Zhao, Ruilan; Hirvela, Alan
As an important and a challenging source-based writing task, synthesizing offers rich opportunities to explore the connections between reading and writing. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of two Chinese students' learning experiences with academic synthesis writing in a university ESL composition course. Specifically,…
Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui
Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…
Eremina, Svetlana V.
The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.
This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…
Phakiti, Aek; Li, Lulu
This article reports on an empirical study that examines general academic difficulties, and academic reading and writing difficulties among Asian ESL (English as a Second Language) international postgraduate students who are completing a Master's Degree in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) at an Australian university. The…
Hirvela, Alan; Du, Qian
One of the most common and vital areas of coverage in second language (L2) writing instruction is writing from sources, that is, the process of reading source text material and transferring content from that reading to writing. Research as well as everyday practice in the classroom has long shown that working with source texts is one of the most…
Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui
"As Kroll (1993), among others, has pointed out, reading has traditionally been seen as a skill to be taught separately from writing, as well as something students are somehow expected to already know about when they reach the writing course, Teaching reading in a writing course may seem like an odd idea, if not an entirely unnecessary one. It may…
Mason, Jana M., Ed.
This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…
In the past, students and teachers alike viewed reading and writing instruction as two separate entities. Reading and writing instruction was often characterized by linear and behaviorist theories and methods, with students rarely coming away from their schooling experience with confidence in and respect for their own writing. To both read and…
Hayes, Sharon Moran; Williams, Jeanine L.
The current trend in postsecondary literacy is to offer developmental reading and writing coursework in an integrated, (and in most cases) accelerated, format. This move toward integration and acceleration is definitely in line with the research literature; however, many of these new courses do not reflect the curricular and pedagogical reforms…
Gornowich, Barbara Bernstein; Nelson, Anthony
The materials comprise the curriculum for an introductory course in academic writing for limited English proficient adult or college students. The guide is intended for the upper end of a survival language skills course or the lowest end of an academic developmental writing sequence. The curriculum instructs students on academic life and assists…
Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; de Souza Batista Kida, Adriana; de Avila, Clara Regina Brandão; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis Augusto; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Jesus Mari, Jair
Aim To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE). Sample A total of 1,945 children (6–14 years of age), who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools) and Porto Alegre (22 schools) that participated in the ‘High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders’ project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856), from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44). Methods Via Item Response Theory (IRT), the highest discriminating items (‘a’>1.7) were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses) and discriminant (major depression diagnoses) measures. Results A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not-so-good, or poor performance on TDE reading and writing tasks. The three-class solution has been shown to be correlated with estimated IQ and to ADHD diagnosis. No association was observed between the latent class and major depression. Conclusion The three-class solution showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. This work provides initial evidence of validity for an empirically derived categorical classification of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the TDE. A valid classification encourages further research investing correlates of reading and writing performance using the TDE. PMID:23983466
Reist, Kay M.
With No Child Left Behind, schools are cutting extracurricular activities, doing away with aides, and even getting rid of art and physical education so that reading specialists and writing tutors can be hired. But what can the art teachers do to assist in teaching reading and writing skills? The author believes they need to provide their students…
Jacobs, Vicki A.
Describes how secondary-school content-area teachers can improve student comprehension of text material by incorporating reading and writing strategies into their classroom instruction. Illustrates relationships among reading, writing, and understanding. Suggests framework for staff-development program. (Contains 14 references.) (PKP)
Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary
Introduces Earth Day. Encourages the use of reading, writing, and theme immersion to increase student participation in such activities. Provides information on several organizations which students can obtain concerning environmental awareness. Recommends reading materials that can be obtained in hard copy as well as on the Internet. (MOK)
The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…
Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag; Moore, Sarah; Murphy, Maura
This article describes and analyses a specific mechanism, the writing consultation, designed to help academics to prioritise, reconceptualise and improve their writing practices. It makes the case for its potential to stimulate consideration of writing practices and motivations, a possible precondition for creating time for writing in academic…
Interrogates the reading/writing connection by evaluating how three essays by published writers affected the attitude and writing practices of university students in a course on the personal essay. Describes the course. Suggests what findings imply for current rationales about the reading/writing connection and for the use of anthology readings in…
Prior to her joining the California Writing Project's (WP) Improving Students' Academic Writing (ISA) program, the author relates how she used to get frustrated when she read her students' essays. As a result of her new understanding gained from her participation at ISA, the author boldly banished traditional literary analysis papers that asked…
Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art
"Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…
Lewandowski, Carol; Burt, Lorna
This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, covers effective reading and writing. Introductory materials include objectives, a topical outline, sources, and information on time for the course and continuing education credits. The 16 sessions of the course cover the following topics: job terms; abbreviations, acronyms, and pictorial…
Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol
This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for the second part of a course on reading and writing effectively. Introductory materials include objectives, a topical outline, sources, and information on time for the course and continuing education credits. The 16 sessions of the course cover the following topics:…
This monograph presents classroom activities that were designed to encourage children to read and write in a self-reliant and responsible manner. The activities were chosen for their relevance to the children involved and because the vocabulary involved was interesting, familiar, and worth remembering and using again. The topics are arranged in…
What do Slinky toys, sign language, clipboards, golf pencils, and a house icon have in common? They all are a part of the author's writing and reading program, which teaches children how to write, and then read what they have written. This book includes: effective strategies that address multiple learning styles; a ready-to-use form for ongoing…
Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai
Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems.
Reynolds, Barry Lee
Lack of knowledge in the conventional use of vocabulary and multiword patterns in one's respective field of expertise causes Taiwanese students to produce academic writing that is markedly "non-nativelike." This is because Taiwanese students are first and foremost second language readers and often have difficulty "picking up…
Hamp-Lyons, Liz, Ed.
The articles contained in this volume on second language writing evaluation focus on the evaluation of academic English learned as a second language (ESL). Essays include: "Assessment by Misconception: Cultural Influences and Intellectual Traditions" (Brigid Ballard, John Clanchy); "Reading the World Differently: A Cross-Cultural Approach to…
Hijikata, Yuko; Nakatani, Yasuo; Shimizu, Maki
Academic reading has been less emphasized compared with academic writing as a site of research inquiry. Although some studies have examined reading strategy use in academic reading (e.g., Block, 1986; Plakans, 2009), these studies used short passages only, and there have been a few studies that have focused on the mental representation constructed…
Buss, Kathleen; Karnowski, Lee
This book presents an interactive model using quality children's literature as the foundation for teaching reading and writing in grades 3 through 6, based on the premise that reading and writing are complementary processes through the shared goal of constructing meaning. Four main genres (fiction, traditional literature, fantasy, and non-fiction)…
CRAIG, MYRTLE C.
THE PROBLEM OF HOW TO TEACH PUPILS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS TO READ AND WRITE STANDARD ENGLISH IS DISCUSSED. THE VALUE OF ORAL LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF ATTAINING READING AND WRITING PROFICIENCY IS SUGGESTED. SUCCESS IN THESE AREAS CAN BE ATTAINED IF (1) THE HOME LANGUAGE OF THE CHILD IS ACCEPTED, (2) THE CHILD IS OFFERED MATERIALS ON HIS LEVEL OF…
This lesson plan contains poetry-related activities that aim to help students read and interpret English poetry, and write their own poems. The activities are introduced in each of the following parts: talking about poetry, understanding poetic devices, interpreting poems, using poetry for language acquisition, writing original poems, performing…
Bodnar, Julie R.; Petrucelli, Susan L.
Underprepared students often need assistance building writing skills and maintaining confidence in their abilities and potential. The authors share the philosophy, pedagogy, and experience of freshman developmental education and the writing center at a four-year, private, not-for-profit urban college. They describe high-impact educational…
Harrison, Gina L.
Cognitive, word-level reading, spelling and writing measures were administered to academically at-risk undergraduates with writing difficulties to examine their literacy profiles; and performance was compared to typically-achieving writers. The at-risk students were slower and less accurate on measures of sight word reading, lexical decision,…
The use of reading-to-write tasks for assessing academic writing in English is increasing, often replacing traditional impromptu writing-only tasks. This shift has led to a number of studies comparing the written products of these two task types. To add to this literature, this article reports on a study comparing test takers' processes in…
Rhodes, Lynne A.
Students who demonstrate perennial difficulties with researched writing typically have poor reading skills. Those who do not improve significantly as readers and writers in first year composition, if they do not drop out, often struggle throughout college. Even when students are given explicit and enhanced instruction in reading and adjustments…
Of the various unrelated approaches used in advanced college composition courses, one has proved especially successful in encouraging professionalism in student writers: an approach in which students are required to write for and submit their work to professional publications. When students write articles, they deal with many rhetorical modes and…
Petersen, Bruce T., Ed.
The relationship between reading and writing is explored in this book. Titles of the book's essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "What Is the Value of Connecting Reading and Writing?" by Robert J. Tierney and Margie Leys; (2) "Reflective Thought: The Connection between Reading and Writing" by June Cannell Birnbaum; (3) "Reading as a…
Aksoy, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Fatih
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the group research technique and cooperative reading-writing application technique in the science and technology course in the unit of "what is the Earth's crust made of" on the academic achievement of the students and whether the change observed in the student achievement is permanent…
Fleming, Margaret, Ed.
Noting that most junior high level curricula do not take into account students' rapid mental and physical changes, the articles in this focused journal issue recommend works and teaching strategies that harmonize with these student needs. The titles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Adolescent Development and the Growth of Writing Abilities"…
Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, Terry S.; Faulconer, Johna L.; Griffith, Robin R.
The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of a three-day academic writing retreat on the writing lives of four female university faculty members. Goals of the retreat included rejuvenating their writing lives, focusing their research agendas, improving their writing, and engaging in concentrated blocks of writing and collaborative…
Kempenaar, Larissa Elisabeth; Murray, Rowena
The literature on academic writing in higher education contains a wealth of research and theory on students' writing, but much less on academics' writing. In performative higher education cultures, discussions of academics' writing mainly concern outputs, rather than the process of producing them. This key component of academic work remains…
Moxley, Joseph M., Ed.
This book of author-contributed chapters on academic writing grew out of workshops on scholarly writing taught at the University of South Florida. The chapters in part I review the working habits of successful academic authors. The chapters in part II analyze the genres of academic writing. Part III focuses on revision and editing of manuscripts.…
Walter, James F.
Examines the present crisis embodied in the illiteracy impasse and advocates making instruction in the critical reading of literature the foundation of an integrated literature and writing curriculum that would help develop a working model of the imagination's real relation to language as a guide to the cultivation of literacy. (NKA)
Anderson, Nancy Comfort
Discusses ways to motivate children to become readers and writers, characteristics of good children's literature, using patterned books as models, and prewriting activities; provides an annotated bibliography of 26 patterned books to encourage the reading/writing connection. A subset of updated folk and fairy tales is included. (LRW)
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2008
This newsletter focuses on the importance of reading and writing skills in all educational and career pathways. It includes a variety of strategies for integrating reading and writing skills across the curriculum--in academic, career/technical and fine arts courses--in ways that improve student achievement in reading and writing and in the content…
The wide adoption of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in the U.S. has increased expectations for all teachers to prepare all learners to read and write in academic ways. More knowledge is needed about instructional approaches that may lead adolescent English learners (ELs) to meet this goal. Developing academic literacy practices…
Investigates some of the disjunctions between writing as it is taught in academic institutions and writing as it is employed in professional workplaces, especially in the areas of writing context, time pressure, collaboration, and consequences of writing. Considers how these disjunctions might be addressed in the writing classroom. (TB)
Irwin, Judith W., Ed.; Doyle, Mary Anne, Ed.
This book presents an overview of reading/writing research, discussing specific reading/writing processes, instructional issues, teacher research, and directions for future research. Chapter titles are: (1) Alternative Research Perspectives (Sarah J. McCarthey and Taffy E. Raphael); (2) Reading, Writing, and Genre Development (Judith A. Langer);…
Connecting reading and writing has become an important trend in teaching the language arts. Poetry, as a salient facet of the reading curriculum, integrates well with different purposes in writing. Poetry read aloud to students can assist learners to enjoy reading activities and develop the feeling and aesthetic dimension of learning, among other…
Purpose: This paper seeks to consider whether academic writing should be regarded as knowledge in the making and why all such writing should be continuously challenged. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is that of a reflective discussion which considers academic writing in context, knowledge, reflectiveness and helping others to contest…
Tessema, Kedir Assefa
In this paper I report the action research I carried out on improving the teaching and learning of academic writing at a university. The action research sprang out of my experiences of learning and teaching academic writing. It sought locality and originality in what students read and write during academic writing courses. The macro and micro…
Dyson, Anne Haas, Ed.
This book, a series of essays developed at a working conference on the integration of reading and writing, surveys the historical, cultural, situational and social forces that keep the teaching of writing separate, skew the curriculum to favor reading over writing, and discourage development of pedagogies that integrate the language arts; examines…
Investigated whether content knowledge from reading would affect the processes and the products of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students' writing and reading performance on a simulated English language test that made use of reading and writing modules. Revealed that the thematic connection between reading and writing enhanced both the…
Mirra, Nicole; Honoroff, Benjamin; Elgendy, Suzanne; Pietrzak, Gabriel
Middle school is a crucial transition period for adolescents; in addition to beginning to grapple with the academic literacy demands of college and career readiness, they are working to find their place in public life and developing opinions about civic issues. This article presents debate as a literacy practice that is uniquely suited to helping…
Shuman, R. Baird
This paper discusses three types of writing experiences, "Writing Roulette,""The Even-Steven Swap Game," and "The Open-Ended Story with a Slant," that can be used in a writing workshop for disabled readers at the secondary level. Each activity emphasizes writing but provides motivation for students to read each other's work. Students will have…
Seven remedial exercises designed to integrate reading and writing skills for learning disabled students are presented. The exercises, part of a model communicative writing program, focus on copying, automatic writing, restoring deleted words, outlining, paraphrasing, projection, and correspondence. Examples of student writing are included. (CL)
McConnell, S.; Spilker, L.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.
Scientific discovery is the impetus for the K-4 Education program, "Reading, Writing & Rings." This program is unique because its focus is to engage elementary students in reading and writing to strengthen these basic academic skills through scientific content. As science has been increasingly overtaken by the language arts in elementary classrooms, the Cassini Education Program has taken advantage of a new cross-disciplinary approach to use language arts as a vehicle for increasing scientific content in the classroom. By utilizing the planet Saturn and the Cassini-Huygens mission as a model in both primary reading and writing students in these grade levels, young students can explore science material while at the same time learning these basic academic skills. Content includes reading, thinking, and hands-on activities. Developed in partnership with the Cassini-Huygens Education and Public Outreach Program, the Bay Area Writing Project/California Writing Project, Foundations in Reading Through Science & Technology (FIRST), and the Caltech Pre-College Science Initiative (CAPSI), and classroom educators, "Reading, Writing & Rings" blends the excitement of space exploration with reading and writing. All materials are teacher developed, aligned with national science and language education standards, and are available from the Cassini-Huygens website: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/education/edu-k4.cfm Materials are divided into two grade level units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.
Al Murshidi, Ghadah
The study examined the impact of the conjunction of structured journal writing and reading for pleasure on students' reading and writing skills. Forty male students from UAE University participated in the study. The participants are of different academic abilities, majors and nationalities. Many of them have little experience with reading for…
Castello, Montserrat; Mateos, Mar; Castells, Nuria; Inesta, Anna; Cuevas, Isabel; Sole, Isabel
Introduction: This article aims at describing the use of written genres at university and how they are used to teach and learn. Method: We carried out a descriptive study focusing on teachers' perceptions regarding the importance of academic writing in promoting learning, the degree of competence they attribute to academic writing in comparison…
Academic writing is an important aspect of professional development for students and lecturers. It is one way in which they demonstrate their learning, but it can be a difficult skill to master. This article aims to enable students and professionals to develop their academic writing style using a coherent and effective framework.
Describes several websites containing content-area reading and writing resources and research, including the ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication (www.indiana.edu/~eric rec). (PKP)
Washington State Commission on Student Learning, Olympia.
Requiring and supporting the development of thinking skills, this paper presents Washington State's Essential Academic Learning Requirements for writing. It sees writing as an act of discovery, of communication, of joy, and as an essential part of a literate society. Four charts outline standards and benchmarks regarding: (1) writing clearly and…
Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix
Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…
Three adult males met 2 hours a week for 26 weeks in a non-academic setting to explore writing. Adult One (A-1) and Adult Two (A-2) were limestone miners and close friends. Adult Three (A-3) had some limited academic writing experience, so A-1 and A-2 thought that he knew more about what made writing effective. A-3 observed the others' writing…
Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon; Dunn, Kathleen
Scholarly writing is a critical skill for faculty in academic medicine; however, few faculty receive instruction in the process. We describe the experience of 18 assistant professors who participated in a writing and faculty development program which consisted of 7 monthly 75-minute sessions embedded in a Collaborative Mentoring Program (CMP). Participants identified barriers to writing, developed personal writing strategies, had time to write, and completed monthly writing contracts. Participants provided written responses to open-ended questions about the learning experience, and at the end of the program, participants identified manuscripts submitted for publication, and completed an audiotaped interview. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification showed that this writing program facilitated the knowledge, skills, and support needed to foster writing productivity. All participants completed at least 1 scholarly manuscript by the end of the CMP. The impact on participants' future academic productivity requires long-term follow-up.
Intended to help elementary school children integrate the skills of writing and reading at an early age, this booklet discusses research concerning the cognitive processes and acquisition of reading and writing skills, and presents teaching methods and resources to help young children make the connection. The first half of the booklet explores…
Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…
This paper asks whether there is a relationship between reading, writing, and spelling, whether these subjects should be taught together or separately. A review of the literature found that many theorists saw a strong relationship between just reading and writing, while others believed spelling belonged with these. The consensus of researchers was…
Spence, Lucy K.
This article describes the writing of one third-grade English-language learner (ELL) to illustrate how generous reading can provide a bridge for ELLs when their writing is not yet ready for a more judgmental reading. It presents a formalized approach that builds upon students' linguistic strengths and traces their written words to sources in the…
Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd
Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…
Rankins-Robertson, Sherry; Cahill, Lisa; Roen, Duane; Glau, Gregory R.
Narrow definitions of academic writing often do not serve students well because they ignore the rhetorically situated and social bases for writing and the potential role of writing to span the personal, professional, and civic areas of students' lives. Broadening school-sponsored writing to include writing about family can help students to see the…
Graham, Steve; Hebert, Michael
Reading is critical to students' success in and out of school. One potential means for improving students' reading is writing. In this meta-analysis of true and quasi-experiments, Graham and Herbert present evidence that writing about material read improves students' comprehension of it; that teaching students how to write improves their reading…
This paper looks at the conceptual thresholds in relation to academic reading which might be crossed by undergraduate English Literature students. It is part of a wider study following 16 students through three years of undergraduate study. It uses theoretical ideas from Bakhtin and Foucault to analyse interviews with English lecturers. It…
Describes how a teacher finds value in popular culture and violent writing by closely examining the writing of a student who laces his stories with explosions and battles. Finds that once he began to see the similarities between the media his student experiences, the writing the student prefers, and his own favorite media and writing, the teacher…
Dodge, Diane Trister
Notes Head Start's obligation to promote literacy skills; presents pertinent strategies: (1) encourage families to talk with and read to children; (2) read to children every day; (3) create a print-rich environment; and (4) infuse reading and writing activities throughout the curriculum. Discusses importance of focusing on language and literacy…
Gold, Janet T.
