institutions striving to meet the health and health workforce needs of underserved communities.

  20. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Hawai‘i had high insurance coverage rates even before the Affordable Health Care Act and continues to have a high percentage of the population with health insurance today. However, high insurance rates can disguise wide variation in what is covered and what it costs. In this essay, an Australian Masters in Public Health student from the University of Hawai‘i considers the strengths and weaknesses of insurance coverage in the US health-care system when her friend “Peter” becomes seriously ill. PMID:27688955

  1. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Hawai‘i had high insurance coverage rates even before the Affordable Health Care Act and continues to have a high percentage of the population with health insurance today. However, high insurance rates can disguise wide variation in what is covered and what it costs. In this essay, an Australian Masters in Public Health student from the University of Hawai‘i considers the strengths and weaknesses of insurance coverage in the US health-care system when her friend “Peter” becomes seriously ill.

  2. Health Hazards and Academic Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Louis G.

    2002-01-01

    Humorist Louis Lippman describes how proper lecture etiquette requires a professor to twist repeatedly between screen and paying customers to read and explain his Powerpoint projections. Such Rotary Academic Whiplash invariably results in the gravest of musculo-pedagogical distress. (Contains 1 note.)

  3. Interschool Relationships in Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alvin L.

    1981-01-01

    Within academic health centers there exists a well-established "pecking order" influencing daily life and reflecting fundamental relationships between medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, and allied health. Relationships between individual professionals and between schools within a center are examined for clues to possible change. (MSE)

  4. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  5. Transforming Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    ALDOUS, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Historical assessments of the Occupation’s efforts to tackle enteric diseases (cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid and dysentery) have generally reflected a celebratory narrative of US-inspired public health reforms, strongly associated with the head of the Public Health and Welfare Section, Crawford F. Sams. Close inspection of the documentary record, however, reveals much greater continuity with pre-war Japanese public health practices than has hitherto been acknowledged. Indeed, there are strong grounds for disputing American claims of novelty and innovation in such areas as immunisation, particularly in relation to typhoid vaccine, and environmental sanitation, where disparaging comments about the careless use of night soil and a reluctance to control flies and other disease vectors reveal more about the politics of public health reform than the reality of pre-war practices. Likewise, the representation of American-inspired sanitary teams as clearly distinct from and far superior to traditional sanitary associations (eisei kumiai) was closer to propaganda than an accurate rendering of past and present developments. PMID:19048809

  6. Globalisation and public health.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  7. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  8. Contracting out Public Schools and Academic Performance: Evidence from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla-Angel, Juan D.

    2011-01-01

    Contracting out public schools to private institutions is an instrument for reforming public education as it may facilitate academic innovation and improve student academic performance through higher school accountability and autonomy. The degree of autonomy that different providers have may vary substantially depending on the contractual and…

  9. Improving Publication: Advice for Busy Higher Education Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Anita

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for higher education academics is to research and publish when faced with substantial teaching responsibilities, higher student numbers, and higher output expectations. The focus of this piece is to encourage publication more generally by educators, and to build publication capacity, which academic developers can facilitate. The…

  10. Journal publications by Australian chiropractic academics: are they enough?

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Reggars, John; Vitiello, Andrew; Bonello, Rod

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To document the number of journal publications attributed to the academic faculty of Australian chiropractic tertiary institutions. To provide a discussion of the significance of this output and to relate this to the difficulty the profession appears to be experiencing in the uptake of evidence based healthcare outcomes and cultures. Methods The departmental websites for the three Australian chiropractic tertiary institutions were accessed and a list of academic faculty compiled. It was noted whether each academic held a chiropractic qualification or research Doctoral (not professional) degree qualification A review of the literature was conducted using the names of the academics and cross-referencing to publications listed independently in the PubMed and Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) databases (from inception to February 27 2006). Publications were excluded that were duplicates, corrected reprints, conference abstracts/proceedings, books, monographs, letters to the editor/comments or editorials. Using this information an annual and recent publication rate was constructed. Results For the 41 academics there was a total of 155 PubMed listed publications (mean 3.8, annual rate per academic 0.31) and 415 ICL listed publications (mean 10.1, annual rate 0.62). Over the last five years there have been 50 PubMed listed publications (mean 1.2, annual rate 0.24) and 97 ICL listed publications (mean 2.4, annual rate 0.47). Chiropractor academics (n = 31) had 29 PubMed listed publications (mean 2.5, annual rate 0.27) and 265 ICL listed publications (mean 8.5, annual rate 0.57). Academics with a doctoral degree (n = 13) had 134 PubMed listed publications (mean 10.3, annual rate 0.70) and 311 ICL listed publications (mean 23.9, annual rate 1.44). Academics without a Doctoral degree (n = 28) had 21 PubMed listed publications (mean 0.8, annual rate 0.13) and 104 ICL listed publications (mean 3.7, annual rate 0.24). Conclusion While several academics have compiled

  11. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong

    2014-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately half the births in the nation as well as locally. By providing nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and foods in addition to referrals, WIC plays a crucial role in promoting lifetime health for women, infants and children. WIC helps achieve national public health goals such as reducing premature births and infant mortality, increasing breastfeeding, and reducing maternal and childhood overweight. Though individuals and families can self-refer into WIC, physicians and allied health professionals have the opportunity and are encouraged to promote awareness of WIC and refer families in their care. PMID:25285258

  12. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  13. Health Reform and Academic Health Centers: Commentary on an Evolving Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wartman, Steven A; Zhou, Yingying; Knettel, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), both directly and indirectly, has had a demonstrable impact on academic health centers. Given the highly cross-subsidized nature of institutional funds flows, the impact of health reform is not limited to the clinical care mission but also extends to the research and education missions of these institutions. This Commentary discusses how public policy and market-based health reforms have played out relative to expectations. The authors identify six formidable challenges facing academic health centers in the post-ACA environment: finding the best mission balance; preparing for the era of no open-ended funding; developing an integrated, interprofessional vision; broadening the institutional perspective; addressing health beyond clinical care; and finding the right leadership for the times. Academic health centers will be well positioned for success if they can focus on 21st-century realities, reengineer their business models, and find transformational leaders to change institutional culture and behavior. PMID:26422592

  14. Health Reform and Academic Health Centers: Commentary on an Evolving Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wartman, Steven A; Zhou, Yingying; Knettel, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), both directly and indirectly, has had a demonstrable impact on academic health centers. Given the highly cross-subsidized nature of institutional funds flows, the impact of health reform is not limited to the clinical care mission but also extends to the research and education missions of these institutions. This Commentary discusses how public policy and market-based health reforms have played out relative to expectations. The authors identify six formidable challenges facing academic health centers in the post-ACA environment: finding the best mission balance; preparing for the era of no open-ended funding; developing an integrated, interprofessional vision; broadening the institutional perspective; addressing health beyond clinical care; and finding the right leadership for the times. Academic health centers will be well positioned for success if they can focus on 21st-century realities, reengineer their business models, and find transformational leaders to change institutional culture and behavior.

  15. College Health Professionals and Academic Librarians: Collaboration for Student Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallyburton, Ann; Kolenbrander, Nancy; Robertson, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    College health professionals must find new ways of educating students on finding and evaluating consumer health information, specifically in the online environment. Librarians are trained as information professionals; however, librarians at general academic libraries are not taking a lead role in providing consumer health information. Objective:…

  16. Health Systems Innovation at Academic Health Centers: Leading in a New Era of Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ellner, Andrew L; Stout, Somava; Sullivan, Erin E; Griffiths, Elizabeth P; Mountjoy, Ashlin; Phillips, Russell S

    2015-07-01

    Challenged by demands to reduce costs and improve service delivery, the U.S. health care system requires transformational change. Health systems innovation is defined broadly as novel ideas, products, services, and processes-including new ways to promote healthy behaviors and better integrate health services with public health and other social services-which achieve better health outcomes and/or patient experience at equal or lower cost. Academic health centers (AHCs) have an opportunity to focus their considerable influence and expertise on health systems innovation to create new approaches to service delivery and to nurture leaders of transformation. AHCs have traditionally used their promotions criteria to signal their values; creating a health systems innovator promotion track could be a critical step towards creating opportunities for innovators in academic medicine. In this Perspective, the authors review publicly available promotions materials at top-ranked medical schools and find that while criteria for advancement increasingly recognize systems innovation, there is a lack of specificity on metrics beyond the traditional yardstick of peer-reviewed publications. In addition to new promotions pathways and alternative evidence for the impact of scholarship, other approaches to fostering health systems innovation at AHCs include more robust funding for career development in health systems innovation, new curricula to enable trainees to develop skills in health systems innovation, and new ways for innovators to disseminate their work. AHCs that foster health systems innovation could meet a critical need to contribute both to the sustainability of our health care system and to AHCs' continued leadership role within it.

  17. Health Systems Innovation at Academic Health Centers: Leading in a New Era of Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ellner, Andrew L; Stout, Somava; Sullivan, Erin E; Griffiths, Elizabeth P; Mountjoy, Ashlin; Phillips, Russell S

    2015-07-01

    Challenged by demands to reduce costs and improve service delivery, the U.S. health care system requires transformational change. Health systems innovation is defined broadly as novel ideas, products, services, and processes-including new ways to promote healthy behaviors and better integrate health services with public health and other social services-which achieve better health outcomes and/or patient experience at equal or lower cost. Academic health centers (AHCs) have an opportunity to focus their considerable influence and expertise on health systems innovation to create new approaches to service delivery and to nurture leaders of transformation. AHCs have traditionally used their promotions criteria to signal their values; creating a health systems innovator promotion track could be a critical step towards creating opportunities for innovators in academic medicine. In this Perspective, the authors review publicly available promotions materials at top-ranked medical schools and find that while criteria for advancement increasingly recognize systems innovation, there is a lack of specificity on metrics beyond the traditional yardstick of peer-reviewed publications. In addition to new promotions pathways and alternative evidence for the impact of scholarship, other approaches to fostering health systems innovation at AHCs include more robust funding for career development in health systems innovation, new curricula to enable trainees to develop skills in health systems innovation, and new ways for innovators to disseminate their work. AHCs that foster health systems innovation could meet a critical need to contribute both to the sustainability of our health care system and to AHCs' continued leadership role within it. PMID:25738387

  18. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Donald K; Calhoun, Candice R; Joseph, Lin; Farnsworth, JoAnn Y; Arakaki, Kimberly B

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai‘i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai‘i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed. The Collaborative has completed a strategic plan and accompanying Logic Model, The First 1,000 Days, aimed at achieving the outcomes of 8% reduction in preterm births and 4% reduction in infant mortality. To date over 120 people across Hawai‘i have been involved in the Collaborative. These members include physicians and clinicians, public health planners and providers, insurance providers and health care administrators. The work is divided into three primary areas and coordinated by a cross sector leadership team. Work is specific, outcome driven, informed by data and primarily accomplished in small work groups. PMID:27738566

  19. [Micotoxins in public health].

    PubMed

    Duarte-Vogel, Sandra; Villamil-Jiménez, Luis C

    2006-05-01

    Mycotoxins have become a worldwide problem due to their high incidence and levels of occurrence in human food and animal feed. The conditions for colonising substrates by mycotoxigenic fungus and later contamination by mycotoxins play an important role in surveillance and control strategies. The main mycotoxigenic funguses are the Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp genera, the main mycotoxins of interest for human health being aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone. These mycotoxins' toxic action mechanisms constitute a risk for both human and animal health, causing diseases in both populations. The situation in Colombia is complex due to the lack of research having been carried out; the few studies made to date have demonstrated the high levels of contamination of food and feed in the country. This paper discusses mycotoxins' potential risk to public health, the difficulties involved in diagnosis and legislation and suggests policy implications for food safety.

  20. Public Health Nursing Staff Health Education Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terence R.; And Others

    Health education attitudes toward prevention, detection, and treatment of selected chronic diseases and conditions confronting public health nursing staffs were investigated at a Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services District, which is composed of 16 county public health units (CPHU). Findings were used to determine type of…

  1. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  2. AIDS and public health.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1988-01-01

    After briefly stating the significance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for public health, this paper considers programs or proposals to control the spread of AIDS in the following eight general areas: (a) education; (b) distribution of sterile needles; (c) screening and treatment of blood, blood products, and other tissues; (d) voluntary and mandatory screening of persons for evidence of infection; (e) reporting; (f) contact tracing; (g) isolation and other restrictions on freedom of movement or association; and (h) physical marking of persons with AIDS. Significant moral issues within each of these areas are discussed, and the overall justifiability of various proposals is examined.

  3. Evolution and public health

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptibility to infectious agents or diets have evolved and are being discovered with modern methods. Some of these evolutionary relations require a perspective of tens of thousands of years, whereas other changes are observable in real time. The implications and applications of evolutionary understanding are important to our current programs and policies for infectious disease surveillance, gene–environment interactions, and health disparities globally. PMID:19966311

  4. NHIN, RHIOs, and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Gray, Shellie Kolavic; Massoudi, Barbara L; Immanuel, Gidado-Yisa; Dollacker, Matthew; Cothren, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Public health plays a critical role in forming the building blocks for community or regional health-information sharing, which is essential to the long-term viability of a Nationwide Health Information Network (NHIN) and the Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs). By contributing to its visions, policies, processes, standards, and needs/requirements, public health will close the loop within an NHIN and the RHIOs environment. In this article we illustrate public health's essential role in an NHIN and the RHIOs by examining the mutual benefits to healthcare and public health.

  5. Appraising Academic Appraisal in the New Public Management University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Against a backdrop of new public management (NPM) thinking and managerialism generally applied to universities in a range of countries, this study examines one of its manifestations--performance management for academics. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 40 academics at an Australian university, this article identifies six stances regularly…

  6. Essays on Academic Achievement and Student Behavior in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Wael Soheil

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English…

  7. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  8. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai‘i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public. PMID:26279966

  9. Refereeing the public health.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Hosea H

    2014-01-01

    Between January 2009 and October 2013, 49 states and the District of Columbia passed laws focusing on mitigating the consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in organized youth sports. Using historical, contextual, and empirical methods, this Article describes the content, goals, and structure of youth sports TBI laws, while hypothesizing about their underlying legislative logic and long-term public health consequences. The Article's empirical evidence suggests two key findings: first, that a dominant interest group, the National Football League, helped to define the problem and its associated solutions for the vast majority of states, thus curving the legislative story are in favor of its policy prescriptions; second, that existing youth sports TBI laws are focused on secondary, not primary, prevention, and may thus shift attention away from more comprehensive solutions. Finally, the Article explains why such state laws will likely fail to substantially resolve the larger untackled problem--significantly reducing the overall rate and number of TBIs in youth sports. After explaining why existing state youth sports TBI laws fail to accomplish this broader goal, the Article queries whether alternative policy or public health measures might offer more robust solutions.

  10. Feminism and public health ethics

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, W A

    2006-01-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

  11. Feminism and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  12. Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Walter W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences is to encourage minority collegiate and junior and senior high school students to pursue careers in biomedical and public health sciences. The objectives of the Symposium are to: (1) Provide information to participants concerning biomedical and public health science careers in government, academe and industry; (2) Provide information to minority students about training activities necessary to pursue a biomedical or public health science career and the fiscal support that one can obtain for such training; and (3) Provide opportunities for participating minority biomedical and public health role models to interact with participants.

  13. Changing structure to improve function: one academic health center's experience.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B; Davis, L; Kohler, P O

    1997-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) have been under siege for the past few years, with decreased federal and state funding for educational and research programs and increasing competition in the health care marketplace. In addition, many AHCs are burdened with the bureaucratic red tape of large educational institutions, which makes agility in responding to a demanding health care market difficult. The authors describe the response to these threats by Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU), an approach that has been different from those of most similar institutions. OHSU chose to change its structure from being part of the state system of higher education to being an independent public corporation. The authors outline the political process of building widespread support for the legislation passed in 1995, the key features of the restructuring, the challenges faced before and after the transition to a public corporation, and lessons learned in this metamorphosis to a new form.

  14. Academic health sciences centres laid bare.

    PubMed

    Lozon, Jeffrey C; Fox, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    Academic Health Sciences Centres (AHSCs) are an enduring feature of health systems in all developed countries. In Canada, despite the lack of precise definition and standardized organizational arrangements, the educational services and programs in health sciences offered by AHSCs, and the caregiving organizations they embrace, are critical components of the national health system. Yet, the past decade has been a period of profound change in the Canadian health system. The pace of this change and the nature of the demands on the system are unlikely to abate in the near future. Given that many of these changes have directly impacted on AHSCs, or their component parts, it is timely to review these entities and to understand more fully how these organizations have been, or may be, affected in the future. PMID:12811128

  15. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  16. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  17. Ensuring public health's future in a national-scale learning health system.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jennifer A; Friedman, Charles; Jacobson, Peter; Rubin, Joshua C

    2015-04-01

    Data and information are fundamental to every function of public health and crucial to public health agencies, from outbreak investigations to environmental surveillance. Information allows for timely, relevant, and high-quality decision making by public health agencies. Evidence-based practice is an important, grounding principle within public health practice, but resources to handle and analyze public health data in a meaningful way are limited. The Learning Health System is a platform that seeks to leverage health data to allow evidence-based real-time analysis of data for a broad range of uses, including primary care decision making, public health activities, consumer education, and academic research. The Learning Health System is an emerging endeavor that is gaining support throughout the health sector and presents an important opportunity for collaboration between primary care and public health. Public health should be a key stakeholder in the development of a national-scale Learning Health System because participation presents many potential benefits, including increased workforce capacity, enhanced resources, and greater opportunities to use health information for the improvement of the public's health. This article describes the framework and progression of a national-scale Learning Health System, considers the advantages of and challenges to public health involvement in the Learning Health System, including the public health workforce, gives examples of small-scale Learning Health System projects involving public health, and discusses how public health practitioners can better engage in the Learning Health Community.

  18. [Genetics and public health].

    PubMed

    Penchaszadeh, V B

    1993-07-01

    In order to draw attention to the need for public health action in genetics in Latin America, the author begins by giving a brief review of congenital anomalies, including hereditary diseases and chromosomal anomalies. He notes that these defects affect at least 5% of live births in the different regions of the world, regardless of the development status or ethnic make-up of their populations. In the Region of the Americas, birth defects rank somewhere between second and fifth place among causes of death in children under 1 year of age, and account for 2% to 27% of infant mortality. It is logical to expect that these disorders will take on more relative importance as the general indicators of child health improve, as has been the case in industrialized countries. The fact that pathologies of genetic origin affect a wide range of organs and systems, are chronic, and require expensive therapy and rehabilitation means that they demand services that countries must be prepared to provide. The author proposes three general objectives for health activities regarding genetics: to minimize clinical manifestations in individuals who are born with congenital anomalies by means of adequate care at all service levels; to improve the quality of life for those individuals and their families by helping them to become involved in the normal life of their communities; and to ensure that people at high risk of conceiving children with genetic diseases receive counseling and support services so that they can exercise their right to informed reproduction. Finally, he recommends eight strategies for setting up genetic health programs with the resources available in each country. PMID:8373531

  19. Strategic planning and entrepreneurism in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Smith, C T

    1988-01-01

    This article examines the academic medical center as a mature component of the industry, whose complex mission can be reconciled with the public's changing needs in an era of cost containment through the use of increasingly businesslike strategic planning. New dimensions in academic health center missions (as a result of changing public mandates) emphasize the need to identify the most appropriate settings for both the delivery of patient care and physician education. Strategies to meet these new demands, reflecting a market-oriented approach, such as diversification through corporate reorganization and joint ventures are delineated. Legal, tax, and regulatory problems that develop as a result of not-for-profit hospital engagement in unrelated business activity are also reviewed.

  20. Fostering Research and Publication in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen, Catherine; Wahl, Diane

    2014-01-01

    This study concerns administrative support provided to encourage the research and publishing activities of academic librarians working in Association of Research Libraries member libraries. Deans and directors of these libraries were asked to respond to an online survey concerning the support measures that their libraries provide, as well as their…

  1. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    PubMed Central

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice. PMID:24560263

  2. NHV and child public health.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Lennart

    2015-08-01

    One of the main interests of the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in both education and research was child public health, i.e. an area based on the broad World Health Organisation (WHO) health ideology and on public health methods, while concentrating on the special needs and characteristics of children. The fields of study and action, training, research and service, had the ultimate task to consider the health of children in their full social, economic and political context. Regular courses on child public health were offered as part of the general program in Public Health from 1979 until the closing down of the school, named: Social Paediatrics; Child Health; Child Public Health; and finally, Measuring Children's Health - A Public Health Perspective. Numerous national, Nordic and international conferences were held, and several textbooks were written and edited. A major research project, NordChild, was initiated as a cross-sectional postal study of a random sample of children aged 2-17 years from the five Nordic countries, performed in 1984, 1996 and 2011. So far, 10 doctoral theses and more than 130 other publications from the studies have been produced. Furthermore, the Nordic Network on Research of Refugee Children was created, and a special interest has been devoted to indicators for children's health, both internationally, nationally and locally, which has been demonstrated in major EU projects as well as locally in Sweden and Greenland.

