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Sample records for academic reward system

  1. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

  2. Reward Systems: The Academic Environment and Scientific Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaparte, H. Aileen

    The influence of immediate working environment upon research productivity of 1,009 academic, physical scientists was examined. Working environment was classified as being either professionally oriented and supportive of scientific productivity, or organizationally oriented and supportive of bureaucratic advancement. Liberal arts, parochial, and…

  3. What Research Says: The Effects of Reward Systems on Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lucinda M.; Corpus, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines educational research on the effects of rewards and punishments on students' academic performance. Discusses findings on the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, locus of control with students or teacher, the benefits of celebrations and rewards, and implications for the classroom. (JPB)

  4. Reward Systems, Faculty Alienation, and Militancy: Academic Dilemmas in the Middle of the Academic Procession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David; Sarup, Gian

    1978-01-01

    The effect of alienation resulting from discrepancies between departmental goals and reward policies on faculty attitudes toward collective bargaining is examined, based on attitudinal data from a faculty survey and records from a large public university. Observed trends in militancy are interpreted in terms of institutional context and…

  5. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  6. Faculty Reward Systems and Academic Capitalism: Business Faculty Income inside and outside the Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shan

    2010-01-01

    Market forces have driven American higher education from a public good regime to an academic capitalist regime. To examine how this regime shift influences the quality of business education in the US, we use field of specialty, institutional characteristics, demographics, and personal achievements to predict faculty income from inside and outside…

  7. Reward and the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Kranz, G S; Kasper, S; Lanzenberger, R

    2010-04-14

    Anhedonia, as a failure to experience rewarding stimuli, is a key characteristic of many psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia. Investigations on the neurobiological correlates of reward and hedonia/anhedonia have been a growing subject of research demonstrating several neuromodulators to mediate different aspects of reward processing. Whereas the majority of research on reward mainly focused on the dopamine and opioid systems, a serotonergic mechanism has been neglected. However, recent promising results strengthen the pivotal role of serotonin in reward processing. Evidence includes electrophysical and pharmacological as well as genetic and imaging studies. Primate research using single-unit recording of neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus argues for a serotonergic mediation of reward value, whereas studies using intracranial self-stimulation point to an important contribution of serotonin in modulating motivational aspects of rewarding brain stimulation. Pharmacological studies using agonists and antagonists of serotonergic receptor subtypes and approaches investigating an increase or decrease of the extracellular level of serotonin offer strong evidence for a serotonergic mediation, ranging from aversion to pleasure. This review provides an argument for serotonin as a fundamental mediator of emotional, motivational and cognitive aspects of reward representation, which makes it possibly as important as dopamine for reward processing. PMID:20109531

  8. Video game training and the reward system

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training. PMID:25698962

  9. Video game training and the reward system.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training. PMID:25698962

  10. Reward Systems in the Brain and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2016-07-17

    The taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are combined by associative learning with olfactory and visual inputs for some neurons, and these neurons encode food reward value in that they respond to food only when hunger is present and in that activations correlate linearly with subjective pleasantness. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions and selective attention to affective value, modulate the representation of the reward value of taste, olfactory, and flavor stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex and a region to which it projects, the anterior cingulate cortex. These food reward representations are important in the control of appetite and food intake. Individual differences in reward representations may contribute to obesity, and there are age-related differences in these reward representations. Implications of how reward systems in the brain operate for understanding, preventing, and treating obesity are described. PMID:27146018

  11. Assessing and Rewarding Excellent Academic Teachers for the Benefit of an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Thomas; Roxå, Torgny

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe and analyse a system for rewarding excellence in university teaching developed at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University in Sweden. Individual teachers are rewarded for the effort they invest in the support of student learning. However, it is the organization that establishes a reward system and it does so for…

  12. Parents' Reward Strategies and Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele E.; Gottfried, Allen W.

    This study investigated the relationship between parents' reward strategies for children's school performance and children's intrinsic academic motivation, achievement, and classroom functioning. Nine-year-olds (N=107) were given tests that measured motivation and achievement (the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the…

  13. Rewards.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B; Kamer, Aaron P

    2011-05-01

    For much of the 20th century, psychologists and economists operated on the assumption that work is devoid of intrinsic rewards, and the only way to get people to work harder is through the use of rewards and punishments. This so-called carrot-and-stick model of workplace motivation, when applied to medical practice, emphasizes the use of financial incentives and disincentives to manipulate behavior. More recently, however, it has become apparent that, particularly when applied to certain kinds of work, such approaches can be ineffective or even frankly counterproductive. Instead of focusing on extrinsic rewards such as compensation, organizations and their leaders need to devote more attention to the intrinsic rewards of work itself. This article reviews this new understanding of rewards and traces out its practical implications for radiology today. PMID:21531311

  14. Two-Year Impacts of a Comprehensive Family Financial Rewards Program on Children's Academic Outcomes: Moderation by Likelihood of Earning Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette; Morris, Pamela; Aber, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which impacts of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program on children's academic outcomes vary by key characteristics associated with families' propensity to earn the rewards offered by the program. We utilize an experimental study of Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, a comprehensive CCT program in New…

  15. Academic Competitions in Science: What Are the Rewards for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Tammy V.; Vineyard, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the students who participate in science competitions (state science fair or the state Science Olympiad in Utah) and what they perceive as the rewards for participating. Finds students participate for different reasons and see them as very distinct. Suggests that promoting other science events and activities may be beneficial in…

  16. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  17. The Effect of the Demand Control and Effort Reward Imbalance Models on the Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…

  18. The role of the neural reward system in attention selection.

    PubMed

    Soder, Heather E; de Dios, Constanza; Potts, Geoffrey F

    2016-07-01

    The prefrontal cortex may play a role in attention selection using motivational information from the mesotelencephalic dopamine system, a neural system that responds to reward prediction violations. If so, neural indices of attention selection and reward prediction violation should have overlapping spatiotemporal distributions. Attention selection elicits a frontal event-related potential component around 200-300 ms, the frontal selection positivity. A component with similar spatiotemporal characteristics, the reward positivity is elicited in reward prediction designs to outcomes that are better than expected. The current study used dense sensor array recording in a sample of 41 participants performing visual oddball (attention) and a reward prediction 'slot machine-like' design to compare the spatiotemporal distributions of the frontal selection positivity and the reward positivity. The components did not differ in their peak latencies and had overlapping scalp topographies, supporting the hypothesis that these positivities represent attachment of incentive salience to perceptual representations in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27232519

  19. ADHD Related Behaviors Are Associated with Brain Activation in the Reward System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, R.; Bauer, E.; Merz, C. J.; Zimmermann, M.; Reuter, M.; Plichta, M. M.; Kirsch, P.; Lesch, K. P.; Fallgatter, A. J.; Vaitl, D.; Herrmann, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest dysfunctional reward processing, with hypo-responsiveness during reward anticipation in the reward system including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In this study, we investigated the association between ADHD related behaviors and the reward system using functional…

  20. Activation of the reward system boosts innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shaanan, Tamar L; Azulay-Debby, Hilla; Dubovik, Tania; Starosvetsky, Elina; Korin, Ben; Schiller, Maya; Green, Nathaniel L; Admon, Yasmin; Hakim, Fahed; Shen-Orr, Shai S; Rolls, Asya

    2016-08-01

    Positive expectations contribute to the clinical benefits of the placebo effect. Such positive expectations are mediated by the brain's reward system; however, it remains unknown whether and how reward system activation affects the body's physiology and, specifically, immunity. Here we show that activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key component of the reward system, strengthens immunological host defense. We used 'designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs' (DREADDs) to directly activate dopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA and characterized the subsequent immune response after exposure to bacteria (Escherichia coli), using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF) and functional assays. We found an increase in innate and adaptive immune responses that were manifested by enhanced antibacterial activity of monocytes and macrophages, reduced in vivo bacterial load and a heightened T cell response in the mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity. By chemically ablating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), we showed that the reward system's effects on immunity are, at least partly, mediated by the SNS. Thus, our findings establish a causal relationship between the activity of the VTA and the immune response to bacterial infection. PMID:27376577

  1. Memory and reward systems coproduce 'nostalgic' experiences in the brain.

    PubMed

    Oba, Kentaro; Noriuchi, Madoka; Atomi, Tomoaki; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    People sometimes experience an emotional state known as 'nostalgia', which involves experiencing predominantly positive emotions while remembering autobiographical events. Nostalgia is thought to play an important role in psychological resilience. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown involvement of memory and reward systems in such experiences. However, it remains unclear how these two systems are collaboratively involved with nostalgia experiences. Here, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of healthy females to investigate the relationship between memory-reward co-activation and nostalgia, using childhood-related visual stimuli. Moreover, we examined the factors constituting nostalgia and their neural correlates. We confirmed the presence of nostalgia-related activity in both memory and reward systems, including the hippocampus (HPC), substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), and ventral striatum (VS). We also found significant HPC-VS co-activation, with its strength correlating with individual 'nostalgia tendencies'. Factor analyses showed that two dimensions underlie nostalgia: emotional and personal significance and chronological remoteness, with the former correlating with caudal SN/VTA and left anterior HPC activity, and the latter correlating with rostral SN/VTA activity. These findings demonstrate the cooperative activity of memory and reward systems, where each system has a specific role in the construction of the factors that underlie the experience of nostalgia. PMID:26060325

  2. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F

    2015-01-01

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an “off-the-shelf” automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:26798573

  3. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F; Black, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an "off-the-shelf" automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:26798573

  4. Beyond Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Using rewards to impact students' behavior has long been common practice. However, using reward systems to enhance student learning conveniently masks the larger and admittedly more difficult task of finding and implementing the structure and techniques that children with special needs require to learn. More important, rewarding the child for good…

  5. Engaging Academics in Developing Excellence: Releasing Creativity through Reward and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluteau, Patricia; Krumins, Marie Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the importance of giving academics the space to be creative in developing new teaching materials in the context of a government drive to increase the quality of the student experience, and what this means for "academic staff development". Academics who have engaged with a UK Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning…

  6. What's the Point?: A Review of Reward Systems Implemented in Gamification Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Swartz, Maria C; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    Rewards are commonly used in interventions to change behavior, but they can inhibit development of intrinsic motivation, which is associated with long-term behavior maintenance. Gamification is a novel intervention strategy that may target intrinsic motivation through fun and enjoyment. Before the effects of gamified interventions on motivation can be determined, there must be an understanding of how gamified interventions operationalize rewards, such as point systems. The purpose of this review is to determine the prevalence of different reward types, specifically point systems, within gamified interventions. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles. Data sources included Medline OVID, Medline PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, and PsycINFO. Out of the 21 articles retrieved, 18 studies described a reward system and were included in this review. Gamified interventions were designed to target a myriad of clinical outcomes across diverse populations. Rewards included points (n = 14), achievements/badges/medals (n = 7), tangible rewards (n = 7), currency (n = 4), other unspecified rewards (n = 3), likes (n = 2), animated feedback (n = 1), and kudos (n = 1). Rewards, and points in particular, appear to be a foundational component of gamified interventions. Despite their prevalence, authors seldom described the use of noncontingent rewards or how the rewards interacted with other game features. The reward systems relying on tangible rewards and currency may have been limited by inhibited intrinsic motivation. As gamification proliferates, future research should explicitly describe how rewards were operationalized in the intervention and evaluate the effects of gamified rewards on motivation across populations and research outcomes. PMID:26812253

  7. Academic Research Integration System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surugiu, Iula; Velicano, Manole

    2008-01-01

    This paper comprises results concluding the research activity done so far regarding enhanced web services and system integration. The objective of the paper is to define the software architecture for a coherent framework and methodology for enhancing existing web services into an integrated system. This document presents the research work that has…

  8. Encouraging Multiple Forms of Scholarship in Faculty Reward Systems: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Kerry Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article presents findings from a national study of Chief Academic Officers of 4-year institutions on the impact of policy efforts to encourage multiple forms of scholarship in faculty roles and rewards. The extent of reform, kinds of reform and influence of initiating reform is examined in four areas: expectations for faculty evaluation, the…

  9. Disturbed anterior prefrontal control of the mesolimbic reward system and increased impulsivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Trost, Sarah; Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Zvonik, Kerstin; Lewandowski, Mirjana; Usher, Juliana; Keil, Maria; Zilles, David; Falkai, Peter; Dechent, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by recurrent mood episodes ranging from severe depression to acute full-blown mania. Both states of this severe psychiatric disorder have been associated with alterations of reward processing in the brain. Here, we present results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on the neural correlates and functional interactions underlying reward gain processing and reward dismissal in favor of a long-term goal in bipolar patients. Sixteen medicated patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, euthymic to mildly depressed, and sixteen matched healthy controls performed the 'desire-reason dilemma' (DRD) paradigm demanding rejection of priorly conditioned reward stimuli to successfully pursue a superordinate goal. Both groups exhibited significant activations in reward-related brain regions, particularly in the mesolimbic reward system. However, bipolar patients showed reduced neural responses of the ventral striatum (vStr) when exploiting a reward stimulus, and exhibited a decreased suppression of the reward-related activation of the mesolimbic reward system while having to reject immediate reward in favor of the long-term goal. Further, functional interaction between the anteroventral prefrontal cortex and the vStr in the 'DRD' was significantly impaired in the bipolar group. These findings provide evidence for a reduced responsivity of the vStr to reward stimuli in BD, possibly related to clinical features like anhedonia. The disturbed top-down control of mesolimbic reward signals by prefrontal brain regions in BD can be interpreted in terms of a disease-related enhanced impulsivity, a trait marker of BD. PMID:24535101

  10. Rewarding the Resident Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Residents routinely make significant contributions to the education of medical students. However, little attention has been paid to rewarding these individuals for their involvement in these academic activities. This report describes a program that rewards resident teachers with an academic appointment as a Clinical Instructor. The residents…

  11. Geographic Information Systems Librarianship: Suggestions for Entry-Level Academic Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Future Geographic Information Systems (GIS) librarians face a number of challenges that other Library and Information Studies (LIS) graduates may not when preparing for a career in academic librarianship. This article discusses these challenges and offers suggestions to help entry-level GIS librarians begin successful and rewarding careers.

  12. Hyperresponsivity and impaired prefrontal control of the mesolimbic reward system in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anja; Petrovic, Aleksandra; Diekhof, Esther K; Trost, Sarah; Wolter, Sarah; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by substantial dysfunctions of reward processing, leading to detrimental consequences for decision-making. The neurotransmitter dopamine is responsible for the transmission of reward signals and also known to be involved in the mechanism of psychosis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), sixteen medicated patients with schizophrenia and sixteen healthy controls performed the 'desire-reason dilemma' (DRD) paradigm. This paradigm allowed us to directly investigate reward-related brain activations depending on the interaction of bottom-up and top-down mechanisms, when a previously conditioned reward stimulus had to be rejected to achieve a superordinate long-term goal. Both patients and controls showed significant activations in the mesolimbic reward system. In patients with schizophrenia, however, we found a significant hyperactivation of the left ventral striatum (vStr) when they were allowed to accept the conditioned reward stimuli, and a reduced top-down regulation of activation in the ventral striatum (vStr) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) while having to reject the immediate reward to pursue the superordinate task-goal. Moreover, while healthy subjects exhibited a negative functional coupling of the vStr with both the anteroventral prefrontal cortex (avPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in the dilemma situation, this functional coupling was significantly impaired in the patient group. These findings provide evidence for an increased ventral striatal activation to reward stimuli and an impaired top-down control of reward signals by prefrontal brain regions in schizophrenia. PMID:26522867

  13. Different Reward Structures to Motivate Student Interaction with Electronic Response Systems in Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Patrick M.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic response systems ("clickers") are used in introductory astronomy classes as a real-time assessment tool. Different reward structures for student responses to clicker questions are used to motivate individual participation or group collaboration before responding. The impact of two reward structures on student behavior and learning is…

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urosevic, Snezana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system [BAS]) and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities)…

  15. [Anhedonia--a general nosology surmounting correlate of a dysfunctional dopaminergic reward system?].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    1999-05-01

    The dopaminergic reward system is activated by primary rewarding factors such as food, sexual activity and parental care. Its activation enhances the occurrence of behaviors which induced the stimulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Indications of a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system are found in major depression, schizophrenia, and addictive disorders. It has been hypothesized that dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system is associated with anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure. However, animal studies indicate that a reduction of central dopaminergic neurotransmission is associated with a decrease in incentive salience of reward-indicating stimuli and not with anhedonia per se. Sensitization of dopaminergic neurotransmission, on the other hand, seems to induce cue-dependent craving in addicted patients. In schizophrenia, phasic, stimulus-dependent dopamine release in the striatum may play a role in the abnormal attribution of salience to previously neutral stimuli. PMID:10407834

  16. Disruption of maternal parenting circuitry by addictive process: rewiring of reward and stress systems.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Williams, Sarah K; Moy, Sheryl; Mayes, Linda C; Johns, Josephine M

    2011-01-01

    Addiction represents a complex interaction between the reward and stress neural circuits, with increasing drug use reflecting a shift from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement mechanisms in sustaining drug dependence. Preclinical studies have indicated the involvement of regions within the extended amygdala as subserving this transition, especially under stressful conditions. In the addictive situation, the reward system serves to maintain habitual behaviors that are associated with the relief of negative affect, at the cost of attenuating the salience of other rewards. Therefore, addiction reflects the dysregulation between core reward systems, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and nucleus accumbens (NAc), as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and extended amygdala of the stress system. Here, we consider the consequences of changes in neural function during or following addiction on parenting, an inherently rewarding process that may be disrupted by addiction. Specifically, we outline the preclinical and human studies that support the dysregulation of reward and stress systems by addiction and the contribution of these systems to parenting. Increasing evidence suggests an important role for the hypothalamus, PFC, VTA, and NAc in parenting, with these same regions being those dysregulated in addiction. Moreover, in addicted adults, we propose that parenting cues trigger stress reactivity rather than reward salience, and this may heighten negative affect states, eliciting both addictive behaviors and the potential for child neglect and abuse. PMID:21779252

  17. Affected connectivity organization of the reward system structure in obesity.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Iturria, I; Scholtens, L H; Garolera, M; Pueyo, R; García-García, I; González-Tartiere, P; Segura, B; Junqué, C; Sender-Palacios, M J; Vernet-Vernet, M; Sánchez-Garre, C; de Reus, M A; Jurado, M A; van den Heuvel, M P

    2015-05-01

    With the prevalence of obesity rapidly increasing worldwide, understanding the processes leading to excessive eating behavior becomes increasingly important. Considering the widely recognized crucial role of reward processes in food intake, we examined the white matter wiring and integrity of the anatomical reward network in obesity. Anatomical wiring of the reward network was reconstructed derived from diffusion weighted imaging in 31 obese participants and 32 normal-weight participants. Network wiring was compared in terms of the white matter volume as well as in terms of white matter microstructure, revealing lower number of streamlines and lower fiber integrity within the reward network in obese subjects. Specifically, the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum nuclei including accumbens, caudate and putamen showed lower strength and network clustering in the obesity group as compared to healthy controls. Our results provide evidence for obesity-related disruptions of global and local anatomical connectivity of the reward circuitry in regions that are key in the reinforcing mechanisms of eating-behavior processes. PMID:25687594

  18. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  19. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth J.

    Basic design and implementation issues encountered in providing academic support systems are examined. "Academic support systems" describes the growing class of university computing that is being developed to integrate administrative computing environments. These systems may be typically characterized by the activities that center around a dean's…

  20. Modeling effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the competition between striatal learning systems.

    PubMed

    Boedecker, Joschka; Lampe, Thomas; Riedmiller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in psychology, economics, and other fields holds that higher performance will result if extrinsic rewards (such as money) are offered as an incentive. While this principle seems to work well for tasks that require the execution of the same sequence of steps over and over, with little uncertainty about the process, in other cases, especially where creative problem solving is required due to the difficulty in finding the optimal sequence of actions, external rewards can actually be detrimental to task performance. Furthermore, they have the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation to do an otherwise interesting activity. In this work, we extend a computational model of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal reinforcement learning systems to account for the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. The model assumes that the brain employs both a goal-directed and a habitual learning system, and competition between both is based on the trade-off between the cost of the reasoning process and value of information. The goal-directed system elicits internal rewards when its models of the environment improve, while the habitual system, being model-free, does not. Our results account for the phenomena that initial extrinsic reward leads to reduced activity after extinction compared to the case without any initial extrinsic rewards, and that performance in complex task settings drops when higher external rewards are promised. We also test the hypothesis that external rewards bias the competition in favor of the computationally efficient, but cruder and less flexible habitual system, which can negatively influence intrinsic motivation and task performance in the class of tasks we consider. PMID:24137146

  1. Modeling effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the competition between striatal learning systems

    PubMed Central

    Boedecker, Joschka; Lampe, Thomas; Riedmiller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in psychology, economics, and other fields holds that higher performance will result if extrinsic rewards (such as money) are offered as an incentive. While this principle seems to work well for tasks that require the execution of the same sequence of steps over and over, with little uncertainty about the process, in other cases, especially where creative problem solving is required due to the difficulty in finding the optimal sequence of actions, external rewards can actually be detrimental to task performance. Furthermore, they have the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation to do an otherwise interesting activity. In this work, we extend a computational model of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal reinforcement learning systems to account for the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. The model assumes that the brain employs both a goal-directed and a habitual learning system, and competition between both is based on the trade-off between the cost of the reasoning process and value of information. The goal-directed system elicits internal rewards when its models of the environment improve, while the habitual system, being model-free, does not. Our results account for the phenomena that initial extrinsic reward leads to reduced activity after extinction compared to the case without any initial extrinsic rewards, and that performance in complex task settings drops when higher external rewards are promised. We also test the hypothesis that external rewards bias the competition in favor of the computationally efficient, but cruder and less flexible habitual system, which can negatively influence intrinsic motivation and task performance in the class of tasks we consider. PMID:24137146

  2. Introducing a reward system in assessment in histology: A comment on the learning strategies it might engender

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Background Assessment, as an inextricable component of the curriculum, is an important factor influencing student approaches to learning. If assessment is to drive learning, then it must assess the desired outcomes. In an effort to alleviate some of the anxiety associated with a traditional discipline-based second year of medical studies, a bonus system was introduced into the Histology assessment. Students obtaining a year mark of 70% were rewarded with full marks for some tests, resulting in many requiring only a few percentage points in the final examination to pass Histology. Methods In order to ascertain whether this bonus system might be impacting positively on student learning, thirty-two second year medical students (non-randomly selected, representing four academic groups based on their mid-year results) were interviewed in 1997 and, in 1999, the entire second year class completed a questionnaire (n = 189). Both groups were asked their opinions of the bonus system. Results Both groups overwhelming voted in favour of the bonus system, despite less than 45% of students failing to achieve it. Students commented that it relieved some of the stress of the year-end examinations, and was generally motivating with regard to their work commitment. Conclusions Being satisfied with how and what we assess in Histology, we are of the opinion that this reward system may contribute to engendering appropriate learning approaches (i.e. for understanding) in students. As a result of its apparent positive influence on learning and attitudes towards learning, this bonus system will continue to operate until the traditional programme is phased out. It is hoped that other educators, believing that their assessment is a reflection of the intended outcomes, might recognise merit in rewarding students for consistent achievement. PMID:11741511

  3. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity, i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system (BAS), and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities) lead to these phenomena. The present study is the first longitudinal investigation of changes in reward (i.e., BAS) sensitivity in 9 to 23-year-olds across a two-year follow-up. We found support for increased reward sensitivity from early to late adolescence and evidence for decline in the early twenties. This decline is combined with a decrease in left nucleus accumbens (Nacc) volume, a key structure for reward processing, from the late teens into the early twenties. Furthermore, we found longitudinal increases in sensitivity to reward to be predicted by individual differences in the Nacc and medial OFC volumes at baseline in this developmental sample. Similarly, increases in sensitivity to threat (i.e., BIS sensitivity) were qualified by sex, with only females experiencing this increase, and predicted by individual differences in lateral OFC volumes at baseline. PMID:22390662

  4. The plasticity of the mirror system: how reward learning modulates cortical motor simulation of others.

    PubMed

    Trilla Gros, Irene; Panasiti, Maria Serena; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2015-04-01

    Cortical motor simulation supports the understanding of others' actions and intentions. This mechanism is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system (MNS), a brain network that is active both during action execution and observation. Indirect evidence suggests that (alpha/beta) mu suppression, an electroencephalographic (EEG) index of MNS activity, is modulated by reward. In this study we aimed to test the plasticity of the MNS by directly investigating the link between (alpha/beta) mu suppression and reward. 40 individuals from a general population sample took part in an evaluative conditioning experiment, where different neutral faces were associated with high or low reward values. In the test phase, EEG was recorded while participants viewed videoclips of happy expressions made by the conditioned faces. Alpha/beta mu suppression (identified using event-related desynchronisation of specific independent components) in response to rewarding faces was found to be greater than for non-rewarding faces. This result provides a mechanistic insight into the plasticity of the MNS and, more generally, into the role of reward in modulating physiological responses linked to empathy. PMID:25744871

  5. The plasticity of the mirror system: How reward learning modulates cortical motor simulation of others

    PubMed Central

    Trilla Gros, Irene; Panasiti, Maria Serena; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2015-01-01

    Cortical motor simulation supports the understanding of others' actions and intentions. This mechanism is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system (MNS), a brain network that is active both during action execution and observation. Indirect evidence suggests that (alpha/beta) mu suppression, an electroencephalographic (EEG) index of MNS activity, is modulated by reward. In this study we aimed to test the plasticity of the MNS by directly investigating the link between (alpha/beta) mu suppression and reward. 40 individuals from a general population sample took part in an evaluative conditioning experiment, where different neutral faces were associated with high or low reward values. In the test phase, EEG was recorded while participants viewed videoclips of happy expressions made by the conditioned faces. Alpha/beta mu suppression (identified using event-related desynchronisation of specific independent components) in response to rewarding faces was found to be greater than for non-rewarding faces. This result provides a mechanistic insight into the plasticity of the MNS and, more generally, into the role of reward in modulating physiological responses linked to empathy. PMID:25744871

  6. Bridging the Two Cultures: Disciplinary Divides and Educational Reward Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiferl, E. I.

    2007-01-01

    In 1959 C.P. Snow believed that communication and education could span the cultural gap between the sciences and the humanities. In the twenty-first century, language, research models, and academic structures hinder intellectual communication between art history, cognitive neuroscience and perceptual psychology--three disciplines dedicated to…

  7. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one’s life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants’ preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference. PMID:27090501

  8. Usage of a Reward System for Dealing with Pediatric Dental Fear

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Hua; Song, Yi-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric dental fear, if left unchecked, can persist for a lifetime and adversely impact the physical and psychological health of a patient. In this study, a feasible nonmedical method for relieving pediatric dental fear was investigated. Methods: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial model was applied. The juvenile patients experiencing dental fear, whose parents or guardian had signed an informed consent form, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n = 50) was the control group, while Group B (n = 50) was the reward group. Participants in Group A accepted routine treatment. Participants in Group B were told that they would obtain a gift as a reward for their good behavior if they were compliant during their dental treatments. The Chinese version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) was used to evaluate the level of dental fear of each patient both before and after each treatment. A contrast analysis and a correlation analysis of the results were used to assess the efficacy of the reward mechanism. Results: All participants in Group B, were obedient during the dental treatment, and they also successfully chose the present they wanted at the end of their dental treatment. Children at different ages showed different reward preferences. Significant difference in the fear scores of the participants in Group B before the treatment and after receiving the reward was found (independent samples t-test, t = 14.72, P < 0.001). In Group A, 86% children's fear score did not undergo a noticeable change. Conclusions: A reward system is proved feasible to relieve pediatric dental fear, and the form of reward should meet the demand of patients. PMID:27503018

  9. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, p<05). Furthermore, with mediation analysis it was found that high cortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but

  10. Comparing the effects of food restriction and overeating on brain reward systems.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S

    2013-10-01

    Both caloric restriction and overeating have been shown to affect neural processes associated with reinforcement. Both preclinical and some clinical studies have provided evidence that food restriction may increase reward sensitivity, and while there are mixed findings regarding the effects of overeating on reward sensitivity, there is strong evidence linking this behavior with changes in reward-related brain regions. Evidence of these changes comes in part from findings that show that such eating patterns are associated with increased drug use. The data discussed here regarding the differential effects of various eating patterns on reward systems may be particularly relevant to the aging population, as this population has been shown to exhibit altered reward sensitivity and decreased caloric consumption. Moreover, members of this population appear to be increasingly affected by the current obesity epidemic. Food, like alcohol or drugs, can stimulate its own consumption and produce similar neurochemical changes in the brain. Age-related loss of appetite, decreased eating, and caloric restriction are hypothesized to be associated with changes in the prevalence of substance misuse, abuse, and dependence seen in this cohort. PMID:23535488

  11. Comparing the effects of food restriction and overeating on brain reward systems

    PubMed Central

    Avena, Nicole M.; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Both caloric restriction and overeating have been shown to affect neural processes associated with reinforcement. Both preclinical and some clinical studies have provided evidence that food restriction may increase reward sensitivity, and while there are mixed findings regarding the effects of overeating on reward sensitivity, there is strong evidence linking this behavior with changes in reward-related brain regions. Evidence of these changes comes in part from findings that show that such eating patterns are associated with increased drug use. The data discussed here regarding the differential effects of various eating patterns on reward systems may be particularly relevant to the aging population, as this population has been shown to exhibit altered reward sensitivity and decreased caloric consumption. Moreover, members of this population appear to be increasingly affected by the current obesity epidemic. Food, like alcohol or drugs, can stimulate its own consumption and produce similar neurochemical changes in the brain. Age-related loss of appetite, decreased eating, and caloric restriction are hypothesized to be associated with changes in the prevalence of substance misuse, abuse, and dependence seen in this cohort. PMID:23535488

  12. Two spatiotemporally distinct value systems shape reward-based learning in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Fouragnan, Elsa; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen; Philiastides, Marios G

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding repeated mistakes and learning to reinforce rewarding decisions is critical for human survival and adaptive actions. Yet, the neural underpinnings of the value systems that encode different decision-outcomes remain elusive. Here coupling single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging, we uncover the spatiotemporal dynamics of two separate but interacting value systems encoding decision-outcomes. Consistent with a role in regulating alertness and switching behaviours, an early system is activated only by negative outcomes and engages arousal-related and motor-preparatory brain structures. Consistent with a role in reward-based learning, a later system differentially suppresses or activates regions of the human reward network in response to negative and positive outcomes, respectively. Following negative outcomes, the early system interacts and downregulates the late system, through a thalamic interaction with the ventral striatum. Critically, the strength of this coupling predicts participants' switching behaviour and avoidance learning, directly implicating the thalamostriatal pathway in reward-based learning. PMID:26348160

  13. Two spatiotemporally distinct value systems shape reward-based learning in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Fouragnan, Elsa; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen; Philiastides, Marios G.

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding repeated mistakes and learning to reinforce rewarding decisions is critical for human survival and adaptive actions. Yet, the neural underpinnings of the value systems that encode different decision-outcomes remain elusive. Here coupling single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging, we uncover the spatiotemporal dynamics of two separate but interacting value systems encoding decision-outcomes. Consistent with a role in regulating alertness and switching behaviours, an early system is activated only by negative outcomes and engages arousal-related and motor-preparatory brain structures. Consistent with a role in reward-based learning, a later system differentially suppresses or activates regions of the human reward network in response to negative and positive outcomes, respectively. Following negative outcomes, the early system interacts and downregulates the late system, through a thalamic interaction with the ventral striatum. Critically, the strength of this coupling predicts participants' switching behaviour and avoidance learning, directly implicating the thalamostriatal pathway in reward-based learning. PMID:26348160

  14. Reward system and temporal pole contributions to affective evaluation during a first person shooter video game

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Violent content in video games evokes many concerns but there is little research concerning its rewarding aspects. It was demonstrated that playing a video game leads to striatal dopamine release. It is unclear, however, which aspects of the game cause this reward system activation and if violent content contributes to it. We combined functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) with individual affect measures to address the neuronal correlates of violence in a video game. Results Thirteen male German volunteers played a first-person shooter game (Tactical Ops: Assault on Terror) during fMRI measurement. We defined success as eliminating opponents, and failure as being eliminated themselves. Affect was measured directly before and after game play using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Failure and success events evoked increased activity in visual cortex but only failure decreased activity in orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. A negative correlation between negative affect and responses to failure was evident in the right temporal pole (rTP). Conclusions The deactivation of the caudate nucleus during failure is in accordance with its role in reward-prediction error: it occurred whenever subject missed an expected reward (being eliminated rather than eliminating the opponent). We found no indication that violence events were directly rewarding for the players. We addressed subjective evaluations of affect change due to gameplay to study the reward system. Subjects reporting greater negative affect after playing the game had less rTP activity associated with failure. The rTP may therefore be involved in evaluating the failure events in a social context, to regulate the players' mood. PMID:21749711

  15. The Impact of Corporate Culture, the Reward System, and Perceived Moral Intensity on Marketing Students' Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nill, Alexander; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study how marketing students' ethical decision making was influenced by their perceived moral intensity (PMI), corporate culture, and the reward system. The findings indicate that levels of awareness of the ethical consequences of a decision, the corporate culture, and the reward system all significantly affect…

  16. Path-Goal Models as a Basis for the Design of Organization Reward Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Jay R.

    The purpose of this paper has been to argue the usefulness of path-goal models in theoretical research and practical design of organization reward systems. The reasoning is that the policy choices can be easily related to path-goal attitudes which, in turn, are related to behavior. The major policy choices were identified and related to path-goal…

  17. To What Degree Does the Promotion System Reward Faculty Research Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Flora F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the research question: Does the promotion system in Taiwan reward faculty research productivity? By conducting event history analyses, I have demonstrated that the simple answer to the question is "yes." After controlling for the effects of demography, education, institutions and seniority, the discrete-time logit models…

  18. A Computer-Assisted Learning Model Based on the Digital Game Exponential Reward System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Man-Ki; Jahng, Surng-Gahb; Kim, Tae-Yong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to construct a motivational model which would stimulate voluntary and proactive learning using digital game methods offering players more freedom and control. The theoretical framework of this research lays the foundation for a pedagogical learning model based on digital games. We analyzed the game reward system, which…

  19. Ghrelin signalling on food reward: a salient link between the gut and the mesolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Perello, M; Dickson, S L

    2015-06-01

    'Hunger is the best spice' is an old and wise saying that acknowledges the fact that almost any food tastes better when we are hungry. The neurobiological underpinnings of this lore include activation of the brain's reward system and the stimulation of this system by the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is produced largely from the stomach and levels are higher preprandially. The ghrelin receptor is expressed in many brain areas important for feeding control, including not only the hypothalamic nuclei involved in energy balance regulation, but also reward-linked areas such as the ventral tegmental area. By targeting the mesoaccumbal dopamine neurones of the ventral tegmental area, ghrelin recruits pathways important for food reward-related behaviours that show overlap with but are also distinct from those important for food intake. We review a variety of studies that support the notion that ghrelin signalling at the level of the mesolimbic system is one of the key molecular substrates that provides a physiological signal connecting gut and reward pathways. PMID:25377898

  20. Automatic Data Processing System and Procedures, Computerized Academic Counseling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagorski, Henry J.; And Others

    The Computerized Academic Counseling System (CACS) designed by the System Development Corporation is reviewed. Aspects of the system, constructed to assist counselors in guiding undergraduates in the selection of academic majors, which are discussed include: problem definition, system analysis, design rationale, methodology, measurement…

  1. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    Academic support systems are characterized as those activities that center around a dean's office--office automation/information systems, institutional research and electronic communication. The basic and design and implementation issues that are encountered in providing these support systems are examined. (Author/MLW)

  2. Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love.