A program of written composition based on reading comprehension can help students gain greater in-depth understanding of reading materials. Once the reading comprehension skill has been clearly defined for the class, the writing activity can provide clarification by allowing for analysis of the definition through written manipulation of language.…
Revising reading program can breathe new life into the classroom and increase students' confidence. This paper describes how one teacher decided to refine her reading curriculum. She had five non-negotiables for the curriculum: the need for self-selection of quality literature; volume of reading; peer interaction; individual conferences; and…
Discusses the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, explaining how to use it to enhance reading and writing instruction. The article presents a brief interview with J.K. Rowling, a Harry Potter time line, and ideas for working on writing and editing paragraphs, creating dynamic dialogue, and fixing grammar and punctuation. Other fantasy books are…
VanDeWeghe, Rick, Ed.
This article takes a closer look at teaching in classrooms by reviewing a recent article by Carol Booth Olson and Robert Land, literacy researchers and National Writing Project site directors. In "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School" (EJ776476), Olson and Land report…
Reading and writing are interrelated. What has been read provides material for writing. This paper focuses on reading endeavors that provide subject matter for writing. The paper first recommends reading poetry to the class and states that the teacher should have ready for use an anthology of children's literature. Children can write poems for…
A study examined the effectiveness of a project to increase reading readiness skills. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten students in a growing middle class community located in northern Illinois. The problems of lack of reading readiness were documented through teacher observation and district assessment tools. Analysis of probable…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2011
"Student team reading and writing" refers to two cooperative learning programs for secondary students included in this intervention report: (1) "Student Team Reading and Writing" and (2) Student Team Reading. The "Student Team Reading and Writing" program (Stevens, 2003) is an integrated approach to reading and language arts for early adolescents.…
Cons, Andrea Marie
This study investigated the specific ways secondary English learners (ELs) and redesignated fluent English-proficient learners (RFEPs) use academic vocabulary that assesses interpretive reading and analytical writing ability. The research examines how ELs and RFEPs, formerly ELs, differ in use and misuse of academic words. The study extends…
Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.
THE PAPERS IN THIS COLLECTION EXPLAIN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL REMEDIAL PROGRAM IN READING AND WRITING DEVELOPED BY THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER, THEY ARE (1) "REMEDIAL CLASSES AND THE TOTAL ENGLISH PROGRAM," BY GEORGE HILLOCKS, (2) "DEFINITION, ORIGIN, AND TREATMENT OF UNDERACHIEVEMENT," BY JANE W. KESSLER, (3) "READING SKILLS IN JUNIOR…
Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle
This article explores current state-of-the-art technologies available for reading, writing, and publishing, including electronic books (ebooks), electronic libraries, and electronic journals. Instructional design, best practices for improving reading skills using ebooks, and copyright issues are discussed. Vignettes offer a positive scenario for…
Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A; Eden, Guinevere F; Perfetti, Charles A; Siok, Wai Ting
Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the close relationship between reading and listening is manifested universally across languages and that behavioral remediation using strategies addressing phonological awareness alleviates reading difficulties in dyslexics. The prevailing view of the central role of phonological awareness in reading development is largely based on studies using Western (alphabetic) languages, which are based on phonology. The Chinese language provides a unique medium for testing this notion, because logographic characters in Chinese are based on meaning rather than phonology. Here we show that the ability to read Chinese is strongly related to a child's writing skills and that the relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese reading is much weaker than that in reports regarding alphabetic languages. We propose that the role of logograph writing in reading development is mediated by two possibly interacting mechanisms. The first is orthographic awareness, which facilitates the development of coherent, effective links among visual symbols, phonology, and semantics; the second involves the establishment of motor programs that lead to the formation of long-term motor memories of Chinese characters. These findings yield a unique insight into how cognitive systems responsible for reading development and reading disability interact, and they challenge the prominent phonological awareness view.
Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (Grades 6-8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student grade point average (GPA) and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record
Encouraging pleasure reading is not traditionally seen as the role of academic libraries. Those students who take time for reading, however, are better poised to succeed in college. Declining rates in reading among young people are cause for alarm, and many libraries at academic institutions are developing programs to promote this pastime. This…
Choo, Suzanne S.
The English curriculum tends to be framed in relation to two unconscious boundaries based on the dichotomies between writing and reading as well as print and image. This paper re-envisions the curriculum as comprising a hybrid space where students are involved in composing texts that integrate writing and reading practices while also considering…
The notion of integrating reading and writing in L1 and L2 literacy education is not new; however, only until recently has the reading-writing connection received enough attention and been implemented in the teaching of L1 and L2. This paper aims to search for the most current, up-to-dated, approach that best incorporates the idea of…
Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul
Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and…
Jones, Cindy D.; Reutzel, D. Ray
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the code-related features used in current methods of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms transfer reading outcomes for kindergarten students. We randomly assigned kindergarten students to 3 instructional groups: a writing workshop group, an interactive writing group, and a control group.…
Raphael, Taffy E.; Englert, Carol Sue
Although writing and reading instruction can be integrated regardless of the reading program materials used, teachers need a greater understanding of the similarities and differences in reading and writing processes, as well as knowledge of ways in which instruction can be merged, before integration can take place. Both reading and writing are…
Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.
The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…
Peters, Michael A.
This paper examines the underlying genres of philosophy focusing especially on their pedagogical forms to emphasize the materiality and historicity of genres, texts and writing. It focuses briefly on the history of the essay and its relation to the journal within the wider history of scientific communication, and comments on the standardized forms…
Winter, Richard; Badley, Graham
Here is a conversation between two former colleagues about action research and academic writing. Richard Winter opens the discussion with a series of reflections on his work as an action researcher. These reflections include the key argument that action research is a noble cause because it is relevant to working life, has a practical impact and…
LoCastro, Virginia; Masuko, Mayumi
A study investigated attitudes toward and practices of plagiarism of Japanese college students writing in English. Data were drawn from two senior theses written in English and two in Japanese, 30 other student academic papers, interviews with students, and a questionnaire administered to 46 undergraduate and graduate students. In both…
Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md
The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…
McCormick, Kathleen; And Others
This study is the 11th and last report from the Reading-to-Write Project, a collaborative study of students' cognitive processes at one critical point of entry into academic performance. The report consists of an Introduction and seven essays, each of which discusses ways to teach a variety of aspects of reading and writing which have been tried…
Yang, Hui-Chun; Plakans, Lia
Integrated writing tasks that involve different language modalities such as reading and listening have increasingly been used as means to assess academic writing. Thus, there is a need for understanding how test-takers coordinate different skills to complete these tasks. This study explored second language writers' strategy use and its…
Cameron, Jenny; Nairn, Karen; Higgins, Jane
Writing is the foundation of academic practice, yet academic writing is seldom explicitly taught. As a result many beginning (and experienced) academics struggle with writing and the difficult emotions, particularly the self-doubt, that writing stirs up. Yet it need not be like this. In this paper, strategies are discussed for attending to the…
Peace Corps (Moldova).
Designed for continued language learning beyond the beginning level, this workbook provides practice and sets of exercises for improving Romanian through reading and writing. The content areas include history, traditions, language and literature (both prose and poetry). Each unit includes several texts with exercises for use with a tutor or under…
A reading-writing initiative began in 2011-12 at the University of Toronto as a partnership between an East Asian Studies (EAS) department and an English Language Learning (ELL) Program. In this institution, students are expected to enter into scholarly discussions in their first year essays, yet many (both native English speakers and non-native…
In my talk, I reviewed studies on the neural substrates of Kanji vs. Kana, two types of Japanese characters, written since the 1980s. More Specifically, I reviewed the development of the studies on (1) Kanji and Kana in pure alexia/agraphia, (2) alexia with agraphia of Kanji and (3) 'musical letters' vs. 'literary letters', and reported new findings from those studies. In the 1980s, we frequently studied patients with partial callosal lesions and those with pure alexia, and many of the studies were on the neural substrates of Kanji vs. Kana. Later, we discovered cases of alexia with agraphia of Kanji caused by lesions in the posterior part of the left inferior temporal gyrus, leading us to understand the neural substrates of Kanji and Kana in more detail. In addition to the reading and writing of 'literary letters', we studied the neural mechanisms of the reading and writing of 'musical letters', i.e. musical scores. Our study showed that the neural mechanisms of reading and writing musical scores were similar to those of reading and writing 'literary letters' in professional musicians, although those neural mechanisms varied slightly. PMID:17432217
In my talk, I reviewed studies on the neural substrates of Kanji vs. Kana, two types of Japanese characters, written since the 1980s. More Specifically, I reviewed the development of the studies on (1) Kanji and Kana in pure alexia/agraphia, (2) alexia with agraphia of Kanji and (3) 'musical letters' vs. 'literary letters', and reported new findings from those studies. In the 1980s, we frequently studied patients with partial callosal lesions and those with pure alexia, and many of the studies were on the neural substrates of Kanji vs. Kana. Later, we discovered cases of alexia with agraphia of Kanji caused by lesions in the posterior part of the left inferior temporal gyrus, leading us to understand the neural substrates of Kanji and Kana in more detail. In addition to the reading and writing of 'literary letters', we studied the neural mechanisms of the reading and writing of 'musical letters', i.e. musical scores. Our study showed that the neural mechanisms of reading and writing musical scores were similar to those of reading and writing 'literary letters' in professional musicians, although those neural mechanisms varied slightly.
Lea, Mary R.; Stierer, Barry
In this article we examine issues of academic identity through the lens of academics' everyday workplace writing, offering a complementary perspective to those already evident in the higher education research literature. Motivated by an interest in the relationship between routine writing and aspects of professional practice, we draw on data from…
Jensen, J; Lindgren, M; Andersson, K; Ingvar, D H; Levander, S
Sixty native-born Swedish unemployed participants with reading and writing disabilities (R&WD) participated in a 20-week educational program aimed at improving reading and writing, verbal memory, self-confidence, and flexibility of perspectives. They were tested with a comprehensive battery (interviews, questionnaires, neuropsychological tests, and tests of academic achievement) before and after the intervention. Sixteen controls, matched for sex, age, education, and nonverbal IQ, participated in the pre- and posttest sessions but received only standard unemployment interventions. The educational program participants' performance in tests assessing spelling, decoding of letters, self-confidence, and flexibility improved significantly in comparison with the controls after the intervention. A significantly larger number of the participants had obtained work or started a regular education than expected. A substantial proportion of unemployed participants have R&WD and it appears that an intensive but fairly short educational program can improve their accessibility to the labor market and their motivation for study. PMID:11296685
Presents a hypothetical situation of an elementary school principal's concern at students writing during reading time, and offers a possible teacher's response with information about the direct tie between writing and reading improvement. (JC)
Aihara, Kathleen; Au, Kathryn; Carroll, Jacquelin; Nakanishi, Patricia; Scheu, Judith; Wong-Kam, Jo Ann
Describes and discusses six recent books for teachers that illuminate, from different perspectives, aspects of the reading-writing connection for struggling readers, and how to teach reading and writing effectively. (SR)
Weigle, Sara Cushing; Yang, WeiWei; Montee, Megan
Integrated reading/writing tasks are becoming more common in large-scale language tests. Much of the research on these tasks has focused on writing through reading; assessing reading through writing is a less explored area. In this article we describe a reading-into-writing task that is intended to measure both reading comprehension and language…
Akarsu, Oktay; Harputlu, Leyla
In this study, data were collected using a modified version of Mokhtari and Sheorey's (2002) Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS). Results suggest that Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students at the graduate level, while engaged in academic reading, are aware of almost all effective reading strategies, though each one is not used…
Durant, David M.; Horava, Tony
The e-book is raising fundamental questions around the dynamics and habits of reading; the role of books in the academic library; and the role of librarians in addressing new realities of reading and learning. Print and digital texts foster different styles of reading and different ways of thinking and doing research. This paper examines…
Harp, Bill; Brewer, Jo Ann
Adding new chapters on emergent literacy, special needs children, and technology in the reading/writing classroom, the second edition of this book emphasizes that teaching children how to read and write is not enough--teachers must create an environment that invites children to want to read and write for real, communicative purposes. Chapters in…
Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
Students learn mathematics more effectively and more deeply when reading and writing is directed at learning mathematics. Although reading and writing in mathematics may necessitate more skills and practice to master, the mathematical learning derived from reading and writing mathematics far outweighs the burden it places on teachers and students.…
Ulusoy, Mustafa; Dedeoglu, Hakan
The main purpose of this study was to investigate science, social studies, and classroom teachers' reading and writing practices, and to investigate their beliefs about content area reading and writing. One hundred and forty-three teachers filled out the survey developed to learn their content area reading and writing practices and beliefs. In the…
Anderson, Nancy L.; Briggs, Connie
Connecting reading and writing has important implications for all readers, but particularly for those who struggle in learning to read and write. Based on their work with children who struggle, the authors focus on reciprocal cognitive operations or strategies that draw on sources of knowledge used in both reading and writing. Their aim in this…
Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel; Martin, Elena; Martin, Ana; Echeita, Gerardo; Luna, Maria
The general aim of this study was to examine the relations among epistemological, reading and writing beliefs held by psychology undergraduates and the role played by these three types of belief in influencing the degree of perspectivism manifested in a written argumentation task based on reading two texts presenting conflicting perspectives on…
Reilly, Ronan; Radach, Ralph
This paper provides a short overview of current issues in research on continuous reading in non-Roman orthographies. At the same time it also serves as an introduction to the present Reading and Writing Special Issue on this topic. The main questions examined in the contributions to this volume are closely related to issues that have been central…
Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve
This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
This report is an evaluation of the "Read, Write & Type!"[TM] Learning System, a software program with supporting materials designed to teach beginning reading skills by emphasizing writing as a way to learn to read. The program was developed for six- to nine-year-old students who are just beginning to read and for students who are struggling…
Booher, Sandra C.
Because Los Medanos College (LMC) has no entrance tests or academic tracks, instructors are faced with mixed reading and writing levels in the classroom. LMC has elected to address this problem through a college reading and writing center and through the extensive use of peer tutors to upgrade language skills in all subject areas. In 1980, LMC…
Åberg, Eva Svärdemo; Ståhle, Ylva; Engdahl, Ingrid; Knutes-Nyqvist, Helen
Academic writing skills are crucial when students, e.g., in teacher education programs, write their undergraduate theses. A multi-modal web-based and self-regulated learning resource on academic writing was developed, using texts, hypertext, moving images, podcasts and templates. A study, using surveys and a focus group, showed that students used…
Ritchey, Kristen D.; Coker, David L., Jr.
Early identification of students who are at risk for writing difficulties is an important first step in improving writing performance. First grade students (N = 150) were administered a set of early writing measures and reading measures in January. Sentence Writing Quality and Oral Reading Fluency demonstrated strong classification accuracy when a…
Weigle, Sara Cushing; Parker, Keisha
Source-based writing is becoming more common in tests of academic English, in part to make tests more reflective of authentic academic writing. However, the concern has been raised that over-reliance on language from the source texts in essays may mask gaps in proficiency and thus lead to an inaccurate assessment of writing skill. In this paper,…
Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto
Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…
Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul
This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…
Boscolo, Pietro; Arfe, Barbara; Quarisa, Mara
An intervention aimed at improving academic writing--in particular, synthesis writing - was conducted with 52 undergraduate students of psychology of the University of Padua (Italy). Before and after the intervention, which lasted 12 weeks, participants were administered a questionnaire on beliefs about writing and a synthesis writing task. During…
When they are new to the grant game, even scholars with fine publishing records can struggle with proposal writing. Many are surprised to find that the writing style that made them successful as academics is not well suited to crafting a winning proposal. To succeed at grant writing, most researchers need to learn a new set of writing skills. This…
Academic writing, especially the writing of research articles, dissertations and theses, is often viewed in the literature as "writing up". It is as if first comes the research, an active creation of new knowledge, and then comes the writing, a relatively passive assembling of what has already been achieved. It is as if researching and writing…
This article is based on a qualitative study that explored the impact reading had on the lives of two female students who attained exemplary results in their final year of high school. The reading practices of these two high achieving students provided data rich information. Both students were academically successful in completing their Victorian…
Mermelstein, Aaron David
This study's purpose is to seek out methods of improving reading and writing for EFL learners. This one-year study focuses on an enhanced design of extensive reading (ER) towards improving learners' writing abilities. Pre- and posttests used the Jacobs, Zingraf, Wormoth, Hartfield, and Hughey (1981) measurement of writing, including content,…
Dwyer, Edward J.
Suggests using weekly news magazines to help students develop reading and writing skills. Discusses classroom activities used by the author, such as free reading time, asking questions, writing exercises, maintaining portfolios, analyzing advertisements, tests based on articles, letter writing, and voter registration due to increased interest in…
Smelstor, Marjorie, Ed.
One of a series of teaching guides produced by the Wisconsin Writing Project, this booklet focuses on suggestions for teaching reading and writing in elementary, middle, and high school language arts classrooms. The first section offers 16 reading/writing activities, a list of topics for language experience stories, and an annotated list of…
Keller, Rodney D.
The rhetorical cycle is a step-by-step approach that provides classroom experience before students actually write, thereby making the writing process less frustrating for them. This approach consists of six sequential steps: reading, thinking, speaking, listening, discussing, and finally writing. Readings serve not only as models of rhetorical…
Bissex, Glenda L.
A case study of a young boy's learning to read and write from the beginnings of literacy at age 5 up to age 11, after reading and writing have converged, is the focus of this book. The first part of the book, a description of his learning to write, discusses invented spelling, research about other young spellers and writers, the shift toward…
Harnish, Stacy M; Neils-Strunjas, Jean
Decline in semantic memory is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease, and reading and writing performance reflects this loss. The article presents an overview of theoretical reading and spelling models, including definitions of key terminology and controversies surrounding the interaction of semantics and the orthographic lexicon. We review literature supporting a direct lexical nonsemantic route in reading and writing. The reading and writing deficits of Alzheimer's disease are contrasted with those of semantic dementia. Methods of assessing semantic memory in reading and writing are outlined, including administering published tests, word lists, homophones, written confrontation naming, verbal fluency, and written narrative analysis.
Tierney, Robert J.; Leys, Margie
The study of reading-writing connections involves appreciating how reading and writing work together as tools for information storage and retrieval, discovery and logical thought, communication, and self-indulgence. There are numerous benefits that can be accrued from connecting reading and writing. Thus far, for example, the research data have…
Tardy, Christine M.
As students move from writing personal essays to writing formal academic texts in English, they face several new challenges. Writing tasks in higher education often require students to draw upon outside sources and to adopt the styles and genres of academic discourse. They must conduct research, summarize and paraphrase, cite sources, adopt genre…
Hedrick, Wanda B.