  3. NHV and child public health.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Lennart

    2015-08-01

    One of the main interests of the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in both education and research was child public health, i.e. an area based on the broad World Health Organisation (WHO) health ideology and on public health methods, while concentrating on the special needs and characteristics of children. The fields of study and action, training, research and service, had the ultimate task to consider the health of children in their full social, economic and political context. Regular courses on child public health were offered as part of the general program in Public Health from 1979 until the closing down of the school, named: Social Paediatrics; Child Health; Child Public Health; and finally, Measuring Children's Health - A Public Health Perspective. Numerous national, Nordic and international conferences were held, and several textbooks were written and edited. A major research project, NordChild, was initiated as a cross-sectional postal study of a random sample of children aged 2-17 years from the five Nordic countries, performed in 1984, 1996 and 2011. So far, 10 doctoral theses and more than 130 other publications from the studies have been produced. Furthermore, the Nordic Network on Research of Refugee Children was created, and a special interest has been devoted to indicators for children's health, both internationally, nationally and locally, which has been demonstrated in major EU projects as well as locally in Sweden and Greenland. PMID:26311795

  4. Public health and media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  5. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Lisa J; McGee, Amelia; Baird, Shelagh; Viloria, Joanne; Nagatsuka, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Hawai‘i (HMHB) is a local nonprofit organization dedicated to eliminating health disparities and improving Hawai‘i's maternal, child, and family health though collaborative efforts in public education, advocacy, and partner development. A review of HMHB services revealed overwhelming requests for both breastfeeding and postpartum depression (PPD) support. The purpose of this article is to present the findings of two surveys that highlight the awareness of existing breastfeeding and PPD resources based on both parents and health care providers; perceptions of where and how care is accessed; and whether mothers throughout Hawai‘i have equitable access to support. Results helped assess gaps in resources and determine barriers to care, as well as provide suggestions for new services or resources. Web-based surveys were sent to 450 providers and 2,955 parents with response rates of 8.9% and 4.0%, respectively. Less than half of parent participants reported that their health provider discussed PPD with them. Participants identified a number of barriers to increasing access and utilization of PPD support resources, including: not feeling like symptoms were server enough, feeling embarrassed to seek help, not knowing where to find support/information, and not able to afford or insurance wouldn't cover PPD support. Only 40% of providers reported screening for PPD and 33% felt they had not received adequate training. Barriers identified by providers were a lack of trained providers, lack of PPD specific support groups, cultural stigma, and lack of PPD awareness among providers. Of the women who did not exclusively breastfeed for the full six-month recommendation, the most common breastfeeding concerns included: perceptions of low milk supply; lack of lactation support; medical reasons; and pain. Providers described an environment of uneven distribution of resources, general lack of awareness of available resources, along

  6. Native Americans in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Family Spirit Project provides health and parenting education and in-home support to Navajo and Apache teen parents. The public-health careers of Native professionals allied with the project are described, including a public health administrator, a trainer of field workers, and a medical researcher specializing in communicable diseases that…

  7. Public Health Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report documents issues related to the work of the Florida Comprehensive Health Professions Education Plan. Public health education prepares students for initial employment or advancement in a number of positions. While the public health work force is primarily employed in various units in local, state, and federal governments, industry also…

  8. Changes in College Student Health:Implications for Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Marrone, Sonia; Hladkyj, Steve; Robinson-Epp, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations of health perceptions and behaviors with subsequent academic performance among college students. Multiple health perceptions and behaviors were assessed for 203 college students both at the beginning and end of an academic year. Students' academic performance was also measured at the end of the…

  9. [Ethics in health policy and public health].

    PubMed

    Tichácek, B

    2000-11-01

    The author explains and illustrates by historical references terms such as health policy, public health, health. Next he deals with ethical principles of the health policy in the following sections: a) respecting people and their rights, b) maximalization of benefit and minimalization of damage, c) legal aspects.

  10. Reproductive health and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2007-10-01

    Individuals' reproductive choices are private matters, but sexual conduct and pregnancy impose significant public health burdens. Ethical principles of public health are distinguishable from principles applied in modern bioethics. Bioethical principles have been developed at the clinical or microethical level, affecting relations among individuals, whereas pubic health ethics applies at the population-based or macroethical level. Resolution of issues, for instance of consent to healthcare interventions and preservation of privacy, is different in public health practice from in clinical medicine. Public health aspects of human reproduction concern reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in resource-poor countries, and the contribution to high rates of each of unsafe abortion, most prevalent where abortion laws are restrictive. Further aspects of public health ethics concern limited access to contraceptive services, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, causes of infertility, especially due to STIs, and responses to each of these concerns.

  11. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  12. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  13. Social marketing in public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  14. How to create and terminate a school of public health.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Lennart; Karlberg, Ingvar

    2015-08-01

    The famous preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) from 1948, stating that health is not only the absence of disease, has been one of the most influential political statements of our time. The follow-up, reaching a position where health is viewed as instrumental to a good life and not as a goal in itself, as set out in the Ottawa Charter of 1986, has likewise been of the utmost importance for the global development of public health, as well as developing the concept of health promotion. The focus on public health sparked by the WHO was paralleled by expansion of the academic interest in the topic, beginning in the USA and successively adopted around the world. In the Nordic countries the pioneering of an academic platform for public health studies and research began in 1953. This was later followed by a stepwise expansion to a full academic institution with postgraduate studies, work-related training, research and development. From the start, the resultant institution called the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was a joint Nordic project financed by the Nordic governments. The NHV became a leader in public health studies in Nordic countries and also a role model for the development of an academic community. A large campus and a select and erudite staff, together with thousands of students, paved the way for the NHV having a major impact on public health policy in Nordic countries. One effect of this was increasing awareness of the need for systematic policy supporting public health research and, with this, the founding of institutions of public health in all of the separate Nordic countries. Ironically, the impact made by the NHV in spreading the idea of public health as an important part of academic study has made the NHV superfluous. It is true that courses and programmes in public health are now available at most universities in the five Nordic countries, but they are directed at young students fresh from high school. There is no

  15. How to create and terminate a school of public health.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Lennart; Karlberg, Ingvar

    2015-08-01

    The famous preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) from 1948, stating that health is not only the absence of disease, has been one of the most influential political statements of our time. The follow-up, reaching a position where health is viewed as instrumental to a good life and not as a goal in itself, as set out in the Ottawa Charter of 1986, has likewise been of the utmost importance for the global development of public health, as well as developing the concept of health promotion. The focus on public health sparked by the WHO was paralleled by expansion of the academic interest in the topic, beginning in the USA and successively adopted around the world. In the Nordic countries the pioneering of an academic platform for public health studies and research began in 1953. This was later followed by a stepwise expansion to a full academic institution with postgraduate studies, work-related training, research and development. From the start, the resultant institution called the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was a joint Nordic project financed by the Nordic governments. The NHV became a leader in public health studies in Nordic countries and also a role model for the development of an academic community. A large campus and a select and erudite staff, together with thousands of students, paved the way for the NHV having a major impact on public health policy in Nordic countries. One effect of this was increasing awareness of the need for systematic policy supporting public health research and, with this, the founding of institutions of public health in all of the separate Nordic countries. Ironically, the impact made by the NHV in spreading the idea of public health as an important part of academic study has made the NHV superfluous. It is true that courses and programmes in public health are now available at most universities in the five Nordic countries, but they are directed at young students fresh from high school. There is no

  16. Public Safety Core. Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document, which lists the public safety core competencies that are part of the Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC) in Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations develop a course to provide students with knowledge and skills applicable to public safety careers, including but not limited to firefighter,…

  17. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  18. Structural change in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Munson, F C; D'Aunno, T A

    1989-01-01

    In response to opportunities and threats in their environments, academic health centers (AHCs) are making important changes in their structure. Several AHCs have legally separated their university hospital from the university. In contrast, other AHCs are linking the university hospital more closely to the medical school by concentrating authority for key decisions in the office of an AHC executive. This article draws from a national study of AHCs and examines the advantages and disadvantages of such changes in AHC structure. An important reason for these changes is maximizing revenues from patient care; an important consequence is the increased salience of patient care among the multiple purposes of AHCs. PMID:10294354

  19. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    PubMed

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health.

  20. Teaching of public health ethics in India: a mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Public health ethics has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Frequently, public health practitioners have to confront complex decisions, with numerous and often conflicting ethical implications. The objective of this study was to obtain information on the teaching of public health ethics in India by making a detailed examination of the public health and community medicine curricula. The specific areas of interest included the content and structure of the courses and electives available to students. The results of this study indicate that ethics courses are yet to find their rightful place in the teaching of public health in India. The curricula vary across institutes in terms of the time and content devoted to the teaching of public health ethics. It is suggested that public health programmes in India develop and incorporate ethics courses so as to keep pace with the emerging challenges in the field. An interdisciplinary consortium should preferably be formed at the national level to take up this academic endeavour.

  1. Public health week: marketing the concept of public health.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Margolis, L A

    1992-01-01

    The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in expanding public health services to a changing community. Health promotion was acknowledged as a critical target of the strategic planning process. Among the most significant results of the health promotion directive was the establishment of an annual Public Health Week in Los Angeles County. Beginning in 1988, 1 week per year was selected to enhance the community's awareness of public health programs and the leadership role PHP&S plays in providing these programs to nearly 9 million residents of Los Angeles County. Events in Public Health Week include a professional lecture series and the honoring of an outstanding public health activist and a media personality who has fostered health promotion. Other free community activities such as mobile clinics, screenings, and health fairs are held throughout the county. With intensive media coverage of Public Health Week, PHP&S has been aggressive in promoting its own services and accomplishments while also educating the community on vital wellness issues. The strategic methodology employed by PHP&S, with its emphasis on long-range proactive planning, is receiving national recognition and could be adopted by similar agencies wishing to enhance their image and develop unique health promotion projects in their communities.

  2. Gender Differences in Publication Productivity, Academic Position, Career Duration and Funding Among U.S. Academic Radiation Oncology Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Emma B.; Jagsi, Reshma; Wilson, Lynn D.; Choi, Mehee; Thomas, Charles R.; Fuller, Clifton. D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There has been much recent interest in promoting gender equality in academic medicine. This study aims to analyze gender differences in rank, career duration, publication productivity and research funding among radiation oncologists at U.S. academic institutions. Methods For 82 domestic academic radiation oncology departments, the authors identified current faculty and recorded their academic rank, degree and gender. The authors recorded bibliographic metrics for physician faculty from a commercially available database (SCOPUS, Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, NL), including numbers of publications and h-indices. The authors then concatenated this data with National Institute of Health funding for each individual per Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (REPORTer). The authors performed descriptive and correlative analyses, stratifying by gender and rank. Results Of 1031 faculty, 293 (28%) women and 738 (72%) men, men had a higher median h-index (8 (0-59) versus 5 (0-39); P<.05) and publication number (26 (0-591) versus 13 (0-306); P<.05) overall, and were more likely to be senior faculty and receive NIH funding. However, after stratifying for rank, these differences were largely non-significant. On multivariate analysis, there were significant correlations between gender, career duration and academic position, and h-index (P<.01). Conclusions The determinants of a successful career in academic medicine are certainly multi-factorial, particularly in traditionally male-dominated fields. However, data from radiation oncologists show a systematic gender association withfewer women achieving senior faculty rank. However, women who achieve senior status have productivity metrics comparable to their male counterparts. This suggests early career development and mentorship of female faculty may narrow productivity disparities. PMID:24667510

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  4. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  5. Masterclass in veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    Each summer, one student from each vet school in the British Isles gets the chance to attend a week-long masterclass to learn more about veterinary public health. Last year, Hannah Clifford was one of them. Here she explains how her understanding of the relevance and responsibility of vets working in public health has changed. PMID:26851115

  6. Digital reference service: trends in academic health science libraries.

    PubMed

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2005-01-01

    Two years after the initial 2002 study, a greater number of academic health science libraries are offering digital reference chat services, and this number appears poised to grow in the coming years. This 2004 follow-up study found that 36 (27%) of the academic health science libraries examined provide digital chat reference services; this was an approximately 6% increase over the 25 libraries (21%) located in 2002. Trends in digital reference services in academic health science libraries were derived from the exploration of academic health science library Web sites and from digital correspondence with academic health science library personnel using e-mail and chat. This article presents an overview of the current state of digital reference service in academic health science libraries.

  7. An Interinstitutional Academic Collaborative Partnership to End Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Barbara N.; Davis, Leroy; Parker, Veronica G.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been published in the health care literature describing partnerships between academic institutions and community or health care agencies that are designed to improve health outcomes in medically underserved populations. However, little has been published regarding partnerships between minority- and majority-serving academic institutions…

  8. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  9. Academic Values, Institutional Management and Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…

  10. Using Publication Metrics to Highlight Academic Productivity and Research Impact

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Cone, David C.; Sarli, Cathy C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of widely available measures of academic productivity and impact using publication data and highlights uses of these metrics for various purposes. Metrics based on publication data include measures such as number of publications, number of citations, the journal impact factor score, and the h-index, as well as emerging metrics based on document-level metrics. Publication metrics can be used for a variety of purposes for tenure and promotion, grant applications and renewal reports, benchmarking, recruiting efforts, and administrative purposes for departmental or university performance reports. The authors also highlight practical applications of measuring and reporting academic productivity and impact to emphasize and promote individual investigators, grant applications, or department output. PMID:25308141

  11. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R.; Bherwani, Kamal M.; Henning, Kelly J.

    2008-01-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  12. The right to public health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can.

  13. Expert searching in public health

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

  14. The right to public health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can. PMID:27030479

  15. The Russell Case: Academic Freedom vs. Public Hysteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Joseph M.

    This paper examines issues of academic freedom and the community's role in a review of public and legal events leading to the court's striking down of the 1940 appointment of Bertrand Russell to teach at the City College of New York. Russell was to teach three philosophy courses relating logic, mathematics, and science to philosophy. Episcopal…

  16. Maximizing Accessibility of Academic Publications: Applications of Electronic Publishing Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffress, Laura; Lyle, Stacey D.

    2012-01-01

    Professors at higher education institutions often feel pressure to "publish or perish" in order to maintain their standing in the academic community, yet a large number of these publications languish in obscure technical journals or are presented only once at a conference or online journal. While these methods achieve the goal of…

  17. Profiling Chief Academic Officers in Public Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Cynthia B.; Cejda, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 369 chief academic officers (CAOs) at public community colleges belonging to the American Association of Community Colleges was conducted in 1998-99. Reports on the personal and professional characteristics of respondents. Indicates that female CAOs differ from male CAOs in four ways. Notes the continued low representation of ethnic…

  18. The new public health litigation.

    PubMed

    Parmet, W E; Daynard, R A

    2000-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing use of litigation as a public health tool. Litigation has been brought to advance policies concerning such matters as tobacco, gun violence, and lead paint. This article discusses this development and the criticism that can be leveled at using litigation to develop public health policy. The article concludes that, although litigation may not always be successful, it can deter dangerous activities and play an important role in advancing the political and social struggle for public health. PMID:10884960

  19. Crowdsourcing applications for public health.

    PubMed

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-01

    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. PMID:24439353

  20. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.

  1. [Anomie and public mental health].

    PubMed

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  2. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  3. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  4. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects, pot smokers, APHA Annual Meeting Nov 04 2016 Nov. 3 news: Prostate screening benefits, election stress, bugs in our homes Nov 03 2016 Closing General Session: ‘The pursuit of health is ...

  5. Illinois Academic Standards--For Public Review and Comment. Volume Three, State Goals 19-27. Physical Development and Health, Fine Arts. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    As part of the school reform legislation of 1985, the Illinois State Board of Education established State Goals for Learning in six fundamental learning areas: language arts, mathematics, science, social science, fine arts, and physical development and health. The next step is to develop standards that will more clearly define the knowledge and…

  6. Health care quality improvement publication trends.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gordon H; MacEachern, Mark P; Perla, Rocco J; Gaines, Jean M; Davis, Matthew M; Shrank, William H

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the extent of academic interest in quality improvement (QI) initiatives in medical practice, annual publication trends for the most well-known QI methodologies being used in health care settings were analyzed. A total of 10 key medical- and business-oriented library databases were examined: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ABI/INFORM, and Business Source Complete. A total of 13 057 articles were identified that discuss at least 1 of 10 well-known QI concepts used in health care contexts, 8645 (66.2%) of which were classified as original research. "Total quality management" was the only methodology to demonstrate a significant decline in publication over time. "Continuous quality improvement" was the most common topic of study across all publication years, whereas articles discussing Lean methodology demonstrated the largest growth in publication volume over the past 2 decades. Health care QI publication volume increased substantially beginning in 1991.

  7. A model curriculum for public health bioterrorism education.

    PubMed Central

    Dembek, Zygmunt; Iton, Anthony; Hansen, Holger

    2005-01-01

    Beginning with the spring semester of 2001, a course designed to prepare future public health leaders for potential bioterrorism events has been offered by the University of Connecticut Graduate Program in Public Health. Entitled "The Public Health Response to Bioterrorism," this popular course was one of the few developed by academic programs in the United States prior to the attack of September 11, 2001. The course utilizes innovative teaching methods and presentations by distinguished guest speakers to educate public health personnel, public health and medical students, and physicians and nurses about the complex issues involved in the public health response to bioterrorism. The instructional methods and curriculum can serve as prototypes for similar efforts. PMID:15736326

  8. Personalism for public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination. PMID:20567073

  9. Personalism for public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  10. Influencing public health without authority.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate's is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals' roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals. PMID:22684169

  11. Social marketing for public health.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D C; Rudd, R E; Moeykens, B A; Moloney, T W

    1993-01-01

    Marketing techniques and tools, imported from the private sector, are increasingly being advocated for their potential value in crafting and disseminating effective social change strategies. This paper describes the field of social marketing as it is used to improve the health of the public. A disciplined process of strategic planning can yield promising new insights into consumer behavior and product design. But the "technology" cannot simply be transferred without some translation to reconcile differences between commercial marketing and public health.

  12. State procurement law: facilitating the collaboration between health department and school of public health.

    PubMed

    Huber, George A; Barron, Gerald M; Duchak, Linda S; Raniowski, Martin; Alsahlani, Hazem S; Potter, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    The mark of an "academic health department" includes shared activity by academic and practice partners sustained over time. Despite a long history of productive interactivity, the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health often faced administrative hurdles in contracting for projects of mutual interest. Seeking to overcome these hurdles, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health negotiated a Master Agreement on the basis of statutes designating both as "public procurement units." This provided a template for project specifications, standard financial terms, and a contracting process. Since taking effect, the Master Agreement has supported projects in policy development, capacity building, workforce development, program evaluation, data analysis, and program planning. This experience suggests an approach potentially useful for other states and localities seeking to solidify academic health department partnerships either envisioned for the future or already in place.

  13. Health Education Strategies for Coping with Academic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the significance of health education strategies for coping with academic stress. Comprehensive health education strategies for coping with academic stress can help students obtain the greatest benefits from education and become healthy and productive adults .One child out of four has an emotional, social,…

  14. Implementing Personalized Medicine in the Academic Health Center.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Recently we at Partners Health Care had a series of articles in the Journal of Personalized Medicine describing how we are going about implementing Personalized Medicine in an academic health care system [1-10].[...]. PMID:27657137

  15. Future Directions for Public Health Education Reforms in India

    PubMed Central

    Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Negandhi, Himanshu; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching–learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour. PMID:25295242

  16. Disasters and public health

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the health effects of disasters have shown that epidemiological indices can be of value in planning preventive and relief measures and in evaluating their effectiveness. Mortality rates naturally vary considerably, but in earthquakes, for example, the number of deaths per 100 houses destroyed can give an indication of the adequacy of building techniques. Age-specific mortality rates can help to identify particularly vulnerable groups and perhaps indicate what form of education would be valuable. Except in earthquakes, the number of casualties after a disaster is usually low in relation to the number of deaths, and study of the distribution and types of lesions would help in planning the amounts and types of relief supplies and personnel required. Disasters also affect the general level of morbidity in a district because of either interruption of normal health care services or of spraying or other disease control measures. Mental health and nutrition following disasters are particular problems that require further investigation. Study of all these features of disasters has been handicapped by a lack of data, particularly concerning the health situation immediately after the impact. The provision of surveillance teams in disaster-prone areas would appear to be a field in which international cooperation could yield immense benefits. PMID:311707

  17. Organization of Academic Advising in Ohio's Two-Year Public Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Verne W.