    PubMed

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen; Mashek, Debra J; Strong, Greg; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-07-01

    Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. It has an important influence on social behaviors that have reproductive and genetic consequences. To determine which reward and motivation systems may be involved, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and studied 10 women and 7 men who were intensely "in love" from 1 to 17 mo. Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their beloved and a photograph of a familiar individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Group activation specific to the beloved under the two control conditions occurred in dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation, namely the right ventral tegmental area and the right postero-dorsal body and medial caudate nucleus. Activation in the left ventral tegmental area was correlated with facial attractiveness scores. Activation in the right anteromedial caudate was correlated with questionnaire scores that quantified intensity of romantic passion. In the left insula-putamen-globus pallidus, activation correlated with trait affect intensity. The results suggest that romantic love uses subcortical reward and motivation systems to focus on a specific individual, that limbic cortical regions process individual emotion factors, and that there is localization heterogeneity for reward functions in the human brain. PMID:15928068

  3. Markov reward processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous applications in the area of computer system analysis can be effectively studied with Markov reward models. These models describe the behavior of the system with a continuous-time Markov chain, where a reward rate is associated with each state. In a reliability/availability model, upstates may have reward rate 1 and down states may have reward rate zero associated with them. In a queueing model, the number of jobs of certain type in a given state may be the reward rate attached to that state. In a combined model of performance and reliability, the reward rate of a state may be the computational capacity, or a related performance measure. Expected steady-state reward rate and expected instantaneous reward rate are clearly useful measures of the Markov reward model. More generally, the distribution of accumulated reward or time-averaged reward over a finite time interval may be determined from the solution of the Markov reward model. This information is of great practical significance in situations where the workload can be well characterized (deterministically, or by continuous functions e.g., distributions). The design process in the development of a computer system is an expensive and long term endeavor. For aerospace applications the reliability of the computer system is essential, as is the ability to complete critical workloads in a well defined real time interval. Consequently, effective modeling of such systems must take into account both performance and reliability. This fact motivates our use of Markov reward models to aid in the development and evaluation of fault tolerant computer systems.

  4. Upregulation of gene expression in reward-modulatory striatal opioid systems by sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A; Hanlon, Erin C; Obermeyer, William; Bremer, Quentin; Paletz, Elliott; Benca, Ruth M

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a link between sleep loss and the obesity 'epidemic,' and several observations indicate that sleep curtailment engenders positive energy balance via increased palatable-food 'snacking.' These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement of palatable feeding. PMID:23864029

  5. Upregulation of Gene Expression in Reward-Modulatory Striatal Opioid Systems by Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Brian A; Hanlon, Erin C; Obermeyer, William; Bremer, Quentin; Paletz, Elliott; Benca, Ruth M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a link between sleep loss and the obesity ‘epidemic,' and several observations indicate that sleep curtailment engenders positive energy balance via increased palatable-food ‘snacking.' These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement of palatable feeding. PMID:23864029

  6. Deep brain stimulation of the human reward system for major depression--rationale, outcomes and outlook.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Bewernick, Bettina H; Kayser, Sarah; Hurlemann, Rene; Coenen, Volker A

    2014-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a putative approach for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) has now been researched for about a decade. Several uncontrolled studies--all in relatively small patient populations and different target regions-have shown clinically relevant antidepressant effects in about half of the patients and very recently, DBS to a key structure of the reward system, the medial forebrain bundle, has yielded promising results within few days of stimulation and at much lower stimulation intensities. On the downside, DBS procedures in regions are associated with surgical risks (eg, hemorrhage) and psychiatric complications (suicidal attenuation, hypomania) as well as high costs. This overview summarizes research on the mechanisms of brain networks with respect to psychiatric diseases and--as a novelty--extrapolates to the role of the reward system in DBS for patients with treatment-resistant depression. It further evaluates relevant methodological aspects of today's research in DBS for TRD. On the scientific side, the reward system has an important yet clearly under-recognized role in both neurobiology and treatment of depression. On the methodological side of DBS research in TRD, better animal models are clearly needed to explain clinical effects of DBS in TRD. Larger sample sizes, long-term follow-up and designs including blinded sham control are required to draw final conclusions on efficacy and side effects. Practical research issues cover study design, patient tracking, and the discussion of meaningful secondary outcome measures. PMID:24513970

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Human Reward System for Major Depression—Rationale, Outcomes and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Bewernick, Bettina H; Kayser, Sarah; Hurlemann, Rene; Coenen, Volker A

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a putative approach for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) has now been researched for about a decade. Several uncontrolled studies—all in relatively small patient populations and different target regions—have shown clinically relevant antidepressant effects in about half of the patients and very recently, DBS to a key structure of the reward system, the medial forebrain bundle, has yielded promising results within few days of stimulation and at much lower stimulation intensities. On the downside, DBS procedures in regions are associated with surgical risks (eg, hemorrhage) and psychiatric complications (suicidal attenuation, hypomania) as well as high costs. This overview summarizes research on the mechanisms of brain networks with respect to psychiatric diseases and—as a novelty—extrapolates to the role of the reward system in DBS for patients with treatment-resistant depression. It further evaluates relevant methodological aspects of today's research in DBS for TRD. On the scientific side, the reward system has an important yet clearly under-recognized role in both neurobiology and treatment of depression. On the methodological side of DBS research in TRD, better animal models are clearly needed to explain clinical effects of DBS in TRD. Larger sample sizes, long-term follow-up and designs including blinded sham control are required to draw final conclusions on efficacy and side effects. Practical research issues cover study design, patient tracking, and the discussion of meaningful secondary outcome measures. PMID:24513970

  8. Increased Functional Connectivity between Prefrontal Cortex and Reward System in Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Saskia; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum). PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder. PMID:24367675

  9. The Influence of Palatable Diets in Reward System Activation: A Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; de Freitas, Joice Soares; da Silva Torres, Iraci Lucena

    2016-01-01

    The changes in eating patterns that have occurred in recent decades are an important cause of obesity. Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by a complex neural system involving the hypothalamic centers and peripheral satiety system (gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones). Highly palatable and caloric food disrupts appetite regulation; however, palatable foods induce pleasure and reward. The cafeteria diet is such a palatable diet and has been shown consistently to increase body weight and induce hyperplasia in animal obesity models. Moreover, palatable high-fat foods (such as those of the cafeteria diet) can induce addiction-like deficits in brain reward function and are considered to be an important source of motivation that might drive overeating and contribute to the development of obesity. The mechanism of neural adaptation triggered by palatable foods is similar to those that have been reported for nondrug addictions and long-term drug use. Thus, this review attempts to describe the potential mechanisms that might lead to highly palatable diets, such as the cafeteria diet, triggering addiction, or compulsion through the reward system. PMID:27087806

  10. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the frontal-striatal reward system in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions. PMID:25928647

  11. Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Frontal-Striatal Reward System in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions. PMID:25928647

  12. Neuroimaging of the Dopamine/Reward System in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking, including substance misuse. These behavioral patterns are influenced by ontogenic changes in neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system, which is fundamentally involved in the neural coding of reward and motivated approach behavior. During adolescence, this system evidences a peak in activity. At the same time, the dopamine system is neuroplastically altered by substance abuse, impacting subsequent function. Here, we describe properties of the dopamine system that change with typical adolescent development and that are altered with substance abuse. Much of this work has been gleaned from animal models due to limitations in measuring dopamine in pediatric samples. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to examine structures that are heavily DA-innervated; they measure morphological and functional changes with age and with drug exposure. Presenting marijuana abuse as an exemplar, we consider recent findings that support an adolescent peak in DA-driven reward-seeking behavior and related deviations in motivational systems that are associated with marijuana abuse/dependence. Clinicians are advised that (1) chronic adolescent marijuana use may lead to deficiencies in incentive motivation, (2) that this state is due to marijuana’s interactions with the developing DA system, and (3) that treatment strategies should be directed to remediating resultant deficiencies in goal-directed activity. PMID:26095977

  13. Reward-system effect (BAS rating), left hemispheric "unbalance" (alpha band oscillations) and decisional impairments in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2014-06-01

    The current research explored the impact of cortical frontal asymmetry (left-lateralization effect) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) on Substance Use Disorder (SUD) in decisional processes using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Forty SUD participants and forty-two controls (CG) were tested using the IGT. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options), BIS/BAS scores and lateralized alpha band modulation (LTA) were considered. The SUD group increased the tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (loss strategy) more than the long-term option (win strategy) compared to the CG. Secondly, higher reward-subscale scores were observed in SUD. Thirdly, SUD showed an increase in left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with the CG. An imbalanced left hemispheric effect related to higher BAS trait could explain this "reward bias," because these components were found to explain (through the regression analysis) the main behavioral deficits. PMID:24629323

  14. 34 CFR 200.3 - Designing State Academic Assessment Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designing State Academic Assessment Systems. 200.3... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED... State Academic Assessment Systems. (a)(1) For each grade and subject assessed, a State's...

  15. 34 CFR 200.3 - Designing State Academic Assessment Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designing State Academic Assessment Systems. 200.3... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED... State Academic Assessment Systems. (a)(1) For each grade and subject assessed, a State's...

  16. Interactions of the opioid and cannabinoid systems in reward: Insights from knockout studies

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The opioid system consists of three receptors, mu, delta, and kappa, which are activated by endogenous opioid peptides (enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins). The endogenous cannabinoid system comprises lipid neuromodulators (endocannabinoids), enzymes for their synthesis and their degradation and two well-characterized receptors, cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. These systems play a major role in the control of pain as well as in mood regulation, reward processing and the development of addiction. Both opioid and cannabinoid receptors are coupled to G proteins and are expressed throughout the brain reinforcement circuitry. Extending classical pharmacology, research using genetically modified mice has provided important progress in the identification of the specific contribution of each component of these endogenous systems in vivo on reward process. This review will summarize available genetic tools and our present knowledge on the consequences of gene knockout on reinforced behaviors in both systems, with a focus on their potential interactions. A better understanding of opioid–cannabinoid interactions may provide novel strategies for therapies in addicted individuals. PMID:25698968

  17. Measuring Motivation and Reward-Related Decision Making in the Rodent Operant Touchscreen System.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Phillips, Benjamin U; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    This unit is designed to facilitate implementation of the fixed and progressive ratio paradigms and the effort-related choice task in the rodent touchscreen apparatus to permit direct measurement of motivation and reward-related decision making in this equipment. These protocols have been optimized for use in the mouse and reliably yield stable performance levels that can be enhanced or suppressed by systemic pharmacological manipulation. Instructions are also provided for the adjustment of task parameters to permit use in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease. These tasks expand the utility of the rodent touchscreen apparatus beyond the currently available battery of cognitive assessment paradigms. PMID:26729033

  18. A new animal model of placebo analgesia: involvement of the dopaminergic system in reward learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Bombi; Park, Hi-Joon; Olausson, Håkan; Enck, Paul; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a new placebo analgesia animal model and investigated the role of the dopamine and opioid systems in placebo analgesia. Before and after the conditioning, we conducted a conditioned place preference (CPP) test to measure preferences for the cues (Rooms 1 and 2), and a hot plate test (HPT) to measure the pain responses to high level-pain after the cues. In addition, we quantified the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and c-Fos in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a response to reward learning and pain response. We found an enhanced preference for the low level-pain paired cue and enhanced TH expression in the VTA of the Placebo and Placebo + Naloxone groups. Haloperidol, a dopamine antagonist, blocked these effects in the Placebo + Haloperidol group. An increased pain threshold to high-heat pain and reduced c-Fos expression in the ACC were observed in the Placebo group only. Haloperidol blocked the place preference effect, and naloxone and haloperidol blocked the placebo analgesia. Cue preference is mediated by reward learning via the dopamine system, whereas the expression of placebo analgesia is mediated by the dopamine and opioid systems. PMID:26602173

  19. A new animal model of placebo analgesia: involvement of the dopaminergic system in reward learning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Bombi; Park, Hi-Joon; Olausson, Håkan; Enck, Paul; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a new placebo analgesia animal model and investigated the role of the dopamine and opioid systems in placebo analgesia. Before and after the conditioning, we conducted a conditioned place preference (CPP) test to measure preferences for the cues (Rooms 1 and 2), and a hot plate test (HPT) to measure the pain responses to high level-pain after the cues. In addition, we quantified the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and c-Fos in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a response to reward learning and pain response. We found an enhanced preference for the low level-pain paired cue and enhanced TH expression in the VTA of the Placebo and Placebo + Naloxone groups. Haloperidol, a dopamine antagonist, blocked these effects in the Placebo + Haloperidol group. An increased pain threshold to high-heat pain and reduced c-Fos expression in the ACC were observed in the Placebo group only. Haloperidol blocked the place preference effect, and naloxone and haloperidol blocked the placebo analgesia. Cue preference is mediated by reward learning via the dopamine system, whereas the expression of placebo analgesia is mediated by the dopamine and opioid systems. PMID:26602173

  20. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Costa Dias, Taciana G.; Iyer, Swathi P.; Carpenter, Samuel D.; Cary, Robert P.; Wilson, Vanessa B.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7–12 years), in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in “functional” subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology. PMID:25660033

  1. Convergent dysregulation of frontal cortical cognitive and reward systems in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Ptáček, Radek; Kuželová, Hana; Mantione, Kirk J; Raboch, Jiří; Papezova, Hana; Kream, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    A substantive literature has drawn a compelling case for the functional involvement of mesolimbic/prefrontal cortical neural reward systems in normative control of eating and in the etiology and persistence of severe eating disorders that affect diverse human populations. Presently, we provide a short review that develops an equally compelling case for the importance of dysregulated frontal cortical cognitive neural networks acting in concert with regional reward systems in the regulation of complex eating behaviors and in the presentation of complex pathophysiological symptoms associated with major eating disorders. Our goal is to highlight working models of major eating disorders that incorporate complementary approaches to elucidate functionally interactive neural circuits defined by their regulatory neurochemical phenotypes. Importantly, we also review evidence-based linkages between widely studied psychiatric and neurodegenerative syndromes (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease) and co-morbid eating disorders to elucidate basic mechanisms involving dopaminergic transmission and its regulation by endogenously expressed morphine in these same cortical regions. PMID:23660852

  2. Contextual interaction between novelty and reward processing within the mesolimbic system

    PubMed Central

    Bunzeck, Nico; Doeller, Christian F; Dolan, Ray J; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) dependent long-term memory for novel events is modulated by a circuitry that also responds to reward and includes the ventral striatum, dopaminergic midbrain, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). This common neural network may reflect a functional link between novelty and reward whereby novelty motivates exploration in the search for rewards; a link also termed novelty “exploration bonus.” We used fMRI in a scene encoding paradigm to investigate the interaction between novelty and reward with a focus on neural signals akin to an exploration bonus. As expected, reward related long-term memory for the scenes (after 24 hours) strongly correlated with activity of MTL, ventral striatum, and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). Furthermore, the hippocampus showed a main effect of novelty, the striatum showed a main effect of reward, and the mOFC signalled both novelty and reward. An interaction between novelty and reward akin to an exploration bonus was found in the hippocampus. These data suggest that MTL novelty signals are interpreted in terms of their reward-predicting properties in the mOFC, which biases striatal reward responses. The striatum together with the SN/VTA then regulates MTL-dependent long-term memory formation and contextual exploration bonus signals in the hippocampus. Hum Brain Mapp, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21520353

  3. New insights into the specificity and plasticity of reward and aversion encoding in the mesolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Volman, Susan F; Lammel, Stephan; Margolis, Elyssa B; Kim, Yunbok; Richard, Jocelyn M; Roitman, Mitchell F; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2013-11-01

    The mesocorticolimbic system, consisting, at its core, of the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, has historically been investigated primarily for its role in positively motivated behaviors and reinforcement learning, and its dysfunction in addiction, schizophrenia, depression, and other mood disorders. Recently, researchers have undertaken a more comprehensive analysis of this system, including its role in not only reward but also punishment, as well as in both positive and negative reinforcement. This focus has been facilitated by new anatomical, physiological, and behavioral approaches to delineate functional circuits underlying behaviors and to determine how this system flexibly encodes and responds to positive and negative states and events, beyond simple associative learning. This review is a summary of topics covered in a mini-symposium at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting. PMID:24198347

  4. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Sugawara, Sho K.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener. PMID:25188354

  5. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Sugawara, Sho K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener. PMID:25188354

  6. Expectancy for food or expectancy for chocolate reveals timing systems for metabolism and reward.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Castellanos, M; Salgado-Delgado, R; Rodríguez, K; Buijs, R M; Escobar, C

    2008-07-31

    The clock gene protein Per 1 (PER1) is expressed in several brain structures and oscillates associated with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Restricted feeding schedules (RFS) induce anticipatory activity and impose daily oscillations of c-Fos and clock proteins in brain structures. Daily access to a palatable treat (chocolate) also elicits anticipatory activity and induces c-Fos expression mainly in corticolimbic structures. Here the influence of daily access to food or chocolate was explored by the analysis of the oscillatory patterns of PER1 in hypothalamic and corticolimbic structures. Wistar rats were exposed to RFS or to daily access to chocolate for 3 weeks. Persistence of food or chocolate entrained rhythms was determined 8 days after cessation of the feeding protocols. RFS and chocolate induced a phase shift in PER1 rhythmicity in corticolimbic structures with peak values at zeitgeber time 12 and a higher amplitude in the chocolate group. Both RFS and chocolate groups showed an upregulation of PER1 in the SCN. Food and chocolate entrained rhythms persisted for 8 days in behavior and in PER1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, accumbens, prefrontal cortex and central amygdala. The present data demonstrate the existence of different oscillatory systems in the brain that can be activated by entrainment to metabolic stimuli or to reward and suggest the participation of PER1 in both entraining pathways. Persistence and amplification of PER1 oscillations in structures associated with reward suggest that this oscillatory process is fundamental to food addictive behavior. PMID:18585440

  7. China Academic Library and Information System: An Academic Library Consortium in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Longji; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Hongyang

    2000-01-01

    Describes CALIS (China Academic Library and Information System), a nationwide academic library consortium funded primarily by the Chinese government to serve multiple resource-sharing functions among the participating libraries, including online searching, interlibrary loan, document delivery, and coordinated purchasing and cataloging, by…

  8. Opioids and sexual reward.

    PubMed

    Paredes, R G

    2014-06-01

    Various lines of research indicate that sexual reward is mediated by opioids in both males and females. In the first part I review basic ideas about sexual reward in humans followed by a description of what is known in rodents, where most of the studies have been done. Although a direct method to measure opioid release during mating is not yet available, there is a substantial amount of indirect evidence in humans and animals indicating that opioids are released during the execution of sexual behavior. Studies using the conditioned place preference (CPP) method where the effects of opioids upon sex induced reward have been evaluated will also be described. Evidence will also be presented indicating that the medial preoptic area (MPOA) plays a crucial role in the expression of opioid mediated sex-reward in males and females. This area is also important in other naturally occurring reward related behaviors such as singing. Opioids might be part of a system that mediates the rewarding properties of natural behaviors that are intrinsically rewarding. PMID:24239788

  9. Quality management of human resources. Providers should begin by focusing on education, performance management, and reward systems.

    PubMed

    Blair, C S; Fordyce, M; Barney, S M

    1993-10-01

    For a quality management transformation to occur, a healthcare organization must focus on education and development, performance management, and recognition and reward systems during the first years of implementation. Education and development are perhaps the most important human resource management functions when implementing quality management principles and processes because behavioral changes will be required at all organizational levels. Specific programs that support an organization's quality management effort will vary but should include the conceptual, cultural, and technical aspects of quality management. The essence of quality management is to always satisfy the customer and to continuously improve the services and products the organization offers. The approach to performance management should therefore rely on customer feedback and satisfaction. An organization committed to quality management should base its performance management approach on customer orientation, process improvement, employee involvement, decision making with data, and continuous improvement. Managers and trustees are being challenged to provide innovative recognition and reward systems that reinforce the values and behaviors consistent with quality management. Such systems must also be aligned with the behaviors and outcomes that support the philosophy, mission, and values of the Catholic healthcare ministry. The following components should be considered for a recognition and reward system: base pay, incentives, benefits, and nonmonetary rewards. PMID:10129197

  10. Point Reward System: A Method of Assessment That Accommodates a Diversity of Student Abilities and Interests and Enhances Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derado, Josip; Garner, Mary L.; Tran, Thu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Students' abilities and interests vary dramatically in the college mathematics classroom. How do we teach all of these students effectively? In this paper, we present the Point Reward System (PRS), a new method of assessment that addresses this problem. We designed the PRS with three main goals in mind: to increase the retention rates; to keep all…

  11. Case study of ecstatic meditation: fMRI and EEG evidence of self-stimulating a reward system.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, Michael R; Isaacs, Julian; Brasington, Leigh; Shupe, Larry; Fetz, Eberhard E; Cramer, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    We report the first neural recording during ecstatic meditations called jhanas and test whether a brain reward system plays a role in the joy reported. Jhanas are Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) that imply major brain changes based on subjective reports: (1) external awareness dims, (2) internal verbalizations fade, (3) the sense of personal boundaries is altered, (4) attention is highly focused on the object of meditation, and (5) joy increases to high levels. The fMRI and EEG results from an experienced meditator show changes in brain activity in 11 regions shown to be associated with the subjective reports, and these changes occur promptly after jhana is entered. In particular, the extreme joy is associated not only with activation of cortical processes but also with activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the dopamine/opioid reward system. We test three mechanisms by which the subject might stimulate his own reward system by external means and reject all three. Taken together, these results demonstrate an apparently novel method of self-stimulating a brain reward system using only internal mental processes in a highly trained subject. PMID:23738149

  12. A Comprehensive Availability Modeling and Analysis of a Virtualized Servers System Using Stochastic Reward Nets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Seong; Park, Jong Sou

    2014-01-01

    It is important to assess availability of virtualized systems in IT business infrastructures. Previous work on availability modeling and analysis of the virtualized systems used a simplified configuration and assumption in which only one virtual machine (VM) runs on a virtual machine monitor (VMM) hosted on a physical server. In this paper, we show a comprehensive availability model using stochastic reward nets (SRN). The model takes into account (i) the detailed failures and recovery behaviors of multiple VMs, (ii) various other failure modes and corresponding recovery behaviors (e.g., hardware faults, failure and recovery due to Mandelbugs and aging-related bugs), and (iii) dependency between different subcomponents (e.g., between physical host failure and VMM, etc.) in a virtualized servers system. We also show numerical analysis on steady state availability, downtime in hours per year, transaction loss, and sensitivity analysis. This model provides a new finding on how to increase system availability by combining both software rejuvenations at VM and VMM in a wise manner. PMID:25165732

  13. Reward System Dysfunction as a Neural Substrate of Symptom Expression Across the General Population and Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Simon, Joe J; Cordeiro, Sheila A; Weber, Marc-André; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Wolf, Robert C; Weisbrod, Matthias; Kaiser, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Dysfunctional patterns of activation in brain reward networks have been suggested as a core element in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether this dysfunction is specific to schizophrenia or can be continuously observed across persons with different levels of nonclinical and clinical symptom expression. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the pattern of reward system dysfunction is consistent with a dimensional or categorical model of psychosis-like symptom expression. 23 patients with schizophrenia and 37 healthy control participants with varying levels of psychosis-like symptoms, separated into 3 groups of low, medium, and high symptom expression underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Cued Reinforcement Reaction Time task. We observed lower activation in the ventral striatum during the expectation of high vs no reward to be associated with higher symptom expression across all participants. No significant difference between patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high symptom expression was found. However, connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial orbitofrontal cortex was specifically reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Dysfunctional local activation of the ventral striatum depends less on diagnostic category than on the degree of symptom expression, therefore showing a pattern consistent with a psychosis continuum. In contrast, aberrant connectivity in the reward system is specific to patients with schizophrenia, thereby supporting a categorical view. Thus, the results of the present study provide evidence for both continuous and discontinuous neural substrates of symptom expression across patients with schizophrenia and the general population. PMID:26006262

  14. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence and reward: participation of the endogenous opioid system

    PubMed Central

    Berrendero, Fernando; Robledo, Patricia; Trigo, José Manuel; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary component of tobacco that maintains the smoking habit and develops addiction. The adaptive changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produced by repeated exposure to nicotine play a crucial role in the establishment of dependence. However, other neurochemical systems also participate in the addictive effects of nicotine including glutamate, cannabinoids, GABA and opioids. This review will cover the involvement of these neurotransmitters in nicotine addictive properties, with a special emphasis on the endogenous opioid system. Thus, endogenous enkephalins and beta-endorphins acting on mu-opioid receptors are involved in nicotine rewarding effects, whereas opioid peptides derived from prodynorphin participate in nicotine aversive responses. An upregulation of mu-opioid receptors has been reported after chronic nicotine treatment that could counteract the development of nicotine tolerance, whereas the downregulation induced on kappa-opioid receptors seems to facilitate nicotine tolerance. Endogenous enkephalins acting on mu-opioid receptors also play a role in the development of physical dependence to nicotine. In agreement with these actions of the endogenous opioid system, the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown to be effective for smoking cessation in certain subpopulations of smokers. PMID:20170672

  15. Academic Literacies and Systemic Functional Linguistics: How Do They Relate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline; Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen & Pletzen,…

  16. Incorporating Academic Standards in Instructional Systems Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue

    Almost every state is "imposing" academic standards. Helping students to meet those standards is a key task for teachers and school administrators, as well as instructional systems designers. Thus, instructional designers in the K-12 environments are facing the challenge of using appropriately and effectively academic standards in their…

  17. Real time wide area radiation surveillance system (REWARD) based on 3d silicon and (CD,ZN)Te for neutron and gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disch, C.

    2014-09-01

    Mobile surveillance systems are used to find lost radioactive sources and possible nuclear threats in urban areas. The REWARD collaboration [1] aims to develop such a complete radiation monitoring system that can be installed in mobile or stationary setups across a wide area. The scenarios include nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination and nuclear accidents. This paper will show the performance capabilities of the REWARD system in different scnarios. The results include both Monte Carlo simulations as well as neutron and gamma-ray detection performances in terms of efficiency and nuclide identification. The outcomes of several radiation mapping survey with the entire REWARD system will also be presented.

  18. The Dopaminergic Reward System and Leisure Time Exercise Behavior: A Candidate Allele Study

    PubMed Central

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Dolan, Conor V.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Ehli, Erik A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Xiao, Xiangjun; Scheet, Paul; Davies, Gareth E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hudziak, James J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Twin studies provide evidence that genetic influences contribute strongly to individual differences in exercise behavior. We hypothesize that part of this heritability is explained by genetic variation in the dopaminergic reward system. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in DRD1: rs265981, DRD2: rs6275, rs1800497, DRD3: rs6280, DRD4: rs1800955, DBH: rs1611115, rs2519152, and in COMT: rs4680) and three variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs in DRD4, upstream of DRD5, and in DAT1) were investigated for an association with regular leisure time exercise behavior. Materials and Methods. Data on exercise activities and at least one SNP/VNTR were available for 8,768 individuals aged 7 to 50 years old that were part of the Netherlands Twin Register. Exercise behavior was quantified as weekly metabolic equivalents of task (MET) spent on exercise activities. Mixed models were fitted in SPSS with genetic relatedness as a random effect. Results. None of the genetic variants were associated with exercise behavior (P > .02), despite sufficient power to detect small effects. Discussion and Conclusions. We did not confirm that allelic variants involved in dopaminergic function play a role in creating individual differences in exercise behavior. A plea is made for large genome-wide association studies to unravel the genetic pathways that affect this health-enhancing behavior. PMID:24734235

  19. Sensitivity to Temporal Reward Structure in Amygdala Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Maria A.; Göbel, Carl; Schultz, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Summary The time of reward and the temporal structure of reward occurrence fundamentally influence behavioral reinforcement and decision processes [1–11]. However, despite knowledge about timing in sensory and motor systems [12–17], we know little about temporal mechanisms of neuronal reward processing. In this experiment, visual stimuli predicted different instantaneous probabilities of reward occurrence that resulted in specific temporal reward structures. Licking behavior demonstrated that the animals had developed expectations for the time of reward that reflected the instantaneous reward probabilities. Neurons in the amygdala, a major component of the brain's reward system [18–29], showed two types of reward signal, both of which were sensitive to the expected time of reward. First, the time courses of anticipatory activity preceding reward delivery followed the specific instantaneous reward probabilities and thus paralleled the temporal reward structures. Second, the magnitudes of responses following reward delivery covaried with the instantaneous reward probabilities, reflecting the influence of temporal reward structures at the moment of reward delivery. In being sensitive to temporal reward structure, the reward signals of amygdala neurons reflected the temporally specific expectations of reward. The data demonstrate an active involvement of amygdala neurons in timing processes that are crucial for reward function. PMID:22959346

  20. Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle complex

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    Anatomical and functional refinements of the meso-limbic dopamine system of the rat are discussed. Present experiments suggest that dopaminergic neurons localized in the posteromedial ventral tegmental area (VTA) and central linear nucleus raphe selectively project to the ventromedial striatum (medial olfactory tubercle and medial nucleus accumbens shell), whereas the anteromedial VTA has few if any projections to the ventral striatum, and the lateral VTA largely projects to the ventrolateral striatum (accumbens core, lateral shell and lateral tubercle). These findings complement the recent behavioral findings that cocaine and amphetamine are more rewarding when administered into the ventromedial striatum than into the ventrolateral striatum. Drugs such as nicotine and opiates are more rewarding when administered into the posterior VTA or the central linear nucleus than into the anterior VTA. A review of the literature suggests that: (1) the midbrain has corresponding zones for the accumbens core and medial shell; (2) the striatal portion of the olfactory tubercle is a ventral extension of the nucleus accumbens shell; (3) a model of two dopamine projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the ventral striatum is useful for understanding reward function. The medial projection system is important in the regulation of arousal characterized by affect and drive, and plays a different role in goal-directed learning than the lateral projection system, as described in the variation-selection hypothesis of striatal functional organization. PMID:17574681

  1. Sensitivity of children's behavior to probabilistic reward: effects of a decreasing-ratio lottery system on math performance.

    PubMed

    Martens, Brian K; Ardoin, Scott P; Hilt, Alexandra M; Lannie, Amanda L; Panahon, Carlos J; Wolfe, Laurie A

    2002-01-01

    Probabilistic reward has been shown to affect children's choice behavior in game-like activities. We examined the effects of a lottery system containing progressively lower exchange ratios on children's completion of math problems. Two of the 3 children completed problems above baseline levels until the chance of exchange dropped to 25%. This study describes a potentially useful method for examining reinforcement schedules in applied settings and extends previous research on probabilities of reinforcement. PMID:12555911

  2. The role of motivation and reward neural systems in vocal communication in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Riters, Lauren V.

    2012-01-01

    Many vertebrates are highly motivated to communicate, suggesting that the consequences of communication may be rewarding. Past studies show that dopamine and opioids in the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) play distinct roles in motivation and reward. In songbirds, multiple lines of recent evidence indicate that the roles of dopamine and opioid activity in mPOA and VTA in male birdsong differ depending upon whether song is used to attract females (sexually-motivated) or is produced spontaneously (undirected). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses that 1) mPOA and VTA interact to influence the context in which a male sings, 2) distinct patterns of dopamine activity underlie the motivation to produce sexually-motivated and undirected song, 3) sexually-motivated communication is externally reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions, and 4) undirected communication is facilitated and rewarded by immediate opioid release linked to the act of singing. PMID:22569510

  3. Rewarding peer reviewers: maintaining the integrity of science communication.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D

    2015-04-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts. PMID:25829801

  4. Rewarding Peer Reviewers: Maintaining the Integrity of Science Communication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts. PMID:25829801

  5. Reward processing in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Keating, Charlotte; Tilbrook, Alan J; Rossell, Susan L; Enticott, Peter G; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) demonstrate a relentless engagement in behaviors aimed to reduce their weight, which leads to severe underweight status, and occasionally death. Neurobiological abnormalities, as a consequence of starvation are controversial: evidence, however, demonstrates abnormalities in the reward system of patients, and recovered individuals. Despite this, a unifying explanation for reward abnormalities observed in AN and their relevance to symptoms of the illness, remains incompletely understood. Theories explaining reward dysfunction have conventionally focused on anhedonia, describing that patients have an impaired ability to experience reward or pleasure. We review taste reward literature and propose that patients' reduced responses to conventional taste-reward tasks may reflect a fear of weight gain associated with the caloric nature of the tasks, rather than an impaired ability to experience reward. Consistent with this, we propose that patients are capable of 'liking' hedonic taste stimuli (e.g., identifying them), however, they do not 'want' or feel motivated for the stimuli in the same way that healthy controls report. Recent brain imaging data on more complex reward processing tasks provide insights into fronto-striatal neural circuit dysfunction related to altered reward processing in AN that challenges the relevance of anhedonia in explaining reward dysfunction in AN. In this way, altered activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum could explain patients' pathological engagement in behaviors they consider rewarding (e.g., self-starvation) that are otherwise aversive or punishing, to those without the eating disorder. Such evidence for altered patterns of brain activity associated with reward processing tasks in patients and recovered individuals may provide important information about mechanisms underlying symptoms of AN, their future investigation, and the development of treatment approaches. PMID:22349445

  6. Loss in connectivity among regions of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Durazzo, Timothy C; Raj, Ashish

    2013-12-01

    A recently developed measure of structural brain connectivity disruption, the loss in connectivity (LoCo), is adapted for studies in alcohol dependence. LoCo uses independent tractography information from young healthy controls to project the location of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in alcohol-dependent versus nondependent individuals onto connected gray matter (GM) regions. LoCo scores are computed from WM abnormality masks derived at two levels: (1) groupwise differences of alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) versus light-drinking (LD) controls and (2) differences of each ALC individual versus the LD control group. LoCo scores based on groupwise WM differences show that GM regions belonging to the extended brain reward system (BRS) network have significantly higher LoCo (i.e., disconnectivity) than those not in this network (t = 2.18, P = 0.016). LoCo scores based on individuals' WM differences are also higher in BRS versus non-BRS (t = 5.26, P = 3.92 × 10(-6) ) of ALC. These results suggest that WM alterations in alcohol dependence, although subtle and spatially heterogeneous across the population, are nonetheless preferentially localized to the BRS. LoCo is shown to provide a more sensitive estimate of GM involvement than conventional volumetric GM measures by better differentiating between brains of ALC and LD controls (rates of 89.3% vs. 69.6%). However, just as volumetric measures, LoCo is not significantly correlated with standard metrics of drinking severity. LoCo is a sensitive WM measure of regional cortical disconnectivity that uniquely characterizes anatomical network disruptions in alcohol dependence. PMID:22815206

  7. Academic Counselling in ODL: Information System for Capacity Building of Academic Counselors' in IGNOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishore, S.