If reading teachers are letting struggling readers do minimal writing in reading classes, then this practice falls under iatrogenic teaching practices, i.e., practices based on good intentions that produce unintended negative consequences. The problem arises when reading teachers believe their students' writing should take place under the purview…
Leu, Donald J., Jr.
This paper argues that while hypermedia and multimedia contain great promise for supporting literacy learners engaged in reading children's literature, software in this area has generally failed to consider the potential of connecting reading and writing experiences within the same electronic environment; reading and writing software has generally…
The reading scores on the "Nation's Report Card for 2007" indicate that not all children share the same proficiency in literacy. Reading and writing require the use of similar cognitive processes, yet few studies focus on this relationship or how writing can be a tool for reading remediation. The research questions in this study addressed the…
Many reading teachers, cognizant of the creative opportunities for skill development allowed by new reading-writing software, are choosing to use microcomputers in their classrooms full-time. Adventure story creation programs capitalize on reading-writing integration by allowing children, with appropriate assistance, to create their own…
Grant, Maria J
The process of writing for publication is a challenging one. It moves us from the spoken and written word into a realm that requires us to provide supporting evidence to develop an argument in a logical and progressive way. In English language journals, as elsewhere, the quality of the written word is a determining factor in the likelihood of a paper being accepted for publication. By reading past issues of a targeted journal, drawing on the expertise of colleagues and responding positively to feedback, it is possible to significantly enhance your prospects of publication.
Kauffmann, Ruth A.
Discusses the use of writing assignments to improve the capacity of literature students to read and analyze assigned texts in the foreign language. The approach provides a higher level of motivation for self-correction that will enable students to overcome, rather than formalize, their errors. (Author/JL)
Falk-Ross, Francine C.
Analyzes students enrolled in a college developmental reading class and their use of critical literacy techniques to improve reading and writing skills. Considers three areas of students' progress: reading and writing connections, language and vocabulary, and purposes for reading. Stresses the importance of introduction and mastery of these areas…
Kawamura, M; Midorikawa, A; Kezuka, M
The mechanisms that underlie the ability to read and write music remain largely unclear compared to those involved in reading and writing language. We had the extremely rare opportunity to study the cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music in the case of a professional trombonist. During rehearsal immediately before a concert, he suffered a hemorrhage that was localized to the left angular gyrus, the area that has long been known as the center for the ability to read and write. Detailed tests revealed that he showed symptoms of alexia with agraphia for both musical scores and language. PMID:11043568
Three writing development initiatives carried out at King's College London UK are discussed in this article to illustrate the need to draw on different theoretical models to create effective methods of teaching academic writing. The sequence of initiatives resembles a journey: the destination is to develop academic writing programmes suitable for…
A study examined the use of background information by native and non-native English-speaking university students in explaining, summarizing, paraphrasing, quoting, and copying information from a reading text. Thirty students in composition courses (10 native speakers and 20 non-native speakers, 10 each from a remedial and a standard class) wrote…
Syrquin, Anna F.
The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…
Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas
Academic writing is a mainstay of expression in secondary schools. However, many students think of academic writing in terms of local operations that include spelling, punctuation, use of third person, and so on. Teachers may expect mastery of local operations, but often they want students to navigate the terrain of the content area or discipline…
Leki, Ilona, Ed.
This edited volume explores the international role of written English in the academic context and clearly demonstrates how writing is integrated in all aspects of academic communication in English. The 12 programs described in this book differ in context but share basic assumptions about how best to teach second language (L2) writing. In addition…
Dankoski, Mary E.; Palmer, Megan M.; Banks, Julianna; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Walvoord, Emily; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Bogdewic, Stephen P.; Gopen, George D.
All faculty regardless of discipline or school need to be highly competent at writing for an academic audience. The "publish or perish" pressure is alive and well for academic advancement, publications, and external grant funding. Yet few faculty, particularly in the health professions and sciences, receive formal training on the craft of writing.…
Fageeh, Abdulaziz; Mekheimer, Mohamed Amin A.
This study aimed to recognize the pedagogical effects of Blackboard as a computer-mediated communication (CMC) environment for teaching academic writing and improving students' attitudes toward academic writing. Learners' interactions in the CMC environment of Blackboard were analyzed via a controlled descriptive design to examine how students…
Gelsinger, Barry D.
Intended to help teachers integrate writing instruction with the study of literature, this teaching guide offers a philosophy of writing instruction, describes a procedure for teaching reading and writing lessons, and provides a sequence of writing skills. For various literature selections, the guide defines vocabulary, provides topic discussion…
Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Saricaoglu, Aysel
Expressing causal relations plays a central role in academic writing. While it is important that writing instructors assess and provide feedback on learners' causal discourse, it could be a very time-consuming task. In this respect, automated writing evaluation (AWE) tools may be helpful. However, to date, there have been no AWE tools capable of…
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Gordani, Yahya
Investigations into the effect of providing corrective feedback on L2 writing have often produced contradictory results. This study, following a line of research concerned with the role of corrective feedback in writing, contributes to this line of research by analyzing different feedback types in an EFL academic writing context. 45 graduate…
Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag
The system currently deployed to assess research outputs in higher education can influence what, how and for whom academics write; for some it may determine whether or not they write at all. This article offers a framework for negotiating this performative context--the writing meeting. This framework uses the established theoretical underpinning…
Rhee, Eunsook Ha
Academic writing in U.S. higher education often involves textual borrowing, referred to as the integration and documentation of reading sources and carried out with summaries, quotes, and paraphrases. Second language (L2) English students are likely to use sources inappropriately and consequentially are accused of plagiarism based on university…
Pitel, Vonna J.
Discusses the advantages of making the writing center part of the instructional media center in schools and provides some questions to consider in setting up a writing center. Offers three examples of popular writing assignments. (MG)
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010
To help students meet higher standards, all academic and career/technical teachers need to be willing and prepared to use reading, writing and mathematics as tools for learning across the curriculum. To do so, they must have access to ongoing professional development, literacy and numeracy coaching, shared strategies, and teamwork to make literacy…
Redd, Teresa M.
A study examined whether the adoption of an Afrocentric textbook at a historically Black university motivated freshman composition students to read, write, and think. Subjects, 911 out of 1,305 students who completed English 002 during the 1991-92 academic year at Howard University, completed surveys regarding the textbook "Revelations: An…
The current study examined differences in student performance and retention rates for those who completed remedial reading or remedial writing courses and those who did not in a private university in South Florida. International students also were compared to non-international students on academic performance and retention rates. The conceptual…
Kang, Eun Young; McKenna, John William; Arden, Sarah; Ciullo, Stephen
In this systematic review of literature that spans 1975-2015, integrated reading and writing interventions for students with learning disabilities (LD) or students with academic difficulties were evaluated to understand the extant research, identify encouraging practices, and guide future research. Ten studies met inclusion criteria and each study…
Reading and writing are increasingly performed with digital, screen-based technologies rather than with analogue technologies such as paper and pen(cil). The current digitization is an occasion to "unpack," theoretically and conceptually, what is entailed in reading and writing as embodied, multisensory processes involving audiovisual…
Case, Elizabeth J.; Christopher, Marty
The paper describes the Writing to Read instructional system and its implementation in five Albuquerque (New Mexico) public schools with kindergarten, first grade, and special education students. The Writing to Read System is a multisensory, multimedia literacy program and involves five types of materials: a computer-based instructional program;…
Malinowski, Patricia A.
Addressing the need for developmental or remedial reading and writing courses at the college level, this paper provides a broad perspective on the strengthening of such programs for students deficient in these skills. The paper first enumerates various reasons for developing reading-writing courses for pre-college students, then provides evidence…
Qiu, Mingzhu; Hewitt, Jim; Brett, Clare
Researchers have long recognized class size as affecting students' performance in face-to-face contexts. However, few studies have examined the effects of class size on exact reading and writing loads in online graduate-level courses. This mixed-methods study examined relationships among class size, note reading, note writing, and collaborative…
An overview is provided of the limited body of research on the transfer of learning between reading and writing in mature adults. First, the paper traces the development of models portraying generalization between reading and writing, beginning with a discussion of audio-lingual theory, which hypothesizes that language is learned through a…
Roy, Gilbert W.
A technique is described for teaching the blind to read and write Chinese characters through use of raised acrylic writing and the production of a concave impression with pencil or stylus. Other methods for teaching blind students to read are mentioned. (RM)
"Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing" uses children's interest in pictures, comics and graphic novels as a way of developing their creative writing abilities, reading skills and oracy. The book's underpinning strategy is the use of comic art images as a visual analogue to help children generate, organise and refine their ideas…
Presents an overview of three ways that the computer can bridge the gap between reading and writing instruction: (1) word processing in the Language Experience Approach; (2) software to combine text and graphics; and (3) software to facilitate interactive reading and writing experiences. (MG)
Corbett, William D.
Since the media seldom feature good news about education, principals need to highlight elementary school children's reading and writing accomplishments. Principals can hear students read aloud in the hallway, send interesting compositions to the superintendent's office, and post creative writing efforts on the walls of local banks, pizza parlors,…
Erickson, Barbara; And Others
Forty innercity fourth graders were supplied with equipment, to be used at home during the summer, that accessed four types of videotex reading and writing programs on a telecommunications network. Electronic records kept during the project indicated that access to telecommunications promoted children's reading and writing during the summer. (LB)
This study characterizes the reading and writing motivations of kindergarten children. Four hundred fifty-one children participated in the study, answering questions measuring value, self-concept, and enjoyment of reading and writing. A factor analysis validated the conceptual motivational constructs. Findings indicate that kindergarten children…
Shin, Sun-Young; Ewert, Doreen
Reading-to-write (RTW) tasks are becoming increasingly popular and have already been used in several high-stakes English proficiency exams, either replacing or complementing a prompt-based essay test. However, it is still not clear that what accounts for successful or unsuccessful performance on an integrated reading-writing task is owing to the…
Despite its importance of academic language, research on academic language is often limited to academic vocabulary and focused on the English language learners. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined adolescents' use of academic language and the relationships between its use and students' reading ability and…
Mangelsdorf, Kate; Posey, Evelyn
Offering developmental students comprehensive, step-by-step instruction for writing expressive, informative, and persuasive essays, this book showcases the writing process and presents a wide variety of engaging assignments. It strengthens students' reading, thinking, and writing skills; validates their diverse and unique cultural experiences; and…
Heyman, Bob; Cronin, Patricia
This article discusses how to transform material worthy of dissemination into a form that leads to successful publication. It focuses on publication of systematic and literature reviews, empirical studies and conceptual analyses undertaken as part of a course of academic study. An increasing number of nurses and midwives are undertaking healthcare-related courses at BSc, MSc, MPhil and PhD level. Many of their theses are ultimately left to gather dust on library shelves, and are only read by examiners. The authors have worked with many novice writers whose attempts to write up their theses have been unsuccessful for a number of reasons. These are explored in this article. Suggestions for avoiding the many pitfalls that can prevent publication are offered.
Literature and medicine share an inherently enduring relationship. Doctors turn to literature--both its plots and its forms--to understand what occurs in their patients' lives, to increase their own narrative competence, to interpret accurately the texts of medicine, to develop empathy, and to deepen their capacities for reflection and self-knowledge. Together, these skills, attitudes, and bodies of knowledge contribute to the effective practice of medicine. Literature is now taught in almost three quarters of the medical schools in the United States. Different goals, agendas, and methods are appropriate at each developmental stage of a physician's training, from the premedical curriculum to the continuing education of a practicing physician. A vigorous and growing scholarship and body of experience is propelling the field of literature and medicine to understand all the more clearly how acts of reading and acts of writing might illuminate acts of doctoring.
Eubanks, Philip; Schaeffer, John D.
The phrase "academic bullshit" presents compositionists with a special dilemma. Because compositionists study, teach, and produce academic writing, they are open to the accusation that they both tolerate and perpetuate academic bullshit. We argue that confronting this problem must begin with a careful definition of "bullshit" and "academic…
There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…
Shapiro, James A
Discoveries in cytogenetics, molecular biology, and genomics have revealed that genome change is an active cell-mediated physiological process. This is distinctly at variance with the pre-DNA assumption that genetic changes arise accidentally and sporadically. The discovery that DNA changes arise as the result of regulated cell biochemistry means that the genome is best modelled as a read-write (RW) data storage system rather than a read-only memory (ROM). The evidence behind this change in thinking and a consideration of some of its implications are the subjects of this article. Specific points include the following: cells protect themselves from accidental genome change with proofreading and DNA damage repair systems; localized point mutations result from the action of specialized trans-lesion mutator DNA polymerases; cells can join broken chromosomes and generate genome rearrangements by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) processes in specialized subnuclear repair centres; cells have a broad variety of natural genetic engineering (NGE) functions for transporting, diversifying and reorganizing DNA sequences in ways that generate many classes of genomic novelties; natural genetic engineering functions are regulated and subject to activation by a range of challenging life history events; cells can target the action of natural genetic engineering functions to particular genome locations by a range of well-established molecular interactions, including protein binding with regulatory factors and linkage to transcription; and genome changes in cancer can usefully be considered as consequences of the loss of homeostatic control over natural genetic engineering functions. PMID:24882816
Walker, Madeline; Tschanz, Coby
Traditionally, there is very little formal instruction in academic writing for nurses in graduate programs. We, the writing scholar and a nurse educator and PhD student at a major Canadian university, describe how we collaborated on developing and delivering a 1-day academic writing workshop for incoming master of nursing students. By sharing this description, we hope to motivate nursing faculty to offer similar workshops to address the dearth of writing instruction for graduate students in nursing and to improve scholarship outcomes.
Kamii, Constance; Manning, Maryann
Examined English-speaking preschoolers' level of writing and their performance on oral-segmentation tasks. Found a close relationship between children's levels of writing and their levels of oral segmentation on a writing task in which they were asked to write four pairs of words, for example, "ham" and "hamster." Concluded that children's…
Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James
Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…
Integrated tasks are currently employed in a number of L2 exams since they are perceived as an addition to the writing-only task type. Given this trend, the current study investigates composite score generalizability of both reading-to-write and writing-only tasks. For this purpose, a multivariate generalizability analysis is used to investigate…
Carbone, Paula M.; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich
This paper examines how writing samples produced by middle school students reveal their emerging academic identities through their rhetorical choices in writing. Analyses of two texts produced by each student revealed students' implicit understandings of the requirements of academic voice. Through comparisons of each student's texts, strategies…
McGrath, Lisa; Kaufhold, Kathrin
Academic Literacies and English for Specific Purposes perspectives on the teaching of academic writing tend to be positioned as dichotomous and ideologically incompatible. Nonetheless, recent studies have called for the integration of these two perspectives in the design of writing programmes in order to meet the needs of students in the…
Academic writing and education in foreign and second languages both have lengthy histories. Their histories have diverged but also intersected. Matsuda (2005), for example, described the convergence in policies that led to a distinctive discipline of "L2 writing" in higher education in the U.S.A. during the latter part of the 20th century.…
Dehghan, Farzaneh; Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah
Academic writing at advanced levels is the most important way of demonstrating one's expertise in a discipline. Developing this kind of competence is especially a challenging effort for students in foreign language contexts. Many factors may be involved in determining why some students are more and some are less motivated in writing successful,…
Malinowski, Patricia A.
Describes a research project designed to take students from personal writing to academic writing requiring research and application of documentation skills. Explains that the project involves choosing a career, is divided into four parts, and is completed over a four- to five-week period. (MG)
Johnson, W. Brad; Mullen, Carol A.
This concise guide to writing is designed to help any academic become not only productive but truly prolific. It is a pithy, no-nonsense, no-excuses guide to maximizing the quality and quantity of scholarly output. The authors offer an accessible overview of the art of writing efficiently and effectively, provide a one-stop source for the nuts and…
Adopting the social theory of writing and new rhetorical genre studies (Bakhtin, 1986; Dias, Freedman, Medway, & Pare, 1999; Freedman & Medway, 1994; Miller, 1984/1994) as the theoretical framework in this study I made an attempt to explore graduate students' perceptions of academic writing as a mode of communication in academia. I interviewed…
This book explores why students from other cultures often find it difficult to learn academic writing and understand its purpose in a U.S. university. The book discusses how these students' writing is influenced by cultures where people communicate indirectly and holistically, value the wisdom of the past, and downplay the individual in favor of…
Palmer, Mary Leonard
The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…
Students' interpretations of their academic writing tasks has been a central concern in the cognitive-based writing research due to the prominent role such decision-making plays in determining students' subsequent thinking and composing strategies and ultimately in shaping their textual quality. Without a comprehensive understanding of how L2…
Alghail, Ali Abdullah Ali; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali
This study examines how international graduate students in a Malaysian public university perceive and overcome academic reading difficulties. The target population included all graduate students from Yemen, an Arab country, studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Data were collected using questionnaires, focus group interviews, and journal writing.…
Purves, Alan C.
To explain the test score decline in reading and writing, the author suggests that neither tests nor instruction is accomplishing what each purport to do and that both have ignored an underlying cultural shift. (Editor)
Criscuolo, Nicholas P.
This article describes briefly home activities that parents can use to foster the reading-writing connection. These include storytelling, working with opposites, riddles, birthday cards, limericks, and other activities. (MT)
Shrestha, Prithvi; Coffin, Caroline
Supporting undergraduate students with their academic literacies has recently been a major focus in higher education in the UK. This paper explores the value of tutor mediation in the context of academic writing development among undergraduate business studies students in open and distance learning, following the dynamic assessment (DA) approach…
Rubin, Andee; Hansen, Jane
Education has often created and widened the distinctions between reading and writing rather than focusing on their relationship. More recently, however, research has advanced a view that recognizes reading and writing to be instances of communication between people. Research also suggests that five kinds of knowledge (informational, structural,…
Whyte, Sarah S.
Research and observation have indicated that there is a connection between reading and writing. This connection has been confirmed through the research of D. Graves, L. Calkins, G. Bissex, and M. Baghban. Cognitive theorists believe that reading and writing involve similar schema or structures. Much of the pedagogy and research suggest that the…
Research reveals that the division between reading and writing hinders the development of language learning in general and writing ability in specific. The study examined the effect of using the reading for writing approach on developing the writing ability of Egyptian EFL learners and their attitudes towards writing. Thirty, first year secondary…
Dollins, Cynthia A.