    2012-01-01

    Academic advising administrators, academic advising professional organization leaders, and academic advising scholars have not had access to information about how academic advising is organized in their states. The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the organization of academic advising in Ohio's two-year public colleges; (b) to…

  18. Stigmatization and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Courtwright, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Encouraged by the success of smoking denormalization strategies as a tobacco-control measure, public health institutions are adopting a similar approach to other health behaviors. For example, a recent controversial ad campaign in New York explicitly aimed to denormalize HIV/AIDS amongst gay men. Authors such as Scott Burris have argued that efforts like this are tantamount to stigmatization and that such stigmatization is unethical because it is dehumanizing. Others have offered a limited endorsement of denormalization/stigmatization campaigns as being justified on consequentialist grounds; namely, that the potential public health benefits outweigh any stigmatizing side effects. In this paper, I examine and reject the blanket condemnation of stigmatization efforts in public health. I argue that the moral status of such efforts are best evaluated within a contractualist, as opposed to a consequentialist, framework. Contractualism in public health ethics asks whether a particular stigmatizing policy could be justified to reasonable individuals who do not know whether they will be affected by that policy. Using this approach, I argue that it is sometimes permissible for public health institutions to engage in health-related stigmatization.

  19. USGS Science Serves Public Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health

  20. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  1. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders.

  2. Integrating public health education in a public health practice setting: the experience of the School of Public Health, University at Albany and the New York State Department of Health.

    PubMed

    Birkhead, Guthrie S; Eidson, Millicent; Dewar, Diane; Nasca, Philip; Morse, Dale L; Shah, Nirav R

    2014-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health (DOH) has a long history of biomedical research, public health policy and program development, peer-reviewed scholarship, and teaching. Its evolution as an academic health department advanced significantly when the University at Albany and DOH formed the School of Public Health Sciences in 1985 to further develop these functions while formally training the next generation of public health workers. The School, renamed in 1990 as the School of Public Health (SPH), was initially located within the DOH with its staff as the founding faculty. The curriculum was heavily influenced by public health practice imperatives. The SPH has evolved to have an independent campus and full-time academic faculty, but the DOH remains closely linked. The relationship is governed by a memorandum of understanding that commits both partners to provide substantial and continuing resources to the SPH. The SPH brings value to the DOH's mission to improve the health of the state's citizens by providing an academic focus to problems faced in health department practice settings. The opportunity to teach and be involved in an academic environment increases the DOH's ability to recruit, retain, and improve the skill level of its professional and scientific staff and thereby improve its ability to assess health problems and to design and evaluate public health programs. The SPH also provides training and support to county health departments and nongovernment organizations, which further the DOH's mission, through continuing education programs and an online MPH degree program. International exchanges including those with China, Vietnam, and the Republic of Georgia have enriched the academic environment. Challenges include maintaining sufficient full-time faculty members, the need for the SPH to take on broader public health issues than those applicable to New York, and the shrinkage of the DOH's workforce and departure of many senior scientists who served as

  3. Bridging graduate education in public health and the liberal arts.

    PubMed

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Gubrium, Aline C; Aulino, Felicity; Krause, Elizabeth L; Leatherman, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts Amherst is part of Five-Colleges Inc, a consortium that includes the university and four liberal arts colleges. Consortium faculty from the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at the university and from the colleges are working to bridge liberal arts with public health graduate education. We outline four key themes guiding this effort and exemplary curricular tools for innovative community-based and multidisciplinary academic and research programs. The structure of the consortium has created a novel trajectory for student learning and engagement, with important ramifications for pedagogy and professional practice in public health. We show how graduate public health education and liberal arts can, and must, work in tandem to transform public health practice in the 21st century.

  4. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  5. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  6. Public health and policy.

    PubMed

    Nunnery, Jennifer; Angulo, Frederick J; Tollefson, Linda

    2006-02-24

    Antimicrobial agent usage data are essential for focusing efforts to reduce misuse and overuse of antimicrobial agents in food producing animals because these practices may select for resistance in bacteria of animals. Transfer of resistant bacteria from animals to humans can lead to human infection caused by resistant pathogens. Resistant infections can lead to treatment failures, resulting in prolonged or more severe illness. Multiple World Health Organization (WHO) reports have concluded that both antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial usage should be monitored on the national level. The system for collecting antimicrobial usage data should be clear and transparent to facilitate trend analysis and comparison within and among countries. Therapeutic, prophylactic and growth promotion use should be recorded, along with route of administration and animal species and/or production class treated. The usage data should be compared to resistance data, and the comparison should be made available in a timely manner. In the United States, surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne bacteria is performed by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for enteric bacteria, however, the United States still lacks a mechanism for collecting antimicrobial usage data. Combined with antimicrobial resistance information from NARMS, antimicrobial usage data will help to direct education efforts and policy decisions, minimizing the risk that people will develop antimicrobial resistant infections as a result of eating food of animal origin. Ultimately mitigation strategies guided by usage data will be more effective in maintaining antimicrobial drugs for appropriate veterinary use and in protecting human health. PMID:16269192

  7. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe Mather, Carolyn M; McGurk, Meghan D

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the adults in Hawai‘i are overweight or obese, exposing them to increased risk for chronic diseases and resulting in higher health care expenses. Poor dietary habits and physical inactivity are important contributors to obesity and overweight. Because adults spend most of their waking hours at work, the workplace is an important setting for interventions to solve this growing problem. Changing the nutrition environment to support healthy eating is a recommended practice for worksite wellness interventions. Following this recommendation, the Hawai‘i State Department of Health (DOH) launched the Choose Healthy Now! Healthy Vending Pilot Project to increase access to healthy options in worksites. Choose Healthy Now! utilized an education campaign and a traffic light nutrition coding system (green = go, yellow = slow, red = uh-oh), based on federal nutrition guidelines, to help employees identify the healthier options in their worksite snack shops. Inventory of healthy items was increased and product placement techniques were used to help make the healthy choice the easy choice. DOH partnered with the Department of Human Services' Ho‘opono Vending Program to pilot the project in six government buildings on O‘ahu between May and September of 2014. Vendors added new green (healthy) and yellow (intermediate) options to their snack shop and cafeteria inventories, and labeled their snacks and beverages with green and yellow point-of-decision stickers. The following article outlines background and preliminary findings from the Choose Healthy Now! pilot. PMID:25414808

  8. What does the UK public want from academic science communication?

    PubMed

    Redfern, James; Illingworth, Sam; Verran, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent's current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the 'common practice' of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals), there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience.

  9. What does the UK public want from academic science communication?

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, James; Illingworth, Sam; Verran, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent’s current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the ‘common practice’ of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals), there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience. PMID:27347384

  10. What does the UK public want from academic science communication?

    PubMed

    Redfern, James; Illingworth, Sam; Verran, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent's current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the 'common practice' of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals), there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience. PMID:27347384

  11. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health OpenCourseWare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchanaraksa, Sukon; Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D.

    2009-01-01

    The need for public health knowledge is ever increasing, but the educational options have been limited to coursework delivered by academics to individuals who can afford the cost of tuition at public health institutions. To overcome this disparity, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) has joined the Massachusetts Institute of…

  12. PUBLIC HEALTH AND PUBLIC MEDICAL CARE

    PubMed Central

    Chope, H. D.

    1956-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the historical development of the major movements and organizations dedicated to the preservation of the health and security of the American people. Statements of various national organizations on the need for integration of these various services for the protection of the indigent are presented, and the experience of one county department in San Mateo which operates a completely integrated department of public health and welfare is reviewed, giving the pros and cons of the operation of a number of disciplines through a single administration. The major advantage of an integrated department of this kind is that all the services having to do with human needs—the needs arising from emotional distress, economic reverses or illness—are combined under the direction of a physician. It is probable that failure of the health discipline to provide such services was a factor in the presentation of the Wagner Act in 1938 and the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill in 1943. Continued close cooperation between the various disciplines devoted to the protection of the health and welfare of American citizens can help in solving some of the current problems. PMID:13364660

  13. Primary Health Care: Comparing Public Health Nursing Models in Ireland and Norway

    PubMed Central

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia; Day, Mary Rose

    2013-01-01

    Health of populations is determined by a multitude of contextual factors. Primary Health Care Reform endeavors to meet the broad health needs of populations and remains on international health agendas. Public health nurses are key professionals in the delivery of primary health care, and it is important for them to learn from global experiences. International collaboration is often facilitated by academic exchanges. As a result of one such exchange, an international PHN collaboration took place. The aim of this paper is to analyse the similarities and differences in public health nursing in Ireland and Norway within the context of primary care. PMID:23606956

  14. Training Physicians for Public Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…

  15. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  16. Public health issues in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Jensen, G L; Greenlees, K J

    1997-08-01

    The authors address the public health issues associated with the consumption of aquacultural products using numerous examples from the United States of America. As with other foods, public health risks exist but these mostly involve open water environments or products which are consumed raw or undercooked. Unlike wild fisheries, inland aquaculture systems can minimise public health risks by proper site evaluation and good aquacultural practices. Responsible use of pesticides and therapeutants can prevent violative residues to assure product safety and wholesomeness. The implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point regulations will further enhance the preventive approach to hazards control. The most challenging public health risks arise from shellfish production in open, surface waters, where both naturally-occurring and trace environmental residue contaminants can bioaccumulate in tissues and may cause disease outbreaks (and, in severe cases, death). Water quality certification programmes and field surveillance efforts including product sampling, testing and monitoring can address critical safety criteria. This paper focuses primarily on public health risks associated with production: however, the fact that consumer risks also occur as a result of the processing of aquacultural products and that foodborne diseases arise additionally from unsanitary handling or preparation and storage at incorrect temperatures (as is the case for food products from other animals) must also be taken into consideration.

  17. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  18. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  19. Organizational models of emerging academic health science centers in England.

    PubMed

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Davies, Stephen M; Buchan, Alastair M

    2010-08-01

    Recent government policy initiatives to foster medical innovation and high-quality care in England have prompted academic and clinical leaders to develop new organizational models to support the tripartite Flexnerian mission of academic medicine. Medical schools and health care providers have responded by aligning their missions and creating integrated governance structures that strengthen their partnerships. In March 2009, the government officially designated five academic-clinical partnerships as England's first academic health science centers (AHSCs). As academic-clinical integration is likely to continue, future AHSC leaders could benefit from an analysis of models for organizing medical school-clinical enterprise relationships in England's emerging AHSCs. In addition, as the United States ponders health systems reform and universal coverage, U.S. medical leaders may benefit from insight into the workings of academic medicine in England's universal health system. In this article, the authors briefly characterize the organization and financing of the National Health Service and how it supports academic medicine. They review the policy behind the designation of AHSCs. Then, the authors describe contrasting organizational models adopted in two of the newly designated AHSCs and analyze these models using a framework derived from U.S. literature. The authors conclude by outlining the major challenges facing academic medicine in England and offer suggestions for future research collaborations between leaders of AHSCs in the United States and England.

  20. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    PubMed

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  1. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    PubMed

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo. PMID:26331506

  2. Teaching Classroom Management-- A Potential Public Health Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlow, Ruth; Hansford, Lorraine; Edwards, Vanessa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Norman, Shelley; Ingarfield, Sara; Sharkey, Siobhan; Logan, Stuart; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the feasibility of a classroom management course as a public health intervention. Improved socio-emotional skills may boost children's developmental and academic trajectory, while the costs of behaviour problems are enormous for schools with considerable impact on others' well-being.…

  3. Financial Performance of Academic Health Center Hospitals, 1994-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Allen; Koenig, Lane; Sen, Namrata; Ho, Silver; Gilani, Jawaria

    This study examined how competitive market dynamics between 1994 and 2000 have affected the financial stability of Academic Health Center (AHC) hospitals and their ability to support their academic and social missions. It looked at the financial challenges facing AHC hospitals through a survey involving 1,138 teaching hospitals. Findings…

  4. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  5. Evolution of an academic-public library partnership.

    PubMed

    Engeszer, Robert J; Olmstadt, William; Daley, Jan; Norfolk, Monique; Krekeler, Kara; Rogers, Monica; Colditz, Graham; Anwuri, Victoria V; Morris, Scott; Voorhees, Mychal; McDonald, Brenda; Bernstein, Jackie; Schoening, Paul; Williams, Lee

    2016-01-01

    A partnership to improve access to health information via an urban public library system was established in St. Louis, Missouri, in 2011. A multiyear project was outlined that included an information needs assessment, a training class for public library staff, information kiosks at library branches for delivering printed consumer health materials, and a series of health-related programming. The partnership evolved to include social service and community organizations to carry out project goals and establish a sustainable program that met the health and wellness interests of the community.

  6. Evolution of an academic-public library partnership.

    PubMed

    Engeszer, Robert J; Olmstadt, William; Daley, Jan; Norfolk, Monique; Krekeler, Kara; Rogers, Monica; Colditz, Graham; Anwuri, Victoria V; Morris, Scott; Voorhees, Mychal; McDonald, Brenda; Bernstein, Jackie; Schoening, Paul; Williams, Lee

    2016-01-01

    A partnership to improve access to health information via an urban public library system was established in St. Louis, Missouri, in 2011. A multiyear project was outlined that included an information needs assessment, a training class for public library staff, information kiosks at library branches for delivering printed consumer health materials, and a series of health-related programming. The partnership evolved to include social service and community organizations to carry out project goals and establish a sustainable program that met the health and wellness interests of the community. PMID:26807055

  7. Public health. Eyes on the prize.

    PubMed

    Winters, M

    1994-09-01

    Public health has been reborn in the past ten years, with the development of a broad-based movement representing a range of perspectives. But is the public health movement losing sight of its origins and objectives? Maggie Winters, projects manager of the Public Health Alliance, to which the HVA is affiliated, puts the case for a radical public health critique.

  8. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors

    PubMed Central

    Tooey, Mary Joan (M.J.); Arnold, Gretchen N.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative. PMID:25349542

  9. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors.

    PubMed

    Tooey, Mary Joan M J; Arnold, Gretchen N

    2014-10-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative.

  10. Directions for Academic Institutions in Health Services Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, John H.; Levin, Karen

    1974-01-01

    The academic health center must move swiftly to develop institutionwide quality of care assurance programs that meet the review requirements of Title XI of the Social Security Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-603). (Editor/PG)

  11. [Recent progress in international public health].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China. PMID:26822634

  12. Establishing the SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN): A Survey Exploring the Needs of Academic and Community Networks in SouthWestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kathryn; Randhawa, Jasmine; Steele, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    With the evolving fields of health research, health professional education and advanced clinical care comes a need to bring researchers, educators and health care providers together to enhance communication, knowledge-sharing and interdisciplinary collaboration. There is also a need for active collaboration between academic institutions and community organizations to improve health care delivery and health outcomes in the community setting. In Canada, an Academic Health Sciences Network model has been proposed to achieve such activities. The SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN) has been established among three universities, three community colleges, community hospitals, community-based organizations and health care providers and two Local Health Integrated Networks (LHINs) in Southwestern Ontario. A survey was conducted to understand the characteristics, activities, existing partnerships, short- and long-term goals of the academic and community health networks in SouthWestern Ontario to inform the development of SWAHN moving forward. A total of 114 health networks were identified from the two participating LHINs, 103 community health networks and 11 academic health networks. A mailed survey was sent to all networks and responses were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The short- and long-term goals of these networks were categorized into five main themes: Public Health, Education, Research, System Delivery and Special Populations. Overall, this study helped to elicit important information from the academic and community based networks, which will inform the future work of SWAHN. This research has also demonstrated the significance of collecting information from both academic and community partners during the formation of other interdisciplinary health networks.

  13. Writing for publication: adapting academic work into articles.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Bob; Cronin, Patricia

    This article discusses how to transform material worthy of dissemination into a form that leads to successful publication. It focuses on publication of systematic and literature reviews, empirical studies and conceptual analyses undertaken as part of a course of academic study. An increasing number of nurses and midwives are undertaking healthcare-related courses at BSc, MSc, MPhil and PhD level. Many of their theses are ultimately left to gather dust on library shelves, and are only read by examiners. The authors have worked with many novice writers whose attempts to write up their theses have been unsuccessful for a number of reasons. These are explored in this article. Suggestions for avoiding the many pitfalls that can prevent publication are offered.

  14. Academic Majors and Subject-Area Certifications of Health Education Teachers in the United States, 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardina, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify academic preparation and subject-area certifications of K-12 public school staff teaching at least one health education class during 2011-2012 academic year. In general, teachers who are well qualified to teach a subject area are more likely to positively affect student achievement. Methods: Data…

  15. School-Based Health Centers and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Poor academic outcomes and high dropout rates are major concerns of educators, policy makers, and parents alike--and poor health severely limits a child's motivation and ability to learn. Recent research confirms that "health disparities affect educational achievement". Improving students' health is integral to education reform. "School-Based…

  16. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  17. Liberty but Not License: Publicity, Academic Freedom, and the Professionalization of the Professoriate, 1890-1929

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberler, Zachary James

    2013-01-01

    This historical dissertation explores the public and academic discourse regarding the concept of academic freedom from 1890-1929, with the foundation of the American Association of University Professors in 1915 serving as a general midpoint of the analysis. Throughout this period the public academic freedom discourse was consistently connected to…

  18. A Call to Action: A Blueprint for Academic Health Sciences in the Era of Mass Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Warren J; Cloud, David; Spaulding, Anne C; Shelton, Deborah; Trestman, Robert L; Altice, Frederick L; Champion-Lippmann, Carisa; Thomas, David; Taxman, Faye S

    2016-01-01

    Over 100 million Americans have criminal records, and the U.S. incarcerates seven times more citizens than most developed countries. The burden of incarceration disproportionately affects people of color and ethnic minorities, and those living in poverty. While 95% of incarcerated people return to society, recidivism rates are high with nearly 75% arrested again within five years of release. Criminal records impede access to employment and other social services such as shelter and health care. Justice-involved people have higher rates of substance, mental health, and some chronic medical disorders than the general population; furthermore, the incarcerated population is rapidly aging. Only a minority of academic health science centers are engaged in health services research, workforce training, or correctional health care. This commentary provides rationale and a blueprint for engagement of academic health science institutions to harness their capabilities to tackle one of the country's most vexing public health crises. PMID:27133508

  19. Public health equity in refugee situations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003. Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction. Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions. PMID:21575218

  20. Public health ethics: from foundations and frameworks to justice and global public health.

    PubMed

    Kass, Nancy E

    2004-01-01

    Ethics dilemmas have been present throughout the history of public health, and bioethics has devoted considerable attention to issues relevant to public health. Only recently, however, has public health ethics emerged as a recognized subfield of bioethics. Public health ethics requires that public health improvement come through just and respectful means. Bioethics in the future not only will take on more issues of public ethics, but will apply it extensive scholarship in distributive justice to questions of global public health.

  1. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  2. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  3. Rethinking schools of public health: a strategic alliance model.

    PubMed

    Moloughney, Brent W; Skinner, Harvey A

    2006-01-01

    Canada is in the midst of rejuvenation of public health organizations, mandates and infrastructure. Major planning exercises are underway regarding public health human resources, where academic institutions have a key role to play. To what extent could schools of public health be part of the solution? Many universities across Canada are considering or in the process of implementing MPH programs (some 17 programs planned and/or underway) and possible schools of public health. However, concerns are raised about critical mass, quality and standards. We encourage innovation and debate about ways to enhance collaborative and structural arrangements for education programs. A school of public health model might emerge from this, but so too might other models. Also, novel types of organizational structure need consideration. One example is a "strategic alliance" model that is broad-based, integrative and adaptive--building on the interdisciplinary focus needed for addressing public health concerns in the 21st century. From our perspective, the central question is: what (new) types of organizational structures and, equally important, collaborative networks will enable Canada to strengthen its public health workforce so that it may better address local and global challenges to public health? PMID:16827419

  4. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  5. The University of Washington's Community-Oriented Public Health Practice program and Public Health-Seattle & King County partnership.