    2014-01-01

    Indira Gandhi national Open University (IGNOU) is an apex body for open and distance learning (ODL) system in India. The university has nation-wide operation and pioneer in distance education. IGNOU has an hqrs, 67 Regional Centres and about 3400 Study Centres throughout India. The study centres are the academic contact point for distance learners…

  8. Careers in Academe: The Academic Labour Market as an Eco-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…

  9. Drug-seeking behavior in an invertebrate system: evidence of morphine-induced reward, extinction and reinstatement in crayfish

    PubMed Central

    Nathaniel, Thomas I.; Panksepp, Jules; Huber, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that exploring the neurochemical basis of reward in invertebrate species may provide clues for the fundamental behavioral and neurobiology underpinnings of drug addiction. How the presence of drug-sensitive reward relates to a decrease in drug-seeking behavior and reinstatement of drug seeking behavior in invertebrate systems is not known. The present study of a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) explores morphine-induced reward, extinction and reinstatement. Repeated intra-circulatory infusions of 2.5μg/g, 5.0μg/g and 10.0μg/g doses of morphine over 5 days serve as a reward when paired with a distinct visual or tactile environment. Morphine-induced CPP was extinguished after repeated saline injections for 5 days in the previously morphine-paired compartment. After the previously established CPP had been eliminated during the extinction phase, morphine-experienced crayfish were challenged with 2.5 μg/g, 5.0 μg/g and 10.0 μg/g respectively. The priming injections of morphine reinstated CPP in all training doses, suggesting that morphine-induced CPP is unrelenting, and that with time, it can be reinstated by morphine following extinction in an invertebrate model just like in mammals. Together with other recent studies, this work demonstrates the advantage of using crayfish as an invertebrate animal model to investigate the basic biological processes that underline exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse. PMID:18822319

  10. A specialized bird pollination system with a bellows mechanism for pollen transfer and staminal food body rewards.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Agnes S; Penneys, Darin S; Staedler, Yannick M; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2014-07-21

    Bird pollination has evolved repeatedly among flowering plants but is almost exclusively characterized by passive transfer of pollen onto the bird and by nectar as primary reward [1, 2]. Food body rewards are exceedingly rare among eudicot flowering plants and are only known to occur on sterile floral organs [3]. In this study, we report an alternative bird pollination mechanism involving bulbous stamen appendages in the Neotropical genus Axinaea (Melastomataceae). We studied the pollination process by combining pollination experiments, video monitoring, and detailed analyses of stamen structure and metabolomic composition. We show that the bulbous stamen appendages, which are consumed by various species of passerines (Thraupidae, Fringillidae), are bifunctional during the pollination process. First, the appendages work as bellows organs in a unique pollen expulsion mechanism activated by the passerines. As the birds seize an appendage with their beaks in order to remove it from the flower for consumption, air contained in the appendage's aerenchymatous tissue is pressed into the hollow anther. The resulting air flow causes the expulsion of a pollen jet and the deposition of pollen on the bird's head and beak. Second, the stamen appendages provide a hexose-rich, highly nutritious (15,100 J/g) food body reward for the pollinating passerines. This discovery expands our knowledge of flowering plant pollination systems and provides the first report of highly specialized bellows organs for active pollen transfer in flowering plants. In addition, this is the only known case of a food body reward associated with reproductive structures in the eudicot clade of flowering plants. PMID:24998529

  11. Miami-Dade Junior College Academic Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    The academic accounting system developed at Miami-Dade Junior College (Florida) is intended to aid in the instructional planning process. The objectives of the system are to: (1) compare various organizational arrangements for instruction; (2) provide a basis for the development of a cost effectiveness analysis system for instruction; (3) provide…

  12. Action learning for health system governance: the reward and challenge of co-production.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is centrally concerned with people, their relationships and the actions and practices they can implement towards better health systems. These concerns suggest that HPS researchers must work in direct engagement with the practitioners and practice central to the inquiry, acknowledging their tacit knowledge and drawing it into generating new insights into health system functioning. Social science perspectives are of particular importance in this field because health policies and health systems are themselves social and political constructs. However, how can social science methodologies such as action research and narrative and appreciative enquiry enable such research, and how can methodologies from different disciplines be woven together to construct and make meaning of evidence for 'this' field? This article seeks to present 'methodological musings' on these points, to prompt wider discussion on the practice of HPSR. It draws on one long-term collaborative action learning research project being undertaken in Cape Town, South Africa. The District Innovation and Action Learning for Health System Development project is an action research partnership between two South African academic institutions and two health authorities focused, ultimately, on strengthening governance in primary health care.Drawing on this experience, the article considers three interrelated issues: The diversity and complexities of practitioner and research actors involved in co-producing HPSR; The nature of co-production and the importance of providing space to grapple across different systems of meaning;The character of evidence and data in co-production. There is much to be learnt from research traditions outside the health sector, but HPSR must work out its own practices--through collaboration and innovation among researchers and practitioners. In this article, we provide one set of experiences to prompt wider reflection and stimulate engagement on the

  13. Neural Basis of Anhedonia and Amotivation in Patients with Schizophrenia: The role of Reward System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Suk; Jung, Suwon; Park, Il Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia, the inability to feel pleasure, and amotivation, the lack of motivation, are two prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which contribute to the poor social and occupational behaviors in the patients. Recently growing evidence shows that anhedonia and amotivation are tied together, but have distinct neural correlates. It is important to note that both of these symptoms may derive from deficient functioning of the reward network. A further analysis into the neuroimaging findings of schizophrenia shows that the neural correlates overlap in the reward network including the ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Other neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the default mode network in anhedonia. The identification of a specific deficit in hedonic and motivational capacity may help to elucidate the mechanisms behind social functioning deficits in schizophrenia, and may also lead to more targeted treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:26630955

  14. Neural Basis of Anhedonia and Amotivation in Patients with Schizophrenia: The Role of Reward System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Jung, Suwon; Park, Il Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia, the inability to feel pleasure, and amotivation, the lack of motivation, are two prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which contribute to the poor social and occupational behaviors in the patients. Recently growing evidence shows that anhedonia and amotivation are tied together, but have distinct neural correlates. It is important to note that both of these symptoms may derive from deficient functioning of the reward network. A further analysis into the neuroimaging findings of schizophrenia shows that the neural correlates overlap in the reward network including the ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Other neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the default mode network in anhedonia. The identification of aspecific deficit in hedonic and motivational capacity may help to elucidate the mechanisms behind social functioning deficits in schizophrenia, and may also lead to more targeted treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:26630955

  15. Reward and motivation systems: a brain mapping study of early-stage intense romantic love in Chinese participants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-02-01

    Early-stage romantic love has been studied previously in the United States and United Kingdom (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337; Bartels and Zeki [2000]: Neuroreport 11:3829–3834; Ortigue et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1218–1230), revealing activation in the reward and motivation systems of the brain. In this study, we asked what systems are activated for early-stage romantic love in Easterners, specifically Chinese participants? Are these activations affected by individual differences within a cultural context of Traditionality and Modernity? Also, are these brain activations correlated with later satisfaction in the relationship? In Beijing, we used the same procedure used by Aron et al. (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337). The stimuli for 18 Chinese participants were a picture of the face of their beloved, the face of a familiar acquaintance, and a countback task. We found significant activations specific to the beloved in the reward and motivation systems, particularly, the ventral tegmental area and the caudate. The mid-orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum were also activated, whereas amygdala, medial orbitofrontal, and medial accumbens activity were decreased relative to the familiar acquaintance. Self-reported Traditionality and Modernity scores were each positively correlated with activity in the nucleus accumbens, although in different regions and sides of the brain. Activity in the subgenual area and the superior frontal gyrus was associated with higher relationship happiness at 18-month follow-up. Our results show that midbrain dopamine-rich reward/motivation systems were activated by early-stage romantic love in Chinese participants, as found by other studies. Neural activity was associated with Traditionality and Modernity attitudes as well as with later relationship happiness for Chinese participants. PMID:21229613

  16. Investigating the Impact of a Genome-Wide Supported Bipolar Risk Variant of MAD1L1 on the Human Reward System.

    PubMed

    Trost, Sarah; Diekhof, Esther K; Mohr, Holger; Vieker, Henning; Krämer, Bernd; Wolf, Claudia; Keil, Maria; Dechent, Peter; Binder, Elisabeth B; Gruber, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified MAD1L1 (mitotic arrest deficient-like 1) as a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The minor allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11764590 in MAD1L1 was associated with bipolar disorder. Both diseases, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are linked to functional alterations in the reward system. We aimed at investigating possible effects of the MAD1L1 rs11764590 risk allele on reward systems functioning in healthy adults. A large homogenous sample of 224 young (aged 18-31 years) participants was genotyped and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All participants performed the 'Desire-Reason Dilemma' paradigm investigating the neural correlates that underlie reward processing and active reward dismissal in favor of a long-term goal. We found significant hypoactivations of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the bilateral striatum and bilateral frontal and parietal cortices in response to conditioned reward stimuli in the risk allele carriers compared with major allele carriers. In the dilemma situation, functional connectivity between prefrontal brain regions and the ventral striatum was significantly diminished in the risk allele carriers. Healthy risk allele carriers showed a significant deficit of their bottom-up response to conditioned reward stimuli in the bilateral VTA and striatum. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and prefrontal areas exerting top-down control on the mesolimbic reward system was reduced in this group. Similar alterations in reward processing and disturbances of prefrontal control mechanisms on mesolimbic brain circuits have also been reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest the existence of an intermediate phenotype associated with MAD1L1. PMID:27184339

  17. Intelligent Counseling System: A 24 x 7 Academic Advisor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chun Ming; Tsang, Eva Y. M.; Lam, S. S.; Pang, Dominic C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are increasingly looking into self-service systems with intelligent digital agents to supplement or replace labor-intensive services, such as academic counseling. The Open University of Hong Kong has developed an intelligent online system that instantly responds to enquiries about career development, learning modes, program/course…

  18. A Rule-Based Expert System Approach to Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patankar, Manoj

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development and evaluation of the Academic Counselling Expert (ACE) system designed to replace the faculty advisor and provide requisite advice to aviation students at San Jose State University (California). This computer-based counselling system was accessed by 65 students (Spring 1996 semester); most students acquired appropriate…

  19. Perspectives on Integrated Academic Information Management Systems (IAIMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunin, Lois F. (Ed.); Ball, Marion J. (Ed.)

    1988-01-01

    Various aspects of the Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) initiative sponsored by the National Library of Medicine are explored in 10 articles. An overview of the program, the technologies involved, examples of implementation, approaches to integrated information systems, and the future of the program are discussed. (CLB)

  20. Is MBO Appropriate in the Academic Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasher, Harry J.

    1978-01-01

    A model for implementing a Management by Objectives (MBO) system in the academic environment is presented and potential problems are explored. Some of the pitfalls discussed include: organizational climate, clarity of objectives, assumption that MBO concepts are readily understood, instant success syndrome, and economic reward myopia. (JMD)

  1. Privatising State Workers: The Case of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    1990-01-01

    The trend toward unionization of Australia's public university faculty and the redefinition of academic work according to market forces are examined. It is concluded that there are substantial contradictions in subjecting public sector employment to private sector modes of work organization, reward systems, and management models that must be…

  2. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  3. Reward deficiency and anti-reward in pain chronification.

    PubMed

    Borsook, D; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Strassman, A M; Becerra, L; Elman, I

    2016-09-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the pathophysiology of pain is mediated to a substantial degree via allostatic neuroadaptations in reward- and stress-related brain circuits. Thus, reward deficiency (RD) represents a within-system neuroadaptation to pain-induced protracted activation of the reward circuits that leads to depletion-like hypodopaminergia, clinically manifested anhedonia, and diminished motivation for natural reinforcers. Anti-reward (AR) conversely pertains to a between-systems neuroadaptation involving over-recruitment of key limbic structures (e.g., the central and basolateral amygdala nuclei, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the lateral tegmental noradrenergic nuclei of the brain stem, the hippocampus and the habenula) responsible for massive outpouring of stressogenic neurochemicals (e.g., norepinephrine, corticotropin releasing factor, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P) giving rise to such negative affective states as anxiety, fear and depression. We propose here the Combined Reward deficiency and Anti-reward Model (CReAM), in which biopsychosocial variables modulating brain reward, motivation and stress functions can interact in a 'downward spiral' fashion to exacerbate the intensity, chronicity and comorbidities of chronic pain syndromes (i.e., pain chronification). PMID:27246519

  4. Genetic Risk For Nicotine Dependence in the Cholinergic System and Activation of the Brain Reward System in Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Lourdusamy, A; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Steiner, S; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Loth, E; Mann, K; Artiges, E; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Smolka, M N; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Rietschel, M; Flor, H

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation in a genomic region on chromosome 15q25.1, which encodes the alpha5, alpha3, and beta4 subunits of the cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes, confers risk to smoking and nicotine dependence (ND). Neural reward-related responses have previously been identified as important factors in the development of drug dependence involving ND. Applying an imaging genetics approach in two cohorts (N=487; N=478) of healthy non-smoking adolescents, we aimed to elucidate the impact of genome-wide significant smoking-associated variants in the CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4 gene cluster on reward-related neural responses in central regions such as the striatum, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and personality traits related to addiction. In both samples, carriers of the rs578776 GG compared with AG/AA genotype showed a significantly lower neural response to reward outcomes in the right ventral and dorsal ACC but not the striatum or the orbitofrontal cortex. Rs578776 was unrelated to neural reward anticipation or reward magnitude. Significantly higher scores of anxiety sensitivity in GG compared with AG/AA carriers were found only in sample 1. Associations with other personality traits were not observed. Our findings suggest that the rs578776 risk variant influences susceptibility to ND by dampening the response of the ACC to reward feedback, without recruiting the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex during feedback or anticipation. Thus, it seems to have a major role in the processing of and behavioral adaptation to changing reward outcomes. PMID:23689675

  5. Genetic risk for nicotine dependence in the cholinergic system and activation of the brain reward system in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Lourdusamy, A; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Steiner, S; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Loth, E; Mann, K; Artiges, E; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Smolka, M N; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Rietschel, M; Flor, H

    2013-10-01

    Genetic variation in a genomic region on chromosome 15q25.1, which encodes the alpha5, alpha3, and beta4 subunits of the cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes, confers risk to smoking and nicotine dependence (ND). Neural reward-related responses have previously been identified as important factors in the development of drug dependence involving ND. Applying an imaging genetics approach in two cohorts (N=487; N=478) of healthy non-smoking adolescents, we aimed to elucidate the impact of genome-wide significant smoking-associated variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster on reward-related neural responses in central regions such as the striatum, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and personality traits related to addiction. In both samples, carriers of the rs578776 GG compared with AG/AA genotype showed a significantly lower neural response to reward outcomes in the right ventral and dorsal ACC but not the striatum or the orbitofrontal cortex. Rs578776 was unrelated to neural reward anticipation or reward magnitude. Significantly higher scores of anxiety sensitivity in GG compared with AG/AA carriers were found only in sample 1. Associations with other personality traits were not observed. Our findings suggest that the rs578776 risk variant influences susceptibility to ND by dampening the response of the ACC to reward feedback, without recruiting the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex during feedback or anticipation. Thus, it seems to have a major role in the processing of and behavioral adaptation to changing reward outcomes. PMID:23689675

  6. Monterey Learning Systems: Improving Academic Achievement of Visually Impaired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Kathryn M.

    1977-01-01

    Tested was the premise that the academic competencies of visually impaired learners could be enhanced by training procedures that combine auditory and visual skills in a project using the Monterey Learning Systems Reading and Mathematics Programs with 29 visually impaired print readers. (Author/MH)

  7. Online System Adoption and K-12 Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the relationship between K-12 online system adoption (e.g., Blackboard, Edmodo, WordPress) and school-level academic achievement ratings. Utilizing a novel approach to data collection via website data extraction and indexing of all school websites in a target state in the United States (n?=?732) and merging these…

  8. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R.; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphine-induced reductions in tidal volume, minute volume, inspiratory force and expiratory force, but did not affect morphine-induced reductions in respiratory rate. Minocycline attenuation of respiratory depression was also paralleled with significant attenuation by minocycline of morphine-induced reductions in blood oxygen saturation. Minocycline also attenuated morphine conditioned place preference. Minocycline did not simply reduce all actions of morphine, as morphine analgesia was significantly potentiated by minocycline co-administration. Lastly, morphine dose-dependently increased cyclooxygenase-1 gene expression in a rat microglial cell line, an effect that was dose-dependently blocked by minocycline. Together, these data support that morphine can directly activate microglia in a minocycline-suppressible manner and suggest a pivotal role for minocycline-sensitive processes in the mechanisms of morphine-induced respiration depression, reward, and pain modulation. PMID:18706994

  9. Activation of the GLP-1 Receptors in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract Reduces Food Reward Behavior and Targets the Mesolimbic System

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jennifer E.; Anderberg, Rozita H.; Göteson, Andreas; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank; Skibicka, Karolina P.

    2015-01-01

    The gut/brain peptide, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1), suppresses food intake by acting on receptors located in key energy balance regulating CNS areas, the hypothalamus or the hindbrain. Moreover, GLP-1 can reduce reward derived from food and motivation to obtain food by acting on its mesolimbic receptors. Together these data suggest a neuroanatomical segregation between homeostatic and reward effects of GLP-1. Here we aim to challenge this view and hypothesize that GLP-1 can regulate food reward behavior by acting directly on the hindbrain, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Using two models of food reward, sucrose progressive ratio operant conditioning and conditioned place preference for food in rats, we show that intra-NTS microinjections of GLP-1 or Exendin-4, a stable analogue of GLP-1, inhibit food reward behavior. When the rats were given a choice between palatable food and chow, intra-NTS Exendin-4 treatment preferentially reduced intake of palatable food but not chow. However, chow intake and body weight were reduced by the NTS GLP-1R activation if chow was offered alone. The NTS GLP-1 activation did not alter general locomotor activity and did not induce nausea, measured by PICA. We further show that GLP-1 fibers are in close apposition to the NTS noradrenergic neurons, which were previously shown to provide a monosynaptic connection between the NTS and the mesolimbic system. Central GLP-1R activation also increased NTS expression of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in noradrenaline synthesis, indicating a biological link between these two systems. Moreover, NTS GLP-1R activation altered the expression of dopamine-related genes in the ventral tegmental area. These data reveal a food reward-suppressing role of the NTS GLP-1R and indicate that the neurobiological targets underlying food reward control are not limited to the mesolimbic system, instead they are distributed throughout the CNS. PMID:25793511

  10. YUCSA: A CLIPS expert database system to monitor academic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toptsis, Anestis A.; Ho, Frankie; Leindekar, Milton; Foon, Debra Low; Carbonaro, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The York University CLIPS Student Administrator (YUCSA), an expert database system implemented in C Language Integrated Processing System (CLIPS), for monitoring the academic performance of undergraduate students at York University, is discussed. The expert system component in the system has already been implemented for two major departments, and it is under testing and enhancement for more departments. Also, more elaborate user interfaces are under development. We describe the design and implementation of the system, problems encountered, and immediate future plans. The system has excellent maintainability and it is very efficient, taking less than one minute to complete an assessment of one student.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Methylphenidate Affects the Dopamine System and the Reactivity to Natural Reward in Adulthood in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lepelletier, François-Xavier; Tauber, Clovis; Nicolas, Céline; Solinas, Marcello; Castelnau, Pierre; Belzung, Catherine; Emond, Patrick; Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Chalon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a commonly-used medication for the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD). However, its prescription to adults with ADHD and narcolepsy raises the question of how the brain is impacted by MPH exposure during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to elucidate the long-term neurobiological consequences of prenatal exposure to MPH using a rat model. Methods: We focused on the effects of such treatment on the adult dopamine (DA) system and on the reactivity of animals to natural rewards. Results: This study shows that adult male rats prenatally exposed to MPH display elevated expression of presynaptic DA markers in the DA cell bodies and the striatum. Our results also suggest that MPH-treated animals could exhibit increased tonic DA activity in the mesolimbic pathway, altered signal-to-noise ratio after a pharmacological stimulation, and decreased reactivity to the locomotor effects of cocaine. Finally, we demonstrated that MPH rats display a decreased preference and motivation for sucrose. Conclusions: This is the first preclinical study reporting long-lasting neurobiological alterations of DA networks as well as alterations in motivational behaviors for natural rewards after a prenatal exposure to MPH. These results raise concerns about the possible neurobiological consequences of MPH treatment during pregnancy. PMID:25522388

  12. Encouraging Multiple Forms of Scholarship in Faculty Reward Systems: Influence on Faculty Work Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2006-01-01

    This article presents findings from a national study of Chief Academic Officers (CAOs) of four-year institutions on the effect of policy efforts that encourage multiple forms of scholarship on faculty involvement and satisfaction. Findings show that institutions that initiated reforms were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have…

  13. What changed during the axial age: Cognitive styles or reward systems?

    PubMed Central

    Baumard, Nicolas; Hyafil, Alexandre; Boyer, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Axial Age’ (500–300 BCE) refers to the period during which most of the main religious and spiritual traditions emerged in Eurasian societies. Although the Axial Age has recently been the focus of increasing interest,1-5 its existence is still very much in dispute. The main reason for questioning the existence of the Axial Age is that its nature, as well as its spatial and temporal boundaries, remain very much unclear. The standard approach to the Axial Age defines it as a change of cognitive style, from a narrative and analogical style to a more analytical and reflective style, probably due to the increasing use of external memory tools. Our recent research suggests an alternative hypothesis, namely a change in reward orientation, from a short-term materialistic orientation to a long-term spiritual one.6 Here, we briefly discuss these 2 alternative definitions of the Axial Age. PMID:27066164

  14. What changed during the axial age: Cognitive styles or reward systems?

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; Hyafil, Alexandre; Boyer, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The 'Axial Age' (500-300 BCE) refers to the period during which most of the main religious and spiritual traditions emerged in Eurasian societies. Although the Axial Age has recently been the focus of increasing interest,(1-5) its existence is still very much in dispute. The main reason for questioning the existence of the Axial Age is that its nature, as well as its spatial and temporal boundaries, remain very much unclear. The standard approach to the Axial Age defines it as a change of cognitive style, from a narrative and analogical style to a more analytical and reflective style, probably due to the increasing use of external memory tools. Our recent research suggests an alternative hypothesis, namely a change in reward orientation, from a short-term materialistic orientation to a long-term spiritual one.(6) Here, we briefly discuss these 2 alternative definitions of the Axial Age. PMID:27066164

  15. Development of a medical academic degree system in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijuan; Wang, Youxin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Song, Manshu; Guo, Xiuhua; Nelson, Hugh; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Context The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. Purpose We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Content Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP). The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. Conclusion The future education reforms might include: 1) a domestic system of ‘credits’ that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2) International – a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to the Bologna Accord

  16. The Rewards of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Although intrinsic rewards are important, they (along with punishment and encouragement) are insufficient for efficient learning. Teachers must supplement intrinsic rewards with extrinsic rewards, such as praising, complimenting, applauding, and providing other forms of recognition for good work. Teachers should use the weakest reward required to…

  17. Effects of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial on the dopaminergic system of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Raftogianni, A; Stamatakis, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Kollia, A-M; Stylianopoulou, F

    2014-06-01

    The mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic pathway plays a pivotal role in the reward system. During the neonatal period the mother is the main source of rewarding stimuli. We have developed an experimental model in which rat pups learn a T-maze during the neonatal period (postnatal day (PND) 10-13) using contact with the mother as the reward. One group of animals is allowed contact with the mother (receipt of expected reward, RER) while the other was denied (denial of expected reward, DER). We determined the effects of these two early experiences in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (nAc), the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] by high-performance liquid chromatography and those of D1 and D2 receptors by autoradiographic in vitro binding both on PND 13 and in adulthood. On PND13, 2h after the end of training, the RER experience resulted in higher DA, HVA and D1 receptor levels in the nAc, while the DER in lower DA and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) in the PFC. These results could be related to the reward the RER pups received through the contact with their mother. The RER and DER early experience had long-term sex-dependent effects: The RER-induced activation of the dopaminergic system in the nAc was also evident in adult female rats. In contrast, adult DER males, similar to PND13 animals, had reduced dopamine in the PFC. Our results document that early experiences, a key determinant of adult brain function, affect the dopaminergic system which is disturbed in many psychiatric diseases. PMID:24680882

  18. Real and hypothetical rewards.

    PubMed

    Locey, Matthew L; Jones, Bryan A; Rachlin, Howard

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory studies of choice and decision making among real monetary rewards typically use smaller real rewards than those common in real life. When laboratory rewards are large, they are almost always hypothetical. In applying laboratory results meaningfully to real-life situations, it is important to know the extent to which choices among hypothetical rewards correspond to choices among real rewards and whether variation of the magnitude of hypothetical rewards affects behavior in meaningful ways. The present study compared real and hypothetical monetary rewards in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants played a temporal discounting game that incorporates the logic of a repeated prisoner's-dilemma (PD) type game versus tit-for-tat; choice of one alternative ("defection" in PD terminology) resulted in a small-immediate reward; choice of the other alternative ("cooperation" in PD terminology) resulted in a larger reward delayed until the following trial. The larger-delayed reward was greater for half of the groups than for the other half. Rewards also differed in type across groups: multiples of real nickels, hypothetical nickels or hypothetical hundred-dollar bills. All groups significantly increased choice of the larger delayed reward over the 40 trials of the experiment. Over the last 10 trials, cooperation was significantly higher when the difference between larger and smaller hypothetical rewards was greater. Reward type (real or hypothetical) made no significant difference in cooperation. In Experiment 2, real and hypothetical rewards were compared in social discounting - the decrease in value to the giver of a reward as social distance increases to the receiver of the reward. Social discount rates were well described by a hyperbolic function. Discounting rates for real and hypothetical rewards did not significantly differ. These results add to the evidence that results of experiments with hypothetical rewards validly apply in everyday life. PMID

  19. Neuroimaging Risk Markers for Substance Abuse: Recent Findings on Inhibitory Control and Reward System Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Lora M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Hardee, Jillian E.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of alcohol and other drug use rise sharply throughout adolescence and peak in the early 20s. Likewise, prevalence of first-time substance use disorder (SUD) and past-year SUD both peak between ages 18–23. SUD is associated with a host of negative outcomes and is a serious health concern. Understanding the mechanisms that precede the onset and escalation of substance use is crucial in order to develop more effective prevention and intervention strategies for children and adolescents at risk for SUD. In this review, we discuss recent findings from functional neuroimaging studies in children, adolescents, and emerging adults that focus on uncovering the neural underpinnings of SUD risk. The focus is on inhibitory control and reward circuitry due to their involvement in risk-taking behaviors, which are heightened in adolescence and may facilitate substance use. We discuss convergences in the literature and highlight findings suggesting that the association between SUD risk and neurofunctioning may be moderated by age, gender, and history of substance use. Recommendations for future directions are also discussed. PMID:26236575

  20. Towards a cognitive robotics methodology for reward-based decision-making: dynamical systems modelling of the Iowa Gambling Task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2010-09-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) posits that the role of emotions and mental states in decision-making manifests through bodily responses to stimuli of import to the organism's welfare. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), proposed by Bechara and Damasio in the mid-1990s, has provided the major source of empirical validation to the role of somatic markers in the service of flexible and cost-effective decision-making in humans. In recent years the IGT has been the subject of much criticism concerning: (1) whether measures of somatic markers reveal that they are important for decision-making as opposed to behaviour preparation; (2) the underlying neural substrate posited as critical to decision-making of the type relevant to the task; and (3) aspects of the methodological approach used, particularly on the canonical version of the task. In this paper, a cognitive robotics methodology is proposed to explore a dynamical systems approach as it applies to the neural computation of reward-based learning and issues concerning embodiment. This approach is particularly relevant in light of a strongly emerging alternative hypothesis to the SMH, the reversal learning hypothesis, which links, behaviourally and neurocomputationally, a number of more or less complex reward-based decision-making tasks, including the 'A-not-B' task - already subject to dynamical systems investigations with a focus on neural activation dynamics. It is also suggested that the cognitive robotics methodology may be used to extend systematically the IGT benchmark to more naturalised, but nevertheless controlled, settings that might better explore the extent to which the SMH, and somatic states per se, impact on complex decision-making.

  1. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  2. Decreasing Off-Task Behavior through a Dot/Point Reward System and Portfolio Reflection with Second, Fifth, and Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butera, Lisa M.; Giacone, Maria V.; Wagner, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project report was to decrease off-task behavior through a dot/point reward system and portfolio reflections. Students involved in this research were in second, fifth, and sixth grade. There were a total of 85 student participants and 35 teacher participants. The dates of this research began on September 4, 2007…

  3. Modulation of neural activity by reward in medial intraparietal cortex is sensitive to temporal sequence of reward

    PubMed Central

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Stacey, Richard Greg; Tsoulfas, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    To restore movements to paralyzed patients, neural prosthetic systems must accurately decode patients' intentions from neural signals. Despite significant advancements, current systems are unable to restore complex movements. Decoding reward-related signals from the medial intraparietal area (MIP) could enhance prosthetic performance. However, the dynamics of reward sensitivity in MIP is not known. Furthermore, reward-related modulation in premotor areas has been attributed to behavioral confounds. Here we investigated the stability of reward encoding in MIP by assessing the effect of reward history on reward sensitivity. We recorded from neurons in MIP while monkeys performed a delayed-reach task under two reward schedules. In the variable schedule, an equal number of small- and large-rewards trials were randomly interleaved. In the constant schedule, one reward size was delivered for a block of trials. The memory period firing rate of most neurons in response to identical rewards varied according to schedule. Using systems identification tools, we attributed the schedule sensitivity to the dependence of neural activity on the history of reward. We did not find schedule-dependent behavioral changes, suggesting that reward modulates neural activity in MIP. Neural discrimination between rewards was less in the variable than in the constant schedule, degrading our ability to decode reach target and reward simultaneously. The effect of schedule was mitigated by adding Haar wavelet coefficients to the decoding model. This raises the possibility of multiple encoding schemes at different timescales and reinforces the potential utility of reward information for prosthetic performance. PMID:25008408

  4. Three real-time architectures - A study using reward models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, J. A.; Smith, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous applications in the area of computer system analysis can be effectively studied with Markov reward models. These models describe the evolutionary behavior of the computer system by a continuous-time Markov chain, and a reward rate is associated with each state. In reliability/availability models, upstates have reward rate 1, and down states have reward rate zero associated with them. In a combined model of performance and reliability, the reward rate of a state may be the computational capacity, or a related performance measure. Steady-state expected reward rate and expected instantaneous reward rate are clearly useful measures which can be extracted from the Markov reward model. The diversity of areas where Markov reward models may be used is illustrated with a comparative study of three examples of interest to the fault tolerant computing community.

  5. Revitalizing Faculty Work through Intrinsic Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A faculty survey suggests that college climate can help maximize faculty effectiveness. Institutions are making use of the intrinsic rewards of academic work to improve its quality, by helping faculty reach new levels of understanding and mutual learning with students, accomplish greater mastery of content, and find successful new teaching…

  6. Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…

  7. The Effectiveness of Rewards and Incentives for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Roland B.

    This study examined (1) the rewards and incentive systems currently used in schools, (2) the relationship between the existing reward system and both the excellence of the school and the behavior of teachers and administrators in searching for alternatives, and (3) the possibility of defining a rewards system for teachers which would elicit…

  8. [ZHU Lian's New Acupuncture Academic System and acupuncture science initialization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujian; Zhang, Lijian

    2015-11-01

    Acupuncture scientization was a consensus of most of acupuncture scholars who had long-term perspectives in the 20th century, among them Ms. ZHULian was the important one. Ms. ZHU Lian built a systemic new acupuncture" academic structure in practice and theory aspects. At the same time, as the main architect of Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ms. ZHU Lian was the first one who began to carry out the acupuncture clinical trail and laboratory experiment in modern way, which meant "acupuncture therapy" was transformed into "acupuncture science" by Ms. ZHULian's endeavor. PMID:26939349

  9. Social Axioms and Achievement across Cultures: The Influence of Reward for Application and Fate Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Fan; Leung, Kwok; Bond, Michael Harris

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the relationships between two social axiom dimensions, reward for application and fate control, with various achievement-related indexes across a wide range of cultures. Results showed that there was no relationship between reward for application and academic achievement or economic competitiveness, but reward for…

  10. Reward-dependent modulation of movement variability.

    PubMed

    Pekny, Sarah E; Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Movement variability is often considered an unwanted byproduct of a noisy nervous system. However, variability can signal a form of implicit exploration, indicating that the nervous system is intentionally varying the motor commands in search of actions that yield the greatest success. Here, we investigated the role of the human basal ganglia in controlling reward-dependent motor variability as measured by trial-to-trial changes in performance during a reaching task. We designed an experiment in which the only performance feedback was success or failure and quantified how reach variability was modulated as a function of the probability of reward. In healthy controls, reach variability increased as the probability of reward decreased. Control of variability depended on the history of past rewards, with the largest trial-to-trial changes occurring immediately after an unrewarded trial. In contrast, in participants with Parkinson's disease, a known example of basal ganglia dysfunction, reward was a poor modulator of variability; that is, the patients showed an impaired ability to increase variability in response to decreases in the probability of reward. This was despite the fact that, after rewarded trials, reach variability in the patients was comparable to healthy controls. In summary, we found that movement variability is partially a form of exploration driven by the recent history of rewards. When the function of the human basal ganglia is compromised, the reward-dependent control of movement variability is impaired, particularly affecting the ability to increase variability after unsuccessful outcomes. PMID:25740529

  11. Distinct Reward Properties are Encoded via Corticostriatal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David V.; Rigney, Anastasia E.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum serves as a critical brain region for reward processing. Yet, understanding the link between striatum and reward presents a challenge because rewards are composed of multiple properties. Notably, affective properties modulate emotion while informative properties help obtain future rewards. We approached this problem by emphasizing affective and informative reward properties within two independent guessing games. We found that both reward properties evoked activation within the nucleus accumbens, a subregion of the striatum. Striatal responses to informative, but not affective, reward properties predicted subsequent utilization of information for obtaining monetary reward. We hypothesized that activation of the striatum may be necessary but not sufficient to encode distinct reward properties. To investigate this possibility, we examined whether affective and informative reward properties were differentially encoded in corticostriatal interactions. Strikingly, we found that the striatum exhibited dissociable connectivity patterns with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, with increasing connectivity for affective reward properties and decreasing connectivity for informative reward properties. Our results demonstrate that affective and informative reward properties are encoded via corticostriatal interactions. These findings highlight how corticostriatal systems contribute to reward processing, potentially advancing models linking striatal activation to behavior. PMID:26831208

  12. System Integration and Network Planning in the Academic Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Marcia A.; Spackman, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer of information within the academic health center is complicated by the complex nature of the institution's multi-dimensional role. The diverse functions of patient care, administration, education and research result in a complex web of information exchange which requires an integrated approach to system management. System integration involves a thorough assessment of “end user” needs in terms of hardware and software as well as specification of the communications network architecture. The network will consist of a series of end user nodes which capture, process, archive and display information. This paper will consider some requirements of these nodes, also called intelligent workstations, relating to their management and integration into a total health care network.

  13. Either main or accessory olfactory system signaling can mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female chemosignals in sexually naive male mice.