A process writing project in a third-grade classroom explored the idea of using nonfiction mentor texts to assist students in writing their own creative informational texts about animals. By looking at author craft and structure during close reading activities with nonfiction Twin Texts, students were taught how to emulate these techniques in…
Macri, Cecilia; Bocos, Musata
Through this research was intended to underline the importance of the semi-global strategies used within thematic projects for developing writing/reading abilities in the first grade pupils. Four different coordinates were chosen to be the main variables of this research: the level of phonological awareness, the degree in which writing-reading…
The Internet is no longer only a place to research information. It is now also a forum through which users can publish and disseminate their own writing. Richardson describes some of the main tools that make this new "Read/Write Web" work--blogs, wikis, really simple syndication, and podcasting--and gives examples of how each can be used to…
Michaels, Judith Rowe
Aimed at junior and senior high school teachers and artists in residence, this book urges teachers and students to read and write poetry "as though their lives depended upon it," and to breathe life into classroom writing traditions that are not hands-on or intense. Each chapter is set in the classroom. Poems by students and teacher illustrate…
Writing teachers have a potential role in the development of a better hypertext. Hypertext can be defined as writing designed to be read--and perhaps added to--along many different paths, at the reader's choice. What the computer does for hypertext is increase greatly the speed and potential number of the links between chapters or ideas. What…
Spillane, Lee Ann
Writing centers offer students the means to success. The Reading Writing Center (RWC) at University High School in Orlando, Florida, serves a diverse population of more than 3,700 students. The center serves dual purposes. A classroom side operates as a demonstration space where the author, who is the center's director, leads and sometimes…
Bromley, Karen D'Angelo
Describes the buddy journal (a diary that two students keep together, in which they "converse" in writing) and suggests ways to use such journals to build children's literacy. Proposes that buddy journals can highlight the reading-writing connection for children by involving purposeful, personal communication to enhance students' literacy…
Onwuegbuzie, A J; Collins, K M
Academic procrastination has been associated with both fear of failure and task aversiveness. Researchers have reported that most undergraduate and graduate students delay academic tasks. Among the latter, a large proportion report procrastination in writing term papers. Such procrastination may originate from and lead to anxiety about writing so the present purpose was to investigate the relationship between scores on Daly and Miller's 1975 Writing Apprehension Test and on the two dimensions, i.e., fear of failure and task aversiveness, of Solomon and Rothblum's 1984 Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. Participants were 135 graduate students of varied disciplinary backgrounds. Correlations between writing apprehension and academic procrastination stemmed from fear of failure (29) and task aversiveness (.41). Implications are discussed.
The purpose of this study is the determination of reading comprehension levels of fifth grade's students who learned to read and write with the sentence method. With the program of 2005, it has been amended in the first reading and writing method. In the teaching of first reading and writing, it was passed to the sentence method instead of sound…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie
The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…
This article asks us to consider what the process of healing and composition pedagogy have to learn from each other. More specifically, it identifies how the therapeutic potential of writing, which has been largely neglected in the academy in recent years, can influence the ways we teach transferable writing skills. The article considers how…
Bastug, Muhammet; Demirtas, Gonca
Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in…
Pasternak, Donna L.; Longwell-Grice, Hope; Shea, Kelly A.; Hanson, Linda K.
This article addresses the impetus for joining and maintaining writing groups in academe. The authors consider the motivations and purposes for organizing and forming such groups. Revealing the complexities of writing both as profession and in pursuit of the profession, they analyze their experiences as collaborative writers. They examine the…
Few studies have investigated how metacognitive processes foster the application of genre knowledge to students' academic writing. This is largely due to its internal and unobservable characteristics. To bridge this gap, an online writing system based on metacognition, involving the stages of planning, monitoring, evaluating, and revising, was…
The study examines how undergraduate university students in Rwanda experience collaborative process writing as an instruction method capable of helping them improve their academic writing abilities in English. It involved 34 second-year students, divided into 12 small working groups. The data were collected by means of group interviews carried out…
Wang, Amber Yayin
This study explores if extensive practice in reading or writing is related to high creative performance. In total, 196 university students participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire and completing a creativity test. The questionnaire inquires the total courses taken in the school year, total hours spent on reading, total hours on…
This study explored girls' and boys' (aged 10-11) attitudes towards reading and writing. Girls enjoyed reading significantly more than boys. Boys liked mostly comics and humorous books; adventure books were girls' favourites. Poetry did not appeal to pupils. Many boys did not enjoy typical school texts. Most pupils, especially boys, did not like…
Craig, David James
This study examined the relationship between fifth-grade students' out-ofschool reading habits and measures of their reading comprehension and writing abilities. The sample was composed of forty-two students attending an urban school in Northeastern Massachusetts. Each morning, for fifteen consecutive weeks, students recorded an approximation…
Describes in detail a three-month class project focusing on fictionalized biographies and the life of Benjamin Franklin. Notes that in-depth integration of reading, writing, and content area instruction improves reading skills, as well as learning from content area textbooks, especially for low ability readers. (MM)
Martens, Prisca; Martens, Ray; Doyle, Michelle Hassay; Loomis, Jenna; Aghalarov, Stacy
This article shares the authors' work with first graders and how, through various reading, writing, and art experiences around picturebooks, the children learned to read and communicate through art along with written language. The work is grounded in multimodality theory and the belief that all modes (particularly art for the purposes of this…
As reading and writing are both language processes, one can assume relationships between them, but the exact nature of these relationships has not yet been determined. While a large body of research has addressed reading comprehension and written production independently, very little investigation has examined the possible relationships between…
Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel
Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…
Ruhe, Valerie; Paula, Moore
Reading Recovery is a short-term intervention for first-grade children with reading and writing difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the performance of a cohort of 1998 Reading Recovery students on later literacy achievement as measured by the 2001 Grade 4 Maine Educational Assessment (MEA). The results showed that the average MEA…
Unrau, Norman J.
A study investigated the impact of a procedure called Thesis Analysis and Synthesis Key (TASK), which was embedded in a curriculum designed to help high school students read and write arguments. Subjects, 120 11th-graders in San Francisco were instructed in argumentation under 3 conditions. Their gains in the ability to read arguments were…
Basile, Donald D.
Describes the study skills center at California State University, San Diego, which has achieved considerable success in improving students' basic writing skills by offering a set of minicourses in cooperation with the English and business departments. (FL)
Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear…
Handforth, Rachel; Taylor, Carol A.
This article emerged as the product of a collaboration between two individuals at different stages of our academic careers, one a beginning researcher and the other a senior academic. Written as an experimental "bricolage", the article weaves together two main threads to chart our engagements with feminist research and with writing…
This book presents a series of personal essays in which the author analyzes and dramatizes the significance of subordination in academic life. Academic life is examined in terms of issues (such as sexual harassment) and structures (such as the figure of the dissertation director) but especially in terms of texts. The book looks at the stream of…
Mohd. Zin, Zuhana; Rafik-Galea, Shameem
Research into the factors that contribute to reading performance decrement in L2 reading among ESL university students is still being extensively researched in the context of ELT. This is because successful academic performance is highly dependent on good reading ability. While it is widely accepted that poor reading performance is due to lack of…
With a central theme of how people create a means to communicate reliably, and based on language-making exercises that touch students' imaginations, this book aims to interest students in language and how language is made. Since students like codes and ciphers, the book begins with secret writing, which is then used to reveal the foundation of…
Hess, Steven Timothy Michael
Writing for scientific publication represents an opportunity to interact with colleagues and make a positive contribution to the academic community. However, there is a growing concern regarding the ability of graduate students' to transfer writing skill sets learned at the graduate and undergraduate levels into professional settings. The main…
Wilson, Kathryn Anne
An English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) educator of migrant students in a rural county in Oregon used a whole-language approach to language and reading instruction. Although reading instruction in Spanish was preferred, lack of Spanish-speaking personnel and limited ESL instructional time prohibited that approach. In whole-language ESL, the teacher…
This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…
The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…
Stivers, Jan; Cramer, Sharon F.
Despite the challenges of heavy workloads, family responsibilities, and differences in work styles, two senior faculty members used collaboration to reenergize their scholarly efforts; the results include increased research and publication (three joint articles and a book) as well as a new enjoyment of the research and writing process. This…
In the hypothetical neural circuit model of reading and writing that was initially proposed by Dejerine and subsequently confirmed by Geschwind, the left angular gyrus was considered as a unique center for processing letters. Japanese investigators, however, have repeatedly pointed out that this angular gyrus model cannot fully explain the disturbances observed in reading and writing Kanji letters in Japanese patients with various types of alexia with or without agraphia. In 1982, I proposed a dual neural circuit model of reading and writing Japanese on the basis of neuropsychological studies on the various types of alexia with or without agraphia without aphasia. This dual neural circuit model proposes that apart from the left angular gyrus which was thought to be a node for phonological processing of letters, the left posterior inferior temporal area, also acts as a node for semantic processing of letters. Further investigations using O15-PET activation on normal subjects revealed that the left middle occipital gyrus (area 19 of Brodmann) and the posterior portion of the left inferior temporal gyrus (area 37 of Brodmann) are the cortical areas responsible for reading Japanese letters; the former serving for phonological reading and the latter for semantic reading. This duality of the neural circuit in processing letters was later applied to explain disturbances in reading English, and was finally accepted as a valid model for other alphabetic letter systems too.
Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying; Fiez, Julie; Nelson, Jessica; Bolger, Donald J.; Tan, Li-Hai
Bilingual reading can require more than knowing two languages. Learners must acquire also the writing conventions of their second language, which can differ in its deep mapping principles (writing system) and its visual configurations (script). We review ERP (event-related potential) and fMRI studies of both Chinese-English bilingualism and…
This article discusses an approach to teaching used at Calexico Unified School District, a California-Mexican border high school, by a group of teachers working to make teaching and learning more relevant to Chicano and Mexican students' lives and to improve their academic achievement in writing. An off-shoot of a training program for English…
Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa
Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…
Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan
This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…
This paper describes a graduate-level scientific/academic writing course for non-native speakers (NNS) of English at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), Israel, which is taught in a technology-enhanced or blended learning environment. The use and integration of electronic discourses, such as email and Powerpoint, on-screen marking…
Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany
The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…
This review of research on handwriting and the legibility of print suggests that: (1) teachers' handwriting is less legible today than in the past, (2) manuscript should replace cursive writing in the classroom, and (3) letter size and case, leading, line length, and spacing between letters are the critical factors for legibility. (JMB)
Schmoker asserts that the kinds of skills students need to succeed in college--skills like clear thinking, effective writing, and the ability to analyze international and policy issues--are equally needed for non-college-bound youth. He maintains it is possible--and necessary--to provide an intellectually challenging and culturally enriching…
This document contains some book suggestions to help introduce all the various parts of writing. Helping students understand figures of speech takes more than a book ? it takes a creative teacher and interested students. One book that teachers and students have had a great time with is Monkey Business by Wallace Edwards, (Kids Can Press, 2004,…
In these austere and uncertain financial times, colleges are caught in a quandary: they need to admit a certain number of students each term in order to make budget, yet many of the students they admit are developmental in nature by virtue of their critical thinking, writing and/or math scores on their entrance exams. Creative colleges are…
Reviews "Writing the Rural," five "cultural geographies" by Paul Cloke, Marcus Doel, David Matless, Martin Phillips, and Nigel Thrift that focus on proliferating meanings of "rural" and on understanding the "rural" as something fashioned by both rural residents and various outside actors. Highlights the authors' varying but complementary…
Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…
Worrell, Frank C.; Roth, David A.; Gabelko, Nina H.
This study investigated the reliability and structural validity of Elementary Reading Attitude Survey ([ERAS]; McKenna and Kear, 1990) scores in 575 academically talented students attending an academic summer program. Results indicated that ERAS Academic and Recreational scores had satisfactory internal consistency coefficients, and that…
The writing activities involved in research are not fully articulated in discussions of academic work. In this context, academics say they have to disengage from other tasks in order to write, which raises fundamental questions about the place of writing in academic work. A study designed to find out more about this disengagement showed that it…
Frequent use of non-finites is an important feature of English academic writing (Chafe & Danielewicz, 1987), but teachers and students in the Chinese environment are not aware of it. To investigate the problems that can be found in academic writings by Chinese students is significant in two aspects: academic writing by Chinese EFL students…
James, Mark Andrew
This case study involved a detailed examination of learning transfer from an English-for-general-academic-purposes writing course to tasks that involve writing in other academic courses. Data were gathered over one academic year from 11 students enrolled in the writing course. These students participated in a series of interviews and provided…
Pineteh, Ernest A.
This article discusses the academic writing challenges of undergraduate students at Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa. It examines challenges such as lack of a mastery of academic writing conventions, analysis of writing topics, using writing to construct social identities; ability to research and apply knowledge across…
Most work on writing and publication processes focuses on writing support for undergraduates or postgraduates writing in the disciplines, while work on academic identities frequently considers development as a university teacher. This essay consider the reviewing process for academics who write, whether doctoral students, researchers, teachers or…
Some 226 Hong Kong students in grades 7-9 benefited from a 4-week summer program on reading comprehension, reading speed, and writing development. Results are discussed in the context of the local sociolinguistic environment. (15 references) (Author/LB)
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the cooperative integrated reading and composition (CIRC) technique and the traditional reading and writing pedagogical methods for primary school students. The study group was composed of 45 7th grade students enrolled at a primary school at the centre of Giresun Province in the 2009/2010…
Recreational reading as a method of language learning has been a focus of investigation in second language education. This article considers recreational reading through the additional perspective of academic librarianship. Its purpose is to discover if recreational reading is a topic that lends itself to research through both perspectives. This…
Churchwell, Dawn Earheart
This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…
Podolsky, Tim; Soiferman, Karen
The purpose of this study was to explore student preferences regarding reading print materials or online reading materials for academic purposes, as well as to examine how students adapt traditional reading strategies such as underlining, highlighting, and taking marginal notes when reading electronic texts. A total of 61 participants (32…
Soloway, Elliot; And Others
Describes MediaText, a multimedia document processor developed at the University of Michigan that allows the incorporation of video, music, sound, animations, still images, and text into one document. Interactive documents are discussed, and the need for users to be able to write documents as well as read them is emphasized. (four references) (LRW)
Schmidt, Patricia A.
This book is an autobiographical effort to understand life as a person and as a high school English teacher, and how those two lives have intertwined. The text examines how the author, trained in certain ways, thinks of herself as a professional person. In addition to the subject of the teaching of reading and writing, the author explores how her…
Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri
When providing effective reading and writing instruction, teachers need to provide explicit modeling. Modeling is particularly important when teaching students to use cognitive learning strategies. Examples of how teachers can provide specific, explicit, and flexible instructional modeling is presented in the context of two evidence-based…
Grant, Audrey; Hutchinson, Kirsten; Hornsby, David; Brooke, Sarah
This paper reports on a small-scale research inquiry, designed to support teachers in a Melbourne primary school to bring together the arts, reading and writing in their classrooms in ways that create possibilities for "art-full" teaching and learning. The principal, concerned by underperformance on State literacy tests of the school's largely…
Designed to offer a balanced instructional approach for language arts, this book combines a systematic phonics program with whole language. It teaches reading skills by using the children's own language, basal readers, poems, and songs, and by emphasizing writing, spelling, listening, and speaking skills. The book includes daily lesson plans,…
Barton, David, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Ivanic, Roz, Ed.
This book contains 13 papers on situated literacies and reading and writing in context. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Denny Taylor); "Introduction: Exploring Situated Literacies"; "Literacy Practices" (David Barton, Mary Hamilton); "Expanding the New Literacy Studies: Using Photographs To Explore Literacy as Social Practice" (Mary…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Vocational Education.
This curriculum guide, one of 15 volumes written for field test use with educationally disadvantaged industrial education students needing additional instruction in the basic skill areas, deals with helping students to develop basic reading and writing skills while studying metalworking. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the…
Canadian Inst. for Research, Calgary (Alberta).
To determine specific objectives for language arts programs in Alberta schools, a study was conducted in which a comprehensive list of specific objectives was compiled for use in developing tests of reading and writing in grades three, six, nine, and twelve. Measurable objectives were ranked in terms of their importance to the total program, and…
The fabrication of an updated block data composer and holographic storage array for a breadboard holographic read/write memory system is described. System considerations such as transform optics and controlled aberration lens design are described along with the block data composer, photoplastic recording materials, and material development.
The author suggests a novel approach to adult literacy education - stressing expressive writing instead of primer reading, and relating the basic spelling patterns of the written language to the already possessed corresponding sound patterns of the spoken language rather than teaching alphabets and letters. (AN)
Lovett, Ollie M.
Developed for use with the PATHWAYS ABE (Adult Basic Education) and Pre-GED (General Educational Development) Curriculum, a scope and sequence of reading and writing skills, or continuum, was designed with tasks of both educator and Indian Adult learner in mind. The continuum introduces individual skills at students' entry proficiency levels and…
Johnson, Doris J.
Use of reading and writing to enhance oral communication skills requires analysis of the individual's performance; understanding of the interaction among auditory, oral, and written language disorders; integration of speech-language and educational services; and attention to skills of phonemic discrimination, auditory verbal comprehension, word…
Fay, Kathleen; Whaley, Suzanne
Written for the general classroom teacher whose class includes English language learners (ELLs), as well as for ELL teachers working in general classrooms, this book portrays ELL students in grades 3-6 who learn essential reading and writing skills and are full members of the classroom community. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the…
Sloan, Glenna Davis
Memorable language that delights children, makes them laugh or gasp, or causes them to ponder and wonder is the literature that will begin the process of teaching them to read and write. Literature is meant to connect, not with reason primarily, but with readers' and listeners' imaginations and emotions, and in the case of poetry, with something…
A study was conducted to assess the extent to which taking college courses improves students' basic reading and writing skills. The study utilized data collected in fall 1983 by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC) on 5,962 students in community college districts in Los Angeles, California; St. Louis, Missouri; and Miami-Dade,…
Barton, David; Hamilton, Mary
This book describes a study of the uses of reading and writing in Lancaster, England, in the 1990s. It offers a detailed, specific description of literacy practices in one local community at one point in time. The book is designed to contribute to the theoretical understanding of literacy by linking literacy to a more general understanding of…
This volume explains the products and processes of the Entry Standards Assessment (ESA)/Basic Skills Brush Up System. The ESA/Basic Skills Brush Up Centers System is a program designed to provide Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) clients with the math, reading, and writing skills needed to take advantage of job training. Following…
Richardson, Will; Mancabelli, Rob
This article discusses a group of new technologies--blogs, wikis, podcasts, social bookmarking, online photo galleries, and RSS (Real Simple Syndication)--collectively referred to as the Read/Write web. These tools allow users to easily create and publish online content, and are beginning to have a profound impact on curriculum, classroom…
Rochford, Regina A.
In 2008, Queensborough Community College incorporated service learning into 15 remedial reading and writing courses. To determine its impact, statistical analyses were performed, and they demonstrated significantly (a) higher GPAs, (b) improved rates of retention, and (c) the completion of more college credits among service learning participants.…
In this paper I examine the citations in recent review articles in applied linguistics to point out that there appears to be a distinct lack of overlap between references to work in four inter-related areas--reading, writing, speaking, and listening. I then point to areas of research where I think it particularly important to consider these…
Providing both rationale and technique for practitioners, this book emphasizes the influence of visual literacy upon the reading, writing, and creative development of learners. The nine chapters of the book are arranged into three sections, with the first setting forth the basic components of visual literacy and how they manifest themselves in…
Strickland, Dorothy S., Ed.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.