    PubMed

    House, Peter J; Hartfield, Karen; Nicola, Bud; Bogan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The Community-Oriented Public Health Practice (COPHP) program, a 2-year in-residence MPH degree program in the University of Washington School of Public Health, has partnered with Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) since 2002 to create a mutually beneficial set of programs to improve teaching and address community-based public health problems in a practice setting. The COPHP program uses a problem-based learning approach that puts students in small groups to work on public health problems. Both University of Washington-based and PHSKC-based faculty facilitate the classroom work. In the first year for students, COPHP, in concert with PHSKC, places students in practicum assignments at PHSKC; in the second year, students undertake a master's project (capstone) in a community or public health agency. The capstone project entails taking on a problem in a community-based agency to improve either the health of a population or the capacity of the agency to improve population health. Both the practicum and the capstone projects emphasize applying classroom learning in actual public health practice work for community-based organizations. This partnership brings PHSKC and COPHP together in every aspect of teaching. In essence, PHSKC acts as the "academic health department" for COPHP. There are detailed agreements and contracts that guide all aspects of the partnership. Both the practicum and capstone projects require written contracts. The arrangements for getting non-University of Washington faculty paid for teaching and advising also include formal contracts.

  6. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  7. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  8. [Aesthetic surgery and public health].

    PubMed

    Fogli, A

    2003-10-01

    The increasing number of requests for aesthetic surgery legitimately leads to the question of whether it can be covered by Public Health. If we look at the definition of the World Health Organization, the answer is without any doubt an affirmative one. However, economic considerations show that there is no social system in the world that covers aesthetic surgery, except for some definite interventions. Requests for aesthetic surgery occur in all social classes. It is a personal choice and a voluntary decision. It is no longer society who assists a sick or ill patient but it is the person that assumes the responsibility for himself. PMID:14599901

  9. Chapter 3. Public health resources

    PubMed Central

    1973-01-01

    The resource requirements of the public health services are discussed in terms of their three main components: manpower, physical resources, and finances in relation to population. The observational data from the Republic of Korea provide an illustration of the problems of resource availability and utilization, with special reference to tuberculosis control. A calculation of resource and population constraints and estimates of the basic inputs required by tuberculosis control technology are presented. Data on the 1965 level of Korean health resources are given in the Annex to this chapter. PMID:20604424

  10. Do Foreclosures Affect Boston Public School Student Academic Performance? Public Policy Brief No. 13-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…

  11. Integrating an Academic Electronic Health Record: Challenges and Success Strategies.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Valerie M; Connors, Helen

    2016-08-01

    Technology is increasing the complexity in the role of today's nurse. Healthcare organizations are integrating more health information technologies and relying on the electronic health record for data collection, communication, and decision making. Nursing faculty need to prepare graduates for this environment and incorporate an academic electronic health record into a nursing curriculum to meet student-program outcomes. Although the need exists for student preparation, some nursing programs are struggling with implementation, whereas others have been successful. To better understand these complexities, this project was intended to identify current challenges and success strategies of effective academic electronic health record integration into nursing curricula. Using Rogers' 1962 Diffusion of Innovation theory as a framework for technology adoption, a descriptive survey design was used to gain insights from deans and program directors of nursing schools involved with the national Health Informatics & Technology Scholars faculty development program or Cerner's Academic Education Solution Consortium, working to integrate an academic electronic health record in their respective nursing schools. The participants' experiences highlighted approaches used by these schools to integrate these technologies. Data from this project provide nursing education with effective strategies and potential challenges that should be addressed for successful academic electronic health record integration.

  12. Integrating an Academic Electronic Health Record: Challenges and Success Strategies.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Valerie M; Connors, Helen

    2016-08-01

    Technology is increasing the complexity in the role of today's nurse. Healthcare organizations are integrating more health information technologies and relying on the electronic health record for data collection, communication, and decision making. Nursing faculty need to prepare graduates for this environment and incorporate an academic electronic health record into a nursing curriculum to meet student-program outcomes. Although the need exists for student preparation, some nursing programs are struggling with implementation, whereas others have been successful. To better understand these complexities, this project was intended to identify current challenges and success strategies of effective academic electronic health record integration into nursing curricula. Using Rogers' 1962 Diffusion of Innovation theory as a framework for technology adoption, a descriptive survey design was used to gain insights from deans and program directors of nursing schools involved with the national Health Informatics & Technology Scholars faculty development program or Cerner's Academic Education Solution Consortium, working to integrate an academic electronic health record in their respective nursing schools. The participants' experiences highlighted approaches used by these schools to integrate these technologies. Data from this project provide nursing education with effective strategies and potential challenges that should be addressed for successful academic electronic health record integration. PMID:27326804

  13. [Internal medicine and public health].

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    A special Committee on Internal Medicine and Public Health was established by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) in April 2007 with the duty to write a Consensus Paper on the interaction between both branches of medical profession. The main objective was to find the common grounds on which to construct a positive approach to regain space for Internal Medicine, based on prevalent epidemiológical features related to adult health issues. The authors describe the reasons to explain the gap between clinical medicine and population health and identify the nature and evolution of chronic diseases as the point of encounter between both. With Chilean health surveys data, they state that chronic diseases explain the high proportion of burden of disease, mortality and disability, and stress that by the year 2025 one in every five inhabitants will be over 65 years of age, with ageing as another main problem for the health care sector. Population with multiple risks and multimorbidity is the most important challenge for the Chilean Health Care System. A new model of care is needed to tackle this scenario with new skills regarding psychosocial determinants of health. The leading role of internists and ideally geriatricians, will be crucial in this process and will help the implementation of sound population based interventions. Both individual and community level interventions will help to improve quality of life of Chilean families.

  14. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  15. Capacity building in public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review capacity building in public health nutrition (PHN), the need for which has been stressed for many years by a range of academics, national and international organisations. Although great strides have been made worldwide in the science of nutrition, there remain many problems of undernutrition and increasingly of obesity and related chronic diseases. The main emphasis in capacity building has been on the nutrition and health workforce, but the causes of these health problems are multifactorial and require collaboration across sectors in their solution. This means that PHN capacity building has to go beyond basic nutrition and beyond the immediate health workforce to policy makers in other sectors. The present paper provides examples of capacity building activities by various organisations, including universities, industry and international agencies. Examples of web-based courses are given including an introduction to the e-Nutrition Academy. The scope is international but with a special focus on Africa. In conclusion, there remains a great need for capacity building in PHN but the advent of the internet has revolutionised the possibilities. PMID:25604975

  16. Causal Inference in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A.; Goodman, Steven N.; Hernán, Miguel A.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action’s consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor’s causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world. PMID:23297653

  17. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Social Science Biostatistics and Informatics Community Health Environmental Health Epidemiology Global Health Health Policy and Management Health Promotion and Communication Maternal and Child Health ...

  18. Noise exposure and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728

  19. Academic nursing clinic: impact on health and cost outcomes for vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Badger, Terry A; McArthur, Donna Behler

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected health and cost outcomes of clients who used an academic nursing clinic (ANC) located in a high-rise public housing facility for low-income citizens. Service use, health promotion and screening, quality of care, satisfaction and costs were examined. Health outcomes were improved. Estimated cost savings were about $36,000 during the first year with reduced paramedic and police calls, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Findings show that advanced practice nurses can positively influence health outcomes by providing cost-effective quality health care. PMID:12624864

  20. Biological diversity and public health.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Aaron S

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of a species extinction event unprecedented in human history, how the variety, distribution, and abundance of life on earth may influence health has gained credence as a worthy subject for research and study at schools of public health and for consideration among policy makers. This article reviews a few of the principal ways in which health depends on biodiversity, including the discovery of new medicines, biomedical research, the provision of food, and the distribution and spread of infections. It also examines how changes in biological diversity underlie much of the global burden of disease and how a more thorough understanding of life on earth and its relationships has the potential to greatly alleviate and prevent human suffering. PMID:24387087

  1. Electronic health record: implementation across the Michigan Academic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Andrea C; Schafer, Patricia; Dontje, Kathy; Pohl, Joanne M; Nagelkerk, Jean; Cavanagh, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    The Michigan Academic Consortium of academic nurse-managed primary care centers supported member sites to venture into computer-based advances with the potential to improve quality of health services and students' educational experiences. The experiences of this consortium as it incorporated electronic health records in tandem with an electronic patient management system at several of its member sites reveal the benefits and challenges of such an endeavor. The processes of selection, adoption, and implementation of the electronic health record are discussed in this article. Many lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  2. Mergers involving academic health centers: a formidable challenge.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, V D

    2001-10-01

    Escalating economic pressures on the clinical enterprise threaten the missions of education and research in many of the most prestigious academic health centers. Following the model of industry, mergers of the healthcare delivery systems of teaching hospitals and clinics held promise for economies of scale and an improved operating margin. Failure to follow business principles in constructing the merged entity, differences in organizational governance and culture, and inability of physician leadership to prioritize, downsize, and consolidate clinical programs to optimize operational efficiencies all compromise the success of such mergers in academic medicine. Academic institutions and their respective governing boards need to exercise greater discipline in financial analysis and a willingness to make difficult decisions that show favor to one parent institution over another if mergers are to be effective in this setting. To date, an example of a vibrant and successful merger of academic health centers remains to be found.

  3. Directory of Academic Programs in Occupational Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, William J., III; And Others

    This booklet describes academic program offerings in American colleges and universities in the area of occupational safety and health. Programs are divided into five major categories, corresponding to each of the core disciplines: (1) occupational safety and health/industrial hygiene, (2) occupational safety, (3) industrial hygiene, (4)…

  4. Issues in public health entomology.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A; Pollack, R J; Kiszewski, A E; Telford, S R

    2001-01-01

    Public health entomology focuses on the population biology of vector-borne infections, seeking to understand how such pathogens perpetuate over time and attempting to devise methods for reducing the burden that they impose on human health. As public health entomology passes its centennial, a series of pervasive research themes and spirited debates characterize the discipline, many reflecting a tension between field and laboratory research. In particular, institutional support for population-based research and training programs has fallen behind that for those using modern lab-based approaches. Discussion of modes of intervention against vector-borne infections (such as deployment of genetically modified vectors, the role of DDT in malaria control, host-targeted acaricides for Lyme disease risk reduction, and truck-mounted aerosol spraying against West Nile virus transmission) illustrates the discipline's need for strengthening population-based research programs. Even with the advent of molecular methods for describing population structure, the basis for anophelism without malaria (or its eastern North American counterpart, ixodism without borreliosis) remains elusive. Such methods have not yet been extensively used to examine the phylogeography and geographical origins of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. Basic ecological questions remain poorly explored: What regulates vector populations? How may mixtures of pathogens be maintained by a single vector? What factors might limit the invasion of Asian mosquitoes into North American sites? Putative effects of "global warming" remain speculative given our relative inability to answer such questions. Finally, policy and administrative issues such as the "no-nits" dictum in American schools, the Roll Back Malaria program, and legal liability for risk due to vector-borne infections serve to demonstrate further the nature of the crossroads that the discipline of public health entomology faces at the start of the 21st Century

  5. Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M

    2015-05-15

    These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals

  6. Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M

    2015-05-15

    These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals

  7. Academic health centers and society: an ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1999-08-01

    Academic health centers--which combine university, medical school, and hospital--exist to satisfy universal human needs and thus are by definition instruments of social purpose. Their core mission is threefold: to provide medical knowledge that can help relieve and prevent illness and suffering, to supply practitioners able to apply that knowledge wisely, and to serve as sites where optimal use of medical knowledge can be demonstrated and investigated. Maintaining a balance between core mission and responsiveness to social trends is a delicate exercise. Overly close accommodation to such trends can endanger the core mission, as has occurred in the United States with regard to managed care. Society and academic health centers have mutual obligations. Obligations of society include giving academic health centers financial and other support and allowing them sufficient freedom to pursue their mission; obligations of academic medical centers include accepting greater scrutiny by society and providing social criticism on matters relating to health. A task for the future is to discern how academic health centers can be responsive to social needs without being totally subservient to societal desires. PMID:10495739

  8. Bioterrorism : A Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Kataria, V K

    2010-07-01

    The intentional release or threat of release of biologic agents (i.e. viruses, bacteria, fungi or their toxins) in order to cause disease or death among human population or food crops and livestock to terrorize a civilian population or manipulate the government in the present scenario of increased terrorist activity has become a real possibility. The most important step in the event of a bioterrorist attack is the identification of the event. This can be achieved by generating awareness, having high degree of suspicion and having a good surveillance system to assist quick detection. Bioterrorist attacks could be covert or announced and caused by virtually any pathogenic microorganism. Bioterrorist agents of major concern have been categorized as A, B and C based on the priority of the agents to pose a risk to the national security and the ease with which they can be disseminated. The five phases of activities in dealing with a bioterrorist attack are preparedness phase, early warning phase, notification phase, response phase and recovery phase. A bioterrorism attack in a public place is a public health emergency. Early detection and rapid investigation is the key to contain such attacks. The role of public health epidemiologist is critical not only in determining the scope and magnitude of the attack but also in effective implementation of interventions. PMID:27408313

  9. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions.

  10. Nutrigenomics, individualism and public health.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Ruth

    2004-02-01

    Issues arising in connection with genes and nutrition policy include both nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics considers the relationship between specifc nutrients or diet and gene expression and, it is envisaged, will facilitate prevention of diet-related common diseases. Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effects of individual genetic variation (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on response to diet, and in the longer term may lead to personalised dietary recommendations. It is important also to consider the surrounding context of other issues such as novel and functional foods in so far as they are related to genetic modification. Ethical issues fall into a number of categories: (1) why nutrigenomics? Will it have important public health benefits? (2) questions about research, e.g. concerning the acquisition of information about individual genetic variation; (3) questions about who has access to this information, and its possible misuse; (4) the applications of this information in terms of public health policy, and the negotiation of the potential tension between the interests of the individual in relation to, for example, prevention of conditions such as obesity and allergy; (5) the appropriate ethical approach to the issues, e.g. the moral difference, if any, between therapy and enhancement in relation to individualised diets; whether the 'technological fix' is always appropriate, especially in the wider context of the purported lack of public confidence in science, which has special resonance in the sphere of nutrition.

  11. [Academic review of global health approaches: an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    In order to identify perspectives on global health, this essay analyzes different trends from academia that have enriched global health and international health. A database was constructed with information from the world's leading global health centers. The search covered authors on global diplomacy and global health and was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and Google Scholar with the key words "global health" and "international health". Research and training centers in different countries have taken various academic approaches to global health; various interests and ideological orientations have emerged in relation to the global health concept. Based on the mosaic of global health centers and their positions, the review concludes that the new concept reflects the construction of a paradigm of renewal in international health and global health, the pre-paradigmatic stage of which has still not reached a final version. PMID:26578006

  12. Outcome-based workforce development and education in public health.

    PubMed

    Koo, Denise; Miner, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The broad scope of the public health mission leads to an increasingly diverse workforce. Given the range of feeder disciplines and the reality that much of the workforce does not have formal training in public health science and practice, a pressing need exists for training and education throughout the workforce. Just as we in public health take a rigorous approach to our science, so too should we take a rigorous, evidence-driven approach to workforce development. In this review, we recommend a framework for workforce education in public health, integrating three critical conceptual approaches: (a) adult learning theory; (b) competency-based education; and (c) the expanded Dreyfus model in public health, an addition to the Dreyfus model of professional skills progression. We illustrate the application of this framework in practice, using the field of applied epidemiology. This framework provides a context for designing and developing high-quality, outcome-based workforce development efforts and evaluating their impact, with implications for academic and public health practice efforts to educate the public health workforce.

  13. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  14. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  15. Hypertension and anthropometry measurement on academic staff at public universities in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Ilya Zulaikha; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Baharuddin, Mohd Sapuan; Arul, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension or most commonly known as high blood pressure is a non-communicable disease affecting to health of people with non-detectible cause (primary) and some with determined causes (secondary). The prevalence of hypertension morbidity was very high globally, the consequences of the disease if not been treated is death. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hypertension and anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and body mass index among academic staff in public universities in Malaysia. The design for this study was cross-sectional and the method for data collection was mailed questionnaire. The initial sample size for this study was 189, therefore, 500 questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected academicians in public universities, colleges and polytechnics in Malaysia. However, only 101 questionnaires were returned and were analysed in this study. The target population were academicians which includes lecturers and senior lecturers in public universities in Malaysia. The methods of analysis employed was logistic regression and frequency analysis. It was found that weight, height and body mass index (BMI) have no significant relationship with hypertension but based on the Crude Odd Ratio, all these three anthropometry measures showed that there were protective risk of hypertension among lecturers and senior lecturers in public university, Malaysia. In a nutshell, there were no evidence to conclude that anthropometry measurements can affect hypertension status among academic staff at public university.

  16. Improving information access for public health professionals.

    PubMed

    Telleen, Sharon; Martin, Elaine

    2002-12-01

    Fundamental to our protection against biological weapons and the detection of disease outbreaks is the need to strengthen our surveillance systems. Improved electronic communications between local, state, and federal public health agencies provide a way for health officials to share information on unusual disease outbreaks and provide important health alert information. This article describes a model of a partnership between a regional medical library of the National Library of Medicine, a school of public health, and federally qualified community health centers. This project upgraded technology and provided public health professional training on Internet information and resources for local public health agencies.

  17. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  18. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  19. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  20. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  1. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  2. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  3. Developing School Health Services in Massachusetts: A Public Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993 the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) began defining essential components of school health service programs, consistent with the public health model. The MDPH designed and funded the Enhanced School Health Service Programs to develop 4 core components of local school health services: (a) strengthening the administrative…

  4. Public Presentations of Professional Change in Academic Research Library Strategic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracke, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Academic librarianship is a profession in the midst of change. Embedded within multiple social spheres, academic librarians are adapting to changes in higher education, the sociotechnical environment of information, and the system of professions. This research investigates the ways in which academic librarians publicly present the ways in which…

  5. Academic Promotion in Malaysian Public Universities: A Critical Look at Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azman, Norzaini; Che Omar, Ibrahim; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md

    2016-01-01

    The expansion and transformation of Malaysian universities have generated major changes in the nature of academic employment and the structure of academic promotion in higher education institutions. These changes have considerable implications, in particular for the policy and practice of academic promotion in the public universities. We argue…

  6. How one academic health center is successfully facing the future.

    PubMed

    Abdelhak, S S

    1996-04-01

    The author maintains that the academic health centers (AHCs) that successfully weather the current vast changes in the health care environment will be stronger institutions. But to survive and prosper in the future, AHCs must come to terms with their entrenched cultures and create new forms of organization that are more flexible, more adaptive, and more agile. Even though each center confronts unique circumstances requiring unique solutions the author describes the changes made during the last six years at his center--the Allegheny Health, Education and Research Foundation (AHERF), in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania--to show how one AHC is successfully facing change. The central problem facing AHERF (and all AHCs) is that revenues from all traditional sources are declining significantly. AHERF is dealing with the problem in part by actively seeking philanthropic and public funding for research and education. But such funding cannot be relied upon, and for AHERF to stay true to its mission, it must practice the "Three Rs" of modern academic medicine. First, the center is cultivating a more responsive organization. The author describes the organizational structure of the center; the emphasis on providing an environment that unleashes the creativity and productive potential of each employee and fosters teamwork; goals, objectives, and incentives; the way decisions are made; and the way revenue is allocated. Second, productivity must be improved through re-engineering. For example, AHERF oversaw the consolidation of two medical schools into one. The author describes the organizational changes that made the management of the resulting institution possible and cost-effective, and discusses changes in workflow, support functions, the use of information systems, and innovative supplier arrangements. Third, the revenue base must be secured. The author describes four of the main ways this is being done (e.g., the expansion of the center's large network of primary care physicians

  7. A National Agenda for Public Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Yasnoff, William A.; Overhage, J. Marc; Humphreys, Betsy L.; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes—that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. PMID:11687561

  8. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    PubMed

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  9. Public health, the APHA, and urban renewal.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ P

    2009-09-01

    Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities.

  10. Public Health, the APHA, and Urban Renewal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities. PMID:19608955

  11. A revisionist view of the integrated academic health center.

    PubMed

    Rodin, Judith

    2004-02-01

    Like many academic health centers that had expanded aggressively during the 1990s, the nation's first vertically integrated academic health center, the University of Pennsylvania Health System, was profoundly challenged by the dramatic and unanticipated financial impacts of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. The author explains why-although Penn's Health System had lost $300 million over two years and its debts threatened to cause serious financial and educational damage to the rest of the University-Penn chose to manage its way out of the financial crisis (instead of selling or spinning off its four hospitals, clinical practices, and possibly even its medical school). A strategy of comprehensive integration has not only stabilized Penn's Health System financially, but strengthened its position of leadership in medical education, research, and health care delivery. The author argues that a strategy of greater horizontal integration offers important strategic advantages to academic health centers. In an era when major social and scientific problems demand broadly multidisciplinary and highly-integrated approaches, such horizontally integrated institutions will be better able to educate citizens and train physicians, develop new approaches to health care policy, and answer pressing biomedical research questions. Institutional cultural integration is also crucial to create new, innovative organizational structures that bridge traditional disciplinary, school, and clinical boundaries.