    PubMed

    Korzan, Wayne J; Freamat, Mihael; Johnson, Adam G; Cherry, James A; Baum, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    A long-held view has been that interest of male mice in female body odors reflects an activation of reward circuits in the male brain following their detection by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and processing via the accessory olfactory system. We found that adult, sexually naive male mice acquired a conditioned place preference (CPP) after repeatedly receiving estrous female urine on the nose and being placed in an initially nonpreferred chamber with soiled estrous bedding on the floor. CPP was not acquired in control mice that received saline on the nose before being placed in a nonpreferred chamber with clean bedding. Robust acquisition of a CPP using estrous female odors as the reward persisted in separate groups of mice in which VNO-accessory olfactory function was disrupted by bilateral lesioning of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) or in which main olfactory function was disrupted by zinc sulfate lesions of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). By contrast, no CPP was acquired for estrous odors in males that received combined AOB and MOE lesions. Either the main or the accessory olfactory system suffices to mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female odors in the male mouse, even in the absence of prior mating experience. The main olfactory system is part of the circuitry that responds to chemosignals involved in motivated behavior, a role that may be particularly important for humans who lack a functional accessory olfactory system. PMID:23978150

  14. IXV re-entry demonstrator: Mission overview, system challenges and flight reward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Roberto; Denaro, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced re-entry demonstrator vehicle aimed to perform in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies. The IXV integrates key technologies at the system level, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flying test-beds. The project builds on previous achievements at system and technology levels, and provides a unique and concrete way of establishing and consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission and system objectives are the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention is paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight. Following the extensive detailed design, manufacturing, qualification, integration and testing of the flight segment and ground segment elements, IXV has performed a full successful flight on February 11th 2015. After the launch with the VEGA launcher form the CSG spaceport in French Guyana, IXV has performed a full nominal mission ending with a successful splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. During Flight Phase, the IXV space and ground segments worked perfectly, implementing the whole flight program in line with the commanded maneuvers and trajectory prediction, performing an overall flight of 34.400 km including 7.600 km with hot atmospheric re-entry in automatic guidance, concluding with successful precision landing at a distance of ~1

  15. Adding Eyes: The Rise, Rewards, and Risks of Multi-Rater Teacher Observation Systems. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    New teacher evaluation systems have emerged as the cornerstone of the recent movement to improve public school teaching. Fueled by incentives from the federal government, state and local policymakers have sought to replace the often-cursory evaluation models of the past with more comprehensive ones. In contrast to past evaluations, which often…

  16. Structured Teacher Ratings to Identify Students in Need of Academic Assistance: Validation of the Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Albers, Craig A.

    2008-01-01

    The Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System (BACESS) is a multiphase universal screening measure designed to assist educators in the identification of students who are likely to experience learning difficulties in elementary school. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the measure for this purpose. The BACESS was used…

  17. Academic Standards and Students with Disabilities: School Practitioners' Perspectives of Pedagogical Strategies and Systemic Practices Leading to Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigated evidence-based teaching strategies and systemic practices that support positive academic outcomes for students with disabilities. Equity in educating students with disabilities is paramount and reflected in the legislation of the past five decades. The Institute of Education Sciences in partnership with special…

  18. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  19. Effect of Early Overfeeding on Palatable Food Preference and Brain Dopaminergic Reward System at Adulthood: Role of Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P S; Carvalho, J C; Manhães, A C; Guarda, D S; Figueiredo, M S; Quitete, F T; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2016-05-01

    Rats raised in small litters (SL) are obese and hyperphagic. In the present study, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic reward system in these animals at adulthood. We also assessed the anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium supplementation. To induce early overfeeding, litters were adjusted to three pups on postnatal day (PN)3 (SL group). Control litters were kept with 10 pups each until weaning (NL group). On PN120, SL animals were subdivided into two groups: SL (standard diet) and SL-Ca [SL with calcium supplementation (10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow) for 60 days]. On PN175, animals were subjected to a food challenge: animals could choose between a high-fat (HFD) or a high-sugar diet (HSD). Food intake was recorded after 30 min and 12 h. Euthanasia occurred on PN180. SL rats had higher food intake, body mass and central adiposity. Sixty days of dietary calcium supplementation (SL-Ca) prevented these changes. Only SL animals preferred the HFD at 12 h. Both SL groups had lower tyrosine hydroxylase content in the ventral tegmental area, lower dopaminergic transporter content in the nucleus accumbens, and higher type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). They also had higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower pro-opiomelanocortin contents in the ARC. Calcium treatment normalised only D2R and NPY contents. Precocious obesity induces long-term effects in the brain dopaminergic system, which can be associated with an increased preference for fat at adulthood. Calcium treatment prevents this last alteration, partially through its actions on ARC D2R and NPY proteins. PMID:26929129

  20. Amygdaloid Projections to the Ventral Striatum in Mice: Direct and Indirect Chemosensory Inputs to the Brain Reward System

    PubMed Central

    Novejarque, Amparo; Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Rodents constitute good models for studying the neural basis of sociosexual behavior. Recent findings in mice have revealed the molecular identity of the some pheromonal molecules triggering intersexual attraction. However, the neural pathways mediating this basic sociosexual behavior remain elusive. Since previous work indicates that the dopaminergic tegmento-striatal pathway is not involved in pheromone reward, the present report explores alternative pathways linking the vomeronasal system with the tegmento-striatal system (the limbic basal ganglia) by means of tract-tracing experiments studying direct and indirect projections from the chemosensory amygdala to the ventral striato-pallidum. Amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and adjoining structures are studied by analyzing the retrograde transport in the amygdala from dextran amine and fluorogold injections in the ventral striatum, as well as the anterograde labeling found in the ventral striato-pallidum after dextran amine injections in the amygdala. This combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments reveals direct projections from the vomeronasal cortex to the ventral striato-pallidum, as well as indirect projections through different nuclei of the basolateral amygdala. Direct projections innervate mainly the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja, whereas indirect projections are more widespread and reach the same structures and the shell and core of nucleus accumbens. These pathways are likely to mediate innate responses to pheromones (direct projections) and conditioned responses to associated chemosensory and non-chemosensory stimuli (indirect projections). Comparative studies indicate that similar connections are present in all the studied amniote vertebrates and might constitute the basic circuitry for emotional responses to conspecifics in most vertebrates, including humans. PMID:22007159

  1. Let's move to spheres! Why a spherical coordinate system is rewarding when analyzing particle increment statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Most, Sebastian; Nowak, Wolfgang; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    For understanding non-Fickian transport in porous media, thorough understanding of pore-scale processes is required. When using particle methods as research instruments, we need a detailed understanding of the dependence and memory between subsequent increments in particle motion. We are especially interested in the dependence and memory of the spatial increments (size and direction) at consecutive time steps. Understanding the increment statistics is crucial for the upscaling that always becomes essential for transport simulations at larger scales. Upscaling means averaging over a (representative elementary) volume to save limited computational resources. However, this averaging means a loss of detail and therefore dispersion models should compensate for this loss. Formulating an appropriate dispersion model requires a detailed understanding of the dependencies and memory effects in the transport process. Particle-based simulations for transport in porous media are usually conducted and analyzed in a Cartesian coordinate system. We will show that, for understanding the process physically and representing the process statistically, it is more appropriate to switch to a spherical coordinate system that moves with each particle. Increment statistics in a Cartesian coordinate system usually reveal that a large displacement in longitudinal direction triggers a large displacement in transverse direction as fast flow channels are not perfectly aligned with the Cartesian axis along the main flow direction. We can overcome this inherent link, typical for the Cartesian description by using the absolute displacements together with the direction of the particle movement, where the direction is determined by the angles azimuth and elevation. This can be understood as a Lagrangian spherical process description. The root of the dependence of the transport process is in the complex pore geometry. For some time past, high-resolution micro-CT scans of pore space geometry became the

  2. Reward Processing in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2011-01-01

    The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that infants with autism do not experience social stimuli as rewarding, thereby leading to a cascade of potentially negative consequences for later development. While possible downstream effects of this hypothesis such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social and monetary rewarded implicit learning in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixteen males with ASD and sixteen age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were scanned while performing two versions of a rewarded implicit learning task. In addition to examining responses to reward, we investigated the neural circuitry supporting rewarded learning and the relationship between these factors and social development. We found diminished neural responses to both social and monetary rewards in ASD, with a pronounced reduction in response to social rewards (SR). Children with ASD also demonstrated a further deficit in frontostriatal response during social, but not monetary, rewarded learning. Moreover, we show a relationship between ventral striatum activity and social reciprocity in TD children. Together, these data support the hypothesis that children with ASD have diminished neural responses to SR, and that this deficit relates to social learning impairments. PMID:20437601

  3. Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, S Diane; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ng, Tien M H; Melroy, Joel T; Hess, Mary M; Tallian, Kimberly; Trujillo, Toby C; Vermeulen, Lee C

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy charged the Clinical Practice Affairs Committee to review and update the College's 1995 White Paper, "Rewards and Advancements for Clinical Pharmacy Practitioners." Because of the limited data on the present state of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, an online survey of "front-line" clinical pharmacists and pharmacy managers was conducted (1126 total respondents, 14% response rate). The resulting White Paper discusses motivators and existing systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, as well as perceived barriers to implementation of these systems. Clinical pharmacists reported work-life balance, a challenging position, and opportunities for professional advancement as the most important factors for career success. At the time of the survey, financial rewards appeared not to be a major motivator for clinical pharmacists. Managers underestimated the importance that clinical pharmacists place on work-life balance and favorable work schedules. Although almost two thirds of the clinical pharmacists surveyed had not developed a professional development plan, 84% indicated an interest in career planning. Both clinical pharmacists and managers rated the lack of a clear reward and advancement structure as the most important barrier to effective systems of rewards and advancements. Pharmacy managers and administrators are encouraged to develop effective systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists that positively impact patient care and the institution's mission; these systems will benefit the clinical pharmacist, the health care institution, and the patient. PMID:20030483

  4. Effects of early and late neonatal bromocriptine treatment on hypothalamic neuropeptides, dopaminergic reward system and behavior of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Janaine C; Lisboa, Patricia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Pinheiro, Cintia R; Fraga, Mabel C; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Franci, Celso R; Manhães, Alex C; Moura, Egberto G

    2016-06-14

    In humans, bromocriptine (BRO) is used as a treatment for many disorders, such as prolactinomas, even during pregnancy and lactation. Previously we demonstrated that maternal BRO treatment at the end of lactation programs offspring for obesity and several endocrine dysfunctions. Here, we studied the long-term effects of direct BRO injection in neonatal Wistar rats on their dopaminergic pathway, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity at adulthood. Male pups were either s.c. injected with BRO (0.1μg/once daily) from postnatal day (PN) 1 to 10 or from PN11 to 20. Controls were injected with methanol-saline. Body mass, food intake, neuropeptides, dopamine pathway parameters, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were analyzed. The dopamine pathway was analyzed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DS) at PN180. PN1-10 BRO-treated animals had normal body mass and adiposity but lower food intake and plasma prolactin (PRL). This group had higher POMC in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), higher tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the VTA, higher dopa decarboxylase (DDc), higher D2R and μu-opioid receptor in the NAc. Concerning behavior in elevated plus maze (EPM), BRO-treated animals displayed more anxiety-like behaviors. PN11-20 BRO-treated showed normal body mass and adiposity but higher food intake and plasma PRL. This group had lower POMC in the ARC, lower TH in the VTA and lower DAT in the NAc. BRO-treated animals showed less anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM. Thus, neonatal BRO injection, depending on the time of treatment, leads to different long-term dysfunctions in the dopaminergic reward system, food intake behavior and anxiety levels, findings that could be partially due to PRL and POMC changes. PMID:27038750

  5. Academic Program Review in a Loosely Coupled System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBiasio, Daniel A.; Ecker, George

    The academic program review process that accounts for conceptual properties of loose coupling is analyzed, and organizational theory literature is reviewed with regard to program review and loose coupling. In addition, the academic program review process used at Ohio State University is described in detail, and the elements of loose coupling…

  6. Orquestic regulation of neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area is strongly associated with the reward system. Dopamine is released in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex as a result of rewarding experiences such as food, sex, and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. Electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area or its output pathways can itself serve as a potent reward. Different drugs that increase dopamine levels are intrinsically rewarding. Although the dopaminergic system represent the cornerstone of the reward system, other neurotransmitters such as endogenous opioids, glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, adenosine, endocannabinoids, orexins, galanin and histamine all affect this mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. Here, we discuss current evidence on the orquestic regulation of different neurotranmitters on reward-seeking behavior and its potential effect on drug addiction. PMID:25061480

  7. ENERGY REGULATORY SIGNALS AND FOOD REWARD

    PubMed Central

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Sipols, Alfred J.

    2010-01-01

    The hormones insulin, leptin, and ghrelin have been demonstrated to act in the central nervous system (CNS) as regulators of energy homeostasis, acting at medial hypothalamic sites. Here, we summarize research demonstrating that, in addition to direct homeostatic actions at the hypothalamus, CNS circuitry that subserves reward and is also a direct and indirect target for the action of these endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis. Specifically, insulin and leptin can decrease food reward behaviors and modulate the function of neurotransmitter systems and neural circuitry that mediate food reward, the midbrain dopamine (DA) and opioidergic pathways. Ghrelin can increase food reward behaviors, and support midbrain DA neuronal function. We summarize discussion of behavioral, systems, and cellular evidence in support of the contributions of reward circuitry to the homeostatic roles of these hormones in the CNS. The understanding of neuroendocrine modulation of food reward, as well as food reward modulation by diet and obesity, may point to new directions for therapeutic approaches to overeating or eating disorders. PMID:20230849

  8. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  9. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally. PMID:25068939

  10. Integration of reward signalling and appetite regulating peptide systems in the control of food-cue responses.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, A C; Westbrook, R F; Morris, M J

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the neurobiological substrates that encode learning about food-associated cues and how those signals are modulated is of great clinical importance especially in light of the worldwide obesity problem. Inappropriate or maladaptive responses to food-associated cues can promote over-consumption, leading to excessive energy intake and weight gain. Chronic exposure to foods rich in fat and sugar alters the reinforcing value of foods and weakens inhibitory neural control, triggering learned, but maladaptive, associations between environmental cues and food rewards. Thus, responses to food-associated cues can promote cravings and food-seeking by activating mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurocircuitry, and exert physiological effects including salivation. These responses may be analogous to the cravings experienced by abstaining drug addicts that can trigger relapse into drug self-administration. Preventing cue-triggered eating may therefore reduce the over-consumption seen in obesity and binge-eating disorder. In this review we discuss recent research examining how cues associated with palatable foods can promote reward-based feeding behaviours and the potential involvement of appetite-regulating peptides including leptin, ghrelin, orexin and melanin concentrating hormone. These peptide signals interface with mesolimbic dopaminergic regions including the ventral tegmental area to modulate reactivity to cues associated with palatable foods. Thus, a novel target for anti-obesity therapeutics is to reduce non-homeostatic, reward driven eating behaviour, which can be triggered by environmental cues associated with highly palatable, fat and sugar rich foods. PMID:26403657

  11. Memory systems in the rat: effects of reward probability, context, and congruency between working and reference memory.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William A; Guitar, Nicole A; Marsh, Heidi L; MacDonald, Hayden

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of working and reference memory was studied in rats on an eight-arm radial maze. In two experiments, rats were trained to perform working memory and reference memory tasks. On working memory trials, they were allowed to enter four randomly chosen arms for reward in a study phase and then had to choose the unentered arms for reward in a test phase. On reference memory trials, they had to learn to visit the same four arms on the maze on every trial for reward. Retention was tested on working memory trials in which the interval between the study and test phase was 15 s, 15 min, or 30 min. At each retention interval, tests were performed in which the correct WM arms were either congruent or incongruent with the correct RM arms. Both experiments showed that congruency interacted with retention interval, yielding more forgetting at 30 min on incongruent trials than on congruent trials. The effect of reference memory strength on the congruency effect was examined in Experiment 1, and the effect of associating different contexts with working and reference memory on the congruency effect was studied in Experiment 2. PMID:26914457

  12. Introduction of Sap ERP System Into a Heterogeneous Academic Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mornar, Vedran; Fertalj, Krešimir; Kalpić, Damir

    2010-06-01

    Introduction of a complex ERP system like SAP into a heterogeneous academic environment like the University of Zagreb is far from being a trivial task. The University comprises more than 30 constituents, called faculties or academies, geographically dispersed, with long and specific traditions. Financing according to the lump sum principle, enforced in Croatia as a side effect of the in Europe obligatory and omnipresent Bologna process, requires a unified view on the educational institutions in order to provide a more just and appropriate financing scheme than the current one. After the experience with own development to support educational tasks and student administration, for standard financial and administration tasks SAP has been chosen as the most appropriate platform. The developer was selected after public bidding and the authors' institution was chosen for the pilot project. The authors were playing principal roles in the process of successful deployment and still expect to offer their expertise for implementation in the rest of the University. However, serious risks stemming from lack of motivation by some constituents are present.

  13. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  14. The Utilization of a Computer Assisted Guidance System in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfautz, Charles Van Vleck

    2010-01-01

    Computer assisted guidance systems may adapt well to various models of academic advising, and they have the ability to address the challenge of meeting the diverse advising needs of community college students without sacrificing the integrity of academic advising (Fowkes & McWhirter, 2007). The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess…

  15. Academic Achievement and School Functioning among Nonincarcerated Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathan D.; Riley, Anne W.; Walrath, Christine M.; Leaf, Philip J.; Valdez, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between academic problems and delinquency is well documented among incarcerated populations but has not been examined among nonincarcerated youth involved with the juvenile justice system. This research examined the school functioning and academic achievement of 157 youth who had brief contact with a state department of juvenile…

  16. Challenges and Opportunities of Information Technology in the 90s. Track VI: Managing Academic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Six papers from the 1990 CAUSE conference's Track VI, Managing Academic Information Systems are presented. Papers discuss issues related to the integration of merging technologies - computing, communications, classrooms - and their effects on the way "academic business" is conducted. Papers and their authors are as follows: "Networked Information…

  17. Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) for Classifying Students Academic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaemu; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Kwangho

    2012-01-01

    Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, assessment for we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying…

  18. Academic Building Systems. A Technique to Maximize Control of Construction Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Donald H.

    1972-01-01

    Academic Building Systems (ABS) is an architectural planning and design method which allows the construction owner to respond to the need for less expensive structures, economically adaptable to the changing conditions of the academic world, by providing the owner with the maximum controls over the variable cost factors in educational facility…

  19. Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,…

  20. Maltreatment, Academic Difficulty, and Systems-Involved Youth: Current Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Susan; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Youth involved in child-serving systems of care (e.g., child welfare and juvenile justice) often exhibit specific academic performance problems. The magnitude of academic risk among these students is a serious concern given that school attachment, performance, and attainment closely relate to indicators of well-being across the lifespan. It is…

  1. Dopamine: the rewarding years

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

  2. "Liking" and "wanting" linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: "liking,"learning," and "wanting" [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or "wanting" hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily selfadministered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the "high" that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions. PMID:22236117

  3. What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?

    PubMed

    Berridge, K C; Robinson, T E

    1998-12-01

    What roles do mesolimbic and neostriatal dopamine systems play in reward? Do they mediate the hedonic impact of rewarding stimuli? Do they mediate hedonic reward learning and associative prediction? Our review of the literature, together with results of a new study of residual reward capacity after dopamine depletion, indicates the answer to both questions is 'no'. Rather, dopamine systems may mediate the incentive salience of rewards, modulating their motivational value in a manner separable from hedonia and reward learning. In a study of the consequences of dopamine loss, rats were depleted of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and neostriatum by up to 99% using 6-hydroxydopamine. In a series of experiments, we applied the 'taste reactivity' measure of affective reactions (gapes, etc.) to assess the capacity of dopamine-depleted rats for: 1) normal affect (hedonic and aversive reactions), 2) modulation of hedonic affect by associative learning (taste aversion conditioning), and 3) hedonic enhancement of affect by non-dopaminergic pharmacological manipulation of palatability (benzodiazepine administration). We found normal hedonic reaction patterns to sucrose vs. quinine, normal learning of new hedonic stimulus values (a change in palatability based on predictive relations), and normal pharmacological hedonic enhancement of palatability. We discuss these results in the context of hypotheses and data concerning the role of dopamine in reward. We review neurochemical, electrophysiological, and other behavioral evidence. We conclude that dopamine systems are not needed either to mediate the hedonic pleasure of reinforcers or to mediate predictive associations involved in hedonic reward learning. We conclude instead that dopamine may be more important to incentive salience attributions to the neural representations of reward-related stimuli. Incentive salience, we suggest, is a distinct component of motivation and reward. In other words, dopamine systems are necessary

  4. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors. PMID:24130517

  5. The Changing Functions of Citation: From Knowledge Networking to Academic Cash-Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    This essay reviews the changing functions, and effects, of citation systems in scholarly research as they move from a range of uses primarily oriented around knowledge networking and epistemic validation, to their use as a set of metrics oriented around evaluating and rewarding certain kinds of academic performance (e.g. "impact…

  6. Reward feedback accelerates motor learning.

    PubMed

    Nikooyan, Ali A; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2015-01-15

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reward feedback alone can drive motor learning. However, it is not yet clear whether reward feedback alone can lead to learning when a perturbation is introduced abruptly, or how a reward gradient can modulate learning. In this study, we provide reward feedback that decays continuously with increasing error. We asked whether it is possible to learn an abrupt visuomotor rotation by reward alone, and if the learning process could be modulated by combining reward and sensory feedback and/or by using different reward landscapes. We designed a novel visuomotor learning protocol during which subjects experienced an abruptly introduced rotational perturbation. Subjects received either visual feedback or reward feedback, or a combination of the two. Two different reward landscapes, where the reward decayed either linearly or cubically with distance from the target, were tested. Results demonstrate that it is possible to learn from reward feedback alone and that the combination of reward and sensory feedback accelerates learning. An analysis of the underlying mechanisms reveals that although reward feedback alone does not allow for sensorimotor remapping, it can nonetheless lead to broad generalization, highlighting a dissociation between remapping and generalization. Also, the combination of reward and sensory feedback accelerates learning without compromising sensorimotor remapping. These findings suggest that the use of reward feedback is a promising approach to either supplement or substitute sensory feedback in the development of improved neurorehabilitation techniques. More generally, they point to an important role played by reward in the motor learning process. PMID:25355957

  7. Musical pleasure and reward: mechanisms and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    Most people derive pleasure from music. Neuroimaging studies show that the reward system of the human brain is central to this experience. Specifically, the dorsal and ventral striatum release dopamine when listening to pleasurable music, and activity in these structures also codes the reward value of musical excerpts. Moreover, the striatum interacts with cortical mechanisms involved in perception and valuation of musical stimuli. Recent studies have begun to explore individual differences in the way that this complex system functions. Development of a questionnaire for music reward experiences has allowed the identification of separable factors associated with musical pleasure, described as music-seeking, emotion-evocation, mood regulation, sensorimotor, and social factors. Applying this questionnaire to a large sample uncovered approximately 5% of the population with low sensitivity to musical reward in the absence of generalized anhedonia or depression. Further study of this group revealed that there are individuals who respond normally both behaviorally and psychophysiologically to rewards other than music (e.g., monetary value) but do not experience pleasure from music despite normal music perception ability and preserved ability to identify intended emotions in musical passages. This specific music anhedonia bears further study, as it may shed light on the function and dysfunction of the reward system. PMID:25773636

  8. Does academic assessment system type affect levels of academic stress in medical students? A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniyal; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives. PMID:26112353

  9. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor reverses alcohol-induced allostasis of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system: implications for alcohol reward and seeking

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Segev; Carnicella, Sebastien; Yowell, Quinn V.; Ron, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) rapidly reduces alcohol intake and relapse (Carnicella et al., 2008; Carnicella et al., 2009a), and increases dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-naïve rats (Wang et al., 2010). Withdrawal from excessive alcohol intake is associated with a reduction in NAc DA levels, whereas drug-induced increases in NAc DA levels are associated with reward. We therefore tested whether GDNF in the VTA reverses alcohol withdrawal-associated DA deficiency and/or possesses rewarding properties. Rats were trained for 7 weeks to consume high levels of alcohol (5.47 ± 0.37 g/kg/24-hrs) in intermittent access to 20% alcohol in a 2-bottle choice procedure. Using in vivo microdialysis, we show that 24-hrs withdrawal from alcohol causes a substantial reduction in NAc DA overflow, which was reversed by intra-VTA GDNF infusion. Using conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, we observed that GDNF on its own does not induce CPP, suggesting that the growth factor is not rewarding. However, GDNF blocked acquisition and expression of alcohol-CPP. In addition, GDNF induced a downward shift in the dose-response curve for operant self-administration of alcohol, further suggesting that GDNF suppresses, rather than substitutes for, the reinforcing effects of alcohol. Our findings suggest that GDNF reduces alcohol-drinking behaviors by reversing an alcohol-induced allostatic DA deficiency in the mesolimbic system. In addition, as it lacks abuse liability, the study further highlights GDNF as a promising target for treatment of alcohol use/abuse disorders. PMID:21734280

  10. A Multi-User Remote Academic Laboratory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Arquimedes; Panche, Stifen; Duque, Mauricio; Grisales, Victor H.; Prieto, Flavio; Villa, Jose L.; Chevrel, Philippe; Canu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation and preliminary operation assessment of Multiuser Network Architecture to integrate a number of Remote Academic Laboratories for educational purposes on automatic control. Through the Internet, real processes or physical experiments conducted at the control engineering laboratories of four…

  11. Pilot randomized trial demonstrating reversal of obesity-related abnormalities in reward system responsivity to food cues with a behavioral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Deckersbach, T; Das, S K; Urban, L E; Salinardi, T; Batra, P; Rodman, A M; Arulpragasam, A R; Dougherty, D D; Roberts, S B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Obesity is associated with hyperactivation of the reward system for high-calorie (HC) versus low-calorie (LC) food cues, which encourages unhealthy food selection and overeating. However, the extent to which this hyperactivation can be reversed is uncertain, and to date there has been no demonstration of changes by behavioral intervention. Subjects and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure changes in activation of the striatum for food images at baseline and 6 months in a pilot study of 13 overweight or obese adults randomized to a control group or a novel weight-loss intervention. Results: Compared to controls, intervention participants achieved significant weight loss (−6.3±1.0 kg versus +2.1±1.1 kg, P<0.001) and had increased activation for LC food images with a composition consistent with that recommended in the behavioral intervention at 6 months versus baseline in the right ventral putamen (P=0.04), decreased activation for HC images of typically consumed foods in the left dorsal putamen (P=0.01). There was also a large significant shift in relative activation favoring LC versus HC foods in both regions (P<0.04). Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of a positive shift in activation of the reward system toward healthy versus unhealthy food cues in a behavioral intervention, suggesting new avenues to enhance behavioral treatments of obesity. PMID:25177910

  12. Driving the need to feed: Insight into the collaborative interaction between ghrelin and endocannabinoid systems in modulating brain reward systems.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexander; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Independent stimulation of either the ghrelin or endocannabinoid system promotes food intake and increases adiposity. Given the similar distribution of their receptors in feeding associated brain regions and organs involved in metabolism, it is not surprising that evidence of their interaction and its importance in modulating energy balance has emerged. This review documents the relationship between ghrelin and endocannabinoid systems within the periphery and hypothalamus (HYP) before presenting evidence suggesting that these two systems likewise work collaboratively within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to modulate non-homeostatic feeding. Mechanisms, consistent with current evidence and local infrastructure within the VTA, will be proposed. PMID:27136126

  13. A non-reward attractor theory of depression.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2016-09-01

    A non-reward attractor theory of depression is proposed based on the operation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and supracallosal cingulate cortex. The orbitofrontal cortex contains error neurons that respond to non-reward for many seconds in an attractor state that maintains a memory of the non-reward. The human lateral orbitofrontal cortex is activated by non-reward during reward reversal, and by a signal to stop a response that is now incorrect. Damage to the human orbitofrontal cortex impairs reward reversal learning. Not receiving reward can produce depression. The theory proposed is that in depression, this lateral orbitofrontal cortex non-reward system is more easily triggered, and maintains its attractor-related firing for longer. This triggers negative cognitive states, which in turn have positive feedback top-down effects on the orbitofrontal cortex non-reward system. Treatments for depression, including ketamine, may act in part by quashing this attractor. The mania of bipolar disorder is hypothesized to be associated with oversensitivity and overactivity in the reciprocally related reward system in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual cingulate cortex. PMID:27181908

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and brain reward.

    PubMed

    Clark, A S; Lindenfeld, R C; Gibbons, C H

    1996-03-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) effects on brain reward were investigated in male rats with electrodes implanted in the lateral hypothalamus using the rate-frequency curve shift paradigm of brain stimulation reward. In the first experiment, treatment for 2 weeks with the AAS methandrostenolone had no effect on either the reward or performance components of intracranial self-stimulation. In the second experiment, treatment for 15 weeks with an AAS "cocktail" consisting of testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate, and boldenone undecylenate did not alter brain reward but did produce a slight but significant change in bar press rate. In addition to the AAS treatment, animals in the second study were administered a single injection of d-amphetamine before and after 15 weeks of AAS exposure. The rate-frequency curve shift observed in response to a systemic injection of amphetamine was significantly greater in animals after 15 weeks of treatment with the AAS cocktail. Although AAS do not appear to alter the rewarding properties of brain stimulation, AAS may influence the sensitivity of brain reward systems. PMID:8866980

  15. Pain and suicidality: insights from reward and addiction neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Elman, Igor; Borsook, David; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-10-01

    Suicidality is exceedingly prevalent in pain patients. Although the pathophysiology of this link remains unclear, it may be potentially related to the partial congruence of physical and emotional pain systems. The latter system's role in suicide is also conspicuous during setbacks and losses sustained in the context of social attachments. Here we propose a model based on the neural pathways mediating reward and anti-reward (i.e., allostatic adjustment to recurrent activation of the reward circuitry); both are relevant etiologic factors in pain, suicide and social attachments. A comprehensive literature search on neurobiology of pain and suicidality was performed. The collected articles were critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and summarized within four key areas: (1) physical and emotional pain, (2) emotional pain and social attachments, (3) pain- and suicide-related alterations of the reward and anti-reward circuits as compared to addiction, which is the premier probe for dysfunction of these circuits and (4) mechanistically informed treatments of co-occurring pain and suicidality. Pain-, stress- and analgesic drugs-induced opponent and proponent states of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways may render reward and anti-reward systems vulnerable to sensitization, cross-sensitization and aberrant learning of contents and contexts associated with suicidal acts and behaviors. These findings suggest that pain patients exhibit alterations in the brain circuits mediating reward (depressed function) and anti-reward (sensitized function) that may affect their proclivity for suicide and support pain and suicidality classification among other "reward deficiency syndromes" and a new proposal for "enhanced anti-reward syndromes". We suggest that interventions aimed at restoring the balance between the reward and anti-reward networks in patients with chronic pain may help decreasing their suicide risk. PMID:23827972

  16. Dysregulation of Brain Reward Systems in Eating Disorders: Neurochemical Information from Animal Models of Binge Eating, Bulimia Nervosa, and Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Avena, Nicole M.; Bocarsly, Miriam E.

    2012-01-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of starvation coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Finally, information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. PMID:22138162

  17. Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E

    2012-07-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of restricted eating coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'. PMID:22138162

  18. SOVEREIGN: An autonomous neural system for incrementally learning planned action sequences to navigate towards a rewarded goal.