In this essay collection, scholars in the area of early literacy provide concrete strategies for achieving excellence in literacy instruction. The collection presents current, research-based information on the advances and refinements in the area of emerging literacy and the early stages of formal instruction in reading and writing. Following a…
Dwyer, Edward J.; Lofton, Glenda
Shares ideas for effectively and efficiently gaining control over the volumes of paper generated in a reading/writing classroom. Suggests that organizing the flow of paper in a class, through such items as file boxes and hanging folders, is essential for an effective class. Provides 10 sample categories for filed materials. (MAB)
Perfetti, Charles A.; McCutchen, Deborah
The notion that a set of restricted-generalized abilities underlies both reading and writing is explored in this essay. Following a definition of schooled language competence (SLC), the first section asserts that knowledge and problem solving are insufficient and nonlinguistic approaches to language competence. The second section focuses on…
Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc
This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…
Perin, Dolores; Bork, Rachel Hare; Peverly, Stephen T.; Mason, Linda H.
Two experiments were conducted with developmental education students to investigate the impact of a contextualized intervention focusing on written summarization and other reading and writing skills. In experiment 1 (n = 322), greater gain was found for intervention than comparison participants on three summarization measures: proportion of main…
Azevedo, Nair Rios; Goncalves, Maria Jose
Especially in a time of economic and social crisis, besides poverty and social segregation, immigrants face an additional difficulty to get integrated in a new society: lack of oral and written knowledge of the language of the country they are now living in. This paper describes an on-going research project--Writing and Reading with Art (WRAP)…
Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria, Ed.
The 18 papers in this anthology have been grouped into four sections, arranged partially by topic. These papers have been selected to represent the ideas and views put forward at the 2004 RELC International Seminar on "Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction" held April 19-21, 2004. Of the 18 papers contained in this volume, some…
This book is a guide for parents who wish to raise children with more than one language and literacy. Drawing on interdisciplinary research, as well as the experiences of parents of multilingual children, this book walks parents through the multilingual reading and writing process from infancy to adolescence. It identifies essential literacy…
Bandre, Patricia E.
"Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…
Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…
The aim of this study is to explore the possible relationships between the readiness and reading and writing performances of a group of children who are first graders in an elementary school in Turkey. The states of children in terms of school readiness, sound-letter relationships, and phonemic awareness were determined individually during the…
McKay, Roberta A.; Kendrick, Maureen E.
Uses children's drawings about reading and writing to provide valuable insights into metalinguistic knowledge that children have about literacy, including their beliefs about self and others as language users and knowledge about the demands of different literacy events. Makes a case for children's art as a source of insight on the nature and…
Costa, Lara-Jeane C.; Edwards, Crystal N.; Hooper, Stephen R.
This longitudinal study was conducted to determine (a) the rate of co-occurrence of reading disabilities (RDs) in a writing disability (WD) population of students followed from first grade to fourth grade and (b) the cognitive burden that is assumed by having a WD and a RD (WD + RD). The sample included 137 first-grade students from a single…
Rickards, Debbie; Hawes, Shirl
Teachers can link the isolated components of a balanced literacy program by helping students make focused connections in reading and writing throughout the day. The authors share how two teachers made such connections through components of author's craft. They conclude with an extensive list of minilesson topics designed to improve students'…
Mallozzi, Christine A., Comp.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.
This article presents the reports from the international research correspondents (IRCs) on the topic of reading and writing connections through an informal polling using a questionnaire in seven countries. The participating IRCs include: (1) Ruth Wong of the National Institute of Education in Singapore; (2) Anita Poon of Hong Kong Baptist…
Campbell, David; Marciniak, Thomas A.; Srivastava, Sudhir
Write once, read many (WORM) optical storage is an available technology for storing inexpensively large amounts of data on a personal computer system. We summarize the technical tradeoffs of WORM drives and other forms of optical storage and discuss the use of WORM storage for typical medical data base applications: (1) flat files; (2) complex databases; and (3) text files.
Dyson, Anne Haas
Reviews literature defining the characteristics of the complex puzzle children encounter moving from oral language to print. Illustrates that, by reading their own writing, children discover the precise connection between reading, writing, and language. (HTH)
Cervetti, Gina; Pearson, P.
In this commentary, the authors bring insights from their work on science-literacy integration at the elementary level to bear on the ongoing conversation about disciplinary literacy at the middle and secondary levels. In particular, the authors discuss what they have learned about inquiry, disciplinary reading strategies, and the role of text in…
Newkirk, Thomas, Ed.
Drawn from talks given at a conference held at the University of New Hampshire in October 1984, the papers in this collection explore the relationship of composition to reading and literature studies. Following an introductory chapter written by Thomas Newkirk, which contains background information about that relationship as well as an overview of…
Comic strips provide the perfect vehicle for learning and practicing language. Each strip's three or four panels provide a finite, accessible world in which funny, interesting-looking characters live and go about their lives. Children with limited reading skills are not as overwhelmed when dealing with the size of a comic strip as they may be with…
A program was developed for improving the reading of first-grade students in a progressive suburban community in northern Illinois. The problem was originally noted by an increase in the need for support services and low standardized test scores. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of the relationship between…
A program was developed for improving the reading of second-grade students in a progressive suburban community in northern Illinois. The problem was originally noted by an increase in the need for support services and low standardized test scores. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of the relationship between…
Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.
Using literature in the classroom yields rewards. Literature for children is being recognized as increasingly important in children's literacy development. The ideas, resources, and activities offered in this collection of 43 articles published in "The Reading Teacher" from 1993 to 1999 provide strategies that are engaging and effective for all…
This project emphasized the writing-reading connection in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum, noting the effects of integrating nonfiction reading about culture into writing tasks and investigating reading-for-writing activities that functioned as an extension from the EFL classrooms to the outside world. The project occurred in a…
Cho, Hyonsuk; Brutt-Griffler, Janina
This study reports Korean English language learners' perceived needs concerning their learning of reading and writing and how the integrated reading and writing instruction impacts their reading comprehension and summary-writing abilities. The study also delineates teacher's challenges faced during the instruction. A total of 93 students in a…
Albertini, John A.; Marschark, Marc; Kincheloe, Pamela J.
Research in discourse reveals numerous cognitive connections between reading and writing. Rather than one being the inverse of the other, there are parallels and interactions between them. To understand the variables and possible connections in the reading and writing of adult deaf students, we manipulated writing conditions and reading texts.…
De Silva, Radhika
Writing for academic purposes in a second/foreign language is a major challenge faced by many students at both secondary and tertiary levels. This suggests that displaying content knowledge and understanding of a subject through a second language is a very complex process. This article discusses the findings of a longitudinal intervention study…
This case study report uses the conceptual framework of Bakhtinian notions of dialogism to explore how a highly motivated 10th grade English student, Aaliyah, developed strategies for combating her disengagement in academic writing. Aaliyah?s anxiety and boredom stemmed from multiple factors relating to the distance between her home and school…
Dwyer, Trudy; Friel, Deborah; McAllister, Margaret; Searl, Kerry Reid; Rossi, Dolene
An important way to advance the profession of nursing, to promote best practice and to improve the quality of nursing care, is for nurses to publish. A publication track record is necessary to gain competitive research funding, build knowledge, disseminate new insights and advance the profession. However, academics often experience obstacles in publishing ranging from a pervasive teaching culture, lack of confidence in writing, and lack of strategies to write more strategically. The benefits of writing retreats have been discussed within the nursing and other academic literature but the specifics about the method as well as the unplanned benefits have not been explored. More exploration and discussion is needed about factors assisting writers to complete papers and successfully publish. This paper discusses a novel intervention which aimed to seed the beginnings of a flourishing scholarly community at a regional Queensland University. The paper also presents qualitative and quantitative evaluation data.
Dwyer, Trudy; Friel, Deborah; McAllister, Margaret; Searl, Kerry Reid; Rossi, Dolene
An important way to advance the profession of nursing, to promote best practice and to improve the quality of nursing care, is for nurses to publish. A publication track record is necessary to gain competitive research funding, build knowledge, disseminate new insights and advance the profession. However, academics often experience obstacles in publishing ranging from a pervasive teaching culture, lack of confidence in writing, and lack of strategies to write more strategically. The benefits of writing retreats have been discussed within the nursing and other academic literature but the specifics about the method as well as the unplanned benefits have not been explored. More exploration and discussion is needed about factors assisting writers to complete papers and successfully publish. This paper discusses a novel intervention which aimed to seed the beginnings of a flourishing scholarly community at a regional Queensland University. The paper also presents qualitative and quantitative evaluation data. PMID:25773450
Yu, Ian; Garnham, Christopher P; Roll-Mecak, Antonina
Microtubules give rise to intracellular structures with diverse morphologies and dynamics that are crucial for cell division, motility, and differentiation. They are decorated with abundant and chemically diverse posttranslational modifications that modulate their stability and interactions with cellular regulators. These modifications are important for the biogenesis and maintenance of complex microtubule arrays such as those found in spindles, cilia, neuronal processes, and platelets. Here we discuss the nature and subcellular distribution of these posttranslational marks whose patterns have been proposed to constitute a tubulin code that is interpreted by cellular effectors. We review the enzymes responsible for writing the tubulin code, explore their functional consequences, and identify outstanding challenges in deciphering the tubulin code.
Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S
The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing.
A read/write head for a magnetic tape includes an elongated chip assembly and a tape running surface formed in the longitudinal direction of the chip assembly. A pair of substantially spaced parallel read/write gap lines for supporting read/write elements extend longitudinally along the tape running surface of the chip assembly. Also, at least one groove is formed on the tape running surface on both sides of each of the read/write gap lines and extends substantially parallel to the read/write gap lines.
Reading teachers focus more on the instruction of reading content or strategies, but pay relatively less attention to the impact of writing on reading comprehension. Based on mediation theory, the author examined the effect of summary writing about reading texts on readers' comprehension. By reviewing relevant literatures on the topic of…
Montelongo, Jose A.; Herter, Roberta J.
Students struggle with the transition from learning to read narrative text in the early grades to reading expository text in the science classroom in the upper grades as they begin reading and writing to gain information. Science teachers can adapt their teaching materials to develop students' reading comprehension and recall by writing summaries…
Jarvis, Mary I.; Hale, Yulonda
This course is designed to enhance reading and writing skills. It is tied to an interactive computer program (The New Reading Disc) that provides opportunities for reading, hearing sentences read, and writing letters and memos. Special emphasis is placed on workers' understanding of the importance of their jobs and how they fit into the total…
Jennifer, J. Mary; Ponniah, R. Joseph
Pleasure reading is an absolute choice to eradicate readicide, a systematic killing of the love for reading. This paper encompasses the different forms and consequences of readicide which will have negative impact not only on comprehension but also on the prior knowledge of a reader. Reading to score well on tests impedes the desire for reading…
Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…
Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching
English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…
A survey of the building blocks of the electro-optic read/write system was made. Critical areas and alternate paths are discussed. The latest PLZT block data composer is analyzed. Stricter controls in the production and fabrication of PLZT are implied by the performance of the BDC. A reverse charge before erase has eliminated several problems observed in the parallel plane charging process for photoconductor-thermoplastic hologram storage.
Garcia-Amorós, Jaume; Swaminathan, Subramani; Zhang, Yang; Nonell, Santi; Raymo, Françisco M
The fluorescence of a carbazole chromophore can be activated irreversibly under optical control with the photoinduced opening of an oxazine ring. In proximity to silver nanoparticles, the quantum efficiency of this photochemical transformation and that of the emissive process increase significantly. The plasmonic effects responsible for such enhancements, together with the photochemical and photophysical properties engineered into this particular photoactivatable fluorophore, permit the optical writing and reading of microscaled patterns at low illumination intensities.
Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…
Melles, Gavin; Lockheart, Julia
In disciplines with long histories in higher education, academic literacies, including writing practices, are less contested than in newer academic fields such as art and design. The relatively recent incorporation of such fields and schools into the university sector has required these fields to create academic writing practices consistent with…
Discusses several ways to evaluate reading and writing skills in a whole language classroom, including evaluation checklists, holistic evaluation of writing, and miscue analysis. Provides a literacy development checklist for reading and writing. (MM)
Richards, Janet C.; Miller, Sharon K.
This clear, reader-friendly book is carefully designed to help readers gain confidence and acquire competence in their academic writing abilities. It focuses on real people as they write and actively involves readers in the writing process. The authors' innovative approach encourages reflection on how professional writing initiatives connect to…
The teaching of writing, and the teaching of developmental and ESL/EFL writing in particular, has historically given priority to the sentence, often in theory and almost always in practice. The writing approach modeled here simply argues that the paragraph should be given primacy of place in ESL/EFL academic writing instruction. The…
Barnes, Marcia; Dennis, Maureen; Hetherington, Ross
Reading and writing were studied in 31 young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH). Like children with this condition, young adults with SBH had better word decoding than reading comprehension, and, compared to population means, had lower scores on a test of writing fluency. Reading comprehension was predicted by word decoding and listening comprehension. Writing was predicted by fine motor finger function, verbal intelligence, and short-term and working memory. These findings are consistent with cognitive models of reading and writing. Writing, but not reading, was related to highest level of education achieved and writing fluency predicted several aspects of functional independence. Reading comprehension and writing remain deficient in adults with SBH and have consequences for educational attainments and functional independence.
Although academic skills, conceptualised as writing and critical thinking, are a vital part of university studies, research indicates that many students leave without having mastered these skills effectively. This research also reflects on nursing students. Nursing could also be said to be hampered by a number of complex educational challenges that are likely to impact on the academic socialisation process in general. These challenges include being a relatively 'young' academic discipline, the 'theory-practice' divide, a knowledge bed lying on a complex intersection of two 'antithetical sciences' and, at least in the Scandinavian countries, an increasing number of nurse educators with a PhD in nursing science but with limited time to develop their own teaching skills. In combination, these challenges have the potential to act as stumbling blocks, both from a teaching and learning perspective. I would suggest that a departure in teaching from theoretical educational models, such as Lea and Street's 'academic literacies model,' including skills, socialisation and academic literacy models simultaneously, could be one of several ways forward to create a learning environment that takes these issues into account.
Recent developments in personal computers will affect the teaching of reading and writing because they offer capabilities that simply were not possible before. For example, an information storage and retrieval system, developed as a "library" for elementary school children, allows them to store and retrieve information under different descriptors.…
Describes the Hot Chocolate House Web site that was created for elementary school students to engage in a variety of activities centered on reading and creative writing. Students can submit their own writing or book reviews, read other writing or book reviews, share authors' letters, and find recipes for snacks. (LRW)
De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark; Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Croninger, Robert; Jackson, Cara; Deogracias, Jeehye Shim; Hoffman, Benjamin Polk
In this study, the effects of a disciplinary reading and writing curriculum intervention with professional development are shared. We share our instructional approach and provide writing outcomes for struggling adolescent readers who read at or below basic proficiency levels, as well as writing outcomes for proficient and advanced readers.…
Newell, George E.; Beach, Richard; Smith, Jamie; VanDerHeide, Jennifer
Acquiring argumentative reading and writing practices reflects a key component of recent curricular reforms in schools and universities throughout the United States and the world as well as a major challenge to teachers of reading and writing in K-12 and college writing classrooms. In this review, we consider the contributions of two research…
Investigates the working memory (WM) processing and storage functions; whether WM in writing follows the same process as in reading; and the influence of WM on creative writing. Focuses on high school students (n=47). Finds relationships between WM measures and reading and writing in English as a Second Language. Includes references. (CMK)
Ponce, Hector R.; Mayer, Richard E.; Lopez, Mario J.
This article explores the effectiveness of a computer-based spatial learning strategy approach for improving reading comprehension and writing. In reading comprehension, students received scaffolded practice in translating passages into graphic organizers. In writing, students received scaffolded practice in planning to write by filling in graphic…
Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris
Examined relationship of maternal mediation in joint writing and of storybook reading with emergent literacy among low-SES kindergartners. Found that after partialling out home environment measures and storybook reading, maternal writing mediation explained added variance for children's word writing/recognition and phonological awareness.…
Cable, Christian T.; Boyer, Debra; Colbert, Colleen Y.; Boyer, Edward W.
Background The need for consistent academic productivity challenges junior clinician-scholars, who often lack the aptitude to ensure efficient production of manuscripts. Intervention To solve this problem, an academic division of a major medical center developed an off-site writing retreat. The purpose of the retreat was not to teach writing skills, but to offer senior mentor assistance with a focus on the elements of manuscript writing. Methods The retreat paired senior faculty members with junior staff. Senior faculty identified manuscript topics and provided real-time writing and editing supervision. Team-building exercises, midcourse corrections, and debriefing interviews were built into the retreat. The number of manuscripts and grant proposals generated during the 2008–2011 retreats was recorded, and the program was evaluated by using unstructured debriefing interviews. Results An average of 6 to 7 faculty members and fellows participated in each retreat. During the past 4 years, participants produced an average of 3 grant proposals and 7 manuscripts per retreat. After the writing retreat, each fellow and junior faculty member produced an average of 4 scholarly products per year, compared to fewer than 2 for prior years' retreats. Participant feedback indicated the success of the retreat resulted from protected time, direct mentorship by the scholars involved, and pairing of authors, which allows for rapid production of manuscripts and accelerated the editing process. More than 80% of mentors returned each year to participate. Conclusions The writing retreat is a feasible, effective strategy to increase scholarship among faculty, acceptable to mentees and mentors, and sustainable over time. PMID:24404277
Altemeier, Leah; Jones, Janine; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W
Results are reported for a study of 2 separate processes of report writing-taking notes while reading source material and composing a report from those notes-and related individual differences in executive functions involved in integrating reading and writing during these writing activities. Third graders (n = 122) and 5th graders (n = 106; overall, 127 girls and 114 boys) completed two reading-writing tasks-read paragraph (mock science text)-write notes and use notes to generate written report, a reading comprehension test, a written expression test, four tests of executive functions (inhibition, verbal fluency, planning, switching attention), and a working memory test. For the read-take notes task, the same combination of variables was best (explained the most variance and each variable added unique variance) for 3rd graders and 5th graders: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) Reading Comprehension, Process Assessment of the Learner Test for Reading and Writing (PAL) Copy Task B, WIAT-II Written Expression, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Inhibition. For the use notes to write report task, the best combinations of variables depended on grade level: For 3rd graders, WIAT-II Reading Comprehension, WIAT-II Written Expression, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency, and Tower of Hanoi; for 5th graders, WIAT-II Reading Comprehension, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency, WIAT-II Written Expression, and PAL Alphabet Task. These results add to prior research findings that executive functions contribute to the writing development of elementary-grade students and additionally support the hypothesis that executive functions play a role in developing reading-writing connections. PMID:16390292
Altemeier, Leah; Jones, Janine; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W
Results are reported for a study of 2 separate processes of report writing-taking notes while reading source material and composing a report from those notes-and related individual differences in executive functions involved in integrating reading and writing during these writing activities. Third graders (n = 122) and 5th graders (n = 106; overall, 127 girls and 114 boys) completed two reading-writing tasks-read paragraph (mock science text)-write notes and use notes to generate written report, a reading comprehension test, a written expression test, four tests of executive functions (inhibition, verbal fluency, planning, switching attention), and a working memory test. For the read-take notes task, the same combination of variables was best (explained the most variance and each variable added unique variance) for 3rd graders and 5th graders: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) Reading Comprehension, Process Assessment of the Learner Test for Reading and Writing (PAL) Copy Task B, WIAT-II Written Expression, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Inhibition. For the use notes to write report task, the best combinations of variables depended on grade level: For 3rd graders, WIAT-II Reading Comprehension, WIAT-II Written Expression, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency, and Tower of Hanoi; for 5th graders, WIAT-II Reading Comprehension, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency, WIAT-II Written Expression, and PAL Alphabet Task. These results add to prior research findings that executive functions contribute to the writing development of elementary-grade students and additionally support the hypothesis that executive functions play a role in developing reading-writing connections.