  12. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  13. Climate change and ecological public health.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  14. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises. PMID:24274133

  15. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  16. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  17. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  18. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  19. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  20. How Social Relationships Influence Academic Health in the "Enterprise University": An Insight into Productivity of Knowledge Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    The comparatively poor mental health status of academics at Australian universities compared with the general Australian workforce poses a public health challenge. Productivity of knowledge workers is a key issue for the new economy. Using the case of one university, I interviewed employees stratified by level of employment and showed that their…

  1. [Health status and health needs assessment--state of the art of the public health practice in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Vuletić, Silvije; Sogorić, Selma; Malatestinić, Dulija; Bozicević, Ivana

    2010-12-01

    Public health practice performance is measured through its three core functions, i.e. assessment, policy development and assurance. We describe the existing health status and health care needs assessment practices in the Republic of Croatia. Health care needs assessment in Croatia includes mortality and morbidity information available through vital records but does not include community input (opinion and attitude) and participation. Health needs are not analyzed in order to determine the causes of health problems. Analysis of health needs of the population groups at highest risk also does not exist. Resources assessment is not part of the process, so we do not know how adequate the existing health resources are. In the Croatian health care system practice, the assessment function is limited through the almost exclusive use of the routine health and demographic statistics. Academic public health has introduced other kinds of more participative, subgroups oriented, qualitative methodologies but in daily routine, these methods are hardly used. Since health needs assessment is one of the core public health functions, in the future its practice has to be reoriented from pure monitoring towards identifying and solving community health problems. Partnership with community has to be a cornerstone for more efficient health needs assessment practice. In the light of previous statement, we present and discuss new trends in the assessment practice in Croatia, i.e. revision of routine health data collection, ways of performing intervention aimed health surveys, naturalistic approach in health needs assessment, and health needs research of population groups at highest risk.

  2. Sharing Public Health Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that effective and appropriate data sharing requires the development of models of good data-sharing practice capable of taking seriously both the potential benefits to be gained and the importance of ensuring that the rights and interests of participants are respected and that risk of harms is minimized. Calls for the greater sharing of individual-level data from biomedical and public health research are receiving support among researchers and research funders. Despite its potential importance, data sharing presents important ethical, social, and institutional challenges in low-income settings. In this article, we report on qualitative research conducted in five low- and middle-income countries exploring the experiences of key research stakeholders and their views about what constitutes good data-sharing practice. PMID:26297744

  3. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing.

  4. The Evolving Academic Health Center: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirin, Steven; Summergrad, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Regardless of the outcome of current efforts at healthcare reform, the resources that academic health centers need--to provide care for increasingly complex patient populations, support clinical innovation, grow the clinical enterprise, and carry out their research and teaching missions--are in jeopardy. This article examines the value…

  5. Health Behaviour and Academic Achievement in Icelandic School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…

  6. Institutionalization of Community Partnerships: The Challenge for Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Magwood, Gayenell S.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Zapka, Jane; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan; Stuart, Gail W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Current public health priorities emphasize the elimination of health disparities, translational research, and transdisciplinary and community alliances. The Center for Community Health Partnerships is a proactive initiative to address new paradigms and priorities in health care through institutionalization of community-university partnerships. This report highlights innovative strategies and lessons learned. PMID:23698666

  7. Challenges for University Engagement in the UK: Towards a Public Academe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the changing role of universities in the UK as they respond to an engagement agenda that stipulates a more immersive and visible interaction between academics and the public. It constitutes a survey of attitudes to public engagement in a selection of UK universities drawing on interviews with senior academics with managerial…

  8. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters.

  9. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  10. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552

  11. Core Competencies for Doctoral Education in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Judith G.; Weist, Elizabeth M.; Raczynski, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) released the Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) Core Competency Model in 2009. Between 2007 and 2009, a national expert panel with members of the academic and practice communities guided by the ASPH Education Committee developed its 7 performance domains, including 54 competencies. We provide an overview and analysis of the challenges and issues associated with the variability in DrPH degree offerings, reflect on the model development process and related outcomes, and discuss the significance of the model, future applications, and challenges for integration across educational settings. With the model, ASPH aims to stimulate national discussion on the competencies needed by DrPH graduates with the new challenges of 21st-century public health practice and to better define the DrPH degree. PMID:22095342

  12. Preparing future faculty and professionals for public health careers.

    PubMed

    Koblinsky, Sally A; Hrapczynski, Katie M; Clark, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    Recent years have brought rapid growth in schools of public health and an increasing demand for public health practitioners. These trends highlight the need for innovative approaches to prepare doctoral graduates for academic and high-level practice positions. The University of Maryland's School of Public Health developed a "Preparing Future Faculty and Professionals" program to enrich the graduate education and professional development of its doctoral students. We describe the program's key elements, including foundational seminars to enhance students' knowledge and skills related to teaching, research, and service; activities designed to foster career exploration and increase competitiveness in the job market; and independent, faculty-mentored teaching and research experiences. We present a model for replicating the program and share student outcomes of participation.

  13. Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

  14. Creating Health-Focused Academic Community Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Sherry K.; Kelley, Susan J.; Spencer, Lorine

    1997-01-01

    Partnerships with communities help universities respond to contemporary societal issues, enrich educational experiences, and offer opportunities for research and faculty service. At Georgia State University, three health-related programs link campus and community in projects for grandparents raising grandchildren, migrant farm workers, and…

  15. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  16. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health.

  17. [The Health Technology Assessment Engine of the Academic Hospital of Udine: first appraisal].

    PubMed

    Vidale, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Health Technology Assessment Engine (HTAE) of the Academic Hospital of Udine aggregates about one hundred of health technology assessment websites. It was born thanks to Google technology in 2008 and after about four years of testing it became public for everybody from the Homepage of the Italian Society of Health Technology Assessment (SIHTA). In this paper the first results obtained with this resource are reported. The role of the scientific librarian is examined not only as a support specialist in bibliographic search but also as a creative expert in managing new technologies for the community.

  18. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  19. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  20. An open letter to public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Marla E

    2009-01-01

    Public health nursing celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1993. In a guest editorial for Public Health Nursing Dr. Marla Salmon, then director of the Division of Nursing, Bureau of Health Professions, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, wrote a "retrospective vision" in which she projected the roles that American public health nurses would play in 21st century health care reform. The picture she painted was highly optimistic and 16 years later the profession has yet to realize the accomplishments Salmon envisioned: a more visible leadership in directing health policy, creation of systems that expand public health department roles in both direct and indirect services, cooperation among agencies, and empowerment of the communities and individuals served by the public health care system. As she saw it, the period between 1893 and 1993 was a prelude to the coming of age of public health nursing as a specialty. She cautioned that those who practice public health nursing between 1993 and 2093 are responsible for authoring the next volume of history through their own actions. This historical reprint originally appeared in the December 1993 issue of Public Health Nursing.

  1. Reflections on Government Service Rotations by an Academic Health Education Professional.

    PubMed

    Green, Lawrence W

    2016-02-01

    This reflection is on a health education professional's rotation from professor in a school of public health to a government position and back parallels that of Professor Howard Koh's journey to Assistant Secretary of Health, one level higher in the same federal bureaucracy. We both acknowledge the steep learning curve and some bureaucratic hassles and mazes that can attend government service, but similarly conclude that ". . . it was worth it." In this personalized case, I weigh some of the specific learning experiences and challenges I faced while in the government against the needs of the field of health promotion for more such revolving-door experiences among academic public health professionals. From my argument that to get more evidence-based practice we need more practice-based evidence, I conclude that more experience in practice among those returning to academia will render their teaching and research more relevant to the needs for evidence in policy and practice. PMID:26747714

  2. Reflections on Government Service Rotations by an Academic Health Education Professional.

    PubMed

    Green, Lawrence W

    2016-02-01

    This reflection is on a health education professional's rotation from professor in a school of public health to a government position and back parallels that of Professor Howard Koh's journey to Assistant Secretary of Health, one level higher in the same federal bureaucracy. We both acknowledge the steep learning curve and some bureaucratic hassles and mazes that can attend government service, but similarly conclude that ". . . it was worth it." In this personalized case, I weigh some of the specific learning experiences and challenges I faced while in the government against the needs of the field of health promotion for more such revolving-door experiences among academic public health professionals. From my argument that to get more evidence-based practice we need more practice-based evidence, I conclude that more experience in practice among those returning to academia will render their teaching and research more relevant to the needs for evidence in policy and practice.

  3. Disasters, the environment, and public health: improving our response.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, J N

    1996-01-01

    Natural and human-made disasters continue to adversely affect all areas of the world in both predictable and unpredictable ways. To highlight the importance of natural disasters, the United Nations declared the 1990s the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. This paper considers the public health response to disasters. It highlights environmental health issues and approaches since disasters are extreme environmental events, and it reviews developments relating to capacity building, training, and collaboration. Although progress is noted, a comprehensive federal or academic approach is not evident in the United States and the proper linkage to environmental health is lacking. With the International Decade now half over, public health professionals and others involved with disaster management should reflect on progress made to date and goals for the future. PMID:8806369

  4. Public health in the emergency department: surveillance, screening, and intervention--funding and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Woolard, Robert; Degutis, Linda C; Mello, Michael; Rothman, Richard; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Post, Lori A; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Haukoos, Jason S; Hungerford, Daniel W

    2009-11-01

    This article summarizes the work and discussions of the funding and sustainability work group at the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention." The funding and sustainability session participants were asked to address the following overarching question: "What are the opportunities and what is needed to encourage academic emergency medicine (EM) to take advantage of the opportunities for funding available for public health research initiatives and build stronger academic programs focusing on public health within EM?" Prior to the session, members of the group reviewed research funding for EM in public health, as well as the priorities of federal agencies and foundations. Recommendations for actions by EM summarize the findings of workshop.

  5. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes.

  6. Public Health Legal Preparedness in Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities. PMID:19150897

  7. Pharmacogenomics and public health: implementing 'populationalized' medicine.

    PubMed

    Mette, Lindsey; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Vozikis, Athanassios; Patrinos, George P

    2012-05-01

    Pharmacogenomics are frequently considered in personalized medicine to maximize therapeutic benefits and minimize adverse drug reactions. However, there is a movement towards applying this technology to populations, which may produce the same benefits, while saving already scarce health resources. We conducted a narrative literature review to examine how pharmacogenomics and public health can constructively intersect, particularly in resource-poor settings. We identified 27 articles addressing the research question. Real and theoretical connections between public health and pharmacogenomics were presented in the areas of disease, drugs and public policy. Suggested points for consideration, such as educational efforts and cultural acceptability, were also provided. Including pharmacogenomics in public health can result in both health-related and economic benefits. Including pharmacogenomics in public health holds promise but deserves extensive consideration. To fully realize the benefits of this technology, support is needed from private, public and governmental sectors in order to ensure the appropriateness within a society.

  8. Preparedness: medical ethics versus public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Burns, Kelly A; Etkind, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Medical ethics generally applies to individual interactions between physicians and patients. Conversely, public health ethics typically applies to interactions between an agency or institution and a community or population. Four main principles underlie medical ethics: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. By contrast, public health ethical principles address issues such as interdependence, community trust, fundamentality, and justice. In large part because of the significant community-level effects of public health issues, medical ethics are suboptimal for assessing community-level public health interventions or plans-especially in the area of emergency preparedness. To be effective, as well as ethical, public health preparedness efforts must address all of the core principles of public health ethics.

  9. Building Health Literacy Among an Urban Teenage Population by Creating Online Health Videos for Public and School Health Curriculum Use.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Charles J; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Healthflicks is a 2010-2011 National Network of Libraries of Medicine outreach project conducted in New Haven, CT, targeting health information literacy among urban teens through the creation of web videos. Students from a public magnet school with a health careers curriculum track volunteered. Yale University students were hired as video mentors. Partners included the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Hill Regional Career High School, the New Haven Free Public Library, and Yale University's Office of New Haven and State Affairs. Outcomes included a Healthflicks YouTube channel and an ongoing partnership between an academic medical library and a high school with a health careers curriculum track. PMID:22866023

  10. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  11. Defining the Functions of Public Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J.; Corso, Liza C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  12. Defining the functions of public health governance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance.

  13. [Public health ethics is partnership ethics].

    PubMed

    Sass, H-M

    2008-02-01

    Securing and safeguarding the health of citizens are preeminent governmental obligations and cultural as well as ethical responsibilities. Public health needs to be developed, implemented and reviewed in partnership with existing private and public market forces and with health-literate citizens; mission, strategy, tactics and ethics of public health depend on partnership ethics. Traditional sets of principles in bioethics, research ethics, or clinical ethics are not useful to delineate the framework, the mandate, and the specific conflicts and risks in public health. The SEMPER model exemplifies the role of the principles of safety, education, minimax, partnership, efficiency, review and their interactions for public health in securing and promoting health and quality of life.

  14. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  15. Disability from a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Möller, Anders

    2015-08-01

    At the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV), methods to alleviate problems with disability have been seen as an important part of actions to support public health. A programme for universal design was started in 2006. Some issues of public health perspectives on disability are presented in this paper, based on discussions from a PhD course held at the NHV. During the course, the students presented papers in which they reflected on the relationship between disability and public health. These essays were collected and published in 2012 at NHV. PMID:26311804

  16. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  17. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health. PMID:26300038

  18. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  19. Challenges and opportunities in establishing a Latino health research center in a majority academic institution.

    PubMed

    Giachello, A L

    1996-10-01

    This article provides a practical perspective of the issues, challenges and the opportunities involved in establishing a Latino Health Research Center in an academic institution. This article will use as an illustration the experiences related to the establishment of a Center on Latino Medical Treatment Effectiveness Program at a large public academic institution in Chicago. Some of the sociopolitical processes of establishing the Center's structure, and the recruitment and training of a multi-disciplinary core research staff are summarized, while simultaneously pursuing an ambitious research and training agenda. The article ends by suggesting a series of strategies in meeting the multiple and, at times, conflicting demands of the academic institution, the funding sources and the community, as well as the lessons learned.

  20. Training Programs to Strengthen Pennsylvania's Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, R. Elliott; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mactavish, Lindsay E.; Pollock, Timothy R.; Weand, Crystal L.; Polachek, Catherine; Reynolds, Stanley M.; Ostroff, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes Pennsylvania's 9-year experience in implementing training programs to strengthen public health response to emerging infectious diseases. During the biannual 3-5-day-long Pennsylvania Public Health Institute (PHI) events, which have been held since 2000, courses have covered topics such as emerging infectious disease outbreaks, monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in retail food, and zoonotic diseases commonly associated with companion animals. Core competency courses include the legal basis for public health and epidemiology for nonepidemiologists. Emerging infectious disease seminars offered to clinicians since 2005 have focused on the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Complementing the PHI, the Pennsylvania Department of Health's monthly Epidemiology Journal Club offers additional interactions with presenters from academic institutions and federal agencies. Lunch-time forums also provide a venue for health department staff to share their work with colleagues. Innovative use of modern communication technology increases participation of frontline health workers in Journal Club events, and video conference capability offers flexibility in the selection of presenters. Pennsylvania's experience over the past 9 years demonstrates that with political will, commitment from content experts, and adequate administrative support, modest state and federal resources can be used to sustain public health training programs tailored to local needs. PMID:19635002

  1. Systematic review of public health branding.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  2. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  3. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  4. Climate Change: The Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

  5. Commentary: Institutes versus traditional administrative academic health center structures.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Michael; Lofgren, Richard

    2012-05-01

    In the Point-Counterpoint section of this issue, Kastor discusses the pros and cons of a new, institute-based administrative structure that was developed at the Cleveland Clinic in 2008, ostensibly to improve the quality and efficiency of patient care. The real issue underlying this organizational transformation is not whether the institute model is better than the traditional model; instead, the issue is whether the traditional academic health center (AHC) structure is viable or whether it must evolve. The traditional academic model, in which the department and chair retain a great deal of autonomy and authority, and in which decision-making processes are legislative in nature, is too tedious and laborious to effectively compete in today's health care market. The current health care market is demanding greater efficiencies, lower costs, and thus greater integration, as well as more transparency and accountability. Improvements in both quality and efficiency will demand coordination and integration. Focusing on quality and efficiency requires organizational structures that facilitate cohesion and teamwork, and traditional organizational models will not suffice. These new structures must and will replace the loose amalgamation of the traditional AHC to develop the focus and cohesion to address the pressures of an evolving health care system. Because these new structures should lead to more successful clinical enterprises, they will, in fact, support the traditional academic missions of research and education more successfully than traditional organizational models can. PMID:22531588

  6. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  7. Academic Learning Time in the District of Columbia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Research Information Center.

    Papers generated for a symposium entitled "Effectiveness of Stallings' Use of Time Training for Teachers in Washington, D.C." are presented. The intitial presentation, "Academic Learning Time: The Current Status of the Stallings Training" (Geraldine Williams Bethune), reviews the Stallings research and describes the Academic Learning Time (ALT)…

  8. Public health and high volume hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Jones, Walter A; Malone, Samantha L; Vinci, Leon F

    2013-01-01

    High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional gas reserves has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production. HVHF has been promoted as a way to decrease dependence on foreign energy sources, replace dirtier energy sources like coal, and generate economic development. At the same time, activities related to expanded HVHF pose potential risks including ground- and surface water contamination, climate change, air pollution, and effects on worker health. HVHF has been largely approached as an issue of energy economics and environmental regulation, but it also has significant implications for public health. We argue that public health provides an important perspective on policymaking in this arena. The American Public Health Association (APHA) recently adopted a policy position for involvement of public health professionals in this issue. Building on that foundation, this commentary lays out a set of five perspectives that guide how public health can contribute to this conversation.

  9. The role of public health informatics in enhancing public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Savel, Thomas G; Foldy, Seth

    2012-07-27

    Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology. PMID:22832993

  10. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda.

  11. Stigmatization and denormalization as public health policies: some Kantian thoughts.

    PubMed

    Dean, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The stigmatization of some groups of people, whether for some characteristic they possess or some behavior they engage in, will initially strike most of us as wrong. For many years, academic work in public health, which focused mainly on the stigmatization of HIV-positive individuals, reinforced this natural reaction to stigmatization, by pointing out the negative health effects of stigmatization. But more recently, the apparent success of anti-smoking campaigns which employ stigmatization of smokers has raised questions about whether stigmatization may sometimes be justified, because of its positive effects on public health. Discussion of the issue so far has focused on consequences, and on some Kantian considerations regarding the status of the stigmatized. In this article, I argue that further Kantian considerations regarding the treatment of the general public (the potential stigmatizers) also count against any public health policy involving stigmatization. Attempts to encourage stigmatization are likely to fail to appeal to the rational decision-making abilities of the general public, and the creation of stigmatized groups (even if they are stigmatized for their voluntary behavior) is an obstacle to the self-improvement of members of the general public. PMID:23586853

  12. MEDICAL CARE AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Haven

    1952-01-01

    Medical care applies to the individual, and public health to the community. One is the concentrated application of diagnosis and treatment for the life, the comfort of a patient, and includes guidance in health as for motherhood, infancy, childhood and old age. Public health services, provided by the community through its local government and the local department of health, are concerned with the prevention of diseases of all kinds. Some are controlled by sanitary authority, but the majority of preventable diseases are dealt with by public health education. It is not the function of the health department to treat the sick. The family physicians, the hospitals and dispensaries provide for medical care. Medical care of the sick and public health protection are two parallel activities to make use of medical science, one for treatment, the other for prevention of disease. PMID:13009462

  13. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  14. Contributions of public health to patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Rimer, B K; Glanz, K; Lerman, C

    1991-08-01

    This paper discusses the contributions of public health to compliance in five areas: clinical trials, smoking cessation, dietary compliance, breast cancer screening and hypertension control. Public health programs have been based on a number of theoretical foundations, most notably, social learning theory and the health belief model. Social marketing, community organization, and, more recently, consumer information processing models also are important. The strongest public health programs embody an ecological approach, with interventions directed not only at individuals, but also at groups, communities and changing institutional norms. Among the most important contributions of public health interventions are: multiple levels of intervention and evaluation, tailoring to target audiences, use of social support and community organization for behavior change. Together, community health and clinical compliance-enhancing strategies can exert a synergistic impact on health behavior change. PMID:1918439

  15. The role of public health in the prevention of war: rationale and competencies.

    PubMed

    Wiist, William H; Barker, Kathy; Arya, Neil; Rohde, Jon; Donohoe, Martin; White, Shelley; Lubens, Pauline; Gorman, Geraldine; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-06-01

    In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, "The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War." Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health's ethical principles of practice prioritize addressing the fundamental causes of disease and adverse health outcomes. A working group grew out of the American Public Health Association's Peace Caucus to build upon the 2009 policy by proposing competencies to understand and prevent the political, economic, social, and cultural determinants of war, particularly militarism. The working group recommends that schools of public health and public health organizations incorporate these competencies into professional preparation programs, research, and advocacy.