    PubMed

    Gnadt, William; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    How do reactive and planned behaviors interact in real time? How are sequences of such behaviors released at appropriate times during autonomous navigation to realize valued goals? Controllers for both animals and mobile robots, or animats, need reactive mechanisms for exploration, and learned plans to reach goal objects once an environment becomes familiar. The SOVEREIGN (Self-Organizing, Vision, Expectation, Recognition, Emotion, Intelligent, Goal-oriented Navigation) animat model embodies these capabilities, and is tested in a 3D virtual reality environment. SOVEREIGN includes several interacting subsystems which model complementary properties of cortical What and Where processing streams and which clarify similarities between mechanisms for navigation and arm movement control. As the animat explores an environment, visual inputs are processed by networks that are sensitive to visual form and motion in the What and Where streams, respectively. Position-invariant and size-invariant recognition categories are learned by real-time incremental learning in the What stream. Estimates of target position relative to the animat are computed in the Where stream, and can activate approach movements toward the target. Motion cues from animat locomotion can elicit head-orienting movements to bring a new target into view. Approach and orienting movements are alternately performed during animat navigation. Cumulative estimates of each movement are derived from interacting proprioceptive and visual cues. Movement sequences are stored within a motor working memory. Sequences of visual categories are stored in a sensory working memory. These working memories trigger learning of sensory and motor sequence categories, or plans, which together control planned movements. Predictively effective chunk combinations are selectively enhanced via reinforcement learning when the animat is rewarded. Selected planning chunks effect a gradual transition from variable reactive exploratory

  19. Pain and suicidality: Insights from reward and addiction neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Igor; Borsook, David; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Suicidality is exceedingly prevalent in pain patients. Although the pathophysiology of this link remains unclear, it may be potentially related to the partial congruence of physical and emotional pain systems. The latter system’s role in suicide is also conspicuous during setbacks and losses sustained in the context of social attachments. Here we propose a model based on the neural pathways mediating reward and anti-reward (i.e., allostatic adjustment to recurrent activation of the reward circuitry); both are relevant etiologic factors in pain, suicide and social attachments. A comprehensive literature search on neurobiology of pain and suicidality was performed. The collected articles were critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and summarized within four key areas: (1) physical and emotional pain, (2) emotional pain and social attachments, (3) pain-and suicide-related alterations of the reward and anti-reward circuits as compared to addiction, which is the premier probe for dysfunction of these circuits and (4) mechanistically informed treatments of co-occurring pain and suicidality. Pain-, stress- and analgesic drugs-induced opponent and proponent states of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways may render reward and anti-reward systems vulnerable to sensitization, cross-sensitization and aberrant learning of contents and contexts associated with suicidal acts and behaviors. These findings suggest that pain patients exhibit alterations in the brain circuits mediating reward (depressed function) and anti-reward (sensitized function) that may affect their proclivity for suicide and support pain and suicidality classification among other “reward deficiency syndromes” and a new proposal for “enhanced anti-reward syndromes”. We suggest that interventions aimed at restoring the balance between the reward and anti-reward networks in patients with chronic pain may help decreasing their suicide risk. PMID:23827972

  20. Reward Networks in the Brain as Captured by Connectivity Measures

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Estela; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ye, Zheng; Münte, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    An assortment of human behaviors is thought to be driven by rewards including reinforcement learning, novelty processing, learning, decision making, economic choice, incentive motivation, and addiction. In each case the ventral tegmental area/ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) (VTA–VS) system has been implicated as a key structure by functional imaging studies, mostly on the basis of standard, univariate analyses. Here we propose that standard functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis needs to be complemented by methods that take into account the differential connectivity of the VTA–VS system in the different behavioral contexts in order to describe reward based processes more appropriately. We first consider the wider network for reward processing as it emerged from animal experimentation. Subsequently, an example for a method to assess functional connectivity is given. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of such analyses by examples regarding reward valuation, reward expectation and the role of reward in addiction. PMID:20198152

  1. Measuring Academic Progress: The Course-Credit System in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the course-credit system in the United States, the standard means of measuring academic work. Discusses how the system is a means of measuring the time spent on study and not the quality of work; since the 19th century, the course-credit system has been the major "currency" in American higher education and has proven quite successful.…

  2. Making a Case for Using Electronic Performance Support Systems in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schaik, Paul; Barker, Philip; Famakinwa, Oladeji

    2007-01-01

    Electronic performance support system (EPSS) technology provides a powerful mechanism for helping end-users operate complex systems. This article describes and discusses some research we have undertaken to explore their potential within academic library systems. Based on a needs analysis, an EPSS for supporting library users was designed and…

  3. Strategic Planning for Information Systems: The Evidence from a Successful Implementation in an Academic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Richard B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates how an information systems plan can be successfully developed and implemented within an academic setting. Six guidelines for information systems planning are provided; problems are identified and recommendations to address the problems are suggested; and information systems objectives are discussed, including business communications,…

  4. Recruiting and Rewarding Faculty for Medical Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pessar, Linda F.; Levine, Ruth E.; Bernstein, Carol A.; Cabaniss, Deborah S.; Dickstein, Leah J.; Graff, Sarah V.; Hales, Deborah J.; Nadelson, Carol; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Scheiber, Stephen C.; Jones, Paul M.; Silberman, Edward K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Finding time to teach psychiatry has become increasingly difficult. Concurrently, changes in medical student education are elevating demands for teaching. Academic psychiatry is challenged by these pressures to find innovative ways to recruit, retain, and reward faculty for teaching efforts. To address this challenge, the authors…

  5. The Rewards of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Powell, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of knowledge exists which describes the rewards and importance of mentors in the professional development of young men and women, particularly with relation to their interactions in professional and organizational settings. Research in both educational settings and the workplace indicates that students and employees alike are more…

  6. Do Economic Rewards Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    The love of learning--that intrinsic desire to gain knowledge and insight into new subjects--was once its own reward. That was altered decades ago when parents started using the proverbial "stick and carrot" to motivate their children to do well in school, or even just show up. Today, educators across the country have taken hold of this approach…

  7. A Rewarding Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Cheryl; Swanson, Marc

    2006-01-01

    A collaborating scientist--a rewarding addition to any high school science program--can help students collect and analyze data that either replicates or parallels the work of the partnering scientist. This type of partnership is beneficial for both students and scientists, and perhaps there has never been a better time to consider such a…

  8. A Positive Affective Neuroendocrinology Approach to Reward and Behavioral Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Welker, Keith M.; Gruber, June; Mehta, Pranjal H.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging lines of research suggest that both testosterone and maladaptive reward processing can modulate behavioral dysregulation. Yet, to date, no integrative account has been provided that systematically explains neuroendocrine function, dysregulation of reward, and behavioral dysregulation in a unified perspective. This is particularly important given specific neuroendocrine systems are potential mechanisms underlying and giving rise to reward-relevant behaviors. In this review, we propose a forward-thinking approach to study the mechanisms of reward and behavioral dysregulation from a positive affective neuroendocrinology (PANE) perspective. This approach holds that testosterone increases reward processing and motivation, which increase the likelihood of behavioral dysregulation. Additionally, the PANE framework holds that reward processing mediates the effects of testosterone on behavioral dysregulation. We also explore sources of potential sex differences and the roles of age, cortisol, and individual differences within the PANE framework. Finally, we discuss future prospects for research questions and methodology in the emerging field of affective neuroendocrinology. PMID:26191007

  9. Recent studies of the effects of sugars on brain systems involved in energy balance and reward: Relevance to low calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Criscitelli, Kristen; Avena, Nicole M

    2016-10-01

    The alarmingly high rates of overweight and obesity pose a serious global health threat. Numerous factors can result in weight gain, one of which is excess consumption of caloric sweeteners. In an effort to aid weight loss efforts, many people have switched from caloric sweeteners to low calorie sweeteners, which provide sweet taste without the accompanying calories. In this review, we present an overview of the animal literature produced in the last 5years highlighting the effects of sugar consumption on neural pathways involved in energy balance regulation and reward processing. We also examine the latest evidence that is beginning to elucidate the effects of low calorie sweeteners on these neural pathways, as well as how homeostatic and hedonic systems interact in response to, or to influence, sugar consumption. PMID:27068180

  10. Academic Deans: Keep the Heart Pumping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sbaratta, Philip

    1983-01-01

    Examines the responses of 15 academic deans in Massachusetts community colleges to questions on recognizing, nurturing, encouraging, and rewarding teaching excellence. Concludes that mediocrity and doing the minimum prevail unless the recognition of special talent, encouragement of effort, and direct rewards are coordinated. (DMM)

  11. Reward positivity: Reward prediction error or salience prediction error?

    PubMed

    Heydari, Sepideh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2016-08-01

    The reward positivity is a component of the human ERP elicited by feedback stimuli in trial-and-error learning and guessing tasks. A prominent theory holds that the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal that is sensitive to outcome valence, being larger for unexpected positive events relative to unexpected negative events (Holroyd & Coles, 2002). Although the theory has found substantial empirical support, most of these studies have utilized either monetary or performance feedback to test the hypothesis. However, in apparent contradiction to the theory, a recent study found that unexpected physical punishments also elicit the reward positivity (Talmi, Atkinson, & El-Deredy, 2013). The authors of this report argued that the reward positivity reflects a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. To investigate this finding further, in the present study participants navigated a virtual T maze and received feedback on each trial under two conditions. In a reward condition, the feedback indicated that they would either receive a monetary reward or not and in a punishment condition the feedback indicated that they would receive a small shock or not. We found that the feedback stimuli elicited a typical reward positivity in the reward condition and an apparently delayed reward positivity in the punishment condition. Importantly, this signal was more positive to the stimuli that predicted the omission of a possible punishment relative to stimuli that predicted a forthcoming punishment, which is inconsistent with the salience hypothesis. PMID:27184070

  12. Deficits in context-dependent adaptive coding of reward in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Matthias; Hager, Oliver M; Bischof, Martin; Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical principles of information processing and empirical findings suggest that to efficiently represent all possible rewards in the natural environment, reward-sensitive neurons have to adapt their coding range dynamically to the current reward context. Adaptation ensures that the reward system is most sensitive for the most likely rewards, enabling the system to efficiently represent a potentially infinite range of reward information. A deficit in neural adaptation would prevent precise representation of rewards and could have detrimental effects for an organism’s ability to optimally engage with its environment. In schizophrenia, reward processing is known to be impaired and has been linked to different symptom dimensions. However, despite the fundamental significance of coding reward adaptively, no study has elucidated whether adaptive reward processing is impaired in schizophrenia. We therefore studied patients with schizophrenia (n=27) and healthy controls (n=25), using functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a variant of the monetary incentive delay task. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed less efficient neural adaptation to the current reward context, which leads to imprecise neural representation of reward. Importantly, the deficit correlated with total symptom severity. Our results suggest that some of the deficits in reward processing in schizophrenia might be due to inefficient neural adaptation to the current reward context. Furthermore, because adaptive coding is a ubiquitous feature of the brain, we believe that our findings provide an avenue in defining a general impairment in neural information processing underlying this debilitating disorder. PMID:27430009

  13. Deficits in context-dependent adaptive coding of reward in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Matthias; Hager, Oliver M; Bischof, Martin; Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical principles of information processing and empirical findings suggest that to efficiently represent all possible rewards in the natural environment, reward-sensitive neurons have to adapt their coding range dynamically to the current reward context. Adaptation ensures that the reward system is most sensitive for the most likely rewards, enabling the system to efficiently represent a potentially infinite range of reward information. A deficit in neural adaptation would prevent precise representation of rewards and could have detrimental effects for an organism's ability to optimally engage with its environment. In schizophrenia, reward processing is known to be impaired and has been linked to different symptom dimensions. However, despite the fundamental significance of coding reward adaptively, no study has elucidated whether adaptive reward processing is impaired in schizophrenia. We therefore studied patients with schizophrenia (n=27) and healthy controls (n=25), using functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a variant of the monetary incentive delay task. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed less efficient neural adaptation to the current reward context, which leads to imprecise neural representation of reward. Importantly, the deficit correlated with total symptom severity. Our results suggest that some of the deficits in reward processing in schizophrenia might be due to inefficient neural adaptation to the current reward context. Furthermore, because adaptive coding is a ubiquitous feature of the brain, we believe that our findings provide an avenue in defining a general impairment in neural information processing underlying this debilitating disorder. PMID:27430009

  14. A Typology Framework of Loyalty Reward Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuheng; Nsakanda, Aaron Luntala; Mann, Inder Jit Singh

    Loyalty reward programs (LRPs), initially developed as marketing programs to enhance customer retention, have now become an important part of customer-focused business strategy. With the proliferation and increasing economy impact of the programs, the management complexity in the programs has also increased. However, despite widespread adoption of LRPs in business, academic research in the field seems to lag behind its practical application. Even the fundamental questions such as what LRPs are and how to classify them have not yet been fully addressed. In this paper, a comprehensive framework for LRP classification is proposed, which provides a foundation for further study of LRP design and planning issues.

  15. Effectiveness of a Local Inter-Loan System for Five Academic Libraries: An Operational Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, A. F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of operational effectiveness in libraries focuses on a modeling approach that was used to compare the effectiveness of a local interlibrary loan system with using a national system, the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC). Cost figures and surveys of five academic libraries are described. (six references) (LRW)

  16. A System of Student Feedback: Considerations of Academic Staff Taken into Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpiau, Veerle; Masschelein, Evelien; Van Der Stockt, Luc; Verhesschen, Piet; Waeytens, Kim

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the suspension of a system of yearly evaluations of individual courses with student questionnaires, the University of Leuven organised a broad consultation of the academic community focussing on what they expect from a system based on student feedback. The study revealed that this community attaches great importance to a clear…

  17. The Open Academic Model for the Systems Engineering Graduate Program at Stevens Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasfer, Kahina

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Program at Stevens Institute of Technology has developed the Open Academic Model (OAM) to guide its strategic planning and operations since its founding in 2001. Guided by OAM, the Stevens Systems Engineering Program (SSEP) has grown from inception in 2001 into one of the largest in the US. The main objectives of the…

  18. The Impact of Merit-Pay Systems on the Work and Attitudes of Mexican Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaz-Fontes, Jesús Francisco; Gil-Antón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The central purpose of this work is to present data that evaluates the impact and perspectives of various merit-pay systems directed at Mexican academics. To this end a brief description is provided of recent Mexican higher education evolution, including that of merit-pay programs. It is proposed that faculty merit-pay systems, in the context of…

  19. Tenure Track Career System as a Strategic Instrument for Academic Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietilä, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the purposes for which leaders in universities use academic career systems. It focuses on the tenure track system which is new to Finland. Tenure track represents a newly established internal career path in a situation in which Finnish universities' organizational autonomy increased via new legislation from 2010. Drawing…

  20. Direct evidence for the involvement of the mesolimbic kappa-opioid system in the morphine-induced rewarding effect under an inflammatory pain-like state.

    PubMed

    Narita, Minoru; Kishimoto, Yayoi; Ise, Yuya; Yajima, Yoshinori; Misawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that when morphine is used to control pain in cancer patients, psychological dependence is not a major concern. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the modulation of psychological dependence on morphine under a chronic pain-like state in rats. The prototypical mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a dose-dependent place preference. In the present study, we found that an inflammatory pain-like state following formalin injection significantly suppressed the morphine-induced rewarding effect. This effect was almost reversed by s.c. pretreatment with the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI, 5 mg/kg). Furthermore, the morphine-induced increase in dopamine (DA) turnover in the limbic forebrain was significantly inhibited by treatment with formalin. This inhibition was also suppressed by pretreatment with nor-BNI. In addition, in vivo microdialysis studies clearly showed that the morphine-induced increase in the extracellular levels of DA and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, in the nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.) was significantly decreased in rats that had been pretreated with formalin. This effect was in turn reversed by the microinjection of a specific dynorphin A antibody into the N.Acc. These findings suggest that the inflammatory pain-like state induced by formalin injection may have caused a sustained activation of the kappa-opioidergic system within the N.Acc., resulting in suppression of the morphine-induced rewarding effect in rats. The present study provides further evidence of the clinical usefulness of morphine in patients suffering from severe pain. PMID:15257306

  1. High Behavioral Approach System (BAS) Sensitivity, Reward Responsiveness, and Goal-Striving Predict First Onset of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: A Prospective Behavioral High-Risk Design

    PubMed Central

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Bender, Rachel E.; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Wagner, Clara A.; Liu, Richard T.; Grant, David A.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Molz, Ashleigh; Choi, James Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective, behavioral high-risk design provided a theoretically guided examination of vulnerability to first onset of bipolar spectrum disorder based on the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model. Adolescents (ages 14–19) at an “age of risk” for bipolar disorder onset were screened on BAS sensitivity by interviewers blind to current symptoms, lifetime history, and family history of psychopathology. Participants were selected with high versus moderate levels of BAS sensitivity and administered a lifetime diagnostic interview. Those with a bipolar spectrum disorder, psychosis, or hypomanic episode with onset prior to the BAS sensitivity assessment were excluded. High BAS (n = 171) and Moderate BAS (n = 119) sensitivity participants in the final sample completed baseline measures of symptoms, goal-setting, and reward responsiveness and were followed prospectively with semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months. Consistent with the vulnerability hypothesis of the BAS model of bipolar disorder, high BAS participants had a greater likelihood, and shorter time to onset, of bipolar spectrum disorder than moderate BAS participants across an average of 12.8 months of follow-up (12.9% vs. 4.2%), controlling for baseline depressive and hypomanic symptoms, and family history of bipolar disorder. High reward responsiveness on a behavioral task and ambitious goal-striving for popular fame and financial success (but not impulsivity) also predicted first onset of bipolar spectrum disorder controlling for the covariates and BAS risk group, and ambitious goal-striving partially mediated the BAS risk group effect. We discuss implications of the findings for the BAS model of bipolar disorder and early intervention efforts. PMID:22004113

  2. Maternal nicotine exposure during lactation alters food preference, anxiety-like behavior and the brain dopaminergic reward system in the adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Santos-Silva, A P; Lotufo, B M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-10-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is activated by drugs of abuse and palatable food, causing a sense of pleasure, which promotes further consumption of these substances. Children whose parents smoke are more vulnerable to present addictive-like behavior to drugs and food.We evaluated the association between maternal nicotine exposure during lactation with changes in feeding, behavior and in the dopaminergic reward system. On postnatal day (PN) 2,Wistar rat dams were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (N; 6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14 days. On PN150 and PN160, offspring were divided into 4 groups for a food challenge: N and C that received standard chow(SC); and N and C that could freely self-select (SSD) between high-fat and high-sugar diets (HFD and HSD, respectively). Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) arena on PN152–153. On PN170, offspring were euthanized for central dopaminergic analysis. SSD animals showed an increased food intake compared to SC ones and a preference for HFD. However, N-SSD animals consumed relatively more HSD than C-SSD ones. Regarding behavior, N animals showed an increase in the time spent in the EPM center and a reduction in relative activity in the OF center. N offspring presented lower dopamine receptor (D2R) and transporter (DAT) contents in the nucleus accumbens, and lower D2R in the arcuate nucleus. Postnatal exposure to nicotine increases preference for sugar and anxiety levels in the adult progeny possibly due to a decrease in dopaminergic action in the nucleus accumbens and arcuate nucleus. PMID:26048299

  3. Developmental continuity in reward-related enhancement of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Strang, Nicole M; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents engage in more risky behavior than children or adults. The most prominent hypothesis for this phenomenon is that brain systems governing reward sensitivity and brain systems governing self-regulation mature at different rates. Those systems governing reward sensitivity mature in advance of those governing self-control. This hypothesis has substantial empirical support, however, the evidence supporting this theory has been exclusively derived from contexts where self-control systems are required to regulate reward sensitivity in order to promote adaptive behavior. In adults, reward promotes a shift to a proactive control strategy and better cognitive control performance. It is unclear whether children and adolescents will respond to reward in the same way. Using fMRI methodology, we explored whether children and adolescents would demonstrate a shift to proactive control in the context of reward. We tested 22 children, 20 adolescents, and 23 adults. In contrast to our hypothesis, children, adolescents, and adults all demonstrated a shift to proactive cognitive control in the context of reward. In light of the results, current neurobiological theories of adolescent behavior need to be refined to reflect that in certain contexts there is continuity in the manner reward and cognitive control systems interact across development. PMID:25160678

  4. Biological auctions with multiple rewards

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Johannes G.; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A.; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-01-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards. PMID:26180069

  5. When performance and risk taking are related: Working for rewards is related to risk taking when the value of rewards is presented briefly.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Valuable monetary rewards can boost human performance on various effortful tasks even when the value of the rewards is presented too briefly to allow for strategic decision making. However, the mechanism by which briefly-presented reward information influences performance has remained unclear. One possibility is that performance after briefly-presented reward information is primarily boosted via activation of the dopamine reward system, whereas performance after very visible reward information is driven more by strategic processes. To examine this hypothesis, we first presented participants with a task in which they could earn rewards of relatively low (1 cent) or high (10 cents) value, and the value information was presented either briefly (17 ms) or for an extended duration (300 ms). Furthermore, responsiveness of the dopamine system was indirectly estimated with a measure of risk taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Results showed that performance after high- compared to low-value rewards was indeed related to the BART scores only when reward information was presented briefly. These results are suggestive of the possibility that brief presentation of reward information boosts performance directly via activating the dopamine system, whereas extended presentation of reward information leads to more strategic reward-driven behavior. PMID:26575108

  6. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  7. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Paula M; Speranza, Mario; Hampshire, Adam; Bekinschtein, Tristán A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioral inhibition, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioral inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioral inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/NoGo and Stop Signal Tasks (SSTs). Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on performance in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory tasks are scarce and little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and inhibitory control. Here we probed the effect of reward magnitude and context on behavioral inhibition with three modified versions of the widely used SST. The pilot study compared inhibition performance during six blocks alternating neutral feedback, low, medium, and high monetary rewards. Study One compared increasing vs. decreasing rewards, with low, high rewards, and neutral feedback; whilst Study Two compared low and high reward magnitudes alone also in an increasing and decreasing reward design. The reward magnitude effect was not demonstrated in the pilot study, probably due to a learning effect induced by practice in this lengthy task. The reward effect per se was weak but the context (order of reward) was clearly suggested in Study One, and was particularly strongly confirmed in study two. In addition, these findings revealed a "kick start effect" over global performance measures. Specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the

  8. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Paula M.; Speranza, Mario; Hampshire, Adam; Bekinschtein, Tristán A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioral inhibition, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioral inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioral inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/NoGo and Stop Signal Tasks (SSTs). Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on performance in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory tasks are scarce and little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and inhibitory control. Here we probed the effect of reward magnitude and context on behavioral inhibition with three modified versions of the widely used SST. The pilot study compared inhibition performance during six blocks alternating neutral feedback, low, medium, and high monetary rewards. Study One compared increasing vs. decreasing rewards, with low, high rewards, and neutral feedback; whilst Study Two compared low and high reward magnitudes alone also in an increasing and decreasing reward design. The reward magnitude effect was not demonstrated in the pilot study, probably due to a learning effect induced by practice in this lengthy task. The reward effect per se was weak but the context (order of reward) was clearly suggested in Study One, and was particularly strongly confirmed in study two. In addition, these findings revealed a “kick start effect” over global performance measures. Specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the

  9. Endogenous opioids and reward.

    PubMed

    Van Ree, J M; Niesink, R J; Van Wolfswinkel, L; Ramsey, N F; Kornet, M M; Van Furth, W R; Vanderschuren, L J; Gerrits, M A; Van den Berg, C L

    2000-09-29

    The discovery of endogenous opioids has markedly influenced the research on the biology of addiction and reward brain processes. Evidence has been presented that these brain substances modulate brain stimulation reward, self-administration of different drugs of abuse, sexual behaviour and social behaviour. There appears to be two different domains in which endogenous opioids, present in separate and distinct brain regions, are involved. One is related to the modulation of incentive motivational processes and the other to the performance of certain behaviours. It is concluded that endogenous opioids may play a role in the vulnerability to certain diseases, such as addiction and autism, but also when the disease is present, such as alcoholism. PMID:11033317

  10. When Rewards Go Wrong: A Tale of Five Motivational Misdirects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Piers; MacDonnell, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are…

  11. Tradition meets innovation: transforming academic medical culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-04-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past 20 years. Although the academic physician's triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic health centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. The authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multipronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met five times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles, and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers. PMID:23425986

  12. Abnormal reward functioning across substance use disorders and major depressive disorder: Considering reward as a transdiagnostic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Foti, Dan

    2015-11-01

    A common criticism of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is that its criteria are based more on behavioral descriptions than on underlying biological mechanisms. Increasingly, calls have intensified for a more biologically-based approach to conceptualizing, studying, and treating psychological disorders, as exemplified by the Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC). Among the most well-studied neurobiological mechanisms is reward processing. Moreover, individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to risk for substance abuse and depression. The current review synthesizes the available preclinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging literature on reward processing from a transdiagnostic, multidimensional perspective. Findings are organized with respect to key reward constructs within the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC matrix, including initial responsiveness to reward (physiological 'liking'), approach motivation (physiological 'wanting'), and reward learning/habit formation. In the current review, we (a) describe the neural basis of reward, (b) elucidate differences in reward activity in substance abuse and depression, and (c) suggest a framework for integrating these disparate literatures and discuss the utility of shifting focus from diagnosis to process for understanding liability and co-morbidity. Ultimately, we believe that an integrative focus on abnormal reward functioning across the full continuum of clinically heterogeneous samples, rather than within circumscribed diagnostic categories, might actually help to refine the phenotypes and improve the prediction of onset and recovery of these disorders. PMID:25655926

  13. Computerized Assessment System for Academic Satisfaction (ASAS) for First-Year University Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Leonardo Adrian; Liporace, Mercedes Fernandez; Perez, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized tests have become one of the most widely used and efficient educational assessment methods. Increasing efforts to generate computerized assessment systems to identify students at risk for drop out have been recently noted. An important variable influencing student retention is academic satisfaction. Accordingly, the…

  14. A Model for Implementing Cooperative Information Systems in Chinese Academic Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibsen, David J. S.

    The focus of this project is on the potential implementation of information systems in China which could provide better access to large North American bibliographic databases for the academic community. The development of a general model for implementing any educational innovation in any context is introduced. This general model is then used to…

  15. Wyoming Community College System Annual Enrollment Report. Academic Year 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides annualized enrollment information for the Wyoming community college system for the 2005-2006 academic year. During this year, credit headcount at Wyoming's community colleges increased by 6.1%, the largest annual enrollment increase during the last decade. The report also indicates that the difference between enrollments of…

  16. Free text databases in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. S.; Shea, S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of Folio Views, a PC DOS based product for free text databases, is explored in three applications in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS): (1) a telephone directory, (2) a grants and contracts newsletter, and (3) nursing care plans. PMID:1666967

  17. An Internet-based Expert System for Selecting an Academic Major: www.MyMajors.com.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based expert system found at http://www.MyMajors.com which provides advice to high school students or college freshmen who are seeking assistance in selecting a potential major by emulating a professional academic advisor. Highlights include computer-assisted advisement programs; knowledge acquisition; evaluating expert…

  18. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This article reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face…

  19. Small College Sports-Governing Body Weighs New Academic Rules and "Accrediting" System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the sports-governing body for over 500 small colleges and universities, will weigh a series of major alterations in rules and procedures concerning standards for freshman athletes, separate competition divisions in all sports, an accreditation system for monitoring academic standards,…

  20. Academic Staff Views of Quality Systems for Teaching and Learning: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John; Saram, Don Darshi De

    2005-01-01

    The "Teaching and Learning Quality Process Review" (TLQPR) recently completed in Hong Kong had an emphasis on education quality work. This paper analyses how, from the perspective of academic staff in one university in Hong Kong, the good intentions embedded in that idea are enhanced or subverted by the broader ?quality system setting in which…

  1. Effects of an Intelligent Web-Based English Instruction System on Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, J.; Chen, Y.; Ding, Z.; Bai, Y.; Yang, B.; Li, M.; Qi, J.

    2013-01-01

    This research conducted quasi-experiments in four middle schools to evaluate the long-term effects of an intelligent web-based English instruction system, Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC), on students' academic attainment. The analysis of regular examination scores and vocabulary test validates the positive impact of…

  2. A Complex Systems Framework for Research on Leadership and Organizational Dynamics in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a historiographical analysis of major leadership and organizational development theories that have shaped our thinking about how we lead and administrate academic libraries. Drawing from behavioral, cognitive, systems, and complexity theories, this article discusses major theorists and research studies appearing over the past…

  3. Facilitating Metacognitive Processes of Academic Genre-Based Writing Using an Online Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how metacognitive processes foster the application of genre knowledge to students' academic writing. This is largely due to its internal and unobservable characteristics. To bridge this gap, an online writing system based on metacognition, involving the stages of planning, monitoring, evaluating, and revising, was…

  4. Enforced Cultural Change in Academe. A Practical Case Study: Implementing Management Systems in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Matthews, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    An action research project sought to implement a quality management system in an academic department in an Australian higher education institution. The case study revealed that technical change was attained, but adoption of a quality culture achieved only token acceptance. (EV)

  5. The Effects of a Virtual Tutee System on Academic Reading Engagement in a College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Seung Won; Kim, ChanMin

    2016-01-01

    Poor student engagement with academic readings has been frequently reported in college classrooms. As an effort to improve college students' reading engagement, researchers have developed a virtual environment in which students take on the role of tutor and teach a virtual tutee, the virtual tutee system (VTS). This research examined the…

  6. Using Systemic Functional Linguistics in Academic Writing Development: An Example from Film Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    On film studies courses, students are asked to treat as objects of study the same films which they may more commonly experience as entertainment. To explore the role of academic writing in this, an action research project was carried out on a university film studies course using a systemic functional linguistics approach. This paper presents a key…

  7. Networking and the Role of the Academic Systems Librarian: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the role of academic systems librarians, focusing on the effect of networking technologies. Outlines stages in the evolution of the field derived from the literature and surveys, discusses new administrative and professional tasks and trends resulting from technological change, and speculates about the future of academic…

  8. After the Fall: The Use of Surplus Capacity in an Academic Library Automation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, A. J.

    The possible uses of excess central processing unit capacity in an integrated academic library automation system discussed in this draft proposal include (1) in-house services such as word processing, electronic mail, management decision support using PERT/CPM techniques, and control of physical plant operation; (2) public services such as the…

  9. The Impact of Five Years of Adult Academic Education in a Selected School System in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, John Avery

    A study of 486 graduates of the adult academic education program in a Louisiana parish school system investigated whether such a program has a positive effect on its graduates, and whether program inpacts will vary by sex, age, and number of years since completing the program. A special socioeconomic questionnaire was administered in interviews…

  10. Virtual Tutee System: A Potential Tool for Enhancing Academic Reading Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, SeungWon; Kim, ChanMin

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on evaluation studies of the Virtual Tutee System (VTS) designed to enhance students' engagement in academic reading. The VTS is a web-based peer-tutoring environment in which students teach a virtual tutee about the content in course readings that students have been assigned to learn. With the VTS, students interact with…

  11. Perceived Usefulness of a Strategy-Based Peer Annotation System for Improving Academic Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chen, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the enhancing effect of peer annotation on the academic English reading of nonnative-Englishspeaking graduate students. To facilitate peer collaboration, the present study included the development of a strategybased online reading system. Through peer annotation, the students not only achieved enhanced reading comprehension but…

  12. Neurocognitive and Temperamental Systems of Self-Regulation and Early Adolescents' Social and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checa, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of individual differences in neurocognitive and temperamental systems of self-regulation in early adolescents' social and academic competence. Measures used in the study included the Attention Network Test, the Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire, a peer-reported Social Status…

  13. The Genealogy Project: Tracing Academic Roots in the History and Systems Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, C. James; Dingus, Michelle; Petterson, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a history and systems of psychology course where students traced the genealogy of psychologists in terms of their academic roots. Explains that the students learned about bibliographic resources during the project. Discusses assignment outcomes as discovered through a student survey. (CMK)

  14. Screening for Early Learning Problems within an Urban Population: The Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2007-01-01

    The Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System (BACESS; Elliott, DiPerna, & Huai, 2003) is a multi-phase instrument designed to assist educators in the identification of students who are likely to experience early learning problems. The BACESS was used in eight elementary classrooms (n=71) in southern California. Each phase of the…

  15. Academic Degree Program Assessment in the University System of Georgia: A Tentative Statement of Rationale, Purposes, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

    Plans for program assessment within the various units of the University System of Georgia are presented. The Subcommittee on Academic Degree Program Assessment believed the University System of Georgia should encourage and support a sustained effort to assess academic programs resulting in baccalaureate degrees, that the implementation of program…

  16. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  17. How big should an integrated health care delivery system be at an academic medical center?

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1995-07-01

    The author defines integrated health care delivery systems and comments that there are few such systems now but many in various stages of development. The size of such a system can be described in terms of the number of patients it serves, including their health status and utilization of care, the geographic configuration of the served area, the number of physicians, and the scope and extent of the facilities network. There are a variety of factors that influence a system's size; the author concentrates on the factors that an academic medical center must consider when formulating system-size goals. He discusses (1) the influence of how the institution structures itself to survive; (2) the effects of technology, innovation, and health care costs on the size and organization of these systems; and (3) the effects of the specific characteristics of the institutions' missions of education, research, and patient care. Real numbers describing integrated systems are presented as they relate to three possible institutional goals: economic viability, academic viability, and academic leadership. The author explains why academic medical centers should not try to be only tertiary or quaternary care providers for other integrated health care delivery systems, but at the same time emphasizes that there is no easy or inexpensive way for centers to develop their own systems. Alternative structures for integrated systems are discussed, such as "disease management systems" being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, an "end-to-end linkage" approach, and various ideas to include "captive markets," such as prisoners, university students, and members of communities for the elderly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7612122

  18. Mesolimbic recruitment by nondrug rewards in detoxified alcoholics: effort anticipation, reward anticipation and reward delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant sensitivity of incentive neurocircuitry to nondrug rewards has been suggested as either a risk factor for or consequence of drug addiction. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether alcohol-dependent patients (ADP: n = 29) showed altered recruitment of ventral striatal (VS) incentive neurocircuitry compared to controls (n = 23) by: 1) cues to respond for monetary rewards, 2) post-response anticipation of rewards, or 3) delivery of rewards. Using an instrumental task with two-stage presentation of reward-predictive information, subjects saw cues signaling opportunities to win $0, $1, or $10 for responding to a target. Following this response, subjects were notified whether their success would be indicated by a lexical notification (“Hit?”) or by delivery of a monetary reward (“Win?”). After a variable interval, subjects then viewed the trial outcome. We found no significant group differences in voxelwise activation by task contrasts, or in signal change extracted from VS. Both ADP and controls showed significant VS and other limbic recruitment by pre-response reward anticipation. In addition, controls also showed VS recruitment by post-response reward-anticipation, and ADP had appreciable subthreshold VS activation. Both groups also showed similar mesolimbic responses to reward deliveries. Across all subjects, a questionnaire measure of “hot” impulsivity correlated with VS recruitment by post-response anticipation of low rewards and with VS recruitment by delivery of low rewards. These findings indicate that incentive-motivational processing of nondrug rewards is substantially maintained in recovering alcoholics, and that reward-elicited VS recruitment correlates more with individual differences in trait impulsivity irrespective of addiction. PMID:22281932

  19. Per Pupil Expenditures and Academic Achievement in Georgia School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beurden, Krista

    2011-01-01

    Student achievement and public school funding are national concerns. Federal, state, and local funding vary across the nation and within systems in each state. In the past several years, Georgia school systems have faced austerity cuts by the state legislature and governor, and function with less money while trying to improve student achievement…

  20. Reward-Related Decision-Making in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Christopher May, J.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Ryan, Neal D.; Carter, Cameron S.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although reward processing is considered an important part of affective functioning, few studies have investigated reward-related decisions or responses in young people with affective disorders. Depression is postulated to involve decreased activity in reward-related affective systems. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance…

  1. Pupil and Staff Perceptions of Rewards at a Pupil Referral Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capstick, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the perceptions of both pupils and staff at a pupil referral unit (PRU) towards the reward system currently in use. The main aims were to establish whether teachers and pupils perceived the same rewards as effective, to determine whether staff and pupils perceived that rewards changed behaviour, and finally whether…

  2. Reward processing in adolescent rodents

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nicholas W; Moghaddam, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Immaturities in adolescent reward processing are thought to contribute to poor decision making and increased susceptibility to develop addictive and psychiatric disorders. Very little is known; however, about how the adolescent brain processes reward. The current mechanistic theories of reward processing are derived from adult models. Here we review recent research focused on understanding of how the adolescent brain responds to rewards and reward-associated events. A critical aspect of this work is that age-related differences are evident in neuronal processing of reward-related events across multiple brain regions even when adolescent rats demonstrate behavior similar to adults. These include differences in reward processing between adolescent and adult rats in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Surprisingly, minimal age related differences are observed in ventral striatum, which has been a focal point of developmental studies. We go on to discuss the implications of these differences for behavioral traits affected in adolescence, such as impulsivity, risk-taking, and behavioral flexibility. Collectively, this work suggests that reward-evoked neural activity differs as a function of age and that regions such as the dorsal striatum that are not traditionally associated with affective processing in adults may be critical for reward processing and psychiatric vulnerability in adolescents. PMID:25524828

  3. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  4. “Liking” and “Wanting” Linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Hypothesizing Differential Responsivity in Brain Reward Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: “liking,” “learning,” and “wanting” [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or “wanting” hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily self-administered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens, and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the “high” that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions. PMID:22236117

  5. Developmental changes in the reward positivity: an electrophysiological trajectory of reward processing.

    PubMed

    Lukie, Carmen N; Montazer-Hojat, Somayyeh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2014-07-01

    Children and adolescents learn to regulate their behavior by utilizing feedback from the environment but exactly how this ability develops remains unclear. To investigate this question, we recorded the event-related brain potential (ERP) from children (8-13 years), adolescents (14-17 years) and young adults (18-23 years) while they navigated a "virtual maze" in pursuit of monetary rewards. The amplitude of the reward positivity, an ERP component elicited by feedback stimuli, was evaluated for each age group. A current theory suggests the reward positivity is produced by the impact of reinforcement learning signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system on anterior cingulate cortex, which utilizes the signals to learn and execute extended behaviors. We found that the three groups produced a reward positivity of comparable size despite relatively longer ERP component latencies for the children, suggesting that the reward processing system reaches maturity early in development. We propose that early development of the midbrain dopamine system facilitates the development of extended goal-directed behaviors in anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:24879113

  6. Neural Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Geoffrey F.; Bloom, Erika; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine addiction remains a major public health problem but the neural substrates of addictive behavior remain unknown. One characteristic of smoking behavior is impulsive choice, selecting the immediate reward of smoking despite the potential long-term negative consequences. This suggests that drug users, including cigarette smokers, may be more sensitive to rewards and less sensitive to punishment. Methods We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that smokers are more responsive to reward signals and less responsive to punishment, potentially predisposing them to risky behavior. We conducted two experiments, one using a reward prediction design to elicit a Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) and one using a reward- and punishment-motivated flanker task to elicit an Error Related Negativity (ERN), ERP components thought to index activity in the cortical projection of the dopaminergic reward system. Results and Conclusions The smokers had a greater MFN response to unpredicted rewards, and non-smokers, but not smokers, had a larger ERN on punishment motivated trials indicating that smokers are more reward sensitive and less punishment sensitive than nonsmokers, overestimating the appetitive value and underestimating aversive outcomes of stimuli and actions. PMID:25292454

  7. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n = 18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaire. When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate), right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally) correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per se may be

  8. An Academic Multihealth System PGY2 Pediatric Pharmacy Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Theresa; Siu, Anita; Shah, Pooja; Kimler, Katelin; Sturgill, Marc; Robinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice. PMID:26766936