Teaching reading in terms of its connections to writing can motivate students to read and increase the likelihood that they find success in both activities. It can lead students to value reading as an integral aspect of learning to write. It can help students develop their understanding of writerly strategies and techniques. Drawing on qualitative…
Fullerton, Susan King; DeFord, Diane E.
When educators refer to "reciprocity" in Reading Recovery, most often they are referring to the connections that can be made across reading and writing through teaching and learning actions--each reading or writing act has the potential for providing a context for learning about the other (Clay, 1998), and in this way, influencing each other.…
Tonne, Ingebjørg; Pihl, Joron
Studies show that morphological and lexical awareness is a particularly important variable for reading comprehension after the primary school years. Research on L1 students' reading and writing competence has revealed correlations between reading and writing with regard to metalinguistic awareness, specifically also with regard to the subtypes:…
Hess, Steven Timothy Michael
Writing for scientific publication represents an opportunity to interact with colleagues and make a positive contribution to the academic community. However, there is a growing concern regarding the ability of graduate students' to transfer writing skill sets learned at the graduate and undergraduate levels into professional settings. The main research question in this quantitative correlational study explored potential relationships between the publication rates and the number and types of English and composition classes taken by survey participants. Fischerian development, life course theory, and phenomenological sociology framed this study. Participants from private, public, and commercial institutions of higher learning in the United States participated. Data were analyzed using correlational, chi-square, ANOVA, and multiple regression techniques to reveal relationships between the number and types of English and composition classes taken and publication rates. Open-ended questions gathered opinions about scientific writing and writing class experiences and helped triangulate the findings. The results suggested a relationship between publication rates and number of English and composition classes among certain physics specializations and a need for physics institutions to create specialized publishing courses. The results may lead to positive social change by facilitating the examination of writing within particular physics specializations and motivating the creation of departmental constructed writing courses targeting the scientific community responsible for producing technically skilled literate workers. This could enable increased sharing of scientific findings with professional societies.
Derish, Pamela A; Maa, John; Ascher, Nancy L; Harris, Hobart W
Writing and publishing are key to career development and academic success for surgeons who have less time than ever to devote to these activities. To improve the scientific writing skills of its faculty and trainees and to help them complete their manuscripts and grant proposals more quickly, the Department of Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) established a service dedicated to scientific writing and editing. Through coursework in scientific writing, individual writing consultations, and editorial review, the service helps academic surgeons with the difficult tasks of writing and publishing their research and seeking extramural funding. The service has rapidly become a successful adjunct to the academic mission of the UCSF Department of Surgery and could offer a model for other academic surgery departments to increase scientific productivity and advance the academic surgical mission.
Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen
In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…
This article investigates the experience of seven refugee students with academic reading during their first year of college, with a focus on the challenges they faced completing assigned readings and the strategies they used to cope with these challenges. Although the participants graduated from American high schools, they were not considered…
This study, situated in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context where non-English major college learners are usually required to read content-area textbooks in English, tried to determine what motivates students to engage in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) reading activities. Three student informants were invited to reflect on their own…
Bude, Bette L.
Because junior high school literature anthologies contain few expository offerings and English texts seldom involve students in critical reading as background for writing, it is up to the teacher to fill the gap. One approach for providing students with critical reading practice is the cloze procedure, which (1) encourages close reading and…
We are pleased to offer another brief article for our series on Academic Skills. This series aims at providing short, concrete, and practical tips on how to conduct and improve your life in academia. Whether beginner or fully trained investigator, we share the same challenges in succeeding in our professions, challenges which schooling never prepared us for. Perhaps grant writing, the subject of this article, is the most mysterious, fear-provoking and misunderstood type of skill needed in our careers. In fact, for these reasons, some people have never dared adventure into grant writing. Yet, this activity is not only essential for running our research but also for other numerous purposes including training people, buying equipment, getting a job, and being granted tenure. The tips provided here are widely applicable if you are interested in writing a grant, regardless of your country of origin. Therefore, it is my hope that these tips increase your chances of success in grantmanship along with the satisfaction that may come from achieving all the goals that these funding aids make possible.
Olson, Richard K; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Pennington, Bruce F; DeFries, John C
Identical and fraternal twins (N=540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement-Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary), and three different reading skills (word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension). Substantial genetic influence was found on two of the writing measures, writing samples and handwriting copy, and all of the language and reading measures. Shared environment influences were generally not significant, except for Vocabulary. Non-shared environment estimates, including measurement error, were significant for all variables. Genetic influences among the writing measures were significantly correlated (highest between the speeded measures writing fluency and handwriting copy), but there were also significant independent genetic influences between copy and samples and between fluency and samples. Genetic influences on writing were significantly correlated with genetic influences on all of the language and reading skills, but significant independent genetic influences were also found for copy and samples, whose genetic correlations were significantly less than 1.0 with the reading and language skills. The genetic correlations varied significantly in strength depending on the overlap between the writing, language, and reading task demands. We discuss implications of our results for education, limitations of the study, and new directions for research on writing and its relations to language and reading.
Ghufron, M. Ali; Saleh, Mursid; Warsono; Sofwan, Ahmad
This study aimed at designing a model of instructional materials for Academic Writing Course focusing on research paper writing. The model was designed based on the Curriculum at the English Education Study Program, Faculty of Language and Art Education of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, East Java, Indonesia. This model was developed in order to improve…
Fabio, Rosa Angela; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro
The goal of this clinical case study is to investigate the possibility of training communication abilities in people with Rett Syndrome (RS). Usually, girls with RS never exceed the sensorimotor stage of development, but the inter-individual variability typical of RS may lead us to doubt the irrevocability of that developmental limit, especially for those girls who are engaged in cognitive rehabilitation. The case study reported here concerns a 21-year-old girl with RS who was engaged in cognitive rehabilitation training based upon the principles of Feuerstein's modificability and mediated learning theory. The training aimed to teach her basic concepts and enhance reading-writing abilities. Statistical analyses showed that the girl reached adequate reading-writing abilities, proving the validity of the cognitive intervention which allowed her to communicate by composing words with her forefinger on an alphabetic table. Although these results need to be cautiously considered as they derive from a single case study, they have implications for future cognitive rehabilitation for deeply impaired clinical conditions as in the case of RS. PMID:24367345
Wardale, D.; Hendrickson, T.; Jefferson, T.; Klass, D.; Lord, L.; Marinelli, M.
Academic writing groups are acknowledged as a successful approach to increasing research publication output and quality. However, the possible links between the formation and ongoing utilisation of writing groups and improvements in scholarly written research outputs remain relatively undertheorised. In this article, we draw on academic writing…
Gunter, Kimberly K.
In this article, I revisit the Elbow/Bartholomae debate, review recent scholarship on academic writing, and discuss the ways that the mandates of traditional academic writing can further disenfranchise already marginalized students. I suggest that, due to the double consciousness with which these students often live, they come into classrooms…
Examines the acquisition of academic writing skills by adult students studying by distance learning in the United Kingdom. Results indicate that the text-based nature of distance leaning affects both the way in which students acquire writing skills and the development of their identity as academic writers. Differences in the learning process were…
Schmied, Josef; Nkemleke, Daniel
This contribution discusses problems of students' academic writing in Africa. It sketches the wide field of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and argues that reference, coherence and complexity are key concepts for evaluating student writing at university level. It uses material from African corpora to substantiate this claim and to illustrate…
Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert
This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students' writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys.
Ringer, Jeffrey M.
This essay considers how a male evangelical Christian in a first-year writing (FYW) course at a state university negotiates his identity in his academic writing for a non-Christian audience. It focuses on how "Austin" casuistically stretches a biblical text to accommodate his audience's pluralistic perspective. Austin's writing thus provides a…
Hartley, James; Pennebaker, James W.; Fox, Claire
Background: Previous research suggests that there are advantages to writing in groups or in pairs compared with writing individually, and that men write differently from women. However, as far as we know, no one has yet used new technology to assess published academic articles written in these different modes. Method: We assembled 80 papers from…
Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica
Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…
Al-Khairy, Mohamed Ali
This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and…
Belcher, Diane, Ed.; Braine, George, Ed.
Essays on research and teaching of academic writing in English as a second language include:"When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: The Case of a Graduate ESL Student" (Melanie Schneider, Naomi K. Fujishima); "Good Writing: I Know It When I See It" (Ilona Leki); "Redefining the Task: An Ethnographic Examination of Writing and Response in Graduate…
This article makes the argument that we need to situate student's academic writing as socially constructed pieces of writing that embody a writer's cultural identity and critical argument. In support, I present and describe a comprehensive model of an original English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing analytical framework. This article explains…
Itua, Imose; Coffey, Margaret; Merryweather, David; Norton, Lin; Foxcroft, Angela
Staff and student perceptions of what constitutes good academic writing in both further and higher education often differ. This is reflected in written assignments which frequently fall below the expected standard. In seeking to develop the writing skills of students and propose potential solutions to writing difficulties, a study was conducted in…
Jiménez, J E; Rumeau, M A
This study was designed to investigate some writing disorders shown by children who have been taught by different methods of reading and writing. Methods differ in that some emphasize the processes of decoding bottom-up (e.g., syllabic and phonic method) while others stress top-down processes, that is, they put greater emphasis on meaning (e.g., global-natural method). A longitudinal study using a sample of 260 school children was performed. The children were of both sexes from public and private schools and from different socioeconomic backgrounds. It was found that the pupils who learn by a global-natural method make errors that relate more to reproductive aspects of information. In contrast, the pupils who learned by the phonic and syllabic methods made more errors of meaning.
Bruce, M. L.; Coffer, P. K.; Rees, S.; Robson, J. M.
Many undergraduate students find the production of an extended piece of academic writing challenging. This challenge is more acute in the sciences where production of extended texts is infrequent throughout undergraduate studies. This paper reports the development of a new English for Academic Purposes (EAP) workshop and associated resources for…
Taylor, Rosemarye T.
In contrast to the primary grades when children are learning to read, students in grades 4 through 12 are expected to learn content as they read, yet they may still struggle with reading basics. This book provides a realistic and systematic process for improving reading and writing while enhancing content knowledge and skills. Based on proven…
This teaching guide is the result of 3 years of thinking, trying, rethinking, and trying again with an assignment sequence in which one instructor attempted to address the personal as well as the academic needs of students in the Program of Intensive English at the University of California at Santa Barbara. According to the guide, many of these…
Bowman, Marion; Addyman, Berni
Reflection is widely regarded as important for learning from practice in Nursing. Academic reflective writing (ARW) is increasingly being used to assess reflective practice. However, there is currently scant literature on ARW, which is extremely complex, requiring students to link their own experiences to published literature. There are also concerns in the literature about the validity of ARW as a medium of assessment. In this paper, an exploratory discussion on ARW is illustrated with reference to the views of 8 self-selected students on a course for post-registered nurses. These students found ARW extremely challenging, and highlighted a range of difficulties associated with it. In conclusion, it is argued that the student experience of ARW warrants further investigation. In addition, it is suggested that either scaffolding should be put in place to facilitate the production of successful ARW, or alternatives should be explored.
Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.
Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.
Hebert, Michael; Simpson, Amy; Graham, Steve
The purposes of this review were to determine: (1) if different writing activities were more effective than others in improving students' reading comprehension, and (2) if obtained differences among writing activities was related to how reading comprehension was measured? Meta-analysis was used to examine these questions across studies involving…
Caban, Heather Leigh
Freire wrote that reading one's world is a necessary precursor to writing it, or conscienzation. The present dissertation, expanding on Kellner's concept of multiple literacies (1998; 2002a; 2005b; 2006a; 2008), explores what it means to read and write one's world in the context of globalization. Given the arrival of a new…
Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.
Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…
With practical applications for parents and teachers, this book uses diary entries, tape recordings, and videotapes made by the child's mother from a researcher's perspective to chronicle a child's reading and writing development from birth to age three. The introduction provides an overview of how children learn to talk, read, and write;…
An abundance of research has shown that there is an extensive overrepresentation of reading and writing disabilities among inmates in juvenile institutions and prisons. The aim of this paper is to review publications from the Nordic countries, especially Sweden in the last decade regarding the prevalence of reading and writing disabilities and…
Bryant, Keri L.; Pohl, Rosa Marie
The article describes an innovative teaching project suitable for students at any age and all levels of German. The project, conducted entirely in German, includes writing, reading, and speaking, and promotes the skills of letter-writing, reading for content, note-taking, and oral presentation. (JL)
Kohli, Adarsh; Kaur, Manreet; Mohanty, Manju; Malhotra, Savita
Aim: The study compared the pattern of deficits, intelligence and neuropsychological functioning in subcategories of learning disorders. Methods: Forty-six children (16 with reading disorders, 11 with writing disorders and 19 with both reading and writing disorders--mixed group) in the age range of 7-14 years were assessed using the NIMHANS Index…
Commercial publishers have shaped reading and writing instruction in American schools through their interpretations of state-developed reading and writing standards and standards-aligned materials, which teachers then implement in English classes, including those serving multilingual learners. This paper uses microethnographic discourse analysis…
Ridout, Susan Ramp
Based on the premise that children's natural love for music makes it appropriate to use songs as a motivational vehicle for reading and writing, this paper presents a reading/singing strategy which promotes vocabulary, word recognition, writing, and comprehension skills while providing appreciation of music. The paper briefly discusses the eight…
The sixth in a series of 10 study units for a Migrant Educators' National Training OutReach (MENTOR) correspondence course examines the role of speech, reading, and writing in migrant education and suggests approaches to teaching reading and writing which use group activities and individualized evaluation. Designed to be used in preservice or…
This book is intended for all educators who work with reading and writing skills. The book combines Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences and recent brain research on reading and writing with historical, anthropological, biographical, and psychological perspectives on literacy. It pulls the research together to show how teachers can engage…
Douglass, Malcolm P., Ed.
The papers included in this book focus on writing and reading across the curriculum. Beginning with an introduction by Malcolm P. Douglass, the book contains the following 25 titles: "Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum" (Malcolm P. Douglass); "A Deepening Understanding of Reading and Writing" (Walter Loban); "The Relationship of Language…
Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.
Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…
Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina
Expectations for high-level academic writing, especially in the Common Core era, have never been higher. Middle school and high school students are being asked to do close readings of complex texts and then respond in writing using academic discourse. This is a challenging task for many students, but perhaps none as great as for English language…
Critical Literacy: How Can the Limited Proficient Adult Be Academically Supported and Enabled To Gain the Necessary Knowledge in Reading/Writing Communication Skills To Successfully Complete a Degree Program for Integration into the Workforce?
Few jobs with any prospects for advancement are expected to be available to poorly skilled students, especially limited English proficient individuals with insufficient reading skills. The consensus is that continuing to allow a disproportionate number of minority or disadvantaged students to pass through the education system without meeting high…
Harley, John K.
The characteristics of academic writing are examined in this paper, and some remedies are suggested for correcting the "language deformities" that many academic writers persist in creating. Three categories of error to which academic writers are apt to be susceptible are discussed. The first category covers errors that are shortcomings in…
This article describes a combination of a research essay and a creative writing assignment that encourages rigorous academic research while allowing students to get "outside the box" of traditional academic research papers. This assignment has five steps. The first two steps offer the chance to introduce academic research along with summary and…
Hendrix, C M; Thompson, I K; Mann, C J
In the 1989 report by the Pew National Veterinary Education Program (PNVEP), communication skills topped the list of characteristics the veterinary graduate should possess in order to function effectively in the twenty-first century. To determine the reading, writing, and oral communication requirements and opportunities in veterinary curricula in the US and Canada, and to determine the perceived communication tasks that might be commonly required of practicing veterinarians in the next century, we sent a 15-item communications skills questionnaire to the academic deans of the 31 veterinary curricula in the US and Canada. The results reinforce the importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine, as detailed by the PNVEP over 10 years ago. Based on the responses to our questionnaire and on our own experiences with veterinary medical students, we make several recommendations to enhance communication instruction in veterinary medical curricula.
Hetzroni, Orit E; Shrieber, Betty
This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the number of reading errors, and the number of words used per text were counted, and the overall structure and organization of text were examined across all in-class materials. The data demonstrated a clear difference between handwritten and computer phases. In traditional paper-and-pencil phases, students produced outcomes that had more spelling mistakes, more reading errors, and lower overall quality of organization and structure in comparison with the phases in which a computer equipped with a word processor was used. The results did not indicate any noticeable difference in the number of words per text. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Shapiro, James A.
The genome has traditionally been treated as a Read-Only Memory (ROM) subject to change by copying errors and accidents. In this review, I propose that we need to change that perspective and understand the genome as an intricately formatted Read-Write (RW) data storage system constantly subject to cellular modifications and inscriptions. Cells operate under changing conditions and are continually modifying themselves by genome inscriptions. These inscriptions occur over three distinct time-scales (cell reproduction, multicellular development and evolutionary change) and involve a variety of different processes at each time scale (forming nucleoprotein complexes, epigenetic formatting and changes in DNA sequence structure). Research dating back to the 1930s has shown that genetic change is the result of cell-mediated processes, not simply accidents or damage to the DNA. This cell-active view of genome change applies to all scales of DNA sequence variation, from point mutations to large-scale genome rearrangements and whole genome duplications (WGDs). This conceptual change to active cell inscriptions controlling RW genome functions has profound implications for all areas of the life sciences.