  16. Health Is Academic. A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Eva, Ed.; Wooley, Susan Frelick, Ed.; Northrop, Daphne, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of papers that define comprehensive school health programs and their components and provide action steps for their implementation at the local, state, and national levels: (1) "Linking Health and Learning: An Overview of Coordinated School Health Programs" (Floretta Dukes McKenzie and Julius B. Richmond); (2)…

  17. Public health and nursing: a natural partnership.

    PubMed

    Savage, Christine; Kub, Joan

    2009-11-01

    The health of individuals occurs within the context of their environment and the other individuals they interact with in the communities they live in, work in and visit. Promoting the health of the public requires multiple strategies aimed at improving the environment, the health knowledge of groups and individuals, maintaining adequate food and water, and reducing the spread of disease. Many disciplines are needed to meet these goals, but the largest segment of the professional health work force required to meet these needs is nursing. Historically, nursing leaders in public health such as Florence Nightingale and Lillian Wald made significant inroads related to serious health issues because they were nurses. Today across the globe, nurses provide the key components of public health interventions including well baby care, health education, screening and immunization clinics, disaster management and emergency preparedness. With the growing nursing shortage in acute care settings, the brain drain of nurses from certain areas of the world, the shrinking public dollars for preventive health care, the nursing workforce needed to continue to provide these essential health care services is threatened. It is essential to put the spot light on nursing's role in public health with the hopes of attracting more public funds and more nurses to provide these essential services.

  18. Public health and nursing: a natural partnership.

    PubMed

    Savage, Christine; Kub, Joan

    2009-11-01

    The health of individuals occurs within the context of their environment and the other individuals they interact with in the communities they live in, work in and visit. Promoting the health of the public requires multiple strategies aimed at improving the environment, the health knowledge of groups and individuals, maintaining adequate food and water, and reducing the spread of disease. Many disciplines are needed to meet these goals, but the largest segment of the professional health work force required to meet these needs is nursing. Historically, nursing leaders in public health such as Florence Nightingale and Lillian Wald made significant inroads related to serious health issues because they were nurses. Today across the globe, nurses provide the key components of public health interventions including well baby care, health education, screening and immunization clinics, disaster management and emergency preparedness. With the growing nursing shortage in acute care settings, the brain drain of nurses from certain areas of the world, the shrinking public dollars for preventive health care, the nursing workforce needed to continue to provide these essential health care services is threatened. It is essential to put the spot light on nursing's role in public health with the hopes of attracting more public funds and more nurses to provide these essential services. PMID:20049229

  19. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2016-10-01

    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated education outcomes. First, for context, I briefly portray the nature of our related political and public health systems. I then frame this retrospective by illustrating how my serial employment within other public health system organizations led to, and then resulted from, my work within these two federal public health agencies. To represent the many talented individuals in each organization with whom I had the good fortune to work, I name only one in each organization. I then characterize how these individuals and organizations progressively shaped my work and career. I conclude by speculating about prospects for academic institutions to more purposefully prepare students and faculty to work within federal government public health agencies.

  20. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2016-10-01

    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated education outcomes. First, for context, I briefly portray the nature of our related political and public health systems. I then frame this retrospective by illustrating how my serial employment within other public health system organizations led to, and then resulted from, my work within these two federal public health agencies. To represent the many talented individuals in each organization with whom I had the good fortune to work, I name only one in each organization. I then characterize how these individuals and organizations progressively shaped my work and career. I conclude by speculating about prospects for academic institutions to more purposefully prepare students and faculty to work within federal government public health agencies. PMID:27585459

  1. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    PubMed

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing. PMID:18347823

  2. Field Guide to Academic Leadership: A Publication of the National Academy for Academic Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Robert M., Ed.

    This "Field Guide" is designed to help academic leaders in the current climate of change. It provides information and suggestions for action and administrative practice around a range of issues. The first section, "Basis," contains these chapters: (1) "Pressures for Fundamental Reform: Creating a Viable Academic Future" (Alan E. Guskin and Mary B.…

  3. Institutional Academic Freedom vs. Faculty Academic Freedom in Public Colleges and Universities: A Dubious Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiers, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the origins of recent federal appellate decisions' divergence from the Supreme Court's identification of teachers' or faculty's academic freedom as "a special concern of the First Amendment." Suggests ways in which academic freedom might better be accorded its rightful importance within the framework of current Supreme Court First…

  4. Privatization of Public Services: Organizational Reform Efforts in Public Education and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health. PMID:17008563

  5. Public Health Nursing Legacy: Historical Practical Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerwekh, Joyce V.

    1992-01-01

    Conveys the practical knowledge shown by public health nurses since the days of Lillian Wald in the 1890s. Public health nurses have had to work with high-risk families--work that often requires a common sense approach. (JOW)

  6. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. PMID:27288163

  7. Recommendations for Undergraduate Public Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegelman, Richard K.; Albertine, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This curriculum guide serves to assist faculty who are developing undergraduate courses in public health as well as educational administrators and faculty curriculum committees who are designing undergraduate public health curricula. The approach outlined in these recommendations focuses on the development of three core courses, each of which is…

  8. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  9. Teaching Practical Public Health Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary V.

    2006-01-01

    Human service fields, and more specifically public health, are increasingly requiring evaluations to prove the worth of funded programs. Many public health practitioners, however, lack the required background and skills to conduct useful, appropriate evaluations. In the late 1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the…

  10. Profiles of Grant Programs: Public Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health , Education, and Welfare, Washington., DC. Office of the Secretary.

    For potential grant applicants and for the general public, the booklet describes the programs of the six Public Health Service agencies in the American health care system. Each program is described concisely in terms of: its purpose and legal basis; applicants' eligibility for grants and the basis for their award; the special requirements made of…

  11. Latest OECD figures confirm Canada as a public health laggard.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity. PMID:23618021

  12. Latest OECD figures confirm Canada as a public health laggard.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2012-11-06

    Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity.

  13. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits.

  14. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  15. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the

  16. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  17. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  18. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  19. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  20. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  1. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance. PMID:26984034

  2. Petroleum scarcity and public health: considerations for local health departments.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Caine, Virginia A; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-09-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts.

  3. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  4. Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443

  5. Public health practice is not research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean Lin; Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  6. Public Health Practice Is Not Research

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  7. Systems Science Methods in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885

  8. Firearms, youth homicide, and public health.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert S; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates.

  9. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  10. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  11. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  12. The individual, social justice and public health.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical reflection on public health from a standpoint of social justice, which does not overlook the individual, is presented. Based on a conceptualization of social justice, human rights and health in the framework of an epistemological analysis, a particular perspective on social justice and its implications for public health praxis, using a public health program as an example, is revealed. Some routes are identified in order to orient and put into practice the actions developed in public health programs. This requires a different way of understanding the scenarios and interchanges among people in the field of clinical practice. It is understood that these fields can also be seen as a suitable opportunity for the establishment of individuals and individualities committed to the political struggle for human rights, equity in health and recognition of a life worthy of human dignity.

  13. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  14. Academic Performance and Substance Use: Findings from a State Survey of Public High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Regan G.; Zhang, Lei; Johnson, William D.; Bender, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous investigations have shown that low academic achievers are more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and use marijuana and other illicit drugs. This study investigated the relationship between academic performance and substance use among public high school students in Mississippi. Methods: The sampling frame for the 2003…

  15. How Are UK Academics Engaging the Public with Their Research? A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikoore, Lesley; Probets, Steve; Fry, Jenny; Creaser, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes a cross-disciplinary perspective in examining the views and practices of public engagement with research by UK academics. Using a mixed method approach consisting of a survey questionnaire and interviews, the paper identifies the range of audience groups that can potentially be engaged with by academics, and shows that some…

  16. A Study of Teacher Retention and Academic Performance in Public Elementary and Middle Schools in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Karmenlita L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the teacher retention rates in public elementary and middle schools in Georgia that met or did not meet the academic performance component of Adequate Yearly Progress. The teacher retention rates were expected to be higher in schools that met the academic performance component of AYP and lower in the schools…

  17. Factors That Contribute to Academic Success: A Qualitative Study of Boston Public Exam School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Kathleen Ryan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the experiences of students who have been academically successful within a large, urban school district, specifically the Boston Public School District. The study sought both to uncover specific factors within individuals, homes, schools, and communities that promote academic success and to capture the…

  18. The public health infrastructure and our nation's health.

    PubMed

    Baker, Edward L; Potter, Margaret A; Jones, Deborah L; Mercer, Shawna L; Cioffi, Joan P; Green, Lawrence W; Halverson, Paul K; Lichtveld, Maureen Y; Fleming, David W

    2005-01-01

    Threats to Americans' health-including chronic disease, emerging infectious disease, and bioterrorism-are present and growing, and the public health system is responsible for addressing these challenges. Public health systems in the United States are built on an infrastructure of workforce, information systems, and organizational capacity; in each of these areas, however, serious deficits have been well documented. Here we draw on two 2003 Institute of Medicine reports and present evidence for current threats and the weakness of our public health infrastructure. We describe major initiatives to systematically assess, invest in, rebuild, and evaluate workforce competency, information systems, and organizational capacity through public policy making, practical initiatives, and practice-oriented research. These initiatives are based on applied science and a shared federal-state approach to public accountability. We conclude that a newly strengthened public health infrastructure must be sustained in the future through a balancing of the values inherent in the federal system.

  19. Public health informatics: a CDC course for public health program managers.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P. W.; Yasnoff, W. A.; Wilhoite, W.

    1998-01-01

    Information science and technology are critical to the modern practice of public health. Yet today's public health professionals generally have no formal training in public health informatics--the application of information science and technology to public health practice and research. Responding to this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently developed, tested, and delivered a new training course in public health informatics. The course was designed for experienced public health program managers and included sessions on general informatics principles and concepts; key information systems issues and information technologies; and management issues as they relate to information technology projects. This course has been enthusiastically received both at the state and federal levels. We plan to develop an abbreviated version for health officers, administrators, and other public health executives. PMID:9929264

  20. Building diversity in a complex academic health center.

    PubMed

    South-Paul, Jeannette E; Roth, Loren; Davis, Paula K; Chen, Terence; Roman, Anna; Murrell, Audrey; Pettigrew, Chenits; Castleberry-Singleton, Candi; Schuman, Joel

    2013-09-01

    For 30 years, the many diversity-related health sciences programs targeting the University of Pittsburgh undergraduate campus, school of medicine, schools of the health sciences, clinical practice plan, and medical center were run independently and remained separate within the academic health center (AHC). This lack of coordination hampered their overall effectiveness in promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2007, a group of faculty and administrators from the university and the medical center recognized the need to improve institutional diversity and to better address local health disparities. In this article, the authors describe the process of linking the efforts of these institutions in a way that would be successful locally and applicable to other academic environments. First, they engaged an independent consultant to conduct a study of the AHC's diversity climate, interviewing current and former faculty and trainees to define the problem and identify areas for improvement. Next, they created the Physician Inclusion Council to address the findings of this study and to coordinate future efforts with institutional leaders. Finally, they formed four working committees to address (1) communications and outreach, (2) cultural competency, (3) recruitment, and (4) mentoring and retention. These committees oversaw the strategic development and implementation of all diversity and inclusion efforts. Together these steps led to structural changes within the AHC and the improved allocation of resources that have positioned the University of Pittsburgh to achieve not only diversity but also inclusion and to continue to address the health disparities in the Pittsburgh community. PMID:23886998

  1. Improving accountability through alignment: the role of academic health science centres and networks in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As in many countries around the world, there are high expectations on academic health science centres and networks in England to provide high-quality care, innovative research, and world-class education, while also supporting wealth creation and economic growth. Meeting these expectations increasingly depends on partnership working between university medical schools and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers. However, academic-clinical relationships in England are still characterised by the “unlinked partners” model, whereby universities and their partner teaching hospitals are neither fiscally nor structurally linked, creating bifurcating accountabilities to various government and public agencies. Discussion This article focuses on accountability relationships in universities and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of academic health science centres and networks. The authors analyse accountability for the tripartite mission of patient care, research, and education, using a four-fold typology of accountability relationships, which distinguishes between hierarchical (bureaucratic) accountability, legal accountability, professional accountability, and political accountability. Examples from North West London suggest that a number of mechanisms can be used to improve accountability for the tripartite mission through alignment, but that the simple creation of academic health science centres and networks is probably not sufficient. Summary At the heart of the challenge for academic health science centres and networks is the separation of accountabilities for patient care, research, and education in different government departments. Given that a fundamental top-down system redesign is now extremely unlikely, local academic and clinical leaders face the challenge of aligning their institutions as a matter of priority in order to improve accountability for the tripartite mission from

  2. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    PubMed

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure.

  3. The Role of Public Health in the Prevention of War: Rationale and Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Kathy; Arya, Neil; Rohde, Jon; Donohoe, Martin; White, Shelley; Lubens, Pauline; Gorman, Geraldine; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, “The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War.” Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health’s ethical principles of practice prioritize addressing the fundamental causes of disease and adverse health outcomes. A working group grew out of the American Public Health Association’s Peace Caucus to build upon the 2009 policy by proposing competencies to understand and prevent the political, economic, social, and cultural determinants of war, particularly militarism. The working group recommends that schools of public health and public health organizations incorporate these competencies into professional preparation programs, research, and advocacy. PMID:24825229

  4. [Canton Hospital and public health in Canton].

    PubMed

    Li, Jichou; Guo, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Canton Hospital was not only the most influential missionary hospital in South China, but also the first one brought the concept and practice of public health to Guangzhou. In the late Qing Dynasty, it conducted free vaccination, plague treatment, health education and so on, demonstrating the importance of public health to the people. In the period of the Republic of China, it extensively cooperated with the government and social organizations in developing school health, maternal and child health, communicable disease control and epidemiological investigations to actively serve the social group. In the 1930s, its public health activities extended towards the rural areas of Guangzhou, and promoted the convergence of rural and urban medical and health services. The three-level medical system that it built provided demonstration model for the establishment of Chinese rural medical system. PMID:26815022

  5. Challenging Ideology: Could a Better Understanding of Academic Enquiry Lead to Better Public Policy Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Does the present level of public unhappiness with the conduct of governance offer an opportunity to revisit the quality of public policy making and the pernicious role of ideology? In this article I argue that there are some strong parallels between academic enquiry and public policy making, and that a better understanding of the former could lead…

  6. Public Health Information and a Diverse Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Mark

    This paper discusses public health services of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). The paper provides an overview of SPC and the Pacific Islands, including geography, nationality/culture, and development status. SPC Community Health Programmes (CHP) in the following areas are then described: environmental health; AIDS and STD (sexually…

  7. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  8. Where Is the Future in Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Context: Today's societies have far-reaching impacts on future conditions for health. Against this backdrop, this article explores how the future is represented in contemporary public health, examining both its conceptual base and influential approaches through which evidence is generated for policy. Methods: Mission statements and official reviews provide insight into how the future is represented in public health's conceptual and ethical foundations. For its research practices, the article takes examples from epidemiological, intervention, and economic research, selecting risk-factor epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, and economic evaluation as exemplars. Findings: Concepts and ethics suggest that public health research and policy will be concerned with protecting both today's and tomorrow's populations from conditions that threaten their health. But rather than facilitating sustained engagement with future conditions and future health, exemplary approaches to gathering evidence focus on today's population. Thus, risk-factor epidemiology pinpoints risks in temporal proximity to the individual; controlled trials track short-term effects of interventions on the participants’ health; and economic evaluations weigh policies according to their value to the current population. While their orientation to the present and near future aligns well with the compressed timescales for policy delivery on which democratic governments tend to work, it makes it difficult for the public health community to direct attention to conditions for future health. Conclusions: This article points to the need for research perspectives and practices that, consistent with public health's conceptual and ethical foundations, represent the interests of both tomorrow's and today's populations. PMID:20579281

  9. School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices of Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Megan L.; Hendershot, Candace; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Background: From January through June 2009, 6.1 million children were uninsured in the United States. On average, students with health insurance are healthier and as a result are more likely to be academically successful. Some schools help students obtain health insurance with the help of school nurses. Methods: This study assessed public school…

  10. TickNET—A Collaborative Public Health Approach to Tickborne Disease Surveillance and Research

    PubMed Central

    Hinckley, Alison; Hook, Sarah; Beard, C. Ben

    2015-01-01

    TickNET, a public health network, was created in 2007 to foster greater collaboration between state health departments, academic centers, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on surveillance and prevention of tickborne diseases. Research activities are conducted through the Emerging Infections Program and include laboratory surveys, high-quality prevention trials, and pathogen discovery. PMID:26291549

  11. School Nurse Case Management for Children with Chronic Illness: Health, Academic, and Quality of Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelke, Martha Keehner; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B.; Swanson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with…

  12. External Reporting Lines of Academic Special Libraries: A Health Sciences Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Amy G.; Ferree, Nita; Cataldo, Tara T.; Tennant, Michele R.

    2010-01-01

    Very little literature exists on the nature of external reporting lines and funding structures of academic special libraries. This study focuses on academic health sciences libraries. The authors analyze information gathered from statistics published by the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) from 1977 through 2007; an…

  13. A Rural District's WISH Spurs Student Health, Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    Big dreams often start small. For the Wayne County Public Schools in eastern North Carolina, those dreams started with the vision to improve adolescent health care at school. Now seven years later, the system is proud to operate five full-time school-based health centers, which have contributed to a decline in teen-age pregnancies and an increase…

  14. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  15. Public Health and the Epidemic of Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora M.; Brockmann, Brad; Dickman, Samuel; Alexander, Nicole; Rich, Josiah D.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Americans have been incarcerated in the past generation. In addition, arrests are concentrated in low-income, predominantly nonwhite communities where people are more likely to be medically underserved. As a result, rates of physical and mental illnesses are far higher among prison and jail inmates than among the general public. We review the health profiles of the incarcerated; health care in correctional facilities; and incarceration’s repercussions for public health in the communities to which inmates return upon release. The review concludes with recommendations that public health and medical practitioners capitalize on the public health opportunities provided by correctional settings to reach medically underserved communities, while simultaneously advocating for fundamental system change to reduce unnecessary incarceration. PMID:22224880

  16. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  17. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues.

  18. Public Participation in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups with 62 Alberta adults identified health learning needs; results were used by a community-university partnership to develop health education sessions in local settings. The initiative focused on community needs and participation rather than the dominant revenue-generation model, which has questionable ethical standing in…

  19. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  20. International Students, Academic Publications and World University Rankings: The Impact of Globalisation and Responses of a Malaysian Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua; Goh, Soo Khoon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the responses of a Malaysian public university, namely Universiti Sains Malaysia, to the impact of globalisation vis-à-vis three key issues: international students, academic publications and world university rankings. There are concerted efforts put in place by the university to recruit more international students. But a global…

  1. Reuniting public health and medicine: the University of New Mexico School of Medicine Public Health Certificate.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Cynthia M A; Arndell, Cynthia L; Clithero, Amy; Dow-Velarde, Lily A; Eldredge, Jonathan D; Eldredge, Jonathan P; Kalishman, Summers; Kaufman, Arthur; McGrew, Martha C; Snyder, Tiffany M; Solan, Brian G; Timm, Craig T; Tollestrup, Kristine; Wagner, Lana K; Wiese, William H; Wiggins, Charles L; Cosgrove, Ellen M

    2011-10-01

    The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) sought to train medical students in public health concepts, knowledge, and skills as a means of improving the health of communities statewide. Faculty members from every UNMSOM department collaborated to create and integrate a public health focus into all years of the medical school curriculum. They identified key competencies and developed new courses that would synchronize students' learning public health subjects with the mainstream medical school content. New courses include: Health Equity: Principles of Public Health; Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Evidence-Based Practice; Community-Based Service Learning; and Ethics in Public Health. Students experiencing the new courses, first in pilot and then final forms, gave high quantitative ratings to all courses. Some students' qualitative comments suggest that the Public Health Certificate has had a profound transformative effect. Instituting the integrated Public Health Certificate at UNMSOM places it among the first medical schools to require all its medical students to complete medical school with public health training. The new UNMSOM Public Health Certificate courses reunite medicine and public health in a unified curriculum.