  9. An Academic Multihealth System PGY2 Pediatric Pharmacy Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Theresa; Meyers, Rachel; Siu, Anita; Shah, Pooja; Kimler, Katelin; Sturgill, Marc; Robinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice. PMID:26766936

  10. Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric…

  11. Governance of Academic Planning in Public Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmening, Todd R.

    2013-01-01

    The recent interest in harnessing the collective capacity of public institutions of higher education is challenging long-held beliefs about system coordination. Constricted state resources, globalization, market forces, and new technologies suggest that new governance structures are not only a necessity but an opportunity to better connect system…

  12. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    PubMed

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding. PMID:22547161

  13. Creating the Exceptional Patient Experience in One Academic Health System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian S; Miller, Thomas; Daniels, Chrissy; Paine, Marilynn; Gresh, Brian; Betz, A Lorris

    2016-03-01

    Whether patient satisfaction scores can act as a catalyst for improving health care is highly debated. Some argue that pursuing patient satisfaction is overemphasized and potentially at odds with providing good care because it leads providers to overtest and overtreat patients and to bend to unreasonable patient demands, all to improve their ratings. Others cite studies showing that high patient satisfaction scores correlate with improved health outcomes. Ideally, assessing patient satisfaction metrics will encourage empathy, communication, trust, and shared decision making in the health care delivery process. From the patient's perspective, sharing such metrics motivates physicians to provide patient-centered care and meets their need for easily accessible information about their providers. In this article, the authors describe a seven-year initiative, which began in 2008, to change the culture of the University of Utah Health Care system to deliver a consistently exceptional patient experience. Five factors affected the health system's ability to provide such care: (1) a lack of good decision-making processes, (2) a lack of accountability, (3) the wrong attitude, (4) a lack of patient focus, and (5) mission conflict. Working groups designed initiatives at all levels of the health system to address these issues. What began as a patient satisfaction initiative evolved into a model for physician engagement, values-based employment practices, enhanced professionalism and communication, reduced variability in performance, and improved alignment of the mission and vision across hospital and faculty group practice teams. PMID:26606723

  14. The Lifelong Learning Iceberg of Information Systems Academics--A Study of On-Going Formal and Informal Learning by Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a study that examined the lifelong learning of information systems academics in relation to their normal work. It begins by considering the concept of lifelong learning, its relationship to real-life learning and that lifelong learning should encompass the whole spectrum of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Most…

  15. Reward Modulates Adaptations to Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single…

  16. Access to Academic Curriculum in Australian Secondary Schools: A Case Study of a Highly Marketised Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.; Southwell, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how access to academic curriculum differs between secondary schools in Australia, a country whose education system is marked by high levels of choice, privatisation and competition. Equitable access to academic curriculum is important for both individual students and their families as well as the larger society. Previous…

  17. Creating the Exceptional Patient Experience in One Academic Health System

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas; Daniels, Chrissy; Paine, Marilynn; Gresh, Brian; Betz, A. Lorris

    2016-01-01

    Whether patient satisfaction scores can act as a catalyst for improving health care is highly debated. Some argue that pursuing patient satisfaction is overemphasized and potentially at odds with providing good care because it leads providers to overtest and overtreat patients and to bend to unreasonable patient demands, all to improve their ratings. Others cite studies showing that high patient satisfaction scores correlate with improved health outcomes. Ideally, assessing patient satisfaction metrics will encourage empathy, communication, trust, and shared decision making in the health care delivery process. From the patient’s perspective, sharing such metrics motivates physicians to provide patient-centered care and meets their need for easily accessible information about their providers. In this article, the authors describe a seven-year initiative, which began in 2008, to change the culture of the University of Utah Health Care system to deliver a consistently exceptional patient experience. Five factors affected the health system’s ability to provide such care: (1) a lack of good decision-making processes, (2) a lack of accountability, (3) the wrong attitude, (4) a lack of patient focus, and (5) mission conflict. Working groups designed initiatives at all levels of the health system to address these issues. What began as a patient satisfaction initiative evolved into a model for physician engagement, values-based employment practices, enhanced professionalism and communication, reduced variability in performance, and improved alignment of the mission and vision across hospital and faculty group practice teams. PMID:26606723

  18. Requirements on Clinical Trial Management Systems for Academic Site Management Organizations.

    PubMed

    Schöbel, Martin; Stäubert, Sebastian; Löbe, Matthias; Meinel, Kirsti; Winter, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the introduction of a Clinical Trial Management System (CTMS) for an Academic Site Management Organization (SMO) we had to determine the requirements such a system has to meet. By performing extensive Requirements Engineering, we aimed at raising the success of the future system and the user satisfaction. Investigations revealed the existence of TORE (Task and Object-oriented Requirements Engineering), a task-driven approach for determining requirements on user interface- and information-intensive systems. In this paper, we present an adoption of this method for our purposes, resulting in a reasonable list of requirements for CTMS acquisition. PMID:27577390

  19. Baseline reward circuitry activity and trait reward responsiveness predict expression of opioid analgesia in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Lee, Michael C.; Rogers, Richard; Kong, Yazhuo; Leknes, Siri; Andersson, Jesper; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Variability in opioid analgesia has been attributed to many factors. For example, genetic variability of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-encoding gene introduces variability in MOR function and endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Emerging evidence suggests that personality trait related to the experience of reward is linked to endogenous opioid neurotransmission. We hypothesized that opioid-induced behavioral analgesia would be predicted by the trait reward responsiveness (RWR) and the response of the brain reward circuitry to noxious stimuli at baseline before opioid administration. In healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging and the μ-opioid agonist remifentanil, we found that the magnitude of behavioral opioid analgesia is positively correlated with the trait RWR and predicted by the neuronal response to painful noxious stimuli before infusion in key structures of the reward circuitry, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area. These findings highlight the role of the brain reward circuitry in the expression of behavioral opioid analgesia. We also show a positive correlation between behavioral opioid analgesia and opioid-induced suppression of neuronal responses to noxious stimuli in key structures of the descending pain modulatory system (amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and rostral–ventromedial medulla), as well as the hippocampus. Further, these activity changes were predicted by the preinfusion period neuronal response to noxious stimuli within the ventral tegmentum. These results support the notion of future imaging-based subject-stratification paradigms that can guide therapeutic decisions. PMID:23045652

  20. Academic Health Systems Management: The Rationale Behind Capitated Contracts

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Paul A.; Butz, David A.; Greenfield, Lazar J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine why hospitals enter into “capitated” contracts, which often generate accounting losses. The authors’ hypothesis is that hospitals coordinate contracts to keep beds full and that in principal, capitated contracts reflect sound capacity management. Summary Background Data In high-overhead industries, different consumers pay different prices for similar services (e.g., full-fare vs. advanced-purchase plane tickets, full tuition vs. financial aid). Some consumers gain access by paying less than total cost. Hospitals, like other high-overhead business enterprises, must optimize the use of their capacity, amortizing overhead over as many patients as possible. This necessity for enhanced throughput forces hospitals and health systems to discount empty beds, sometimes to the point where they incur accounting losses serving some payors. Methods The authors analyzed the cost accounting system at their university teaching hospital to compare hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) lengths of stay (LOS), variable direct costs (VDC), overhead of capitated patients, and reimbursement versus other payors for all hospital discharges (n = 29,036) in fiscal year 1998. The data were analyzed by diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), length of stay (LOS), insurance carrier, proximity to hospital, and discharge disposition. Patients were then distinguished across payor categories based on their resource utilization, proximity to the hospital, DRG, LOS, and discharge status. Results The mean cost for capitated patients was $4,887, less than half of the mean cost of $10,394 for the entire hospitalized population. The mean capitated reimbursement was $928/day, exceeding the mean daily VDC of $616 but not the total cost of $1,445/day. Moreover, the mean total cost per patient day of treating a capitated patient was $400 less than the mean total cost per day for noncapitated patients. The hospital’s capitated health maintenance organization (HMO) patients made up 16

  1. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour. PMID:16216683

  2. The 3Rs of Productivity Improvement: Responsibility, Recognition, Reward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the American Production Center and a productivity improvement system in which people become part of the productivity solution when given responsibility, recognition, and reward for productivity improvement. (LRA)

  3. Effects of motivation on reward and attentional networks: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Clerkin, Suzanne; Schulz, Kurt; Friston, Karl; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Fan, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that reward and attentional networks function in concert and that activation in one system influences the other in a reciprocal fashion; however, the nature of these influences remains poorly understood. We therefore developed a three-component task to assess the interaction effects of reward anticipation and conflict resolution on the behavioral performance and the activation of brain reward and attentional systems. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers aged 21–45 years were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the task. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with cue (reward vs. non-reward) and target (congruent vs. incongruent) as within-subjects factors was used to test for main and interaction effects. Neural responses to anticipation, conflict, and reward outcomes were tested. Behaviorally there were main effects of both reward cue and target congruency on reaction time. Neuroimaging results showed that reward anticipation and expected reward outcomes activated components of the attentional networks, including the inferior parietal and occipital cortices, whereas surprising non-rewards activated the frontoinsular cortex bilaterally and deactivated the ventral striatum. In turn, conflict activated a broad network associated with cognitive control and motor functions. Interaction effects showed decreased activity in the thalamus, anterior cingulated gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus bilaterally when difficult conflict trials (e.g., incongruent targets) were preceded by reward cues; in contrast, the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex showed greater activation during congruent targets preceded by reward cues. These results suggest that reward anticipation is associated with lower activation in attentional networks, possibly due to increased processing efficiency, whereas more difficult, conflict trials are associated with lower activity in regions of the reward system, possibly

  4. Adaptive Reward Pursuit: How Effort Requirements Affect Unconscious Reward Responses and Conscious Reward Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijleveld, Erik; Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk

    2012-01-01

    When in pursuit of rewards, humans weigh the value of potential rewards against the amount of effort that is required to attain them. Although previous research has generally conceptualized this process as a deliberate calculation, recent work suggests that rudimentary mechanisms--operating without conscious intervention--play an important role as…

  5. Challenges and Rewards on the Road to Translational Systems Biology in Acute Illness: Four Case Reports from Interdisciplinary Teams

    PubMed Central

    An, Gary; Hunt, C. Anthony; Clermont, Gilles; Neugebauer, Edmund; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Translational systems biology approaches can be distinguished from mainstream systems biology in that their goal is to drive novel therapies and streamline clinical trials in critical illness. One systems biology approach, dynamic mathematical modeling (DMM), is increasingly used in dealing with the complexity of the inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. The use of DMM often requires a broadening of research methods and a multidisciplinary team approach that includes bioscientists, mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists. However, the development of these groups must overcome domain-specific barriers to communication and understanding. Methods We present four case studies of successful translational, interdisciplinary systems biology efforts, which differ by organizational level from an individual to an entire research community. Results Case 1 is a single investigator involved in DMM of the acute inflammatory response at Cook County Hospital, in which extensive translational progress was made using agent-based models of inflammation and organ damage. Case 2 is a community-level effort from the University of Witten-Herdecke in Cologne, whose efforts have led to the formation of the Society for Complexity in Acute Illness. Case 3 is an institution-based group, the Biosystems Group at the University of California, San Francisco, whose work has included a focus on a common lexicon for DMM. Case 4 is an institution-based, trans-disciplinary research group (the Center for Inflammation and Regenerative Modeling at the University of Pittsburgh, whose modeling work has led to internal education efforts, grant support, and commercialization. Conclusion A transdisciplinary approach, which involves team interaction in an iterative fashion to address ambiguity and is supported by educational initiatives, is likely to be necessary for DMM in acute illness. Community-wide organizations such as the Society of Complexity in Acute Illness (SCAI) must

  6. An academic radiology information system (RIS): a review of the commercial RIS systems, and how an individualized academic RIS can be created and utilized.

    PubMed

    Tamm, E P; Kawashima, A; Silverman, P

    2001-06-01

    Current commercial radiology information systems (RIS) are designed for scheduling, billing, charge collection, and report dissemination. Academic institutions have additional requirements for their missions for teaching, research and clinical care. The newest versions of commercial RIS offer greater flexibility than prior systems. We sent questionnaires to Cerner Corporation, ADAC Health Care Information Systems, IDX Systems, Per-Se' Technologies, and Siemens Health Services regarding features of their products. All of the products we surveyed offer user customizable fields. However, most products did not allow the user to expand their product's data table. The search capabilities of the products varied. All of the products supported the Health Level 7 (HL-7) interface and the use of structured query language (SQL). All of the products were offered with an SQL editor for creating customized queries and custom reports. All products included capabilities for collecting data for quality assurance and included capabilities for tracking "interesting cases," though they varied in the functionality offered. No product offered dedicated functions for research. Alternatively, radiology departments can create their own client-server Windows-based database systems to supplement the capabilities of commercial systems. Such systems can be developed with "web-enabled" database products like Microsoft Access or Apple Filemaker Pro. PMID:11442073

  7. Marginal Worth: Teaching and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    The contemporary academic labor market is examined using concepts from labor market economics and sociology to elucidate why teaching, universally acknowledged to be at the center of American academic life, is not at the center of the academic labor market and is only modestly rewarded. First, tenets of the neoclassical labor market model are…

  8. Timing in reward and decision processes

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Maria A.; Schultz, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity to time, including the time of reward, guides the behaviour of all organisms. Recent research suggests that all major reward structures of the brain process the time of reward occurrence, including midbrain dopamine neurons, striatum, frontal cortex and amygdala. Neuronal reward responses in dopamine neurons, striatum and frontal cortex show temporal discounting of reward value. The prediction error signal of dopamine neurons includes the predicted time of rewards. Neurons in the striatum, frontal cortex and amygdala show responses to reward delivery and activities anticipating rewards that are sensitive to the predicted time of reward and the instantaneous reward probability. Together these data suggest that internal timing processes have several well characterized effects on neuronal reward processing. PMID:24446502

  9. Neurobiological underpinnings of reward anticipation and outcome evaluation in gambling disorder

    PubMed Central

    Linnet, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorder is associated with dysfunctions in the dopamine system. The dopamine system codes reward anticipation and outcome evaluation. Reward anticipation refers to dopaminergic activation prior to reward, while outcome evaluation refers to dopaminergic activation after reward. This article reviews evidence of dopaminergic dysfunctions in reward anticipation and outcome evaluation in gambling disorder from two vantage points: a model of reward prediction and reward prediction error by Wolfram Schultz et al. and a model of “wanting” and “liking” by Terry E. Robinson and Kent C. Berridge. Both models offer important insights on the study of dopaminergic dysfunctions in addiction, and implications for the study of dopaminergic dysfunctions in gambling disorder are suggested. PMID:24723865

  10. Peripheral signals modifying food reward.

    PubMed

    Menzies, John R W; Skibicka, Karolina P; Egecioglu, Emil; Leng, Gareth; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2012-01-01

    The pleasure derived from eating may feel like a simple emotion, but the decision to eat, and perhaps more importantly what to eat, involves central pathways linking energy homeostasis and reward and their regulation by metabolic and endocrine factors. Evidence is mounting that modulation of the hedonic aspects of energy balance is under the control of peripheral neuropeptides conventionally associated with homeostatic appetite control. Here, we describe the significance of reward in feeding, the neural substrates underlying the reward pathway and their modification by peptides released into the circulation from peripheral tissues. PMID:22249813

  11. The role of academic health centers and their partners in reconfiguring and retooling the existing workforce to practice in a transformed health system.

    PubMed

    Fraher, Erin P; Ricketts, Thomas C; Lefebvre, Ann; Newton, Warren P

    2013-12-01

    Inspired by the Affordable Care Act and health care payment models that reward value over volume, health care delivery systems are redefining the work of the health professionals they employ. Existing workers are taking on new roles, new types of health professionals are emerging, and the health workforce is shifting from practicing in higher-cost acute settings to lower-cost community settings, including patients' homes. The authors believe that although the pace of health system transformation has accelerated, a shortage of workers trained to function in the new models of care is hampering progress. In this Perspective, they argue that urgent attention must be paid to retraining the 18 million workers already employed in the system who will actually implement system change.Their view is shaped by work they have conducted in helping practices transform care, by extensive consultations with stakeholders attempting to understand the workforce implications of health system redesign, and by a thorough review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature. Through this work, the authors have become increasingly convinced that academic health centers (AHCs)-organizations at the forefront of innovations in health care delivery and health workforce training-are uniquely situated to proactively lead efforts to retrain the existing workforce. They recommend a set of specific actions (i.e., discovering and disseminating best practices; developing new partnerships; focusing on systems engineering approaches; planning for sustainability; and revising credentialing, accreditation, and continuing education) that AHC leaders can undertake to develop a more coherent workforce development strategy that supports practice transformation. PMID:24128624

  12. Self-affirmation activates brain systems associated with self-related processing and reward and is reinforced by future orientation.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Christopher N; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Tinney, Francis J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Taylor, Shelley E; Strecher, Victor J; Falk, Emily B

    2016-04-01

    Self-affirmation theory posits that people are motivated to maintain a positive self-view and that threats to perceived self-competence are met with resistance. When threatened, self-affirmations can restore self-competence by allowing individuals to reflect on sources of self-worth, such as core values. Many questions exist, however, about the underlying mechanisms associated with self-affirmation. We examined the neural mechanisms of self-affirmation with a task developed for use in a functional magnetic resonance imaging environment. Results of a region of interest analysis demonstrated that participants who were affirmed (compared with unaffirmed participants) showed increased activity in key regions of the brain's self-processing (medial prefrontal cortex + posterior cingulate cortex) and valuation (ventral striatum + ventral medial prefrontal cortex) systems when reflecting on future-oriented core values (compared with everyday activities). Furthermore, this neural activity went on to predict changes in sedentary behavior consistent with successful affirmation in response to a separate physical activity intervention. These results highlight neural processes associated with successful self-affirmation, and further suggest that key pathways may be amplified in conjunction with prospection. PMID:26541373

  13. Aversive Counterconditioning Attenuates Reward Signaling in the Ventral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Kaag, Anne Marije; Schluter, Renée S.; Karel, Peter; Homberg, Judith; van den Brink, Wim; Reneman, Liesbeth; van Wingen, Guido A.

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient reward such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signaling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signaling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula. PMID:27594829

  14. Early Effects of Reward Anticipation Are Modulated by Dopaminergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Apitz, Thore; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-01-01

    The abilities to predict future rewards and assess the value of reward delivery are crucial aspects of adaptive behavior. While the mesolimbic system, including dopaminergic midbrain, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex have long been associated with reward processing, recent studies also indicate a prominent role of early visual brain regions. However, the precise underlying neural mechanisms still remain unclear. To address this issue, we presented participants with visual cues predicting rewards of high and low magnitudes and probability (2×2 factorial design), while neural activity was scanned using magnetoencephalography. Importantly, one group of participants received 150 mg of the dopamine precursor levodopa prior to the experiment, while another group received a placebo. For the placebo group, neural signals of reward probability (but not magnitude) emerged at ∼100 ms after cue presentation at occipital sensors in the event-related magnetic fields. Importantly, these probability signals were absent in the levodopa group indicating a close link. Moreover, levodopa administration reduced oscillatory power in the high (20–30 Hz) and low (13–20 Hz) beta band during both reward anticipation and delivery. Taken together, our findings indicate that visual brain regions are involved in coding prospective reward probability but not magnitude and that these effects are modulated by dopamine. PMID:25285436

  15. Aversive Counterconditioning Attenuates Reward Signaling in the Ventral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Kaag, Anne Marije; Schluter, Renée S; Karel, Peter; Homberg, Judith; van den Brink, Wim; Reneman, Liesbeth; van Wingen, Guido A

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient reward such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signaling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signaling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula. PMID:27594829

  16. Cortisol alters reward processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Valerie L; Wolf, Oliver T; Merz, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing is known to play a central role for the development of psychiatric disorders. Glucocorticoids that are secreted in response to stress have been shown to attenuate reward sensitivity and thereby might promote the onset of psychopathology. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress hormone effects on reward processing as well as potential sex differences remain elusive. In this neuroimaging study, we administered 30mg cortisol or a placebo to 30 men and 30 women and subsequently tested them in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. Cortisol attenuated anticipatory neural responses to a verbal and a monetary reward in the left pallidum and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, in men, activation in the amygdala, the precuneus, the anterior cingulate, and in hippocampal regions was reduced under cortisol, whereas in cortisol-treated women a signal increase was observed in these regions. Behavioral performance also indicated that reward learning in men is impaired under high cortisol concentrations, while it is augmented in women. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol substantially diminishes reward anticipation and provide first evidence that cortisol effects on the neural reward system are sensitive to sex differences, which might translate into different vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders. PMID:27170428

  17. Early effects of reward anticipation are modulated by dopaminergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Apitz, Thore; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-01-01

    The abilities to predict future rewards and assess the value of reward delivery are crucial aspects of adaptive behavior. While the mesolimbic system, including dopaminergic midbrain, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex have long been associated with reward processing, recent studies also indicate a prominent role of early visual brain regions. However, the precise underlying neural mechanisms still remain unclear. To address this issue, we presented participants with visual cues predicting rewards of high and low magnitudes and probability (2 × 2 factorial design), while neural activity was scanned using magnetoencephalography. Importantly, one group of participants received 150 mg of the dopamine precursor levodopa prior to the experiment, while another group received a placebo. For the placebo group, neural signals of reward probability (but not magnitude) emerged at ∼ 100 ms after cue presentation at occipital sensors in the event-related magnetic fields. Importantly, these probability signals were absent in the levodopa group indicating a close link. Moreover, levodopa administration reduced oscillatory power in the high (20-30 Hz) and low (13-20 Hz) beta band during both reward anticipation and delivery. Taken together, our findings indicate that visual brain regions are involved in coding prospective reward probability but not magnitude and that these effects are modulated by dopamine. PMID:25285436

  18. The Roles of Dopamine and Hypocretin in Reward: A Electroencephalographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Mensen, Armand; Poryazova, Rositsa; Huegli, Gordana; Baumann, Christian R.; Schwartz, Sophie; Khatami, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of the mesolimbic reward system is largely dependent on the neurotransmitter dopamine. Recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system has significant projections to this reward system. We examined the distinct effects of reduced dopamine or reduced hypocretin levels on reward activity in patients with Parkinson’s disease, dopamine deficient, as well as patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy, hypocretin depleted, and healthy controls. Participants performed a simple game-like task while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Topography and timing of event-related potentials for both reward cue, and reward feedback was examined across the entire dataset. While response to reward cue was similar in all groups, two distinct time points were found to distinguish patients and controls for reward feedback. Around 160ms both patient groups had reduced ERP amplitude compared to controls. Later at 250ms, both patient groups also showed a clear event-related potential (ERP), which was absent in controls. The initial differences show that both patient groups show a similar, blunted response to reward delivery. The second potential corresponds to the classic feedback-related negativity (FRN) potential which relies on dopamine activity and reflects reward prediction-error signaling. In particular the mismatch between predicted reward and reward subsequently received was significantly higher in PD compared to NC, independent of reward magnitude and valence. The intermediate FRN response in NC highlights the contribution of hypocretin in reward processing, yet also shows that this is not as detrimental to the reward system as in Parkinson’s. Furthermore, the inability to generate accurate predictions in NC may explain why hypocretin deficiency mediates cataplexy triggered by both positive and negative emotions. PMID:26599765

  19. Rewarding the Gifted Art Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Al

    1983-01-01

    A program to reward exceptional art teachers, sponsored by the Chroma Acrylics Corporation, is described. Application procedures, conditions, award winners, and the projects they plan with the award money are covered. (IS)

  20. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  1. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Dekleva, Brian; Cooler, Sam; Miller, Lee; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one’s actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd) and primary motor (M1) neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions. PMID:27564707

  2. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Dekleva, Brian; Cooler, Sam; Miller, Lee; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd) and primary motor (M1) neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions. PMID:27564707

  3. Temporal discounting of reward and the cost of time in motor control

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Reza; de Xivry, Jean Jacques Orban; Xu-Wilson, Minnan; Shih, Ting-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Why do movements take a characteristic amount of time, and why do diseases that affect the reward system alter control of movements? Suppose that purpose of any movement is to position our body in a more rewarding state. People and other animals discount future reward as a hyperbolic function of time. Here, we show that across populations of people and monkeys there is a correlation between discounting of reward and control of movements. We consider saccadic eye movements and hypothesize that duration of a movement is equivalent to a delay of reward. The hyperbolic cost of this delay not only accounts for kinematics of saccades in adults, it also accounts for the faster saccades of children, who temporally discount reward more steeply. Our theory explains why saccade velocities increase when reward is elevated, and why disorders in the encoding of reward, for example in Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia, produce changes in saccade. We show that delay of reward elevates the cost of saccades, reducing velocities. Finally, we consider coordinated movements that include motion of eyes and head and find that their kinematics are also consistent with a hyperbolic, reward dependent cost of time. Therefore, each voluntary movement carries a cost because its duration delays acquisition of reward. The cost depends on the value that the brain assigns to stimuli, and the rate at which it discounts this value in time. The motor commands that move our eyes reflect this cost of time. PMID:20685993

  4. Health Systems Innovation at Academic Health Centers: Leading in a New Era of Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ellner, Andrew L; Stout, Somava; Sullivan, Erin E; Griffiths, Elizabeth P; Mountjoy, Ashlin; Phillips, Russell S

    2015-07-01

    Challenged by demands to reduce costs and improve service delivery, the U.S. health care system requires transformational change. Health systems innovation is defined broadly as novel ideas, products, services, and processes-including new ways to promote healthy behaviors and better integrate health services with public health and other social services-which achieve better health outcomes and/or patient experience at equal or lower cost. Academic health centers (AHCs) have an opportunity to focus their considerable influence and expertise on health systems innovation to create new approaches to service delivery and to nurture leaders of transformation. AHCs have traditionally used their promotions criteria to signal their values; creating a health systems innovator promotion track could be a critical step towards creating opportunities for innovators in academic medicine. In this Perspective, the authors review publicly available promotions materials at top-ranked medical schools and find that while criteria for advancement increasingly recognize systems innovation, there is a lack of specificity on metrics beyond the traditional yardstick of peer-reviewed publications. In addition to new promotions pathways and alternative evidence for the impact of scholarship, other approaches to fostering health systems innovation at AHCs include more robust funding for career development in health systems innovation, new curricula to enable trainees to develop skills in health systems innovation, and new ways for innovators to disseminate their work. AHCs that foster health systems innovation could meet a critical need to contribute both to the sustainability of our health care system and to AHCs' continued leadership role within it. PMID:25738387

  5. Translational science and the hidden research system in universities and academic hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lander, Bryn; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet

    2011-02-01

    Innovation systems (IS) and science policy scholarship predominantly focus on linkages between universities and industry, and the commercial translation of academic discoveries. Overlooked in such analyses are important connections between universities and academic hospitals, and the non-commercial aspects of translational science. The two types of institutions tend to be collapsed into a single entity-'the university'-and relational flows are lost. Yet the distinctions and flows between the two are crucial elements of translational science and the biomedical innovation system. This paper explores what has been called the 'hidden research system' that connects hospitals, universities, and their resources, with the clinical and scientific actors who make the linkages possible. Then, using a novel conceptual model of translational science, we examine the individual interactions and dynamics involved in a particular example of the biomedical innovation system at work: the diagnosis of IRAK-4 deficiency, a rare immunological disorder, and the translational flows that result. Contra to conventional IS analyses, we are able to point to the strong role of public-sector institutions, and the weak role of the private-sector, in the translational processes described here. Our research was conducted within a Canadian network of scientists and clinician-scientists studying the pathogenomics of immunological disorders and innate immunity. PMID:21168250

  6. Cortisol administration induces global down-regulation of the brain's reward circuitry.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David; Rosenberger, Lisa A; van Honk, Jack

    2014-09-01

    Research in rodents and humans has shown divergent effects of the glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol (CRT) on reward processing. In rodents, administration of CRT increases reward drive by facilitating dopamine release in the ventral striatum. In humans, correspondingly, risky decision-making increases when CRT levels are elevated. Human stress studies contrariwise show that elevated CRT is accompanied by a decrease in reward-related brain activity. There are however no direct insights into how CRT acts on the reward system in the human brain. Accordingly, we used pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (pharmaco-fMRI) to investigate the effects of CRT on the brain's reward system. In a randomized within-subject design we administered a high dose of CRT (40 mg) and placebo to twenty healthy male volunteers on separate days, and used a monetary incentive delay task to assess the effects of the hormone on the striatum and the amygdala in anticipation of potential reward. In contrast to animal studies, we show that this high dose of CRT strongly decreases activity of the striatum in both reward and non-reward conditions. Furthermore, we observed reductions in activity in the basolateral amygdala, a key regulator of the brain's reward system. Crucially, the overall down-regulation of the brain's reward circuit was verified on the subjective level as subjects reported significantly reduced reward preference after CRT. In sum, we provide here direct evidence in humans that CRT acts on brain regions involved in reward-related behavior, that is, the basolateral amygdala and the striatum. Our findings suggest that CRT in the quantity and time course presently used globally down-regulates the reward system, and thereby decreases motivational processing in general. PMID:25001954

  7. Systems of Career Influences: A Conceptual Model for Evaluating the Professional Development of Women in Academic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Helitzer, Deborah; Morahan, Page; Chang, Shine; Gleason, Katharine; Cardinali, Gina; Wu, Chih-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Surprisingly little research is available to explain the well-documented organizational and societal influences on persistent inequities in advancement of women faculty. Methods The Systems of Career Influences Model is a framework for exploring factors influencing women's progression to advanced academic rank, executive positions, and informal leadership roles in academic medicine. The model situates faculty as agents within a complex adaptive system consisting of a trajectory of career advancement with opportunities for formal professional development programming; a dynamic system of influences of organizational policies, practices, and culture; and a dynamic system of individual choices and decisions. These systems of influence may promote or inhibit career advancement. Within this system, women weigh competing influences to make career advancement decisions, and leaders of academic health centers prioritize limited resources to support the school's mission. Results and Conclusions The Systems of Career Influences Model proved useful to identify key research questions. We used the model to probe how research in academic career development might be applied to content and methods of formal professional development programs. We generated a series of questions and hypotheses about how professional development programs might influence professional development of health science faculty members. Using the model as a guide, we developed a study using a quantitative and qualitative design. These analyses should provide insight into what works in recruiting and supporting productive men and women faculty in academic medical centers. PMID:23101486

  8. Rewarding imperfect motor performance reduces adaptive changes.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, K; Overvliet, K E

    2016-06-01

    Could a pat on the back affect motor adaptation? Recent studies indeed suggest that rewards can boost motor adaptation. However, the rewards used were typically reward gradients that carried quite detailed information about performance. We investigated whether simple binary rewards affected how participants learned to correct for a visual rotation of performance feedback in a 3D pointing task. To do so, we asked participants to align their unseen hand with virtual target cubes in alternating blocks with and without spatial performance feedback. Forty participants were assigned to one of two groups: a 'spatial only' group, in which the feedback consisted of showing the (perturbed) endpoint of the hand, or to a 'spatial & reward' group, in which a reward could be received in addition to the spatial feedback. In addition, six participants were tested in a 'reward only' group. Binary reward was given when the participants' hand landed in a virtual 'hit area' that was adapted to individual performance to reward about half the trials. The results show a typical pattern of adaptation in both the 'spatial only' and the 'spatial & reward' groups, whereas the 'reward only' group was unable to adapt. The rewards did not affect the overall pattern of adaptation in the 'spatial & reward' group. However, on a trial-by-trial basis, the rewards reduced adaptive changes to spatial errors. PMID:26758721

  9. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  10. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  11. Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Roger J; Hagen, Edward H; Hammerstein, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Neurobiological models of drug abuse propose that drug use is initiated and maintained by rewarding feedback mechanisms. However, the most commonly used drugs are plant neurotoxins that evolved to punish, not reward, consumption by animal herbivores. Reward models therefore implicitly assume an evolutionary mismatch between recent drug-profligate environments and a relatively drug-free past in which a reward centre, incidentally vulnerable to neurotoxins, could evolve. By contrast, emerging insights from plant evolutionary ecology and the genetics of hepatic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450, indicate that animal and hominid taxa have been exposed to plant toxins throughout their evolution. Specifically, evidence of conserved function, stabilizing selection, and population-specific selection of human cytochrome P450 genes indicate recent evolutionary exposure to plant toxins, including those that affect animal nervous systems. Thus, the human propensity to seek out and consume plant neurotoxins is a paradox with far-reaching implications for current drug-reward theory. We sketch some potential resolutions of the paradox, including the possibility that humans may have evolved to counter-exploit plant neurotoxins. Resolving the paradox of drug reward will require a synthesis of ecological and neurobiological perspectives of drug seeking and use. PMID:18353749

  12. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-02-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting nonlinguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or "formal" math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6-12 years old), 14 adolescents (13-17 years old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. PMID:25327879

  13. Does reward unpredictability reflect risk?

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Most decisions made in real-life situations are risky because they are associated with possible negative consequences. Current models of decision-making postulate that the occasional, unpredictable absence of reward that may result from free choice is a negative consequence interpreted as risk by organisms in laboratory situations. I argue that such a view is difficult to justify because, in most experimental paradigms, reward omission does not represent a cost for the decision-maker. Risk only exists when unpredictability may cause a potential loss of own limited resources, whether energetic, social, financial, and so on. Thus, the experimental methodologies used to test humans and non-humans relative to risk-taking seem to be limited to studying the effects of reward uncertainty in the absence of true decision cost. This may have important implications for the conclusions that can be drawn with respect to the neurobehavioural determinants of risk-taking in real-life situations. PMID:25496783

  14. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    PubMed

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action. PMID:15635933

  15. Introduction: Addiction and Brain Reward and Anti-Reward Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily self-administered by laboratory animals (usually avidly) and that they enhance the functioning of the reward circuitry of the brain (producing the “high” that the drug-user seeks). The core reward circuitry consists of an “in series” circuit linking the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum - via the medial forebrain bundle. Although originally believed to encode simply the set-point of hedonic tone, these circuits are now believed to be functionally far more complex - also encoding attention, expectancy of reward, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. “Hedonic dysregulation” within these circuits may lead to addiction. The “second-stage” dopaminergic component in this reward circuitry is the crucial addictive-drug-sensitive component. All addictive drugs have in common that they enhance (directly or indirectly or even transsynaptically) dopaminergic reward synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens. Drug self-administration is regulated by nucleus accumbens dopamine levels, and is done to keep nucleus accumbens dopamine within a specific elevated range (to maintain a desired hedonic level). For some classes of addictive drugs (e.g., opiates), tolerance to the euphoric effects develops with chronic use. Post-use dysphoria then comes to dominate reward circuit hedonic tone, and addicts no longer use drugs to get “high,” but simply to get back to normal (“get straight”). The brain circuits mediating the pleasurable effects of addictive drugs are anatomically, neurophysiologically, and neurochemically different from those mediating physical dependence, and from those mediating craving and relapse. There are important genetic variations in vulnerability to drug addiction, yet environmental factors such as stress and social defeat also alter brain-reward mechanisms in such a manner as to impart vulnerability to addiction. In short, the

  16. Rough Set Approach to Analysis of Students Academic Performance in Web-based Learning Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lisa; Matsuyama, Tomoko

    This paper presents a Rough Set approach to analyze of students academic performance in a Web-based learning support system (WLSS). Web-based education has become a very important area of educational technology. This paper considers individual learners working alone without support from a teacher to provide guidance and advice on learning approach. Learners may have access to a wealth of material but may be faced with other problems such as material selection, planning a learning strategy, maintaining motivation and sequencing learning sub-goals. It might create a situation where some students may not be able to improve their grade as well as they could, compared to a face-to-face course. What if customized course materials were prepared for each student? It might fill this gap. Their records, such as grades for prerequisite courses or some personal factors that seems to affect their academic performance are used as student profile. In this paper, we discuss how to use Rough Sets to analyze student personal information to assist students with effective learning.