Shapiro, James A
The genome has traditionally been treated as a Read-Only Memory (ROM) subject to change by copying errors and accidents. In this review, I propose that we need to change that perspective and understand the genome as an intricately formatted Read-Write (RW) data storage system constantly subject to cellular modifications and inscriptions. Cells operate under changing conditions and are continually modifying themselves by genome inscriptions. These inscriptions occur over three distinct time-scales (cell reproduction, multicellular development and evolutionary change) and involve a variety of different processes at each time scale (forming nucleoprotein complexes, epigenetic formatting and changes in DNA sequence structure). Research dating back to the 1930s has shown that genetic change is the result of cell-mediated processes, not simply accidents or damage to the DNA. This cell-active view of genome change applies to all scales of DNA sequence variation, from point mutations to large-scale genome rearrangements and whole genome duplications (WGDs). This conceptual change to active cell inscriptions controlling RW genome functions has profound implications for all areas of the life sciences. PMID:23876611
Shapiro, James A
The genome has traditionally been treated as a Read-Only Memory (ROM) subject to change by copying errors and accidents. In this review, I propose that we need to change that perspective and understand the genome as an intricately formatted Read-Write (RW) data storage system constantly subject to cellular modifications and inscriptions. Cells operate under changing conditions and are continually modifying themselves by genome inscriptions. These inscriptions occur over three distinct time-scales (cell reproduction, multicellular development and evolutionary change) and involve a variety of different processes at each time scale (forming nucleoprotein complexes, epigenetic formatting and changes in DNA sequence structure). Research dating back to the 1930s has shown that genetic change is the result of cell-mediated processes, not simply accidents or damage to the DNA. This cell-active view of genome change applies to all scales of DNA sequence variation, from point mutations to large-scale genome rearrangements and whole genome duplications (WGDs). This conceptual change to active cell inscriptions controlling RW genome functions has profound implications for all areas of the life sciences.
Ancient Greeks added vowels to a consonantal language and changed their horizontal writing direction from right-to-left to left-to-right. The idea that the dextral majority in ancient Greece developed left-to-right writing solely because writing efficiency was greater is questioned. Cerebral hemispheric functions that might be involved during fixation pauses in reading suggest that horizontal ancient Greek was read more efficiently from left to right than from right to left, the other direction in which it usually was written. The same considerations suggest that horizontal consonantal scripts are read more efficiently from right to left than from left to right. The importance of boustrophedon, a continuous writing style, in the development of left-to-right writing and aspects of the reciprocity between cerebral hemispheric functioning and writing direction of vocalic scripts are discussed.
Ancient Greeks added vowels to a consonantal language and changed their horizontal writing direction from right-to-left to left-to-right. The idea that the dextral majority in ancient Greece developed left-to-right writing solely because writing efficiency was greater is questioned. Cerebral hemispheric functions that might be involved during fixation pauses in reading suggest that horizontal ancient Greek was read more efficiently from left to right than from right to left, the other direction in which it usually was written. The same considerations suggest that horizontal consonantal scripts are read more efficiently from right to left than from left to right. The importance of boustrophedon, a continuous writing style, in the development of left-to-right writing and aspects of the reciprocity between cerebral hemispheric functioning and writing direction of vocalic scripts are discussed. PMID:2695892
Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J
Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Because faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the prerequisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care. PMID:26200577
Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J
Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Because faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the prerequisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care.
Battle, Mary Vroman
College freshman composition courses are often taught on the assumption that students need little or no help in reading, with the result that reading materials are only used as models of writing. However, research such as a 1978 study at the University of Minnesota wherein freshmen scored significantly lower in reading skills than did freshmen 50…
The learning assistance center at a California university offers a carefully designed learning program for faculty and staff in the areas of reading, writing, and time management. The goal of the reading efficiency course is to improve reading speed without loss in comprehension. Tests are given throughout the course to monitor progress, and…
Burgin, John; Hughes, Gail D.
The authors explored the credibility of using informal reading inventories and writing samples for 138 students (K-4) to evaluate the effectiveness of a summer literacy program. Running Records (a measure of a child's reading level) and teacher experience during daily reading instruction were used to estimate the reliability of the more formal…
Basic reading comprehension and summary tend to be the focus in social studies and history classrooms, if reading and writing are included at all. But such a focus inhibits a conception of history as an interpretive discipline grounded in evidence that is analyzed, not simply accepted. Understanding the past is impossible without such historical…
The purpose of this study was to reveal whether the technique of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) in Turkish Language teaching had influence on students' skills in reading and writing. In the study, the mixed method, which included quantitative and qualitative dimensions together, was used. The study group was made up of 16…
Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle
Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level. PMID:24954951
Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle
Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level.
Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra
Academic writing skills are essential to the successful completion of preregistration nursing programs, yet the development of such skills is a challenge for many nursing students, particularly those who speak English as a second language (ESL). It is vital to develop and evaluate strategies that can support academic writing skills for ESL nursing students. This qualitative study evaluated a four-day academic writing intervention strategy designed to support ESL first-year nursing students. Data from the program showed two major areas of difficulty for participants relating to academic writing: problems understanding course content in English, and problems expressing their understanding of that content in English. The participants noted a key benefit of this program was the provision of individual feedback. Programs such as this intervention successfully meet the demands of ESL nursing students, although ongoing support is also needed.
Poock, Jason R.; Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.
The analysis describes the effects of using the science writing heuristic (SWH) in the general chemistry laboratory on the students' academic performance. The technique has found to be extremely important factor in a student's learning process and achievement in science.
Writing programs in institutions of higher education work to prepare students for real-world writing within any field of study. The composition of "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing" offers an open-source text for students, teachers, and policy-makers at all levels. Exposure to an open space for learning encourages access to information,…
Bemer, Amanda Nicole Metz
This dissertation explores the rhetoric of space as it relates to academic computer writing locations--specifically, computer labs, computer classrooms, and writing centers. Using observation, surveys, interviews, and textual analysis, the author discusses seven rhetorical principles of design for these spaces, including designing for specific…
Sidman-Taveau, Rebekah; Karathanos-Aguilar, Katya
Graduate-level ESL students in Education are future multicultural educators and promising role models for our diverse K-12 students. However, many of these students struggle with academic English and, in particular, writing. Yet little research or program development addresses the specific writing-support needs of this group. This article shares…
Macbeth, Karen P.
Although models have been a mainstay of academic writing pedagogy for centuries, a recurrent critique has been that they control or limit student writing and misrepresent the affairs they claim to model. These insufficiencies notwithstanding, models are ubiquitous in the ordinary, practical world, and their usefulness to novices can easily go…
The writing of business case reports is a common requirement for students on academic business programmes and presents significant challenges for both native and non-native speaker students. In order to support the development of pedagogical practice in the teaching of case report writing, this paper reports a genre-based study of a corpus of 53…
McCleary, William J.
The case approach to academic writing requires a student to use subjects in an active way while writing. This approach, appropriate in content courses as well as in composition classes, improves a writer's logic more quickly and effectively than concentrating on logic alone. In the case approach, a student is given a body of information about a…
Peterson-Karlan, George R.
The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…
Rubin, Bella; Katznelson, Helen; Perpignan, Hadara
This case study examined the learning outcomes of three learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) enrolled in different Writing for Academic Purposes courses. Of the many learning outcomes observed, some express self-perceived intrapersonal and interpersonal changes, which in previous research have been named "by-products" of writing courses…
Matsuda, Paul Kei; Tardy, Christine M.
Some researchers have argued that voice is irrelevant to academic writing and that the importance of voice has been overstated in the professional literature [Helms-Park, R., & Stapleton, P. (2003). Questioning the importance of individualized voice in undergraduate L2 argumentative writing: an empirical study with pedagogical implications.…
Dwyer, Angela; Lewis, Bridget; McDonald, Fiona; Burns, Marcelle
The professional development needs of early career academics (ECAs) are increasingly subject to scrutiny. The literature notes writing groups can be successful in increasing research outputs and improving research track records--a core concern for ECAs. However, the pressure on ECAs to publish takes the pleasure out of writing for many. We argue…
The United States has always been the top choice of Taiwanese university students who want to study abroad. Consequently, English writing is especially vital for doctoral dissertation; insufficient research deals with academic writing of such students, despite its importance to their success. This paper aims to fill the gap by analyzing the course…
This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…
This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…
Crite, Charles E., Jr.
The academic writing competencies of nontraditional graduate students enrolled in accelerated graduate programs have become a growing concern for many higher learning educators in those programs. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to examine the writing experiences that impacted nontraditional graduate students enrolled in…
Reynolds, Barry Lee
Lack of knowledge in the conventional usage of collocations in one's respective field of expertise cause Taiwanese students to produce academic writing that is markedly different than more competent writing. This is because Taiwanese students are first and foremost English as a Foreign language (EFL) readers and may have difficulties picking up on…
Perpignan, Hadara; Rubin, Bella; Katznelson, Helen
We previously defined the "by-products" of academic writing instruction as "affective and social changes perceived by students, "along with" changes in their writing, reflected in interpersonal and intrapersonal behaviors carried over into other spheres of their lives" [Katznelson, Perpignan, & Rubin, 2001. What develops along with the development…
Gilliland, Elizabeth A.
This dissertation describes and analyzes the academic language socialization of culturally and linguistically diverse adolescents through a multi-case ethnographic study of high school writing instruction in California. I argue that there is a significant gap between the norms for writing in English language development classes and those in the…
Defazio, Joseph; Jones, Josette; Tennant, Felisa; Hook, Sara Anne
The paper provides case studies of how four faculty members who teach in undergraduate and graduate programs at the Indiana University School of Informatics promote academic literacy throughout the curriculum. The paper describes the writing assignments in several courses, the objectives of these assignments in enhancing the writing skills of…
It is hard to think of a writer whose work has been more prominently upheld as an example of bad academic writing than the philosopher and literary theorist Judith Butler. In 1998, Butler was awarded first prize in the annual Bad Writing Contest established by the journal "Philosophy and Literature," and early in 1999, was lampooned in an…
Bryson, Mary; Scardamalia, Marlene
Cognitively-based writing instruction for educationally disadvantaged students is examined, focusing on epistemic writing. The object of epistemic writing is to inquire into a particular topic and to familiarize/persuade the reader with the fruits of the investigation. In reviewing the distinctions between novice and expert writers, two models of…
Online templates have the potential to scaffold complex writing processes and to provide information and language prompts for writers. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, for assisting students in their scholarly writing, an online Scholarly Writing Template (SWT) was designed and developed. SWT includes two major features: (1) an…
Dehnad, Afsaneh; Bagherzadeh, Rafat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Hatami, Kamran; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh
Assessing learners' needs is an integral part of any curriculum and course design , namely English for specific purposes (ESP), syllabus design, materials development, teaching methods and testing issues. Critical approach to needs analysis, which is a relatively recent approach, acknowledges the rights of different stakeholders including teachers, students and administrators in the process of needs analysis. However, there has been no formal need analysis for syllabus design at postgraduate level in Medical Universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study, conducted in 2011, was an attempt to assess the reading and writing needs of postgraduate students in ESP courses on the basis of critical approach to needs analysis. The study population consisted of 67 people: 56 postgraduate students, 5 heads of departments, 5 ESP instructors and 1 executive manager at the Ministry of Health in Iran. Ethical and demographic forms, needs analysis questionnaires, and a form of semi-structured interview were the instruments of the study. According to the findings, there was a discrepancy between students' and instructors' perception of learners' needs and the assumed needs appearing in the syllabi prescribed by the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study showed that a call for critical needs analysis in which the rights of different stakeholders are acknowledged is necessary for meeting the requirements of any ESP classes especially at postgraduate level where the instructors and learners are fully aware of learners' needs. PMID:24902023
Dehnad, Afsaneh; Bagherzadeh, Rafat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Hatami, Kamran; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh
Assessing learners' needs is an integral part of any curriculum and course design , namely English for specific purposes (ESP), syllabus design, materials development, teaching methods and testing issues. Critical approach to needs analysis, which is a relatively recent approach, acknowledges the rights of different stakeholders including teachers, students and administrators in the process of needs analysis. However, there has been no formal need analysis for syllabus design at postgraduate level in Medical Universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study, conducted in 2011, was an attempt to assess the reading and writing needs of postgraduate students in ESP courses on the basis of critical approach to needs analysis. The study population consisted of 67 people: 56 postgraduate students, 5 heads of departments, 5 ESP instructors and 1 executive manager at the Ministry of Health in Iran. Ethical and demographic forms, needs analysis questionnaires, and a form of semi-structured interview were the instruments of the study. According to the findings, there was a discrepancy between students' and instructors' perception of learners' needs and the assumed needs appearing in the syllabi prescribed by the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study showed that a call for critical needs analysis in which the rights of different stakeholders are acknowledged is necessary for meeting the requirements of any ESP classes especially at postgraduate level where the instructors and learners are fully aware of learners' needs.
Bennet, James R.; Hodges, Karen
Describes a writing based course in freshman world literature and summarizes tests, writing assignments, and class activities used in teaching "The Odyssey,""Metamorphoses,""Hamlet," and other works. (JG)
This article critically explores the value of ethnography for enhancing context-sensitive approaches to the study of academic writing. Drawing on data from two longitudinal studies, student writing in the United Kingdom and professional academic writing in Hungary, Slovakia, Spain, and Portugal, the author illustrates the different contributions…
In this description of a learning community for "at-risk" and basic writing students at the University of Wyoming, I outline the reasons our students resist academic writing prior to their entry into college--reasons largely unrelated to typical perceptions of at-risk students as "lazy" or intellectually less capable. For students who come from…
Zhao, Cecilia Guanfang; Llosa, Lorena
Despite the debate among writing researchers about its viability as a pedagogical tool in writing instruction [e.g., Helms-Park, R., & Stapleton, P. (2003). "Questioning the importance of individualized voice in undergraduate L2 argumentative writing: An empirical study with pedagogical implications." "Journal of Second Language Writing," 12 (3),…
The problem of poor academic writing among British university students is a major cause of concern for universities and their tutors; and it is also of concern to employers struggling to recruit individuals able to communicate clearly and accurately. This article reports on a study designed to highlight some of the reasons for the lack of writing…
This dissertation presents an innovative approach to the development and empirical evaluation of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) technology used for teaching and learning. It introduces IADE (Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator), a new web-based AWE program that analyzes research article Introduction sections and generates immediate,…
Baumann, James F., Ed.; Johnson, Dale D., Ed.
Providing detailed information about the contexts, processes, and products of publishing, this book is divided into three major sections: writing for journals and other periodicals, writing for children and other adolescents, and writing instructional materials. Chapters in the book are: "Publishing Requirements for Research-Oriented Journals" (S.…
Discusses how English-as-a-foreign-language instructors in China, Japan, and Korea can motivate their students to listen, speak, read, and write for real-life communicative purposes by using authentic texts and audiences. (Author/VWL)
Wood, Karen D.; And Others
Discusses the definition of cooperative learning; cooperative-learning groups and learning disabilities; cooperative-learning methods used in reading and in writing; and perspectives on cooperative-learning groups. (RS)
Margolis, Howard; And Others
States that newspaper and magazine journalism tend to depict handicapped persons as victims. Explains that teachers can help eliminate this stereotypic imagery through writing and critical reading exercises. (GG)
Teale, William H.
Discusses research and instances of children learning to read and or write in the home without formal instruction, tracing the development of such natural literacy. Argues that literacy is primarily a social process, involving both teaching and learning. (HTH)
Argaman, Osnat; Abu-Rabia, Salim
Examined the influence of language anxiety as measured by a questionnaire on achievements in English writing and reading comprehension tasks. Subjects were native speakers of Hebrew, aged 12-13 years, learning English as a second language.(Author/VWL)
Sullivan, Ivy Aleta
The purpose of this qualitative research investigates the influence of reading and writing to facilitate learning in science. Another purpose is to study the effect of constructivist teaching practices and cooperative learning to attain conceptual change among community college students in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course. The affective dimension of learning anatomy and physiology through reading and writing was studied by examining the students' attitudes and personal beliefs expressed in their essays. This research combined several methods to engage the learner: reading an article of their choice from the "Vital Signs" series, writing an essay on the article read, collaborative group discussions, and critique of essay. The reading component of the study utilized the "Vital Signs" series from Discover magazine. The students then wrote essays using guide questions provided by the researcher. The essays were shared during the collaboration and critique session when students are in their "base groups." Reading and writing facilitates adult learners conceptual change in a human anatomy and physiology course through the linking of concepts to previous experiences, whether personal or previously studied materials. The positive effects of cooperative learning on minds-on construction of knowledge on adult learners' attitudes toward reading and writing about human anatomy and physiology were expressed at the focus group interviews. The choice of reading materials, working with peers, and freedom to express personal beliefs regarding the medically related articles positively influenced the adult learners' interest in learning human anatomy and physiology.
Dali, Keren; Lau, Andrea; Risk, Kevin
This article makes a case for the inclusion of creative writing in Library & Information Science (LIS) courses. Using an example of the course on reading practices and audiences, it shows how creative writing can contribute to the development of creativity, critical thinking, ability for self-direction and independent learning--all the…
Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar
This article focuses on the challenges faced by non-native English speaking international graduate students in their academic writing practices while they studied at a university in Malaysia as well as the solutions they employed when faced with the challenges. Academic Literacies Questionnaire was used to collect data. Based on 131 participants,…
Al Fadda, Hind
The purpose of this study was to determine what difficulties King Saud University students encounter when learning to write academic English and to differentiate between students' learning needs and objectives. The sample consisted of 50 postgraduate students enrolled in King Saud University during the academic year 2009-2010. Analysis of the data…
Dobbs, Christina L.
Effective academic writing is accessible to readers because writers follow shared conventions for organization and signal their stance on particular topics; however, few specifics are known about how middle graders might develop knowledge of and use these academic language forms and functions to signal their organization and stance in persuasive…
This case study explores the problematic issues in academic writing of three Chinese postgraduate students studying in UK academic environment. It aims to attempt to identify mismatches in lecturer and postgraduate student expectations and to understand the reasoning behind these mismatches from the students' perspective. This study was carried…
Hocutt, W. T. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. The tape read and write programs currently available on the 1-100 perform their intended functions of reading and writing tapes, but are difficult to use because they contain a number of inconsistencies. These inconsistencies can often be overcome by the use of work-around procedures and by trial and error, which is an inefficient use of expensive computer systems that should not be necessary.
Meininger, Herman P.
This article is about life story work with people with learning disabilities. It talks about reading and writing stories, and listening to them. Telling your life story, writing it down and talking about it with others can be an important part of self-advocacy for people with learning disabilities. Life stories are helpful when they are told or…
In the research project Literacy Practices in Working Life, the role played by reading and writing in common nonacademic occupations in Sweden was investigated. The results highlight not only some typical ways of using writing to frame units of work but also differences reflecting the main focus of work ("people" or "things") and overall…
Sullivan, Patricia A., Ed.; Qualley, Donna J., Ed.
Recognizing that the teaching of writing has always been political, this collection of essays by teachers, scholars, and theorists intends to promote discussion of what it means to study and teach writing and reading at a time when the academy itself is struggling to define the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population. The…
Golkowska, Krystyna U.