  2. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response. PMID:12508505

  3. Public health responses to climate change health impacts in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wirawan, I Made Ady

    2010-01-01

    Although climate change is a global concern, there are particular considerations for Indonesia as an archipelagic nation. These include the vulnerability of people living in small islands and coastal areas to rising sea levels; the expansion of the important mosquito-borne diseases, particularly malaria and dengue, into areas that lack of immunity; and the increase in water-borne diseases and malnutrition. This article proposes a set of public health responses to climate change health impacts in Indonesia. Some important principles and practices in public health are highlighted, to develop effective public health approaches to climate change in Indonesia. PMID:20032032

  4. Informatics critical to public health surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, Samuel W.; Lillibridge, Scott R.

    2003-09-01

    Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health by effective response management and coordination. As new pressures for early detection of disease outbreaks have arisen, particularly for outbreaks of possible bioterrorism (BT) origin, and as electronic health data have become increasingly available, so has the demand for public health situation awareness systems. Although these systems are valuable for early warning of public health emergencies, there remains the cost of developing and managing such large and complex systems and of investigating inevitable false alarms. Whether these systems are dependable and cost effective enough and can demonstrate a significant and indispensable role in detection or prevention of mass casualty events of BT origin remains to be proven. This article will focus on the complexities of design, analysis, implementation and evaluation of public health surveillance and situation awareness systems and, in some cases, will discuss the key technologies being studied in Center for Biosecurity Informatics Research at University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston.

  5. Innovation and technology for global public health.

    PubMed

    Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have been marked by the explosive development of innovative scientific, technological and business products and processes. Despite their immense impact on health globally, little has been accomplished in the field of global public health to incorporate, address and harness such innovations in practice. In order to meet the world's growing health needs, it is essential that global public health accepts and adapts to these innovations. Moreover, such innovations must be implemented equitably in ways that will best serve their intended recipients, without deepening health- and access-related disparities. This article will briefly discuss the wide array of technologies in the pipeline that will affect global public health practice, their impact on the field and on populations and the issues facing the field in adopting these innovations.

  6. Informational Privacy, Public Health, and State Laws

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Developments in information technology that make it possible to rapidly transmit health information also raise questions about the possible inappropriate use and protection of identifiable (or potentially identifiable) personal health information. Despite efforts to improve state laws, adoption of provisions has lagged. We found that half of states have no statutes addressing nondisclosure of personally identifiable health information generally held by public health agencies. Exceptional treatment of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, or tuberculosis-related information was common. Where other provisions were found, there was little consistency in the laws across states. The variation in state laws supports the need to build consensus on the appropriate use and disclosure of public health information among public health practitioners. PMID:21852633

  7. The Academic Preparation Recommended by Public Relations Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Gay; Cottone, Laura Perkins

    Questionnaires were mailed to 261 agencies involved in public relations and publicity services, 56 agencies involved in advertising, and public relations directors of 183 corporations and other nonagency organizations in order to determine the knowledge and skill areas important to agency and organizational public relations employers. In an effort…

  8. [The characteristics of public health resources management].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the position of human health in the system of social economic relationships. The notion of material and technical resources in health institutions is defined. It is demonstrated that they are characterized by number of health institutions, their structure according levels and stages of medical care provision, costs of fixed assets, their structure and wear. The conceptual characteristics of actual management of public health resources are analyzed.

  9. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall.

  10. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts.

  11. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    PubMed

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.

  12. Public Health and Health Promotion Capacity at National and Regional Level: A Review of Conceptual Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    framework. The framework proposed in this paper can act as a theoretical guide for academic researchers and institutions to set up their own public health capacity assessment. Significance for public health As the concept of public health capacities is increasingly debated across countries and national/ international organizations, there is no consensus on the main dimensions of public health capacity. This paper therefore provides a rigorous review of currently existing frameworks, which describe public health capacities at the national or regional level. The main objective is to highlight commonalities among these frameworks, and propose a country-level framework which integrates all reoccurring dimensions. Such a comparison can yield vital information on those dimensions for public health capacities, which are common across all frameworks, and hence could be considered indispensable, irrespective of their context or geographic origin. As such, this review and the subsequent presentation of a conceptual framework is targeted at academic researchers and policy makers, who are interested in setting up a capacity mapping process and who are looking for concepts and frameworks on which they can base their work. PMID:25170508

  13. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-03-26

    framework. The framework proposed in this paper can act as a theoretical guide for academic researchers and institutions to set up their own public health capacity assessment. Significance for public healthAs the concept of public health capacities is increasingly debated across countries and national/ international organizations, there is no consensus on the main dimensions of public health capacity. This paper therefore provides a rigorous review of currently existing frameworks, which describe public health capacities at the national or regional level. The main objective is to highlight commonalities among these frameworks, and propose a country-level framework which integrates all reoccurring dimensions. Such a comparison can yield vital information on those dimensions for public health capacities, which are common across all frameworks, and hence could be considered indispensable, irrespective of their context or geographic origin. As such, this review and the subsequent presentation of a conceptual framework is targeted at academic researchers and policy makers, who are interested in setting up a capacity mapping process and who are looking for concepts and frameworks on which they can base their work.

  14. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    PubMed

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  15. Public health communications and alert fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care providers play a significant role in large scale health emergency planning, detection, response, recovery and communication with the public. The effectiveness of health care providers in emergency preparedness and response roles depends, in part, on public health agencies communicating information in a way that maximizes the likelihood that the message is delivered, received, deemed credible and, when appropriate, acted on. However, during an emergency, health care providers can become inundated with alerts and advisories through numerous national, state, local and professional communication channels. We conducted an alert fatigue study as a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial which aimed to identify the most effective methods of communicating public health messages between public health agencies and providers. We report an analysis of the effects of public health message volume/frequency on recall of specific message content and effect of rate of message communications on health care provider alert fatigue. Methods Health care providers enrolled in the larger study (n=528) were randomized to receive public health messages via email, fax, short message service (SMS or cell phone text messaging) or to a control group that did not receive messages. For 12 months, study messages based on real events of public health significance were sent quarterly with follow-up telephone interviews regarding message receipt and topic recall conducted 5–10 days after the message delivery date. During a pandemic when numerous messages are sent, alert fatigue may impact ability to recall whether a specific message has been received due to the “noise” created by the higher number of messages. To determine the impact of “noise” when study messages were sent, we compared health care provider recall of the study message topic to the number of local public health messages sent to health care providers. Results We calculated the mean number of

  16. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  17. Public health through a different lens.

    PubMed

    Deber, Raisa; McDougall, Christopher; Wilson, Kumanan

    2007-01-01

    Although public health in Canada faces concerns similar to those noted by Tilson and Berkowitz in the US, a review we conducted of how public health is financed and delivered in Canada also highlights some key differences. In both systems, public health labours under similar disadvantages: it is invisible when it succeeds; it has overtones of a "nanny state" and it focuses on often unpopular vulnerable populations. Prevention is always at risk of being raided to finance treatment. Yet, Canada, because there are fewer financial barriers to receiving medically necessary personal services, can focus more attention on what Tilson and Berkowitz term "the ecology of health." We highlight some of the strengths and ongoing challenges of the Canadian public health system. We conclude that the issue appears less the need to measure performance, than the recognition that one size does not fit all. In particular, for threats to public health that transcend borders, local failure can affect wider populations and suggests a need to look beyond local, provincial or national sovereignty. Public health is heterogeneous, and many roads may lead us to the promised land. PMID:17476131

  18. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.

  19. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520

  20. Framing the Public Health of Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Ronda C.; Crews, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Caregiving has only recently been acknowledged by the nation as an important topic for millions of Americans. A psychological or sociological approach to care-giving services has been most often applied, with little attention to the population-based public health outcomes of caregivers. We conceptualize caregiving as an emerging public health issue involving complex and fluctuating roles. We contend that caregiving must be considered in the context of life span needs that vary according to the ages, developmental levels, mental health needs, and physical health demands of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:17194871

  1. Beyond public health emergency legal preparedness: rethinking best practices.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    The concept of public health legal preparedness grew out of the public health emergency preparedness movement, but was conceptualized more broadly to be utilized to achieve full public health legal preparedness for all types of public health threats. This article analyzes the need to refocus public health legal preparedness to include all areas of public health law and presents a new model for the fourth core element that will aid in the development of legal benchmarks so public health systems can more effectively work towards attaining public health legal preparedness in all areas of public health practice.

  2. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  3. Academic Creativity under New Public Management: Foundations for an Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Simon Marginson focuses on self-determining academic freedom in universities, and especially the conditions and drivers of the radical-creative imagination that is manifest in sudden intellectual breaks in knowledge. Marginson's objective is to establish foundations in political philosophy for a sociological study of the effects of…

  4. The Managerial Roles of Public Community College Chief Academic Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Philip; Murray, John P.; Olivarez, Arturo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the managerial roles of the community college Chief Academic Officer (CAO). Findings indicated that (1) CAOs placed the most importance on the roles of leader, liaison, and disseminator; (2) managers with more years of experience tended to emphasize the liaison role most; and (3) CAOs over 40 placed the most importance on…

  5. Some Reflections on Scholarly Review and Academic Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.

    This paper argues that the scholarly review process in refereed academic journal publishing restricts research creativity and timeliness, promotes inertia, and wastes resources. The publishing process of a Canadian journal (The Canadian Journal of Educational Communication), published three times annually, which uses a blind referee process is…

  6. Research Publication as a Strategy to Improve International Academic Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tie, Fatt Hee

    2012-01-01

    Many universities in Asia are now focused on enhancing their global academic competitiveness. Various strategies are implemented to restructure, reform and transform universities aimed at improving ranking in the global university league. One significant strategy is to encourage academicians to place priority on publishing in high-impact…

  7. A new conceptual framework for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Borden, William B; Mushlin, Alvin I; Gordon, Jonathan E; Leiman, Joan M; Pardes, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Led by the Affordable Care Act, the U.S. health care system is undergoing a transformative shift toward greater accountability for quality and efficiency. Academic health centers (AHCs), whose triple mission of clinical care, research, and education serves a critical role in the country's health care system, must adapt to this evolving environment. Doing so successfully, however, requires a broader understanding of the wide-ranging roles of the AHC. This article proposes a conceptual framework through which the triple mission is expanded along four new dimensions: health, innovation, community, and policy. Examples within the conceptual framework categories, such as the AHCs' safety net function, their contributions to local economies, and their role in right-sizing the health care workforce, illustrate how each of these dimensions provides a more robust picture of the modern AHC and demonstrates the value added by AHCs. This conceptual framework also offers a basis for developing new performance metrics by which AHCs, both individually and as a group, can be held accountable, and that can inform policy decisions affecting them. This closer examination of the myriad activities of modern AHCs clarifies their essential role in our health care system and will enable these institutions to evolve, improve, be held accountable for, and more fully serve the health of the nation.

  8. Emerging issues in public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J Scott; Dolinoy, Dana C; Tarini, Beth A

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, we describe recent advances in newborn screening (NBS), with a focus on the practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, we detail research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal, and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information, the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public, and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) of genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. We also note needs for future genomic research that integrates across basic and social sciences.

  9. Emerging issues in public health genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, recent advances in newborn screening (NBS) are described, with a focus on practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics are detailed, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information; the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public; and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) from genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. Needs for future genomics research that integrates across basic and social sciences are also noted. PMID:25184533

  10. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use. PMID:27462857

  11. Rewriting public health information in plain language.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rima E; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Colton, Tayla; Gregoire, John; Hyde, James

    2004-01-01

    Public health materials are often designed to inform and rally the public to spur action and maintain vigilance on important issues to family, work, community, and public policy. Limited access to public health information certainly curtails knowledge and awareness but may also hamper action and civic involvement. A growth in published assessments of health materials indicates an increased interest in the mismatch between the reading level of most health materials and the reading ability of the average adult. However, while several guidebooks offer suggestions for developing new materials, little attention has been given to the process of rewriting materials and grappling with bureaucratic language. We describe, in this case study, a process we used to assess and then rewrite a federally mandated report to consumers about the quality of their water. PMID:15360033

  12. Knowledge networks for global public health.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Maria Dulce F; Fiereck, Kirk J; Parker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The challenges posed by a globalised world have made it imperative for society to search for solutions to emerging issues and to develop new ways of looking at old problems. Current discussions about global public health demand a shift in paradigms and the strategic positioning of public health within broader policy discussions that will enable it to influence political and action agendas. Critical to responding to these challenges is the generation, transmission and dissemination of new knowledge to create value. Recognising the cutting-edge role of knowledge, as a new form of capital that drives innovation and transforms society, the formation of knowledge networks is viewed as a strategy for developing a shared intellectual, conceptual and ethical infrastructure for the field of global public health. These knowledge networks are envisioned as a vehicle for sharing diverse perspectives, encouraging debate and sustaining alternative ways of thinking about and responding to the challenges that confront global public health today and in the future.

  13. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.

  14. Enhancing Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Developing and Using Policy Narratives.

    PubMed

    Troy, Lisa M; Kietzman, Kathryn G

    2016-06-01

    Academic researchers and clinicians have a critical role in shaping public policies to improve the health of an aging America. Policy narratives that pair personal stories with research statistics are a powerful tool to share knowledge generated in academic and clinical settings with policymakers. Effective policy narratives rely on a trustworthy and competent narrator and a compelling story that highlights the personal impact of policies under consideration and academic research that bolsters the story. Awareness of the cultural differences in the motivations, expectations, and institutional constraints of academic researchers and clinicians as information producers and U.S. Congress and federal agencies as information users is critical to the development of policy narratives that impact policy decisions. The current article describes the development and use of policy narratives to bridge cultures and enhance evidence-based public health policies that better meet the needs of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 11-17.].

  15. Viewpoint: professionalism and humanism beyond the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Swick, Herbert M

    2007-11-01

    Medical professionalism and humanism have long been integral to the practice of medicine, and they will continue to shape practice in the 21st century. In recent years, many advances have been made in understanding the nature of medical professionalism and in efforts to teach and assess professional values and behaviors. As more and more teaching of both medical students and residents occurs in settings outside of academic medical centers, it is critically important that community physicians demonstrate behaviors that resonate professionalism and humanism. As teachers, they must be committed to being role models for what physicians should be. Activities that are designed to promote and advance professionalism, then, must take place not only in academic settings but also in clinical practice sites that are beyond the academic health center. The author argues that professionalism and humanism share common values and that each can enrich the other. Because the cauldron of practice threatens to erode traditional values of professionalism, not only for individual physicians but also for the medical profession, practicing physicians must incorporate into practice settings activities that are explicitly designed to exemplify those values, not only with students and patients, but also within their communities. The author cites a number of examples of ways in which professionalism and humanism can be fostered by individual physicians as well as professional organizations.

  16. Burnout among faculty physicians in an academic health science centre

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James Gardner; Khetani, Nicole; Stephens, Derek

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout experienced by physicians is concerning because it may affect quality of care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of burnout among physicians at an academic health science centre and to test the hypothesis that work hours are related to burnout. METHODS: All 300 staff physicians, contacted through their personal e-mail, were provided an encrypted link to an anonymous questionnaire. The primary outcome measure, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, has three subscales: personal, work related and patient related. RESULTS: The response rate for the questionnaire was 70%. Quantitative demands, insecurity at work and job satisfaction affected all three components of burnout. Of 210 staff physicians, 22% (n=46) had scores indicating personal burnout, 14% (n=30) had scores indicating work-related burnout and 8% (n=16) had scores indicating patient-related burnout. The correlation between total hours worked and total burnout was only 0.10 (P=0.14) DISCUSSION: Up to 22% of academic paediatric physicians had scores consistent with mild to severe burnout. A simple reduction in work hours is unlikely to be successful in reducing burnout and, therefore, quantitative demands, job satisfaction and work insecurity may require attention to address burnout among academic physicians. PMID:22851895

  17. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students

    PubMed Central

    Wyber, Rosemary; Potter, James R.; Weaver, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Methods Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Conclusions Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities. PMID:24964783

  18. Local public health cost study in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Carol L; Feldman, Lynne; Toomey, Kathleen E

    2004-01-01

    Development of a uniform cost study methodology for local health department services in Georgia began with a desire to negotiate cost-based reimbursement from Medicaid. Managed care and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements for common coding standards added impetus to Georgia's efforts to document the cost of local public health. With a determination that the result was achievable, the Division of Public Health contracted with a medical practice management firm. What followed included a major team effort with active working groups of county, district, and state representatives. A template was developed by the consultants to compile the cost report and automated applications were installed. Statewide training engaged the local public health workforce and led to a successful pilot project. This article describes the interactive process that led ultimately to the ability of every county in the state to produce a valid cost report. The cost of direct services provided for individuals by county health departments can now be calculated with a cost per relative value unit. The cost report also includes the cost of environmental health, dental health, population-based services and all other local public health services. A brief description of the methodology is presented.

  19. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  20. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  1. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.

  2. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  3. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    PubMed Central

    Pernick, M S

    1997-01-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633

  4. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  5. Health extension in new Mexico: an academic health center and the social determinants of disease.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Arthur; Powell, Wayne; Alfero, Charles; Pacheco, Mario; Silverblatt, Helene; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Lucero, Ken; Corriveau, Erin; Vanleit, Betsy; Alverson, Dale; Scott, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service model offers academic health centers methodologies for community engagement that can address the social determinants of disease. The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center developed Health Extension Rural Offices (HEROs) as a vehicle for its model of health extension. Health extension agents are located in rural communities across the state and are supported by regional coordinators and the Office of the Vice President for Community Health at the Health Sciences Center. The role of agents is to work with different sectors of the community in identifying high-priority health needs and linking those needs with university resources in education, clinical service and research. Community needs, interventions, and outcomes are monitored by county health report cards. The Health Sciences Center is a large and varied resource, the breadth and accessibility of which are mostly unknown to communities. Community health needs vary, and agents are able to tap into an array of existing health center resources to address those needs. Agents serve a broader purpose beyond immediate, strictly medical needs by addressing underlying social determinants of disease, such as school retention, food insecurity, and local economic development. Developing local capacity to address local needs has become an overriding concern. Community-based health extension agents can effectively bridge those needs with academic health center resources and extend those resources to address the underlying social determinants of disease.

  6. Public health educators' participation in teams: implications for preparation and practice.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Kay A; Bibeau, Daniel L; Donnell, Brigid M; Johnson, Hans H; Glascoff, Mary A; Tyler, Emily

    2009-07-01

    Collaboration among public health organizations is essential to ensuring the health of the public. Much of the day-to-day work of public health educators is done in groups or teams or in consultation with others. This study examined the extent of health educators' work in teams as a proxy for collaboration. Health educators participated in an average of four teams per individual; three of these were interorganizational teams. Moreover, 40% of the respondents participated in five or more teams. Health educators supervised by other health educators were more likely to work in interorganizational teams than were those supervised by other professionals. Certified Health Education Specialists were more likely to participate in intraorganizational teams. Curricula in academic programs should reflect the extensive teamwork in which health educators are involved. Employers need to provide health educators with grounding in organizational priorities and support to carry out their collaborative work.