  17. Perspective: global medicine: opportunities and challenges for academic health science systems.

    PubMed

    Ackerly, D Clay; Udayakumar, Krishna; Taber, Robert; Merson, Michael H; Dzau, Victor J

    2011-09-01

    Globalization is having a growing impact on health and health care, presenting challenges as well as opportunities for the U.S. health care industry in general and for academic health science systems (AHSSs) in particular. The authors believe that AHSSs must develop long-term strategies that address their future role in global medicine. AHSSs should meet global challenges through planning, engagement, and innovation that combine traditional academic activities with entrepreneurial approaches to health care delivery, research, and education, including international public-private partnerships. The opportunities for U.S.-based AHSSs to be global health care leaders and establish partnerships that improve health locally and globally more than offset the potential financial, organizational, politico-legal, and reputational risks that exist in the global health care arena. By examining recent international activities of leading AHSSs, the authors review the risks and the critical factors for success and discuss external policy shifts in workforce development and accreditation that would further support the growth of global medicine. PMID:21785305

  18. Selected highlights of a half-century of academic and industry studies of turbidite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. H.

    2012-04-01

    From more than 50 years of research on modern turbidite systems and considering this bias (e.g. experimental and modeling research not included in this summary), the following are my suggested landmarks for interplay between academic and industry research on turbidite systems: 1.In the 1960´s, the outcrop research of the Bouma sequence showed immediate relevance for the characterization of proximal to distal depositional environments of modern Astoria Fan (e.g. a&b structures in proximal channels, c-e in levees, a-e in lobes, d&e in basin plains), and for identification of turbidites in industry boreholes. 2.In the 1970´s, Mutti and Ricchi Lucchís facies assemblages from outcrops correlated well with Nelson and Nilseńs comparison of modern and ancient turbidite systems. The emerging models from this and other outcrop and modern system studies of Walker and Normark provided early guidelines for industry exploration. 3.In the 1980´s, the new high-resolution sidescan sonar studies on modern systems revealed the complex morphology of channel and lobe systems. These new details interplayed with the major contribution of seismic sequence stratigraphy from industry, which had important implications for outcrop studies, modern system research, and an emerging variety of improved fan models that considered the depositional elements defined by Mutti and Normark. The maturity of studies at this point outlined the key tectonic, sediment supply and climate/sea level factors controlling the development of a wide variety of turbidite system depositional patterns. 4.In the 1990´s, the 3D seismic studies of industry and high-resolution seismic and coring studies on modern systems provided detailed new insight into a complex variety of turbidite systems, particularly for slope environments. The close comparison of these data confirmed the relevance of present-day turbidite systems as a key to past outcrop and subsurface systems. 5.In the new millennium, seismic geomorphology

  19. Providing Individually Tailored Academic and Behavioral Support Services for Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems. Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsoulin, S.; Darwin, M. J.; Read, N. W.

    2012-01-01

    Youth who are involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems face many challenges and barriers to academic and vocational success. Regardless of the reasons for their involvement, youth in these systems are "disproportionately children and youth of color who currently have, or have experienced, a host of risk factors that are…

  20. The Effects of Rewards and Punishments on Motivations of the Elementary School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matera, Bryan D.

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that rewards and punishments imposed on elementary school students may contribute to increases in student motivation and academic achievement. However, alternative research findings indicate that students may exhibit temporary compliance with such external stimuli and may not develop intrinsic motivation to perform well…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Institutional Mission and Faculty Reward for Teaching via Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Cheryl M.

    2010-01-01

    Distance education is fast becoming an elemental part of the fabric of academic life on many campuses, and this has implications for existing reward structures for faculty at these institutions. In addition, distance education is becoming an essential feature of the outreach mission of a number of departments at college and university campuses.…

  2. The role of the dorsal raphé nucleus in reward-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kae

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological experiments have shown that the modulation of brain serotonin levels has a strong impact on value-based decision making. Anatomical and physiological evidence also revealed that the dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN), a major source of serotonin, and the dopamine system receive common inputs from brain regions associated with appetitive and aversive information processing. The serotonin and dopamine systems also have reciprocal functional influences on each other. However, the specific mechanism by which serotonin affects value-based decision making is not clear. To understand the information carried by the DRN for reward-seeking behavior, we measured single neuron activity in the primate DRN during the performance of saccade tasks to obtain different amounts of a reward. We found that DRN neuronal activity was characterized by tonic modulation that was altered by the expected and received reward value. Consistent reward-dependent modulation across different task periods suggested that DRN activity kept track of the reward value throughout a trial. The DRN was also characterized by modulation of its activity in the opposite direction by different neuronal subgroups, one firing strongly for the prediction and receipt of large rewards, with the other firing strongly for small rewards. Conversely, putative dopamine neurons showed positive phasic responses to reward-indicating cues and the receipt of an unexpected reward amount, which supports the reward prediction error signal hypothesis of dopamine. I suggest that the tonic reward monitoring signal of the DRN, possibly together with its interaction with the dopamine system, reports a continuous level of motivation throughout the performance of a task. Such a signal may provide “reward context” information to the targets of DRN projections, where it may be integrated further with incoming motivationally salient information. PMID:23986662

  3. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  4. The Hidden Costs of Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deci, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses ways managers can motivate their employees to work and at the same time to increase their performance. Two theories of motivation--Vroom's theory and Atkinson's theory--focus on the use of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards respectively. A managerial strategy that combines the best of both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to…

  5. Aging Affects Acquisition and Reversal of Reward-Based Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Julia A.; Bellebaum, Christian; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Reward-based associative learning is mediated by a distributed network of brain regions that are dependent on the dopaminergic system. Age-related changes in key regions of this system, the striatum and the prefrontal cortex, may adversely affect the ability to use reward information for the guidance of behavior. The present study investigated the…

  6. Food Approach and Food Avoidance in Young Children: Relation with Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that individual differences in Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity may determine how children respond to food. These temperamental traits reflect activity in two basic brain systems that respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli, respectively, with approach and avoidance. Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigate the associations of the general motivational temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity with Food Approach and Food Avoidance in 98 preschool children. Consistent with the conceptualization of Reward Sensitivity in terms of approach behavior and Punishment Sensitivity in terms of avoidance behavior, Reward Sensitivity was positively related to Food Approach, while Punishment Sensitivity was positively related to Food Avoidance. Future research should integrate these perspectives (i.e., general temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity, and Food Approach and Avoidance) to get a better understanding of eating behavior and related body weight. PMID:27445898

  7. Food Approach and Food Avoidance in Young Children: Relation with Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that individual differences in Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity may determine how children respond to food. These temperamental traits reflect activity in two basic brain systems that respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli, respectively, with approach and avoidance. Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigate the associations of the general motivational temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity with Food Approach and Food Avoidance in 98 preschool children. Consistent with the conceptualization of Reward Sensitivity in terms of approach behavior and Punishment Sensitivity in terms of avoidance behavior, Reward Sensitivity was positively related to Food Approach, while Punishment Sensitivity was positively related to Food Avoidance. Future research should integrate these perspectives (i.e., general temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity, and Food Approach and Avoidance) to get a better understanding of eating behavior and related body weight. PMID:27445898

  8. Managing Academic Staff in Changing University Systems: International Trends and Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham, David, Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on how faculty are employed, rewarded, and managed at universities in developed and developing nations. The essays, which include an introduction, 10 essays discussing European practices, two that focus on Canada and the United States, three which focus on Australia, Japan, and Malaysia, and a concluding…

  9. Reward, Distraction, and the Overjustification Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; Pittman, Thane S.

    1978-01-01

    This study tests two differing hypotheses: the competing response hypothesis, which states that both reward and non-reward distractions produce decreases in interest which weaken over repeated trials, and the attribution/overjustification hypothesis, which maintains that rewards produce a decrease in interest that does not weaken over trials.…

  10. The Linkage System[C]: Linking Academic Content Standards and Occupational Skill Standards. A Process To Enhance Workforce Quality and Improve Academic Performance. Version 1.2. Revised [and] Taxonomy of Academic Performance Indicators: An Update of the V-TECS/Snyder Basic/Essential Skills Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    The Linkage System is a process that was designed in 1997 to improve academic performance for all students and to enhance work force quality by linking academic content standards to occupational skill standards. The Linkage System is based on research and development conducted by the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS).…

  11. Advantages and Challenges of Working as a Clinician in an Academic Department of Medicine: Academic Clinicians' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Colleen; Durso, Samuel C.; Kravet, Steven J.; Wright, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The provision of high-quality clinical care is critical to the mission of academic and nonacademic clinical settings and is of foremost importance to academic and nonacademic physicians. Concern has been increasingly raised that the rewards systems at most academic institutions may discourage those with a passion for clinical care over research or teaching from staying in academia. In addition to the advantages afforded by academic institutions, academic physicians may perceive important challenges, disincentives, and limitations to providing excellent clinical care. To better understand these views, we conducted a qualitative study to explore the perspectives of clinical faculty in prominent departments of medicine. Methods Between March and May 2007, 2 investigators conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 24 clinically excellent internal medicine physicians at 8 academic institutions across the nation. Transcripts were independently coded by 2 investigators and compared for agreement. Content analysis was performed to identify emerging themes. Results Twenty interviewees (83%) were associate professors or professors, 33% were women, and participants represented a wide range of internal medicine subspecialties. Mean time currently spent in clinical care by the physicians was 48%. Domains that emerged related to faculty's perception of clinical care in the academic setting included competing obligations, teamwork and collaboration, types of patients and productivity expectations, resources for clinical services, emphasis on discovery, and bureaucratic challenges. Conclusions Expert clinicians at academic medical centers perceive barriers to providing excellent patient care related to competing demands on their time, competing academic missions, and bureaucratic challenges. They also believe there are differences in the types of patients seen in academic settings compared with those in the private sector, that there is a “public” nature in

  12. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H.; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-01-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting non-linguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or “formal” math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional MRI study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6–12 years-old), 14 adolescents (13–17 years-old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. PMID:25327879

  13. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (P<0.05) or for good student behavior (P<0.05). School-level respondents in the West and the Midwest were less likely to report that food was not used as a reward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools. PMID:22640775

  14. Supporting and Rewarding Accomplished Teaching: Insights from Austin, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, David F.; Forgione, Pascal D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the strategic compensation efforts of the Austin Independent School District (AISD) in Texas, which is piloting a system of supports and rewards for teachers and administrators. The article highlights the key components of this system, what it took to put a 4-year pilot program in place, and what results are emerging from…

  15. The neural basis of academic achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-08-01

    We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes. PMID:18550387

  16. Creating a longitudinal integrated clerkship with mutual benefits for an academic medical center and a community health system.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills.Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment.Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations' leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers. PMID:24867551

  17. Creating a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship with Mutual Benefits for an Academic Medical Center and a Community Health System

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills. Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment. Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations’ leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers. PMID:24867551

  18. Neurogenetic Impairments of Brain Reward Circuitry Links to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Potential Nutrigenomic Induced Dopaminergic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Blum, K; Oscar-Berman, M; Giordano, J; Downs, BW; Simpatico, T; Han, D; Femino, John

    2012-01-01

    Work from our laboratory in both in-patient and outpatient facilities utilizing the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD)™ found a significant lack of compliance to prescribed treatment medications and a lack of abstinence from drugs of abuse during active recovery. This unpublished, ongoing research provides an impetus to develop accurate genetic diagnosis and holistic approaches that will safely activate brain reward circuitry in the mesolimbic dopamine system. This editorial focuses on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with particular reference to genes related to dopaminergic function. The terminology “Reward Deficiency Syndrome” (RDS), used to describe behaviors found to have an association with gene-based hypodopaminergic function, is a useful concept to help expand our understanding of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), process addictions, and other obsessive, compulsive and impulsive behaviors. This editorial covers the neurological basis of pleasure and the role of natural and unnatural reward in motivating and reinforcing behaviors. Additionally, it briefly describes the concept of natural dopamine D2 receptor agonist therapy coupled with genetic testing of a panel of reward genes, the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS). It serves as a spring-board for this combination of novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of RDS that was developed from fundamental genomic research. We encourage further required studies. PMID:23264886

  19. Surgeons' vision rewarded.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-08-01

    Surgeons and clinical staff, theatre circulation and scrub personnel, and anaesthetists, as well as the estates and facilities team at Kent's Maidstone Hospital, have worked with specialist supplier of integrated audio, video, and instrumentation systems for the operating room, Olympus Medical, to develop what is claimed is among the UK's most advanced operating theatres yet built for laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed the project with Amir Nisar, the surgeon who championed efforts to get the facility built, and Olympus Medical national sales manager, systems integration, James Watts. PMID:20839526

  20. Incremental effects of reward on creativity.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, R; Rhoades, L

    2001-10-01

    The authors examined 2 ways reward might increase creativity. First, reward contingent on creativity might increase extrinsic motivation. Studies 1 and 2 found that repeatedly giving preadolescent students reward for creative performance in 1 task increased their creativity in subsequent tasks. Study 3 reported that reward promised for creativity increased college students' creative task performance. Second, expected reward for high performance might increase creativity by enhancing perceived self-determination and, therefore, intrinsic task interest. Study 4 found that employees' intrinsic job interest mediated a positive relationship between expected reward for high performance and creative suggestions offered at work. Study 5 found that employees' perceived self-determination mediated a positive relationship between expected reward for high performance and the creativity of anonymous suggestions for helping the organization. PMID:11642357

  1. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    PubMed

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  2. Ventral Pallidum Roles in Reward and Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Tindell, Amy J.; Aldridge, J. Wayne; Berridge, Kent C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that 1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, 2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and 3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important ‘limbic final common pathway’ for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards. PMID:18955088

  3. Goal or Gold: Overlapping Reward Processes in Soccer Players upon Scoring and Winning Money

    PubMed Central

    Häusler, Alexander Niklas; Becker, Benjamin; Bartling, Marcel; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Social rewards are important incentives for human behavior. This is especially true in team sports such as the most popular one worldwide: soccer. We investigated reward processing upon scoring a soccer goal in a standard two-versus-one situation and in comparison to winning in a monetary incentive task. The results show a strong overlap in brain activity between the two conditions in established reward regions of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, including the ventral striatum and ventromedial pre-frontal cortex. The three main components of reward-associated learning i.e. reward probability (RP), reward reception (RR) and reward prediction errors (RPE) showed highly similar activation in both con-texts, with only the RR and RPE components displaying overlapping reward activity. Passing and shooting behavior did not correlate with individual egoism scores, but we observe a positive correlation be-tween egoism and activity in the left middle frontal gyrus upon scoring after a pass versus a direct shot. Our findings suggest that rewards in the context of soccer and monetary incentives are based on similar neural processes. PMID:25875594

  4. Goal or gold: overlapping reward processes in soccer players upon scoring and winning money.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Alexander Niklas; Becker, Benjamin; Bartling, Marcel; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Social rewards are important incentives for human behavior. This is especially true in team sports such as the most popular one worldwide: soccer. We investigated reward processing upon scoring a soccer goal in a standard two-versus-one situation and in comparison to winning in a monetary incentive task. The results show a strong overlap in brain activity between the two conditions in established reward regions of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, including the ventral striatum and ventromedial pre-frontal cortex. The three main components of reward-associated learning, i.e., reward probability (RP), reward reception (RR) and reward prediction errors (RPE) showed highly similar activation in both con-texts, with only the RR and RPE components displaying overlapping reward activity. Passing and shooting behavior did not correlate with individual egoism scores, but we observe a positive correlation be-tween egoism and activity in the left middle frontal gyrus upon scoring after a pass versus a direct shot. Our findings suggest that rewards in the context of soccer and monetary incentives are based on similar neural processes. PMID:25875594

  5. How sequential changes in reward magnitude modulate cognitive flexibility: Evidence from voluntary task switching.

    PubMed

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2016-02-01

    There is much evidence that the prospect of reward modulates cognitive control in terms of more stable behavior. Increases in expected reward magnitude, however, have been suggested to increase flexible behavior as evidenced by reduced switch costs. In a series of experiments, the authors provide evidence that this increased cognitive flexibility following increases in reward magnitude also promotes deliberate task switching. A modified task switching paradigm with forced- and free-choice trials and varying reward prospects was used. In Experiments 1-3 the prospect of a reward increase as compared to unchanged high reward increased voluntary switching rate (VSR). Experiment 4 showed that the prospect of a reward decrease did not alter VSR as compared to unchanged low reward. Experiment 5 used a standard voluntary task switching procedure and confirmed VSR effects found in Experiments 1-4. These findings are strong evidence for a mechanism that biases the cognitive system either toward stability or flexibility depending on changing reward expectation. Results are discussed within the framework of the adaptive gain theory. PMID:26237619

  6. The Ethics of Academic Book Reviewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Leonard R. N.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of ethical quandaries in academe focuses on the ethics of book reviewing. Topics include difficulties in getting published; exploitation of examination copies; reviewing books to get free copies; using book reviews as personal pulpits; inadequate rewards for reviewing books; and qualifications for reviewers. (LRW)

  7. The Academic Bilingual and Career Upgrading System (Project ABACUS). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Tim

    The Academic Bilingual and Career Upgrading System (Project ABACUS) was a federally-funded program in its fourth year at two Brooklyn and one Queens (New York) high schools. The program served 475 limited-English-speaking students who were native speakers of Chinese, Korean, and Spanish. Students received instruction in English as a second…

  8. Industrial & Engineering Systems Career Cluster ITAC for Career-Focused Education: Manufacturing Sub-Cluster. Integrated Technical & Academic Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Designed for Ohio educators responsible for planning programs to prepare high school students for careers in the manufacturing industry, this document presents an overview of Ohio's Integrated Technical and Academic Competencies (ITAC) system of career-focused education and specific information about the manufacturing subcluster of the industrial…

  9. Affordances for Academics: Using Learning Management Systems to Effectively Manage Large-Enrolment Units in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Timothy; Rankine, Lynnae

    2010-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) can be used to deliver learning designs that meet students' learning needs. There is a raft of teaching and learning tools that can be enabled in LMS to engage and support learners. The design and ongoing management of these environments rest largely on the knowledge and skills of academic staff. While increasing…

  10. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. PMID:26594139

  11. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation.

    PubMed

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation. PMID:24547770

  12. Microglia disrupt mesolimbic reward circuitry in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J; Murphy, Niall P; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  13. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. PMID:26594139

  14. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  15. The Connecticut Latino Behavioral Health System: A culturally informed community-academic collaboration.

    PubMed

    Paris, Manuel; Silva, Michelle A; Diaz, Esperanza; Bedregal, Luis E; Cole, Robert A; Añez-Nava, Luis M

    2016-05-01

    The Connecticut Latino Behavioral Health System (LBHS) represents a culturally informed community-academic collaboration that includes agencies focused on mental health, addictions, behavioral health within community health centers, and social rehabilitation; the Yale University Department of Psychiatry; and the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services. The core mission of the LBHS is to expand and enhance the provision of recovery-oriented, and culturally and linguistically appropriate, services to the monolingual Spanish-speaking community in parts of South Central Connecticut. This article outlines the rationale and need for such a collaboration to meet the needs of an underrepresented and underserved ethnic minority group. The process by which these entities came together to develop and successfully implement systemic strategies is described in the context of 2 overarching priorities: (a) workforce development, and (b) access to services. The authors also highlight lessons learned that have informed the decision-making process since the inception of the LBHS, and future directions to ensure that it is prepared to meet changing consumer needs and systemic priorities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148948

  16. Development and Testing of a M-Learning System for the Professional Development of Academics through Design-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Kuzu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a mobile learning system for the professional development of academics was developed by design based action research, and the perceptions and experiences of the academics using this system were examined. In the first phase of this design-based action research, the research question was defined. In the second phase, a…

  17. Reducing Absenteeism and Rescheduling among Grocery Store Employees with Point-Contingent Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Matt C.; Price, Virginia A.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a reward program designed to reduce absenteeism among staff (N = 38) at a grocery store. The intervention included public feedback and a credit reward system whereby participants got store dollars for attendance and authorized rescheduling of work assignments. Results showed that absenteeism decreased…

  18. Addiction is a Reward Deficit and Stress Surfeit Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koob, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction can be defined by a three-stage cycle – binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation – that involves allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Two primary sources of reinforcement, positive and negative reinforcement, have been hypothesized to play a role in this allostatic process. The negative emotional state that drives negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain reward and stress systems. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in reward system function (within-system opponent processes) but also recruitment of the brain stress systems mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and dynorphin-κ opioid systems in the ventral striatum, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex (both between-system opponent processes). CRF antagonists block anxiety-like responses associated with withdrawal, block increases in reward thresholds produced by withdrawal from drugs of abuse, and block compulsive-like drug taking during extended access. Excessive drug taking also engages the activation of CRF in the medial prefrontal cortex, paralleled by deficits in executive function that may facilitate the transition to compulsive-like responding. Neuropeptide Y, a powerful anti-stress neurotransmitter, has a profile of action on compulsive-like responding for ethanol similar to a CRF1 antagonist. Blockade of the κ opioid system can also block dysphoric-like effects associated with withdrawal from drugs of abuse and block the development of compulsive-like responding during extended access to drugs of abuse, suggesting another powerful brain stress system that contributes to compulsive drug seeking. The loss of reward function and recruitment of brain systems provide a powerful neurochemical basis that drives the compulsivity of addiction. PMID:23914176

  19. Reward-Seeking Behavior in Human Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Alexandra; Fronczek, Rolf; Van der Ploeg, Janneke; Scammell, Thomas; Gautam, Shiva; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Lammers, Gert Jan

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The hypocretin system enhances signaling in the mesolimbic pathways regulating reward processing and addiction. Because individuals with narcolepsy with cataplexy have low hypocretin levels, we hypothesized that they may be less prone to risk- and reward-seeking behaviors, including substance abuse. Design: Endpoints were performance on an array of psychometric tests (including the Eysenck Impulsiveness Scale, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale, the Gormally Binge Eating Scale, and the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventory) and on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Setting: Tertiary narcolepsy referral centers in Leiden (The Netherlands) and Boston (USA). Patients: Subjects with narcolepsy with cataplexy (n = 30), narcolepsy without cataplexy (n = 15), and controls (n = 32) matched for age, sex, and smoking behavior. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: There was no difference in risk-taking behavior between narcolepsy with or without cataplexy and the control group, as measured using the BART and the array of questionnaires. However, subjects in the narcolepsy with cataplexy group had significantly higher scores on the Eysenck Impulsiveness Scale (p < 0.05), with 10.0% categorized as impulsive, compared to 6.7% of the narcolepsy without cataplexy group and none of the controls. Narcoleptics with cataplexy also scored significantly higher than controls on the Binge Eating Scale (p < 0.05), with moderate or severe binge eating in 23%. On the depression and anxiety scales, all narcolepsy patients, especially those with cataplexy, scored significantly higher than controls. Conclusions: We found that narcoleptics with or without cataplexy generally have normal risk-taking behavior, but narcoleptics with cataplexy were more impulsive and more prone to binge eating than patients without cataplexy and controls. Our findings shed new light on the relation between sleepiness and impulsiveness. Furthermore, rates of depression and anxiety

  20. Changes in Reward after Gastric Bypass: the Advantages and Disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Samantha; Goldstone, Anthony P; le Roux, Carel W

    2015-10-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective long-term weight loss intervention. Key to its success appears a putative shift in food preference away from high-energy-density foods associated with a reduced appetitive drive and loss of neural reactivity in the reward system of the brain towards food. Post-prandial exaggerated satiety gut hormone responses have been implicated as mediators. Whilst the positive impact of bariatric surgery on both physical and psychological outcomes for many patients is clearly evident, a subset of patients appear to be detrimentally affected by this loss of reward from food and by a lack of alternative strategies for regulating affect after surgery. Mindfulness training has emerged as a potential tool in reducing the need for immediate reward that underpins much of eating behaviour. Further research is needed to help identify patients who may be more vulnerable after gastric bypass and which forms of support may be most beneficial. PMID:26358733

  1. Target identification and validation in brain reward dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, Luis F; González-Martín, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Addictive disorders (substance-use disorder and gambling disorder) are collected together in the fifth edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) partially because of a common brain origin, which seems to involve dysfunction of the reward system. Beyond these disorders, other neuropsychiatric diseases also share abnormal reward sensitivity, maladaptive impulsivity or compulsive behaviours, and have been reunited under the 'reward deficiency syndrome' (RDS) umbrella. Research in this field could then provide novel drugs with positive actions in all these diseases, but many animal models used for this purpose lack enough translational value to enable the identification of novel targets and should be then avoided. As we discuss here, only selected protocols could provide reliable targets that would be common to the whole family of diseases, thus qualifying for further validation in patients. PMID:25541474

  2. An Efficiency Comparison of Document Preparation Systems Used in Academic Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Knauff, Markus; Nejasmic, Jelica

    2014-01-01

    The choice of an efficient document preparation system is an important decision for any academic researcher. To assist the research community, we report a software usability study in which 40 researchers across different disciplines prepared scholarly texts with either Microsoft Word or LaTeX. The probe texts included simple continuous text, text with tables and subheadings, and complex text with several mathematical equations. We show that LaTeX users were slower than Word users, wrote less text in the same amount of time, and produced more typesetting, orthographical, grammatical, and formatting errors. On most measures, expert LaTeX users performed even worse than novice Word users. LaTeX users, however, more often report enjoying using their respective software. We conclude that even experienced LaTeX users may suffer a loss in productivity when LaTeX is used, relative to other document preparation systems. Individuals, institutions, and journals should carefully consider the ramifications of this finding when choosing document preparation strategies, or requiring them of authors. PMID:25526083

  3. An efficiency comparison of document preparation systems used in academic research and development.

    PubMed

    Knauff, Markus; Nejasmic, Jelica

    2014-01-01

    The choice of an efficient document preparation system is an important decision for any academic researcher. To assist the research community, we report a software usability study in which 40 researchers across different disciplines prepared scholarly texts with either Microsoft Word or LaTeX. The probe texts included simple continuous text, text with tables and subheadings, and complex text with several mathematical equations. We show that LaTeX users were slower than Word users, wrote less text in the same amount of time, and produced more typesetting, orthographical, grammatical, and formatting errors. On most measures, expert LaTeX users performed even worse than novice Word users. LaTeX users, however, more often report enjoying using their respective software. We conclude that even experienced LaTeX users may suffer a loss in productivity when LaTeX is used, relative to other document preparation systems. Individuals, institutions, and journals should carefully consider the ramifications of this finding when choosing document preparation strategies, or requiring them of authors. PMID:25526083

  4. New J-STAGE system accelerates digitization and distribution of academic journals from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryuichi; Kubota, Soichi; Aoyama, Kota; Tsuchiya, Eri; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    13 years have passed since J-STAGE was launched. At present no one could deny that its user interface and functions were already out of date comparing to foreign established e-journals. So JST has developed a new system called “J-STAGE3” in order to offer better usability and give powerful dissemination of academic papers from Japan. As the result of it, they will be able to enjoy the following things: 1) integration of two databases, Journal@rchive and J-STAGE, 2) new design/interface, 3) introduction of international standard XML format, 4) advanced subscription management, 5) saving cost of publishers, and 6) improving J-STAGE online submission and review system. At the end of March 2011, we conducted a market research on current status of digitization on Japanese society journals. The report told us that digitization ratio of those was 62% in total but it was 34% in humanities/social sciences. Or it was 92% in English journals and 55% in Japanese ones. It means that we need further promotion of digitization. In this paper, we discuss functions and direction of J-STAGE3 as well as our role in promotion of digitization of Japanese society journals.

  5. Evaluating the neurobiology of sexual reward.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Raúl G

    2009-01-01

    There is much evidence that naturally occurring behaviors (e.g., the ingestion of food and water) and social behaviors (e.g., play, maternal behavior) can induce a reward state. This review includes definitions to distinguish between "reward" and "reinforcement," and a description of methods to assess reward and demonstrate that social interactions can indeed produce a positive affective (PA) state. Operant responses, partner preference, and sexual incentive motivation are all effective methods for evaluating approach behaviors under different conditions. The method most frequently used to evaluate a positive affective or reward state is conditioned place preference (CPP), which entails modification of an animal's initial preference after alternating exposure to a control stimulus in one chamber and a rewarding condition in the other. At the end of the training the animal shows a clear preference for the compartment associated with the rewarding stimulus. CPP demonstrates that it is possible to use different treatments and naturally occurring behaviors (e.g., water or food consumption, exercise) to induce a reward state. Sexual interactions and other social behaviors also produce a clear change of preference, indicating the induction of a reward or PA state. The reward state in males and females is mediated by opioids, and the medial preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus is a crucial site for sexual reward. PMID:19106449

  6. Views on the peer review system of biomedical journals: an online survey of academics from high-ranking universities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer review is the major method used by biomedical journals for making the decision of publishing an article. This cross-sectional survey assesses views concerning the review system of biomedical journals among academics globally. Methods A total of 28,009 biomedical academics from high-ranking universities listed by the 2009 Times Higher Education Quacquarelli Symonds (THE-QS) World University Rankings were contacted by email between March 2010 and August 2010. 1,340 completed an online survey which focused on their academic background, negative experiences and views on biomedical journal peer review and the results were compared among basic scientists, clinicians and clinician scientists. Results Fewer than half of the respondents agreed that the peer review systems of biomedical journals were fair (48.4%), scientific (47.5%), or transparent (25.1%). Nevertheless, 58.2% of the respondents agreed that authors should remain anonymous and 64.4% agreed that reviewers should not be disclosed. Most, (67.7%) agreed to the establishment of an appeal system. The proportion of native English-speaking respondents who agreed that the “peer review system is fair” was significantly higher than for non-native respondents (p = 0.02). Similarly, the proportion of clinicians stating that the “peer review system is fair” was significantly higher than that for basic scientists and clinician-scientists (p = 0.004). For females, (β = −0.1, p = 0.03), the frequency of encountering personal attacks in reviewers’ comments (β = −0.1, p = 0.002) and the frequency of imposition of unnecessary references by reviewers (β = −0.06, p = 0.04) were independently and inversely associated with agreement that “the peer review system is fair”. Conclusion Academics are divided on the issue of whether the biomedical journal peer review system is fair, scientific and transparent. A majority of academics agreed with the double-blind peer

  7. Inflated reward value in early opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Linker, Kay E; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2016-03-01

    Through incentive learning, the emotional experience of a reward in a relevant need state (e.g. hunger for food) sets the incentive value that guides the performance of actions that earn that reward when the need state is encountered again. Opiate withdrawal has been proposed as a need state in which, through experience, opiate value can be increased, resulting in escalated opiate self-administration. Endogenous opioid transmission plays anatomically dissociable roles in the positive emotional experience of reward consumption and incentive learning. We, therefore, sought to determine if chronic opiate exposure and withdrawal produces a disruption in the fundamental incentive learning process such that reward seeking, even for non-opiate rewards, can become maladaptive, inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption and irrespective of need. Rats trained to earn sucrose or water on a reward-seeking chain were treated with morphine (10-30 mg/kg, s.c.) daily for 11 days prior to testing in withdrawal. Opiate-withdrawn rats showed elevated reward-seeking actions, but only after they experienced the reward in withdrawal, an effect that was strongest in early (1-3 days), as opposed to late (14-16 days), withdrawal. This was sufficient to overcome a negative reward value change induced by sucrose experience in satiety and, in certain circumstances, was inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption. Lastly, we found that early opiate withdrawal-induced inflation of reward value was blocked by inactivation of basolateral amygdala mu opioid receptors. These data suggest that in early opiate withdrawal, the incentive learning process is disrupted, resulting in maladaptive reward seeking. PMID:25081350

  8. Potential effects of reward and loss avoidance in overweight adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Sussanne; Peirano, Patricio; Luna, Beatriz; Lozoff, Betsy; Algarín, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background Reward system and inhibitory control are brain functions that exert an influence on eating behavior regulation. We studied the differences in inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward and loss avoidance between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents. Methods We assessed 51 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight 15-y-old Chilean adolescents. The groups were similar regarding sex and intelligence quotient. Using Antisaccade and Incentive tasks, we evaluated inhibitory control and the effect of incentive trials (neutral, loss avoidance, and reward) on generating correct and incorrect responses (latency and error rate). Results Compared to normal-weight group participants, overweight/obese adolescents showed shorter latency for incorrect antisaccade responses (186.0 (95% CI: 176.8–195.2) vs. 201.3 ms (95% CI: 191.2–211.5), P < 0.05) and better performance reflected by lower error rate in incentive trials (43.6 (95% CI: 37.8–49.4) vs. 53.4% (95% CI: 46.8–60.0), P < 0.05). Overweight/obese adolescents were more accurate on loss avoidance (40.9 (95% CI: 33.5–47.7) vs. 49.8% (95% CI: 43.0–55.1), P < 0.05) and reward (41.0 (95% CI: 34.5–47.5) vs. 49.8% (95% CI: 43.0–55.1), P < 0.05) compared to neutral trials. Conclusion Overweight/obese adolescents showed shorter latency for incorrect responses and greater accuracy in reward and loss avoidance trials. These findings could suggest that an imbalance of inhibition and reward systems influence their eating behavior. PMID:25927543

  9. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  10. 5 CFR 9901.412 - Rating and rewarding performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rating and rewarding performance. 9901.412 Section 9901.412 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Achievers, Confidence-Builders, Advocates, Relationship-Developers and System-Changers: What "Making a Difference" Means to Those Who Work with Children with Special Educational Needs -- A Typology of Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the rewards found that teachers gain satisfaction in a sense of vocation, "making a difference", and the emotional rewards of "care" and "love", especially in whole-class teaching. The meaning of "making a difference" often remains unexplored however, and this article is an attempt to…

  12. Effects of interaction of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial with social stress during adolescence on the serotonergic system and the stress responsiveness of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Raftogianni, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Alikaridis, F; Stamatakis, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2012-05-01

    Experiences during critical periods, such as the neonatal and adolescence, play a critical role in determining adult stress-coping behavior. Based on the aforementioned we developed an experimental protocol, which included a neonatal experience and a social stress during adolescence. The serotonergic system is known as an important modulator of coping ability and, in general, emotional balance in both normal and pathological states, such as depression and anxiety, for which females are more vulnerable. Thus in the present work we used female rats and determined 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala (AMY). During postnatal days 10-13 (PND 10-13) rat pups were exposed to a T-maze, one arm of which lead to the mother. One group of animals was allowed contact with the mother (rewarded-receiving expected reward (RER)), whereas the other was denied the expected reward (DER). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that in both the PFC and in AMY, adult RER animals had higher basal 5-HT levels. Furthermore, in the AMY of this group of animals, higher levels of 5-HT(1A) receptors were detected by Western blot analysis. In adulthood rats were exposed to the Forced Swimming Test/Stress (FST/S). RER animals not exposed to the adolescent stress exhibited longer immobility time during both the first and second day of FST. Corticosterone levels following the FST fell faster in the DER animals. Adolescent stress affected the responses to the adult FSS only in the DER animals, which had decreased 5-HT in the AMY and increased immobility time on both days of the FST, compared with the DER, not stressed in adolescence. The phenotype of the DER animals is in line with the "match-mismatch" hypothesis, which states that if two events during critical periods of life "match" in being mildly stressful, their interaction can be adaptive. PMID

  13. Reward magnitude effects on temporal discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate a short (2 s) vs. a long (8 s) signal followed by testing with intermediate durations. Then, the reward on short or long trials was increased from 1 to 4 pellets in separate groups. Experiment 2 measured the effect of different reward magnitudes associated with the short vs. long signals throughout training. Finally, Experiment 3 controlled for satiety effects during the reward magnitude manipulation phase. A general flattening of the psychophysical function was evident in all three experiments, suggesting that unequal reward magnitudes may disrupt attention to duration. PMID:24965705

  14. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mikhael, John G; Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-09-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  15. Reward magnitude effects on temporal discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate a short (2 s) vs. a long (8 s) signal followed by testing with intermediate durations. Then, the reward on short or long trials was increased from 1 to 4 pellets in separate groups. Experiment 2 measured the effect of different reward magnitudes associated with the short vs. long signals throughout training. Finally, Experiment 3 controlled for satiety effects during the reward magnitude manipulation phase. A general flattening of the psychophysical function was evident in all three experiments, suggesting that unequal reward magnitudes may disrupt attention to duration.