This paper describes an attempt to improve the reading comprehension and writing skills of students coming from an oral culture. The proposed approach involves using voice and dialogue--understood literally and metaphorically--as a tool in teaching students how to engage texts and write with a reader in mind. The author discusses a pilot study…
Saad, Inaam; Ahmed, Magdi
This paper investigates the effect of daily journal writing on enhancing the listening and reading comprehension skills in a fifty-week Modern Standard Arabic course taught at the Defense Language Institute (DLI) in Monterey, California. In the field of foreign language (FL) teaching, writing has long been considered a supporting skill for…
Just as spoken language is intended to be heard by an audience, written language aims to be read by an audience. In helping kids learn to write, teachers have ignored this crucial fact. The article discusses how a high school English teacher on the Navajo Indian Reservation got the students to do poetry and other creative writing. (Author/NQ)
Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana
In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…
Using a text written by women with disability, this paper introduces writing and invites readers to allow themselves to be shaken, rather than to fit this writing into preconceived ideas. A distinction between thinking and method is made, where the former involves the personal while the latter requires adherence to procedure. Reading and writing…
This paper addresses the lack of evaluative resources for computer-assisted reading and writing instruction (CARWI). It begins by discussing the benefits, drawbacks, and effectiveness of computer-based instruction. It then describes types of CARWI packages, including: (1) writing process software; (2) electronic handbooks; (3) interactive…
Verkade, Heather; Lim, Saw Hoon
In this study, a cohort of final-year undergraduate science students were surveyed to examine whether they fully read journal articles, including whether they seek to understand how the results support the conclusions. Their writing was also examined to see if they use deep or surface approaches to scientific writing.
The first edition of this book in 1987 examined how teachers teach and how learners learn in the context of reading and writing workshops for middle school students. This revised edition still stresses the workshop approach to writing and English instruction, but it calls for a more activist approach by the teacher, encouraging more direction and…
Latham, Christine L; Ahern, Nancy
Contemporary professional nursing requires competency in both oral and written communication. Outside of writing for publication, instructional methods to teach professional writing in baccalaureate nursing programs are not well documented in the literature. The need for professional writing, coupled with the need to diversify the workforce with students from varying ethnic and educational backgrounds, creates some additional challenges to meet programmatic requirements for scholarly, evidence-based writing outcomes. As two new prelicensure programs were initiated, a comprehensive assessment was conducted that included student focus groups and writing assessment tools to assess writing quality and student support needs. As a result of these data, faculty implemented curricular and instructional revisions and created a writing center that was staffed by older adult volunteers who had careers in writing. The processes, tools, and preliminary outcomes of these faculty-initiated changes to improve student support for writing are presented. PMID:24127176
Latham, Christine L; Ahern, Nancy
Contemporary professional nursing requires competency in both oral and written communication. Outside of writing for publication, instructional methods to teach professional writing in baccalaureate nursing programs are not well documented in the literature. The need for professional writing, coupled with the need to diversify the workforce with students from varying ethnic and educational backgrounds, creates some additional challenges to meet programmatic requirements for scholarly, evidence-based writing outcomes. As two new prelicensure programs were initiated, a comprehensive assessment was conducted that included student focus groups and writing assessment tools to assess writing quality and student support needs. As a result of these data, faculty implemented curricular and instructional revisions and created a writing center that was staffed by older adult volunteers who had careers in writing. The processes, tools, and preliminary outcomes of these faculty-initiated changes to improve student support for writing are presented.
King, Keyonna M; Pardo, Yvette-Janine; Norris, Keith C; Diaz-Romero, Maria; Morris, D'Ann; Vassar, Stefanie D; Brown, Arleen F
Grant writing is an essential skill necessary to secure financial support for community programs and research projects. Increasingly, funding opportunities for translational biomedical research require studies to engage community partners, patients, or other stakeholders in the research process to address their concerns. However, there is little evidence on strategies to prepare teams of academic and community partners to collaborate on grants. This paper presents the description and formative evaluation of a two-part community-academic partnered grant writing series designed to help community organizations and academic institutions build infrastructure for collaborative research projects using a partnered approach. The first phase of the series was a half-day workshop on grant readiness, which was open to all interested community partners. The second phase, open only to community-academic teams that met eligibility criteria, was a 12-week session that covered partnered grant writing for foundation grants and National Institutes of Health grants. Participants in both phases reported an increase in knowledge and self-efficacy for writing partnered proposals. At 1-year follow-up, participants in Phase 2 had secured approximately $1.87 million in funding. This community-academic partnered grant writing series helped participants obtain proposal development skills and helped community-academic teams successfully compete for funding.
Fives, Allyn; Russell, Dan; Kearns, Norean; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; Canavan, John; Devaney, Carmel; O'Brien, Aoife
This paper investigates whether children's academic self-beliefs are associated with reading achievement and whether the relationship is modified by gender and/or age. Data were collected from children at risk of reading failure, that is, emergent readers (6- to 8-year-olds) in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas reading at a level below…
Cao, Fan; Vu, Marianne; Chan, Derek Ho Lung; Lawrence, Jason M; Harris, Lindsay N; Guan, Qun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A
We examined the hypothesis that learning to write Chinese characters influences the brain's reading network for characters. Students from a college Chinese class learned 30 characters in a character-writing condition and 30 characters in a pinyin-writing condition. After learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during passive viewing showed different networks for reading Chinese characters and English words, suggesting accommodation to the demands of the new writing system through short-term learning. Beyond these expected differences, we found specific effects of character writing in greater activation (relative to pinyin writing) in bilateral superior parietal lobules and bilateral lingual gyri in both a lexical decision and an implicit writing task. These findings suggest that character writing establishes a higher quality representation of the visual-spatial structure of the character and its orthography. We found a greater involvement of bilateral sensori-motor cortex (SMC) for character-writing trained characters than pinyin-writing trained characters in the lexical decision task, suggesting that learning by doing invokes greater interaction with sensori-motor information during character recognition. Furthermore, we found a correlation of recognition accuracy with activation in right superior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, and left SMC, suggesting that these areas support the facilitative effect character writing has on reading. Finally, consistent with previous behavioral studies, we found character-writing training facilitates connections with semantics by producing greater activation in bilateral middle temporal gyri, whereas pinyin-writing training facilitates connections with phonology by producing greater activation in right inferior frontal gyrus.
Yamamoto, Yasue; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Kawasumi, Atsushi; Miyano, Shinji; Shinohara, Hirofumi
We propose novel circuit techniques for 1 clock (1CLK) 1 read/1 write (1R/1W) 2-port static random-access memories (SRAMs) to improve read access time (tAC) and write margins at low voltages. Two-stage read boost (TSR-BST) and write word line boost (WWL-BST) after the read sensing schemes have been proposed. TSR-BST reduces the worst read bit line (RBL) delay by 61% and RBL amplitude by 10% at V DD = 0.5 V, which improves tAC by 39% and reduces energy dissipation by 11% at V DD = 0.55 V. WWL-BST after read sensing scheme improves minimum operating voltage (V min) by 140 mV. A 32 kbit 1CLK 1R/1W 2-port SRAM with TSR-BST and WWL-BST has been developed using a 40 nm CMOS.
Neal, Heather N.
Academic language plays a key role in reading comprehension, disciplinary thinking, and overall academic success. However, many approaches to teaching academic language, such as a focus on academic vocabulary, overlook other language features that can pose challenges for students. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), arguably one of the three…
Heilman, K M; Howell, G; Valenstein, E; Rothi, L
A left-handed patient suddenly developed a right hemiparesis, mirror-reading, and mirror-writing. Although he could discriminate between right and left on himself, he demonstrated right/left spatial disorientation. We propose that his right/left spatial disorientation was induced by a scanning defect. It has been demonstrated that mirror-image engrams are normally available. We believe that a reversal of the learned left-to-right scanning process with the availability of mirror engrams induced mirror-reading. Similarly, reversal of the normal left-to-right writing pattern, with the availability of mirror engrams, induced mirror-writing. PMID:7420101
Wingate, Ursula; Andon, Nick; Cogo, Alessia
The benefits of embedding the teaching of writing into the curriculum have been advocated by educators and researchers. However, there is currently little evidence of embedded writing instruction in the UK's higher education context. In this article, we present a case study in which we report the design, implementation and evaluation of an…
This study examines whether preservice teachers, who provide writing instruction in native language education, are ready to teach students with different learning needs effectively. This study used a survey research design and qualitative data collection tools. An interview form and writing samples from students in the same class with different…
Apps, Linda; Mamchur, Carolyn
The task of writing about the process of making and contextualising art can be overwhelming for some graduate students. While the challenge may be due in part to limited time and attention to the practice of writing, in a practice-based arts thesis there is a deeper issue: how the visual and written components are attended to in a manner that…
Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…
Barclay, Kathy; Benelli, Cecilia; Gudt, Pamela Terry
Discusses emergent literacy development, which includes meaningful literacy-related activities involving oral language, reading, and writing. Offers suggestions for fostering children's development in each area, such as the use of picture books and puppets for vocabulary development; reading aloud and discussing children's literature; and…
Ruddell, Robert B.
This second edition focuses on helping the preservice teacher become an "Influential Reading Teacher," one whom students remember years later as a special teacher and person. The ideas and teaching strategies in the book actively involve preservice teachers in understanding and thinking about children's reading and writing development. New to this…
Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Roll-Pettersson, Lise
In this study a group of students with reading and writing difficulties relate their experiences of school to their expressed opinions concerning the possibilities of participation and influence in this setting. Twelve students at upper-level compulsory school or upper secondary school were interviewed. Mostly their reading and writing…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…
Claggett, Fran; Brown, Joan
Based on the premise that the primary ways individuals make sense of the world is through observation, analysis, imagination, and feeling, this work suggests that through the use of graphics, students can experience these functions as they interact with reading and writing activities. Graphics encourage students to read more closely, make visual…
Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti; Canneti, Laura
The present study examined the relationship between reading (i.e., rapidity and accuracy) and writing competences (i.e., fluency, accuracy, and composition skills) of Italian children in the first and second grade. The performance of seventy-five children was longitudinally assessed over a 2-year period. Results demonstrated that reading and…
Albuquerque, Cristina P.
This study analyzed the relation and the specific influence of rapid naming (RN) on different reading (decoding accuracy and reading fluency) and writing components (spelling accuracy and fluency in composition) of European Portuguese. Moreover, it also compares the influence of Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tests (colors, digits) and of a Rapid…
Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.
Comparing the analyses based on the data of 1,235 Chinese children referred for government services and subsequently diagnosed as children with dyslexia in Hong Kong and those of 690 Chinese children in the sample for the normative study of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing, we explored the reading-writing…
Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G.
Previous research has assumed that writing is a cognitively complex task, but has not determined if writing overloads Working Memory more than reading and listening. To investigate this, participants completed three recall tasks. These were reading lists of words before recalling them, hearing lists of words before recalling them, and hearing lists of words and writing them as they heard them, then recalling them. The experiment involved serial recall of lists of 6 words. The hypothesis that fewer words would be recalled overall when writing was supported. Post-hoc analysis revealed the same pattern of results at individual serial positions (1 to 3). However, there was no difference between the three conditions at serial position 4, or between listening and writing at positions 5 and 6 which were both greater than recall in the reading condition. This suggests writing overloads working memory more than reading and listening, particularly in the early serial positions. The results show that writing interferes with working memory processes and so is not recommended when the goal is to immediately recall information. PMID:26770287
Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G
Previous research has assumed that writing is a cognitively complex task, but has not determined if writing overloads Working Memory more than reading and listening. To investigate this, participants completed three recall tasks. These were reading lists of words before recalling them, hearing lists of words before recalling them, and hearing lists of words and writing them as they heard them, then recalling them. The experiment involved serial recall of lists of 6 words. The hypothesis that fewer words would be recalled overall when writing was supported. Post-hoc analysis revealed the same pattern of results at individual serial positions (1 to 3). However, there was no difference between the three conditions at serial position 4, or between listening and writing at positions 5 and 6 which were both greater than recall in the reading condition. This suggests writing overloads working memory more than reading and listening, particularly in the early serial positions. The results show that writing interferes with working memory processes and so is not recommended when the goal is to immediately recall information.
Purpose: Given that there exists in the literature relatively little research into the effectiveness of writing centers at universities, the purpose of this paper is to show the impact of university writing centers on first-year business seminar student writing. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study involved 315 first-year…
Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2) academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others) with students' writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergraduates of English Studies; they are in their fourth year, so they are expected to be proficient in English academic writing but their written production quality varies considerably. Results are analysed following a mixed methodology by which metalinguistic items are statistically measured, and then contrasted with semi-structured interview results; SPSS and NVivo provide quantitative and qualitative outcomes, respectively. The analyses reveal that undergraduate students who produce complex sentences and more coherent texts employ a wider range of writing strategies both prior and while writing, being able to (un)consciously structure and design their texts more successfully. These high-scoring students make more proficient use of complex transition markers for coherence and frame markers for textual cohesion; their commonly used (pre-)writing strategies are drafting, outlining, and proofreading. PMID:26046836
Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2) academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others) with students' writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergraduates of English Studies; they are in their fourth year, so they are expected to be proficient in English academic writing but their written production quality varies considerably. Results are analysed following a mixed methodology by which metalinguistic items are statistically measured, and then contrasted with semi-structured interview results; SPSS and NVivo provide quantitative and qualitative outcomes, respectively. The analyses reveal that undergraduate students who produce complex sentences and more coherent texts employ a wider range of writing strategies both prior and while writing, being able to (un)consciously structure and design their texts more successfully. These high-scoring students make more proficient use of complex transition markers for coherence and frame markers for textual cohesion; their commonly used (pre-)writing strategies are drafting, outlining, and proofreading.
Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2) academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others) with students’ writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergraduates of English Studies; they are in their fourth year, so they are expected to be proficient in English academic writing but their written production quality varies considerably. Results are analysed following a mixed methodology by which metalinguistic items are statistically measured, and then contrasted with semi-structured interview results; SPSS and NVivo provide quantitative and qualitative outcomes, respectively. The analyses reveal that undergraduate students who produce complex sentences and more coherent texts employ a wider range of writing strategies both prior and while writing, being able to (un)consciously structure and design their texts more successfully. These high-scoring students make more proficient use of complex transition markers for coherence and frame markers for textual cohesion; their commonly used (pre-)writing strategies are drafting, outlining, and proofreading. PMID:26046836
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader's view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader’s view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed. PMID:26941671
Patten, Hollie V; Hutton, Laura A; Webb, Jennifer R; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V
Scanning electrochemical cell microscopy is utilised as a read-write pipette-based probe to both electrochemically modify the local surface chemistry of boron doped diamond and "read" the resulting modification, at the micron scale. In this specific application, localised electrochemical oxidation results in conversion of the H-terminated surface to -O, electrochemically visualised by monitoring the current change for reduction of Ru(NH3)6(3+). This methodology, in general, provides a platform for read-write analysis of electrodes, opening up new analytical avenues, particularly as the pipette can be viewed as a microfluidic device.
Eikeseth, S; Jahr, E
Some individuals with developmental disabilities fail to acquire functional speech despite extensive teaching efforts. To help such individuals develop functional communication skills, a "reading and writing" program was developed. This study was designed to evaluate early parts of the program. Acquisition, transfer, and maintenance of "reading and writing" skills was examined and compared with the acquisition, transfer, and maintenance of sign language. Participants were four children with autism, who scored within the mentally retarded range on standardized tests of intellectual, adaptive, and language functioning, and three 3-year-old non-disabled children. A simultaneous-treatment design was employed to compare the rate of acquisition of "reading and writing" skills to the rate at which the participants acquired receptive and expressive signs. For the participants with autism, acquisition of "reading and writing" was more successful than receptive and expressive signing on all variables assessed. All non-disabled participants acquired all of the "reading and writing" and sign language skills, but participants with autism did not. However, "reading" was acquired slightly quicker by the participants with autism than the non-disabled participants, and the participants with autism also showed some evidence of better transfer and maintenance than the non-disabled participants did.
Chaubet, Juliana; Pereira, Liliane; Perez, Ana Paula
Introduction The Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test assesses the hearing ability of temporal resolution. The development of this ability can be considered essential for learning how to read. Objective Identify temporal resolution in individuals diagnosed with reading and writing disorders compared with subjects with dyslexia. Methods A sample of 26 subjects of both genders, age 10 to 15 years, included 11 diagnosed with dyslexia and 15 diagnosed with reading and writing disorders. Subjects did not display otologic, neurologic, and/or cognitive diseases. A control group of 30 normal-hearing subjects was formed to compare thresholds and percentages obtained from the GIN test. The responses were obtained considering two measures of analysis: the threshold gap and the percentage of correct gap. Results The threshold was lower in the GIN for the typical group than for the other groups. There was no difference between groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. The GIN results of the typical group revealed a higher percentage of correct answer than in the other groups. No difference was obtained between the groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. Conclusion The GIN test identified a difficulty in auditory ability of temporal resolution in individuals with reading and writing disorders and in individuals with dyslexia in a similar way.
Lawson, Bruce, Ed.; And Others
Designed to raise the full range of hermeneutic concerns regarding evaluation of student writing, and to spur further research and discussion, this collection of essays focuses on a reconsideration of the interpretation and evaluation practices of writing teachers. Essays include: "A Reflective Conversation: 'Tempos of Meaning'" (Margaret Himley);…
Demonstrating that gender perceptions and expectations can influence assessment decisions that seem neutral on the surface, this book examines the responses of 31 freshman composition teachers to student writing. The book shows the negative effects of gender biases on assessment. For writing instructors to increase their sensitivity to gender…
Jacobson, Steven A.
This guide is designed for St. Lawrence Islanders (Alaska) wishing to learn the Cyrillic system for writing the Yupik language as used in the Soviet Union. It presumes knowledge of the St. Lawrence Island writing system, and can be used independently or with the help of an instructor. The guide comprises 10 lessons, each of which contains writing…
Keskin, Hasan Kagan
The purpose of the present study is to identify to what extent writing motivation can classify readers as good or poor comprehenders. The study was conducted on a total of 156 fourth graders studying at a state-run primary school in the center of Duzce, Turkey. The data were collected through the Writing Motivation Scale and the Mistake Analysis…
Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik
Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…
Newton, Sarah; Moore, Gary
Formal writing assignments are commonly used in nursing education to develop students' critical thinking skills, as well as to enhance their communication abilities. However, writing apprehension is a common phenomenon among nursing students. It has been suggested that reading and English aptitudes are related to formal writing ability, yet neither the reading nor the English aptitudes of undergraduate nursing students have been described in the literature, and the relationships that reading and English aptitude have with formal writing ability have not been explored. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe writing apprehension and to assess the relationships among reading and English aptitude and discipline-specific formal writing ability among undergraduate nursing students. The study sample consisted of 146 sophomores from one baccalaureate nursing program. The results indicated that both reading and English aptitude were related to students' formal writing ability.
Dean, Peggy; Uribe, Teresa Figueroa
The literacy workbook is designed for native Spanish-speaking secondary students or adults with pre-reading skills and basic understanding of Spanish sound-symbol relationships. The materials' goals are to develop reading skills to bridge the gap between minimal reading abilities and literacy approaching the level of popular usage in newspapers…
In many states, preservice physical education teachers are required to take reading courses to obtain their teaching certificate. However, many future physical educators are not enthusiastic about this requirement. In fact, many candidly state, "I don't like reading" and "I am not becoming a PE teacher so I can teach reading."…
Describes a reading lesson which adapts and changes common children's songs to fit any theme. Notes that the songs may be used to teach various reading concepts and that the songwriting process results in a class book written by students that all of the students can read and sing. (SR)