  7. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT PUBLIC HEALTH FROM ONLINE CROWD SURVEILLANCE.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina; Ungar, Lyle

    2013-09-10

    The Internet has forever changed the way people access information and make decisions about their healthcare needs. Patients now share information about their health at unprecedented rates on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and on medical discussion boards. In addition to explicitly shared information about health conditions through posts, patients reveal data on their inner fears and desires about health when searching for health-related keywords on search engines. Data are also generated by the use of mobile phone applications that track users' health behaviors (e.g., eating and exercise habits) as well as give medical advice. The data generated through these applications are mined and repackaged by surveillance systems developed by academics, companies, and governments alike to provide insight to patients and healthcare providers for medical decisions. Until recently, most Internet research in public health has been surveillance focused or monitoring health behaviors. Only recently have researchers used and interacted with the crowd to ask questions and collect health-related data. In the future, we expect to move from this surveillance focus to the "ideal" of Internet-based patient-level interventions where healthcare providers help patients change their health behaviors. In this article, we highlight the results of our prior research on crowd surveillance and make suggestions for the future. PMID:25045598

  8. Lessons Learned About Public Health from Online Crowd Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Raina; Ungar, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Internet has forever changed the way people access information and make decisions about their healthcare needs. Patients now share information about their health at unprecedented rates on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and on medical discussion boards. In addition to explicitly shared information about health conditions through posts, patients reveal data on their inner fears and desires about health when searching for health-related keywords on search engines. Data are also generated by the use of mobile phone applications that track users' health behaviors (e.g., eating and exercise habits) as well as give medical advice. The data generated through these applications are mined and repackaged by surveillance systems developed by academics, companies, and governments alike to provide insight to patients and healthcare providers for medical decisions. Until recently, most Internet research in public health has been surveillance focused or monitoring health behaviors. Only recently have researchers used and interacted with the crowd to ask questions and collect health-related data. In the future, we expect to move from this surveillance focus to the “ideal” of Internet-based patient-level interventions where healthcare providers help patients change their health behaviors. In this article, we highlight the results of our prior research on crowd surveillance and make suggestions for the future. PMID:25045598

  9. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  10. Health lifestyles: audience segmentation analysis for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Slater, M D; Flora, J A

    1991-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application of market segmentation techniques in order to improve the planning and implementation of public health education programs. Seven distinctive patterns of health attitudes, social influences, and behaviors are identified using cluster analytic techniques in a sample drawn from four central California cities, and are subjected to construct and predictive validation: The lifestyle clusters predict behaviors including seatbelt use, vitamin C use, and attention to health information. The clusters also predict self-reported improvements in health behavior as measured in a two-year follow-up survey, e.g., eating less salt and losing weight, and self-reported new moderate and new vigorous exercise. Implications of these lifestyle clusters for public health education and intervention planning, and the larger potential of lifestyle clustering techniques in public health efforts, are discussed.

  11. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  12. Nuclear Education in Public Health and Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Alvin E.; Stanitis, Mary Anne

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 20 public health schools and 240 university schools of nursing found that nuclear war related content was most likely to be appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention. (FMW)

  13. Challenges in Sustaining Public Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability remains a key challenge in public health. The perspective article by Fagen and Flay adds to our understanding of technical factors associated with sustaining health interventions in schools. In this commentary, the Fagen and Flay article (2009) is considered within the broader literature on sustainability. By taking a broad view,…

  14. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  15. PUBLIC HEALTH IN EASTERN MACEDONIA

    PubMed Central

    White, Paul Dudley

    1920-01-01

    In Macedonia a band of devoted, associated physicians fought the plagues of the nearer Orient, a splendid example of cosmopolitan coöperation. Here is the story as viewed by American eyes of a work which is fundemental in the removal of a very serious menace to the health of the world. Imagesp15-ap15-bp16-ap17-ap17-bp18-ap19-ap20-a PMID:18010227

  16. Five classic articles in public health.

    PubMed

    Borak, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    In this brief review, Dr. Jonathan Borak comments on five seminal papers that helped shape the fields of epidemiology and public health. These papers include Hill's criteria for inferring causality; the first proof of the multistage theory of cancer; the first evidence that subclinical lead exposures can cause neurobehavioral impairment in children; a simple yet robust study that had a major influence on setting current air pollution policies; and a landmark review of the general public's perception of risk in relation to actual public health hazard.

  17. The public communication of science in public health graduate programs in Brazil: From the coordinators' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. A.; Gallo, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction - The elaboration process of public policies for science and technology in knowledge societies should include not only experts, but all society members. There are studies on lay people's perception of science and technology. However, what is the scientists' perspective on public communication of science? Objectives - To describe and characterize the concepts that coordinators of Brazilian public health graduate programs have about public communication of science. Methods - This is an analytical and descriptive report of an exploratory research (doctoral study). The answers of fifty-one coordinators to two questionnaires were submitted for content analysis. The categories were transformed into variables that allowed the data processing by the Hiérarchique Classificatoire et Cohésitive (CHIC®) software. Results - Similarity analysis strongly suggested (0,99) that coordinators understand public communication as a communication directed to academic peers and students, also as a form of participation in scientific events and communication by scientific papers. Likewise, the implication analysis suggested a strong implication (0,98) between scientific communication understood as public communication. Conclusion - The notion of public communication of science as a social right and as a commitment and responsibility of researchers and research centers is not explicitly present in the narrative of the coordinators, although in general the coordinators conceive it as a relevant activity. This study thus contributes to a reflection on the role of scientists, researchers and research centers in public communication of science and technology.

  18. "New Public Management" and the Academic Profession: Reflections on the German Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimank, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This essay considers recent implications of "new public management" (NPM) strategies for the universities of Germany. It argues that NPM poses a threat to the traditional values of the academic profession, and asks what the universities should do to restore public trust in their methods and management.

  19. A Hyperlink Analysis of U.S. Public and Academic Libraries' Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Rong; Thelwall, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on patterns of links from and to the Web sites of 100 U.S. academic and public libraries with regard to the originating and targeted URL domain categories. Libraries, grouped into small and large by their collection size, were found to have numbers of inlinks proportional to their size, but public libraries, and particularly…

  20. The Interaction of Publications and Appointments: New Evidence on Academic Economists in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Klaus; Schneider, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Using a new panel data set comprising publication and appointment data for 889 German academic economists over a quarter of a century, we confirm the familiar hypothesis that publications are important for professorial appointments, but find only a small negative effect of appointments on subsequent research productivity, in particular if one…

  1. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 2381) as amended; E.O. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 FR 56673; 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 435) ... Publication Policy I Appendix I to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic Publication Policy 1. Statement of...

  2. Bringing Public Engagement into an Academic Plan and Its Assessment Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britner, Preston A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how public engagement was incorporated into a research university's current Academic Plan, how the public engagement metrics were selected and adopted, and how those processes led to subsequent strategic planning. Some recognition of the importance of civic engagement has followed, although there are many areas in which…

  3. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  4. Moving toward the Market and Away from Public Service? Effects of Resource Dependency and Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Thronton, Courtney H.

    2005-01-01

    Research-extensive land-grant institutions face the unique challenge of asking faculty to fulfill a historic mission of public service in a time of scarce resources. This article discusses the parallel between the effects of resource dependency and academic capitalism on the research enterprise and on public service endeavors through the…

  5. [Psychosomatic and medical psychology: shift and drift of the publication practice of the academic representatives].

    PubMed

    Brähler, Elmar; Decker, Oliver

    2003-12-01

    The publication practice of the medical-psychological and psychosomatic chairs was the subject of a systematic investigation for the period 1992-1996 in this journal. The background was the discussion about quality and qualification of the academic newcomers. Now, most of the German university medical schools spend the budget--among other criteria--in accordance with the publication practice of the academic representative and their coworkers. The question arises, whether and how the chairs have changed their publication practice in comparison for the period 1998-2002.

  6. Public Health 101 Nanocourse: A Condensed Educational Tool for Non–Public Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C.; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)—have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health. PMID:25706019

  7. Public health and health education in faith communities.

    PubMed

    Chatters, L M; Levin, J S; Ellison, C G

    1998-12-01

    This special issue of Health Education & Behavior is devoted to broadly examining the interconnections among public health, health education, and faith-based communities. In addition to a focus on questions related to the practice of public health and health education within religious settings (e.g., program development, implementation, and evaluation), the articles in this issue examine a broad range of both substantive and methodological questions and concerns. These articles include contributions that address (1) various theoretical and conceptual issues and frameworks explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health; (2) substantive reviews of current research in the area; (3) individual empirical studies exploring the associations between religious involvement and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (4) evaluations of health education programs in faith communities; and (5) religious institutions and their contributions to the development of health policy. The articles comprising the issue are selective in their coverage of the field and provide different and complementary perspectives on the connections between religious involvement and health. It is hoped that this approach will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others from health education, public health, and related social and behavioral science disciplines.

  8. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  9. System Integration and Network Planning in the Academic Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Marcia A.; Spackman, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer of information within the academic health center is complicated by the complex nature of the institution's multi-dimensional role. The diverse functions of patient care, administration, education and research result in a complex web of information exchange which requires an integrated approach to system management. System integration involves a thorough assessment of “end user” needs in terms of hardware and software as well as specification of the communications network architecture. The network will consist of a series of end user nodes which capture, process, archive and display information. This paper will consider some requirements of these nodes, also called intelligent workstations, relating to their management and integration into a total health care network.

  10. Remote Sensing, Air Quality, and Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  11. The public health impact of tsunami disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Tsunamis have the potential to cause an enormous impact on the health of millions of people. During the last half of the twentieth century, more people were killed by tsunamis than by earthquakes. Most recently, a major emergency response operation has been underway in northeast Japan following a devastating tsunami triggered by the biggest earthquake on record in Japan. This natural disaster has been described as the most expensive in world history. There are few resources in the public health literature that describe the characteristics and epidemiology of tsunami-related disasters, as a whole. This article reviews the phenomenology and impact of tsunamis as a significant public health hazard.

  12. Integrating Social Theory Into Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Louise; Gendron, Sylvie; Bilodeau, Angèle; Chabot, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The innovative practice that resulted from the Ottawa Charter challenges public health knowledge about programming and evaluation. Specifically, there is a need to formulate program theory that embraces social determinants of health and local actors’ mobilization for social change. Likewise, it is imperative to develop a theory of evaluation that fosters reflexive understanding of public health programs engaged in social change. We believe advances in contemporary social theory that are founded on a critique of modernity and that articulate a coherent theory of practice should be considered when addressing these critical challenges. PMID:15798114

  13. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  14. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    PubMed Central

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  15. Using Conjoint Analysis to Estimate Employers Preferences for Key Competencies of Master Level Dutch Graduates Entering the Public Health Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesma, R. G.; Pavlova, M.; van Merode, G. G.; Groot, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses an experimental design to estimate preferences of employers for key competencies during the transition from initial education to the labor market. The study is restricted to employers of entry-level academic graduates entering public health organizations in the Netherlands. Given the changing and complex demands in public health,…

  16. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.

    2000-02-23

    Veterinary oncology has seen tremendous growth since the first textbook devoted to the subject in the late 1970s. Cancer is usually at the top of the list when owners ask about health concerns for their pets (and it remains the leading cause of death among dogs and cats). The volume, Veterinary Oncology Secrets, joins others in the series by presenting in question and answer format the type of information so important to veterinary students, interns and residents, general practitioners, and specialists in a number of clinical fields.

  17. Public engagement on global health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emma RM; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues. PMID:18492256

  18. The politics of public health policy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Politics, for better or worse, plays a critical role in health affairs. The purpose of this article is to articulate a role for political analysis of public health issues, ranging from injury and disease prevention to health care reform. It begins by examining how health problems make it onto the policy agenda. Perceptions regarding the severity of the problem, responsibility for the problem, and affected populations all influence governmental responses. Next, it considers how bounded rationality, fragmented political institutions, resistance from concentrated interests, and fiscal constraints usually lead political leaders to adopt incremental policy changes rather than comprehensive reforms even when faced with serious public health problems. It then identifies conditions under which larger-scale transformation of health policy can occur, focusing on critical junctures in policy development and the role of policy entrepreneurs in seizing opportunities for innovation. Finally, it reviews the challenges confronting officials and agencies who are responsible for implementing and administering health policies. Public health professionals who understand the political dimensions of health policy can conduct more realistic research and evaluation, better anticipate opportunities as well as constraints on governmental action, and design more effective policies and programs.

  19. Parks, recreation, and public health collaborative.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Judy

    2008-12-03

    The primary goal of many park and recreation agencies is to provide resources and programs that improve quality of life for the community. Increasing physical activity is one aspect of this agenda. Promoting physical activity is a public health goal; however, increasing population-level physical activity will require access to places for physical activity (e.g. parks). Practitioners and policy makers need more information to document the roles that parks and recreation facilities play to promote physical activity and contribute to public health. A working group of approximately 20 professionals experienced in data collection came together to discuss the needs for better surveillance and measurement instruments in the fields of parks, recreation, and public health. The working group made two major recommendations: (1) the need for collaborative research and data sharing, and (2) the need for surveillance measures to demonstrate the amount of health-related physical activity acquired in the park setting.

  20. A Study of the Competencies Needed of Entry-Level Academic Health Sciences Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbrick, Jodi Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…

  1. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  2. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  3. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: A longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students’ academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  4. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.

  5. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Don E

    2003-01-01

    Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII) offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries). The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security) framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin PMID:12525262

  6. [Public health ethics as applied ethics. Debates on the legitimacy and limits of public health engagement].

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    Public health engagement is strongly connected to a relatively new concept of health promotion. This concept focuses on a general health-related attitude which is to be established through the networking of multiple institutional and private actors. Hence the practical realization of this concept leads to extensive transitions concerning the institutions and health-related interventions involved. Meanwhile a critical view of these transitions has become a public issue. Within the critical discussion, the normative limits of public health are questioned and even the legitimacy of public health proves to be at stake. Public health ethics is therefore called to investigate and explicate the legitimacy and the normative limits of public health engagement. It is advised to do so in an applied ethical, i.e. ethical-political, discourse. The value system of free democratic societies serves as the ethical framework that public health ethics has to refer to. Public health ethics is thus to be regarded as an applied ethical discourse distinct from biomedical ethics.

  7. 25 years of public health leadership in Africa: the Ethiopian Public Health Association.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Damen Haile; Asnake, Mengistu

    2010-01-01

    This commentary discusses the historical development, organization and activities of the Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), a professional civil society organization that operates on the principles of protection of public interest and professional standards in health in areas of health development in Ethiopia. The important roles played by the EPHA in health training, research and policy advocacy have been highlighted. Some of the important health system interventions that have been effected in the country through the influence and active participation of the Association have also been pointed out. As an active member of the Executive Board of the World Federation of Public Health Associations, EPHA serves as a role model for public health professional associations in the African Region with regard to increasing their influence in health policy and interventions within their respective countries. PMID:21370778

  8. [Bioethics and public health: epistemological convergences].

    PubMed

    Junges, Jose Roque; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone

    2012-04-01

    This is a theoretical discussion about the epistemological statute of bioethics based on its convergences with public health, linked as scientific areas that came from the context of the second epistemological rupture, which questioned the critique to common sense inherent in modern science. The reapproximation with common sense in the second rupture means considering the determinants of environment and subjectivity in the methodology. Emerging from the second rupture, public health and bioethics include the social and subjective determinants in their analysis, with an enlarged and complex vision of human health and human actions involving environment, life and health. This requires a transdisciplinary focus in their approaches. What is the meaning of these premises for the epistemological statute of bioethics in its convergence with public health? As ethics, bioethics needs to be critical, but not aprioristic. The criticism of bioethics needs to come from the facticity of the social determinants expressed by the health iniquities. The only way to integrate criticism and facticity is hermeneutics, interpreting the significances constructed in the reality and become critical therefrom. This is the epistemological statute appropriate to bioethics in its convergence with public health.

  9. Strong links for Public Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Caan, Woody

    2015-08-01

    The new, national Public Mental Health Network offers health visitors and school nurses an opportunity to gain more of a voice within policy. The Network is hosted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and works closely with Public Health England and NHS England to improve population mental health and to prevent mental illness.The CPHVA, RCN and other professional bodies have a vital role to fill in shaping development of the Network, including sharing good practice, interprofessional education and innovative public health research. In the past, the public health community has often been slow and uncoordinated in responding to either grassroots needs or government imperatives. In particular, voices advocating for better mental health for children and families have not been heard. Trade Unionists know that solidarity amplifies the voice of individuals. My own interest as a professor is to build on all we know that makes families, schools, neighbourhoods (and groups of practitioners) more resilient--and capable of more and more. PMID:26368996

  10. A public health perspective on research ethics.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, D R; Miller, F G

    2006-12-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient-participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public health is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re-assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions.

  11. Corporate Funding for Schools of Public Health: Confronting the Ethical and Economic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.

  12. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  13. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to <.001. The Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health. PMID:23975798

  14. Capacity building for long-term community-academic health partnership outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M Kathryn; Felix, Holly C; Cottoms, Naomi; Olson, Mary; Shelby, Beatrice; Huff, Anna; Colley, Dianne; Sparks, Carla; McKindra, Freeman

    2014-01-01

    Too often, populations experiencing the greatest burden of disease and disparities in health outcomes are left out of or ineffectively involved in academic-led efforts to address issues that impact them the most. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach increasingly being used to address these issues, but the science of CBPR is still viewed by many as a nascent field. Important to the development of the science of CBPR is documentation of the partnership process, particularly capacity building activities important to establishing the CBPR research infrastructure. This paper uses a CBPR Logic Model as a structure for documenting partnership capacity building activities of a long-term community-academic partnership addressing public health issues in Arkansas, U.S. Illustrative activities, programs, and experiences are described for each of the model’s four constructs: context, group dynamics, interventions, and outcomes. Lessons learned through this process were: capacity building is required by both academic and community partners; shared activities provide a common base of experiences and expectations; and creating a common language facilitates dialogue about difficult issues. Development of community partnerships with one institutional unit promoted community engagement institution-wide, enhanced individual and partnership capacity, and increased opportunity to address priority issues. PMID:25750694

  15. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history

    PubMed Central

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation. PMID:12883579

  16. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history.

    PubMed

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D

    2003-04-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.

  17. Teaching Public Health Networks in England: an innovative approach to building public health capacity and capability.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Pilkington, P; Gray, S; Rao, M

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the development and achievements of the Teaching Public Health Networks (TPHNs) in England; an initiative that aimed to catalyse collaborative working between the public health workforce and further and higher education, to enhance public health knowledge in the wider workforce with a view to enhancing capacity to tackle inequalities and meeting public health targets. This paper highlights activities under three outcomes: mobilizing resources, people, money and materials; building capacity through training and infrastructure development; and raising public and political awareness. The TPHN approach is shown to have led to innovative developments in public health education and training, including engagement with professionals that have not previously had exposure to public health. This paper aims to disseminate the learning from this complex public health initiative, now in its third year of development, and to share examples of good practice. It is hoped that other countries can use the TPHN approach as a model to address the various common and country-specific challenges in public health workforce development.

  18. Undergraduate Public Health Capstone Course: Teaching Evidence-Based Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Veronica Eileen; Mayer, Christen; Sherman, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The University at Albany School of Public Health has offered a Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) degree for the past 7 years. The final requirement of the BSPH degree is a capstone evidence-based public health class designed to culminate the degree program. This capstone course is framed by identifying a public health problem and creating a literature review based on this problem. The issues are selected through collaboration between the students and instructors. Developmental and analytical tools necessary to complete the literature review are provided throughout the semester. By the end of the course, students achieve the necessary competencies and skills to identify a public health problem, analyze information from peer-reviewed literature, and synthesize the relationship between a health issue and its correlated outcome. Successes were measured through achievement of core BSPH competencies, quality of final paper and presentation, and qualitative data gleaned from end of semester self-reported student surveys. PMID:27148516

  19. History of health, a valuable tool in public health

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero, E; Bernabeu, J; Huertas, R; Rodriguez-Ocana, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of the history of public health for public health research and practice itself. After summarily reviewing the current great vitality of the history of collective health oriented initiatives, we explain three particular features of the historical vantage point in public health, namely the importance of the context, the relevance of a diachronic attitude and the critical perspective. In order to illustrate those three topics, we bring up examples taken from three centuries of fight against malaria, the so called "re-emerging diseases" and the 1918 influenza epidemic. The historical approach enriches our critical perception of the social effects of initiatives undertaken in the name of public health, shows the shortcomings of public health interventions based on single factors and asks for a wider time scope in the assessment of current problems. The use of a historical perspective to examine the plurality of determinants in any particular health condition will help to solve the longlasting debate on the primacy of individual versus population factors, which has been particularly intense in recent times.


Keywords: history PMID:11511647

  20. [Transsexuality and public health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Arán, Márcia; Murta, Daniela; Lionço, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to discuss transsexuality in the context of the Brazilian public health policies. Firstly, it questions the necessity of the diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder as a condition of access to treatment in the public health service, searching to understand the historical construction of transsexuality as a pathological phenomenon. After that, it analyzes the debate on public health policies for transsexuals, considering the process of legalization of the reassignment surgery in the country, the resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine and the constitution of representative forums of the Health Ministry, as well as professionals of the area and representatives of the social movement. Finally, considering the references available that emphasizes the critics on the analysis of transsexuality as a pathological phenomenon in the areas of the Public Health and Social Sciences, it intends to emphasize the importance of understanding the diversity of subjectivity's forms and genders construction considering transsexuality. In this context, it discusses the question of transsexuals autonomy and suggests public policies that, even following an assistance protocol, do not have as its only therapeutical reference the accomplishment of the diagnosis and the reassignment surgery.