  16. Network information security in a phase III Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS).

    PubMed Central

    Shea, S.; Sengupta, S.; Crosswell, A.; Clayton, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The developing Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center provides data sharing links between two separate corporate entities, namely Columbia University Medical School and The Presbyterian Hospital, using a network-based architecture. Multiple database servers with heterogeneous user authentication protocols are linked to this network. "One-stop information shopping" implies one log-on procedure per session, not separate log-on and log-off procedures for each server or application used during a session. These circumstances provide challenges at the policy and technical levels to data security at the network level and insuring smooth information access for end users of these network-based services. Five activities being conducted as part of our security project are described: (1) policy development; (2) an authentication server for the network; (3) Kerberos as a tool for providing mutual authentication, encryption, and time stamping of authentication messages; (4) a prototype interface using Kerberos services to authenticate users accessing a network database server; and (5) a Kerberized electronic signature. PMID:1336414

  17. A Brief Broadband System for Screening Children at Risk for Academic Difficulties and Poor Achievement Test Performance: Validity Evidence and Applications to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2010-01-01

    The Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System (BACESS) is a broadband universal screening instrument with three increasingly stringent phases for the identification of children at risk for academic and related behavior difficulties. The development of the BACESS involved two samples of students: K-5 students (n = 827) from the…

  18. Dissociable functions of reward inference in the lateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shingo; Pan, Xiaochuan; Oguchi, Mineki; Taylor, Jessica E; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    In a complex and uncertain world, how do we select appropriate behavior? One possibility is that we choose actions that are highly reinforced by their probabilistic consequences (model-free processing). However, we may instead plan actions prior to their actual execution by predicting their consequences (model-based processing). It has been suggested that the brain contains multiple yet distinct systems involved in reward prediction. Several studies have tried to allocate model-free and model-based systems to the striatum and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), respectively. Although there is much support for this hypothesis, recent research has revealed discrepancies. To understand the nature of the reward prediction systems in the LPFC and the striatum, a series of single-unit recording experiments were conducted. LPFC neurons were found to infer the reward associated with the stimuli even when the monkeys had not yet learned the stimulus-reward (SR) associations directly. Striatal neurons seemed to predict the reward for each stimulus only after directly experiencing the SR contingency. However, the one exception was "Exclusive Or" situations in which striatal neurons could predict the reward without direct experience. Previous single-unit studies in monkeys have reported that neurons in the LPFC encode category information, and represent reward information specific to a group of stimuli. Here, as an extension of these, we review recent evidence that a group of LPFC neurons can predict reward specific to a category of visual stimuli defined by relevant behavioral responses. We suggest that the functional difference in reward prediction between the LPFC and the striatum is that while LPFC neurons can utilize abstract code, striatal neurons can code individual associations between stimuli and reward but cannot utilize abstract code. PMID:26236266

  19. Dissociable functions of reward inference in the lateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shingo; Pan, Xiaochuan; Oguchi, Mineki; Taylor, Jessica E.; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    In a complex and uncertain world, how do we select appropriate behavior? One possibility is that we choose actions that are highly reinforced by their probabilistic consequences (model-free processing). However, we may instead plan actions prior to their actual execution by predicting their consequences (model-based processing). It has been suggested that the brain contains multiple yet distinct systems involved in reward prediction. Several studies have tried to allocate model-free and model-based systems to the striatum and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), respectively. Although there is much support for this hypothesis, recent research has revealed discrepancies. To understand the nature of the reward prediction systems in the LPFC and the striatum, a series of single-unit recording experiments were conducted. LPFC neurons were found to infer the reward associated with the stimuli even when the monkeys had not yet learned the stimulus-reward (SR) associations directly. Striatal neurons seemed to predict the reward for each stimulus only after directly experiencing the SR contingency. However, the one exception was “Exclusive Or” situations in which striatal neurons could predict the reward without direct experience. Previous single-unit studies in monkeys have reported that neurons in the LPFC encode category information, and represent reward information specific to a group of stimuli. Here, as an extension of these, we review recent evidence that a group of LPFC neurons can predict reward specific to a category of visual stimuli defined by relevant behavioral responses. We suggest that the functional difference in reward prediction between the LPFC and the striatum is that while LPFC neurons can utilize abstract code, striatal neurons can code individual associations between stimuli and reward but cannot utilize abstract code. PMID:26236266

  20. Differential involvement of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone in motivational and hedonic aspects of reward.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Miriam; Heise, Verena; Spanagel, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    In the present study dose-dependent effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were investigated on the rewarding effects of sweetened condensed milk (SCM) in four behavioral paradigms addressing hedonic, consummatory as well as motivational aspects of a reward: odour-conditioned pleasure attenuation of the acoustic startle response (PAS), conditioned place preference (CPP), voluntary consumption in a limited access paradigm, as well as break point determination in a progressive ratio (PR) task. A dose-dependent reduction in reward-related behavior was observed in all paradigms, with exception of the break point in the PR task, which was not affected by naloxone at all. CPP for SCM was only affected by the highest dose of naloxone. The present results indicate that naloxone is more effective in suppressing the hedonic than motivational aspects of reward, further supporting the involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the mediation of hedonic properties of food reward. PMID:20035797

  1. Balancing risk and reward: a rat model of risky decision making.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nicholas W; Gilbert, Ryan J; Mayse, Jeffrey D; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2009-09-01

    We developed a behavioral task in rats to assess the influence of risk of punishment on decision making. Male Long-Evans rats were given choices between pressing a lever to obtain a small, 'safe' food reward and a large food reward associated with risk of punishment (footshock). Each test session consisted of 5 blocks of 10 choice trials, with punishment risk increasing with each consecutive block (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%). Preference for the large, 'risky' reward declined with both increased probability and increased magnitude of punishment, and reward choice was not affected by the level of satiation or the order of risk presentation. Performance in this risky decision-making task was correlated with the degree to which the rats discounted the value of probabilistic rewards, but not delayed rewards. Finally, the acute effects of different doses of amphetamine and cocaine on risky decision making were assessed. Systemic amphetamine administration caused a dose-dependent decrease in choice of the large risky reward (ie, it made rats more risk averse). Cocaine did not cause a shift in reward choice, but instead impaired the rats' sensitivity to changes in punishment risk. These results should prove useful for investigating neuropsychiatric disorders in which risk taking is a prominent feature, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and addiction. PMID:19440192

  2. Abnormal Social Reward Responses in Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Via, Esther; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Davey, Christopher G.; Pujol, Jesús; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Cardoner, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) display impaired social interactions, implicated in the development and prognosis of the disorder. Importantly, social behavior is modulated by reward-based processes, and dysfunctional at-brain-level reward responses have been involved in AN neurobiological models. However, no prior evidence exists of whether these neural alterations would be equally present in social contexts. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional social-judgment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 20 restrictive-subtype AN patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Brain activity during acceptance and rejection was investigated and correlated with severity measures (Eating Disorder Inventory -EDI-2) and with personality traits of interest known to modulate social behavior (The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire). Patients showed hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) during social acceptance and hyperactivation of visual areas during social rejection. Ventral striatum activation during rejection was positively correlated in patients with clinical severity scores. During acceptance, activation of the frontal opercula-anterior insula and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was differentially associated with reward sensitivity between groups. These results suggest an abnormal motivational drive for social stimuli, and involve overlapping social cognition and reward systems leading to a disruption of adaptive responses in the processing of social reward. The specific association of reward-related regions with clinical and psychometric measures suggests the putative involvement of reward structures in the maintenance of pathological behaviors in AN. PMID:26197051

  3. Neural correlates of reward processing in schizophrenia--relationship to apathy and depression.

    PubMed

    Simon, Joe J; Biller, Armin; Walther, Stephan; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Stippich, Christoph; Weisbrod, Matthias; Kaiser, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    The present study employs a new framework to categorise the heterogeneous findings on the relationship between impaired reward processing and negative and affective symptoms of schizophrenia. Based on previous behavioural and neuroimaging studies we postulate that "wanting" (i.e. anticipation) of a reward is specifically related to apathy, whereas "liking" (i.e. hedonic impact) is related to anhedonia and depression--symptoms commonly observed in schizophrenia. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs and fifteen healthy controls performed a probabilistic monetary incentive delay task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. At the group level we found no significant differences between patients and controls in neural activation during anticipation or receipt of a reward. However, in patients with schizophrenia specific relationships between ventral-striatal activation and symptoms were observed. Ventral-striatal activation during reward anticipation was negatively correlated with apathy, while activation during receipt of reward was negatively correlated with severity of depressive symptoms. These results suggest that the link between negative symptoms and reward anticipation might specifically relate to apathy, i.e. a lack of motivation and drive. Impaired hedonic reward processing might contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but it is not directly associated with self-rated anhedonia. These results indicate the necessity of more specifically differentiating negative and affective symptoms in schizophrenia in order to understand the role of the reward system in their pathogenesis. PMID:20005675

  4. Divergent relationship of depression severity to social reward responses among patients with bipolar versus unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anup; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Vandekar, Lillie; Katchmar, Natalie; Daldal, Aylin; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A; Baldassano, Claudia; Thase, Michael E; Gur, Raquel E; Kable, Joseph W; Wolf, Daniel H

    2016-08-30

    Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders demonstrate abnormalities in brain regions implicated in reward processing. However, there is a paucity of research investigating how social rewards affect reward circuit activity in these disorders. Here, we evaluated the relationship of both diagnostic category and dimensional depression severity to reward system function in bipolar and unipolar depression. In total, 86 adults were included, including 24 patients with bipolar depression, 24 patients with unipolar depression, and 38 healthy comparison subjects. Participants completed a social reward task during 3T BOLD fMRI. On average, diagnostic groups did not differ in activation to social reward. However, greater depression severity significantly correlated with reduced bilateral ventral striatum activation to social reward in the bipolar depressed group, but not the unipolar depressed group. In addition, decreased left orbitofrontal cortical activation correlated with more severe symptoms in bipolar depression, but not unipolar depression. These differential dimensional effects resulted in a significant voxelwise group by depression severity interaction. Taken together, these results provide initial evidence that deficits in social reward processing are differentially related to depression severity in the two disorders. PMID:27295401

  5. Divergent Relationship of Depression Severity to Social Reward Responses Among Patients with Bipolar Versus Unipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Vandekar, Lillie; Katchmar, Natalie; Daldal, Aylin; Ruparel, Kosha; A.Elliott, Mark; Baldassano, Claudia; Thase, Michael E.; Gur, Raquel E.; Kable, Joseph W.; Wolf, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders demonstrate abnormalities in brain regions implicated in reward processing. However, there is a paucity of research investigating how social rewards affect reward circuit activity in these disorders. Here, we evaluated the relationship of both diagnostic category and dimensional depression severity to reward system function in bipolar and unipolar depression. In total, 86 adults were included, including 24 patients with bipolar depression, 24 patients with unipolar depression, and 38 healthy comparison subjects. Participants completed a social reward task during 3T BOLD fMRI. On average, diagnostic groups did not differ in activation to social reward. However, greater depression severity significantly correlated with reduced bilateral ventral striatum activation to social reward in the bipolar depressed group, but not the unipolar depressed group. In addition, decreased left orbitofrontal cortical activation correlated with more severe symptoms in bipolar depression, but not unipolar depression. These differential dimensional effects resulted in a significant voxelwise group by depression severity interaction. Taken together, these results provide initial evidence that deficits in social reward processing are differentially related to depression severity in the two disorders. PMID:27295401

  6. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible. PMID:25972167

  7. Reward and non-reward learning of flower colours in the butterfly Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects. To increase their foraging efficiency, flower-visiting insects may learn to associate floral cues with the presence (so-called reward learning) or the absence (so-called non-reward learning) of a reward. Reward learning whilst foraging for flowers has been demonstrated in many insect taxa, whilst non-reward learning in flower-visiting insects has been demonstrated only in honeybees, bumblebees and hawkmoths. This study examined both reward and non-reward learning abilities in the butterfly Byasa alcinous whilst foraging among artificial flowers of different colours. This butterfly showed both types of learning, although butterflies of both sexes learned faster via reward learning. In addition, females learned via reward learning faster than males. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first empirical data on the learning speed of both reward and non-reward learning in insects. We discuss the adaptive significance of a lower learning speed for non-reward learning when foraging on flowers.

  8. Cognitive processing of food rewards.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Cues associated with tasty foods, such as their smell or taste, are strong motivators of eating, but the power of food cues on behaviour varies from moment to moment and from person to person. Variation in the rewarding value of a food with metabolic state explains why food cues are more attractive when hungry. However, cognitive processes are also important determinants of our responses to food cues. An urge to consume a tempting food may be resisted if, for example, a person has a longer term goal of weight loss. There is also evidence that responses to food cues can be facilitated or inhibited by memory processes. The aim of this review is to add to the literature on cognitive control of eating by reviewing recent evidence on the influence of working memory and episodic memory processes on responses to food cues. It is argued that processing of food information in working memory affects how much attention is paid to food cues in the environment and promotes the motivation to seek out food in the absence of direct contact with food cues. It is further argued that memories of specific recent eating episodes play an important role in directing food choices and influencing when and how much we eat. However, these memory processes are prone to disruption. When this happens, eating behaviour may become more cue-driven and less flexible. In the modern food environment, disruption of cognitive processing of food reward cues may lead to overconsumption and obesity. PMID:26458961

  9. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  10. Reward modulates perception in binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Our perception does not provide us with an exact imprint of the outside world, but is continuously adapted to our internal expectations, task sets, and behavioral goals. Although effects of reward-or value in general-on perception therefore seem likely, how valuation modulates perception and how such modulation relates to attention is largely unknown. We probed effects of reward on perception by using a binocular-rivalry paradigm. Distinct gratings drifting in opposite directions were presented to each observer's eyes. To objectify their subjective perceptual experience, the optokinetic nystagmus was used as measure of current perceptual dominance. In a first experiment, one of the percepts was either rewarded or attended. We found that reward and attention similarly biased perception. In a second experiment, observers performed an attentionally demanding task either on the rewarded stimulus, the other stimulus, or both. We found that-on top of an attentional effect on perception-at each level of attentional load, reward still modulated perception by increasing the dominance of the rewarded percept. Similarly, penalizing one percept increased dominance of the other at each level of attentional load. In turn, rewarding-and similarly nonpunishing-a percept yielded performance benefits that are typically associated with selective attention. In conclusion, our data show that value modulates perception in a similar way as the volitional deployment of attention, even though the relative effect of value is largely unaffected by an attention task. PMID:25589295

  11. Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ): development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711

  12. The Recognition and Reward of Employee Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    A study compared different firms' methods of recognizing and rewarding employee performance and examined the impact of such recognition and reward on such factors as involuntary and voluntary labor turnover and worker productivity. Data from a survey of 3,412 employers that was sponsored by the National Institute of Education and the National…

  13. Adolescent Depression: Stress and Reward Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peak period for the onset of depression, and it is also a time marked by substantial stress as well as neural development within the brain reward circuitry. In the current review, we provide a selective overview of current animal and human research investigating the relationship among reward processes, stress, and depression. Three separate, but related, etiological models examine the differential roles that stress may play with regard to reward dysfunction and adolescent depression. First, the reward mediation model suggests that acute and chronic stress contribute to reward deficits, which in turn, potentiate depressive symptoms and/or increase the risk for depression. Second, in line with the stress generation perspective, it is plausible that premorbid reward-related dysfunction generates stress, in particular interpersonal stress, which then leads to the manifestation of depressive symptoms. Last, consistent with a diathesis-stress model, the interaction between stress and premorbid reward dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression. Given the equifinal nature of depression, these models could shed important light on different etiological pathways during adolescence, particularly as they may relate to understanding the heterogeneity of depression. To highlight the translational potential of these insights, a hypothetical case study is provided as means of demonstrating the importance of targeting reward dysfunction in both assessment and treatment of adolescent depression. PMID:24704785

  14. Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ): development and validation.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711

  15. Reward eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hisato; Kim, Dongho; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well known that reward enhances learning and memory, how extensively such enhancement occurs remains unclear. To address this question, we examined how reward influences retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) in which the retrieval of a nonpracticed item under the same category as a practiced item is worse than the retrieval of a nonpracticed item outside the category. Subjects were asked to try to encode category-exemplar pairs (e.g., FISH–salmon). Then, they were presented with a category name and a two-letter word stem (e.g., FISH–sa) and were asked to complete an encoded word (retrieval practice). For a correct response, apple juice was given as a reward in the reward condition and a beeping sound was presented in the no-reward condition. Finally, subjects were asked to report whether each exemplar had been presented in the first phase. RIF was replicated in the no-reward condition. However, in the reward condition, RIF was eliminated. These results suggest that reward enhances processing of retrieval of unpracticed members by mechanisms such as spreading activation within the same category, irrespective of whether items were practiced or not. PMID:25404297

  16. Course Budgeting: Balancing Rewards and Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    Continuing education programmers must be risk takers; however, they should not be gamblers. The most successful of them are able to estimate a balance between potential rewards and risks, taking chances when the odds are favorable. Although it is essential that course planners balance potential financial rewards and risks, it is important to bear…

  17. Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with Brain Activity during Erotic Stimulus Processing

    PubMed Central

    Costumero, Victor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Ávila, César

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral approach system (BAS) from Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory is a neurobehavioral system involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli that has been related to dopaminergic brain areas. Gray’s theory hypothesizes that the functioning of reward brain areas is modulated by BAS-related traits. To test this hypothesis, we performed an fMRI study where participants viewed erotic and neutral pictures, and cues that predicted their appearance. Forty-five heterosexual men completed the Sensitivity to Reward scale (from the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire) to measure BAS-related traits. Results showed that Sensitivity to Reward scores correlated positively with brain activity during reactivity to erotic pictures in the left orbitofrontal cortex, left insula, and right ventral striatum. These results demonstrated a relationship between the BAS and reward sensitivity during the processing of erotic stimuli, filling the gap of previous reports that identified the dopaminergic system as a neural substrate for the BAS during the processing of other rewarding stimuli such as money and food. PMID:23840558

  18. An endocannabinoid hypothesis of drug reward and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Onaivi, Emmanuel S

    2008-10-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of drug and alcohol dependency has largely been disappointing, and new therapeutic targets and hypotheses are needed. There is accumulating evidence indicating a central role for the previously unknown but ubiquitous endocannabinoid physiological control system (EPCS) in the regulation of the rewarding effects of abused substances. Thus an endocannabinoid hypothesis of drug reward is postulated. Endocannabinoids mediate retrograde signaling in neuronal tissues and are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission to suppress neurotransmitter release by the presynaptic cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs). This powerful modulatory action on synaptic transmission has significant functional implications and interactions with the effects of abused substances. Our data, along with those from other investigators, provide strong new evidence for a role for EPCS modulation in the effects of drugs of abuse, and specifically for involvement of cannabinoid receptors in the neural basis of addiction. Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids appear to be involved in adding to the rewarding effects of addictive substances, including, nicotine, opiates, alcohol, cocaine, and BDZs. The results suggest that the EPCS may be an important natural regulatory mechanism for drug reward and a target for the treatment of addictive disorders. PMID:18991888

  19. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda Lih-Chuan; Braverman, Eric R; Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Arcuri, Vanessa; Blum, Seth H; Downs, Bernard W; Waite, Roger L; Notaro, Alison; Lubar, Joel; Williams, Lonna; Prihoda, Thomas J; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a form of a gene (DRD2 A1 allele) that prevents the expression of the normal laying down of dopamine receptors in brain reward sites. This gene, and others involved in neurophysiological processing of specific neurotransmitters, have been associated with deficient functions and predispose individuals to have a high risk for addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behavioral propensities. It has been proposed that genetic variants of dopaminergic genes and other “reward genes” are important common determinants of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS), which we hypothesize includes ADHD as a behavioral subtype. We further hypothesize that early diagnosis through genetic polymorphic identification in combination with DNA-based customized nutraceutical administration to young children may attenuate behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD. Moreover, it is concluded that dopamine and serotonin releasers might be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of other RDS behavioral subtypes, including addictions. PMID:19183781

  20. Homeostatic reinforcement learning for integrating reward collection and physiological stability

    PubMed Central

    Keramati, Mehdi; Gutkin, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Efficient regulation of internal homeostasis and defending it against perturbations requires adaptive behavioral strategies. However, the computational principles mediating the interaction between homeostatic and associative learning processes remain undefined. Here we use a definition of primary rewards, as outcomes fulfilling physiological needs, to build a normative theory showing how learning motivated behaviors may be modulated by internal states. Within this framework, we mathematically prove that seeking rewards is equivalent to the fundamental objective of physiological stability, defining the notion of physiological rationality of behavior. We further suggest a formal basis for temporal discounting of rewards by showing that discounting motivates animals to follow the shortest path in the space of physiological variables toward the desired setpoint. We also explain how animals learn to act predictively to preclude prospective homeostatic challenges, and several other behavioral patterns. Finally, we suggest a computational role for interaction between hypothalamus and the brain reward system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04811.001 PMID:25457346

  1. Discrete coding of stimulus value, reward expectation, and reward prediction error in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kei; Tateyama, Yukina; Hernádi, István; Tobler, Philippe N; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    To investigate how the striatum integrates sensory information with reward information for behavioral guidance, we recorded single-unit activity in the dorsal striatum of head-fixed rats participating in a probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning task with auditory conditioned stimuli (CSs) in which reward probability was fixed for each CS but parametrically varied across CSs. We found that the activity of many neurons was linearly correlated with the reward probability indicated by the CSs. The recorded neurons could be classified according to their firing patterns into functional subtypes coding reward probability in different forms such as stimulus value, reward expectation, and reward prediction error. These results suggest that several functional subgroups of dorsal striatal neurons represent different kinds of information formed through extensive prior exposure to CS-reward contingencies. PMID:26378201

  2. A new perspective on human reward research: how consciously and unconsciously perceived reward information influences performance.

    PubMed

    Zedelius, Claire M; Veling, Harm; Custers, Ruud; Bijleveld, Erik; Chiew, Kimberly S; Aarts, Henk

    2014-06-01

    The question of how human performance can be improved through rewards is a recurrent topic of interest in psychology and neuroscience. Traditional, cognitive approaches to this topic have focused solely on consciously communicated rewards. Recently, a largely neuroscience-inspired perspective has emerged to examine the potential role of conscious awareness of reward information in effective reward pursuit. The present article reviews research employing a newly developed monetary-reward-priming paradigm that allows for a systematic investigation of this perspective. We analyze this research to identify similarities and differences in how consciously and unconsciously perceived rewards impact three distinct aspects relevant to performance: decision making, task preparation, and task execution. We further discuss whether conscious awareness, in modulating the effects of reward information, plays a role similar to its role in modulating the effects of other affective information. Implications of these insights for understanding the role of consciousness in modulating goal-directed behavior more generally are discussed. PMID:24399682

  3. Parental Attitudes concerning the Use, Ethics and Legality of Corporal Punishment and Rewards in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Joan C.; Owen, Scottie

    1982-01-01

    Parental attitudes toward rewards for student behavior and academic achievement as well as toward corporal punishment were assessed. The sample consisted of 195 parents from northern Mississippi. University students administered the anonymous questionnaire. Among the results was that 75 percent queried would not approve teachers being allowed to…

  4. Making Connections: A Curriculum Ideabook for Teachers of Applied Academics and Industrial & Engineering Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Lois G.

    This document is designed to help vocational/tech prep and applied academics teachers plan and present their subject matter in a more integrated manner. The introduction presents the rationale for the ideabook. It is designed to help teachers modify their instructional program to more closely match the demands and realities of the real world. The…

  5. Injecting Warm Fuzzies into Cold Systems: Defining, Benchmarking, and Assessing Holistic, Person-Centered Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Holly Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This study examines if and how holistic, person-centered academic advising, based on an integrative framework of educational psychology (Bronfenbrenner), sociology (Weber), and counseling (Rogers) theories, can be fostered, implemented, and assessed at a research university. The study design uses the coding of qualitative data and its translation…

  6. The Use of Computer Data Systems in Academic Counseling: Outcomes for Community College Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kristen

    This Digest discusses computer assisted advisory practices currently in use in community colleges, outlining the types of data collected and how they are used, including the use of tracking to plan interventions for at-risk students. Enhanced computer technology has improved the effectiveness of academic advising by enabling more thorough and…

  7. Using Rewards and Sanctions in the Classroom: Pupils' Perceptions of Their Own Responses to Current Behaviour Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The use of systems of rewards and sanctions within behaviour policies has now been adopted formally in UK schools. Such systems potentially represent competing theoretical ideas when considered alongside current approaches to teaching and learning. There is also opportunity for inconsistent use of rewards and sanctions resulting from the absence…

  8. Social reward among juvenile mice

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, J B; Lahvis, G P

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian social relationships, such as mother–offspring attachments and pair bonds, can directly affect reproductive output. However, conspecifics approach one another in a comparatively broad range of contexts, so conceivably there are motivations for social congregation other than those underlying reproduction, parental care or territoriality. Here, we show that reward mediated by social contact is a fundamental aspect of juvenile mouse sociality. Employing a novel social conditioned place preference (SCPP) procedure, we demonstrate that social proximity is rewarding for juvenile mice from three inbred strains (A/J, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), while mice from a fourth strain (BALB/cJ) are much less responsive to social contact. Importantly, this strain-dependent difference was not related to phenotypic variability in exploratory behavior or contextual learning nor influenced by the genetic background associated with maternal care or social conditioning. Furthermore, the SCPP phenotype was expressed early in development (postnatal day 25) and did not require a specific sex composition within the conditioning group. Finally, SCPP responses resulted from an interaction between two specifiable processes: one component of the interaction facilitated approach toward environments that were associated with social salience, whereas a second component mediated avoidance of environmental cues that predicted social isolation. We have thus identified a genetically prescribed process that can attribute value onto conditions predicting a general form of social contact. To our knowledge, this is the first definitive evidence to show that genetic variation can influence a form of social valuation not directly related to a reproductive behavior. PMID:17212648

  9. Adolescents and Androgens, Receptors and Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Satoru M.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with increases in pleasure-seeking behaviors, which, in turn, are shaped by the pubertal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In animal models of naturally rewarding behaviors, such as sex, testicular androgens contribute to the development and expression of the behavior in males. To effect behavioral maturation, the brain undergoes significant remodeling during adolescence, and many of the changes are likewise sensitive to androgens, presumably acting through androgen receptors (AR). Given the delicate interaction of gonadal hormones and brain development, it is no surprise that disruption of hormone levels during this sensitive period significantly alters adolescent and adult behaviors. In male hamsters, exposure to testosterone during adolescence is required for normal expression of adult sexual behavior. Males deprived of androgens during puberty display sustained deficits in mating. Conversely, androgens alone are not sufficient to induce mating in prepubertal males, even though brain AR are present before puberty. In this context, wide-spread use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence is a significant concern. AAS abuse has the potential to alter both the timing and the levels of androgens in adolescent males. In hamsters, adolescent AAS exposure increases aggression, and causes lasting changes in neurotransmitter systems. In addition, AAS are themselves reinforcing, as demonstrated by self-administration of testosterone and other AAS. However, recent evidence suggests that the reinforcing effects of androgens may not require classical AR. Therefore, further examination of interactions between androgens and rewarding behaviors in the adolescent brain is required for a better understanding of AAS abuse. PMID:18343381

  10. How one teaching hospital system and one medical school are jointly affirming their academic mission.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, M; Rabkin, M T; Tosteson, D C

    1997-06-01

    The economic forces that are reshaping the practice of medicine and the funding of medical research will have great impact on clinical education and research in teaching hospitals and their associated medical schools. Changes in the setting of and approach to medical education will need to be made in order to continue to train physicians at the same high level as in the past and to maintain the productivity of our national biomedical research enterprise and its contributions to health. Academic leaders, such as department chiefs who have clinical service responsibilities, are finding it more and more difficult to manage simultaneously the demands of the clinical business, education, and research. In an effort to organize a teaching hospital and a medical school in a manner that would position them to maintain more effectively their common academic mission front and center with the clinical business, Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Hospital created a joint venture in 1996. The new nonprofit Institute for Education and Research has education and research as its top (and only) mission. It is designed to provide additional and specific academic leadership and to enable the joint venture to undertake strategic planning for the academic mission. In addition to the challenges it faces from changes in the external environment, the Institute for Education and Research will need to establish a new pattern of interactions internally within the parent institutions. Collaborations with department chairs and faculty are an essential ingredient for its success. It is hoped that this structure will prove to be a useful template for organizing other medical school-hospital collaborations on behalf of the academic mission. PMID:9200578

  11. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues. PMID:25681293

  12. Mechanisms of habitual approach: Failure to suppress irrelevant responses evoked by previously reward-associated stimuli.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A; Folk, Charles L; Garrison, Rebecca; Rogers, Leeland

    2016-06-01

    Reward learning has a powerful influence on the attention system, causing previously reward-associated stimuli to automatically capture attention. Difficulty ignoring stimuli associated with drug reward has been linked to addiction relapse, and the attention system of drug-dependent patients seems especially influenced by reward history. This and other evidence suggests that value-driven attention has consequences for behavior and decision-making, facilitating a bias to approach and consume the previously reward-associated stimulus even when doing so runs counter to current goals and priorities. Yet, a mechanism linking value-driven attention to behavioral responding and a general approach bias is lacking. Here we show that previously reward-associated stimuli escape inhibitory processing in a go/no-go task. Control experiments confirmed that this value-dependent failure of goal-directed inhibition could not be explained by search history or residual motivation, but depended specifically on the learned association between particular stimuli and reward outcome. When a previously high-value stimulus is encountered, the response codes generated by that stimulus are automatically afforded high priority, bypassing goal-directed cognitive processes involved in suppressing task-irrelevant behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054684

  13. Differential Influence of Levodopa on Reward-Based Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Susanne; Biele, Guido; Krugel, Lea K.; Marzinzik, Frank; Wahl, Michael; Wotka, Johann; Klostermann, Fabian; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system linking the dopaminergic midbrain to the prefrontal cortex and subcortical striatum has been shown to be sensitive to reinforcement in animals and humans. Within this system, coexistent segregated striato-frontal circuits have been linked to different functions. In the present study, we tested patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic cell loss, on two reward-based learning tasks assumed to differentially involve dorsal and ventral striato-frontal circuits. 15 non-depressed and non-demented PD patients on levodopa monotherapy were tested both on and off medication. Levodopa had beneficial effects on the performance on an instrumental learning task with constant stimulus-reward associations, hypothesized to rely on dorsal striato-frontal circuits. In contrast, performance on a reversal learning task with changing reward contingencies, relying on ventral striato-frontal structures, was better in the unmedicated state. These results are in line with the “overdose hypothesis” which assumes detrimental effects of dopaminergic medication on functions relying upon less affected regions in PD. This study demonstrates, in a within-subject design, a double dissociation of dopaminergic medication and performance on two reward-based learning tasks differing in regard to whether reward contingencies are constant or dynamic. There was no evidence for a dose effect of levodopa on reward-based behavior with the patients’ actual levodopa dose being uncorrelated to their performance on the reward-based learning tasks. PMID:21048900

  14. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  15. The Impact of High Stakes Accountability Systems and the New Performance Demands on Special Education Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Robin Lee

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) articulates the goal that all children can learn and are expected to achieve grade level academic proficiency by 2014. Based on theories underlying models of extrinsic motivation, the fundamental assumption and theory of action is that a system of rewards and sanctions will motivate teachers to focus on…

  16. [The influence of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic disorders of central nervous system on adolescent academic achievements and behavioural deviations].

    PubMed

    Ukleba, K O; Pavlenishvili, I V; Zurabashvili, D Z

    2013-05-01

    The objective of our research was to study long-term influence of hypoxic-ischemic disorders of central nervous system on adolescent academic achievements and behavioural deviations. It was found that perinatal pathologies highly determine the deviant behaviour. The conducted research revealed law intellectual capacity (IQ) in youth with perinatal pathology--2.26. The majority of youths involved in adolescent antisocial behavior suffered from hypoxic-ischemic disorders of central nervous system during perinatal period (76%--tend to narcotic and toxic substance addictions; 82%--to criminal behaviour). PMID:23787509

  17. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  18. A translational systems biology approach in both animals and humans identifies a functionally related module of accumbal genes involved in the regulation of reward processing and binge drinking in males

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, David; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Ruggeri, Barbara; Maroteaux, Matthieu; Jia, Tianye; Cattrell, Anna; Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Band, Hamid; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Buchel, Christian; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Easton, Alanna; Fauth-Buehler, Mira; Fernandez-Medarde, Alberto; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavanh, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Rotter, Andrea; Santos, Eugenio; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Mameli, Manuel; Spanagel, Rainer; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Mueller, Christian; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Background The mesolimbic dopamine system, composed primarily of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area that project to striatal structures, is considered to be the key mediator of reinforcement-related mechanisms in the brain. Prompted by a genome-wide association meta-analysis implicating the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) gene in the regulation of alcohol intake in men, we have recently shown that male Rasgrf2−/− mice exhibit reduced ethanol intake and preference accompanied by a perturbed mesolimbic dopamine system. We therefore propose that these mice represent a valid model to further elucidate the precise genes and mechanisms regulating mesolimbic dopamine functioning. Methods Transcriptomic data from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of male Rasgrf2−/− mice and wild-type controls were analyzed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). We performed follow-up genetic association tests in humans using a sample of male adolescents from the IMAGEN study characterized for binge drinking (n = 905) and ventral striatal activation during an fMRI reward task (n = 608). Results The WGCNA analyses using accumbal transcriptomic data revealed 37 distinct “modules,” or functionally related groups of genes. Two of these modules were significantly associated with Rasgrf2 knockout status: M5 (p < 0.001) and M6 (p < 0.001). In follow-up translational analyses we found that human orthologues for the M5 module were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched with genetic association signals for binge drinking in male adolescents. Furthermore, the most significant locus, originating from the EH-domain containing 4 (EHD4) gene (p < 0.001), was also significantly associated with altered ventral striatal activity in male adolescents performing an fMRI reward task (pempirical < 0.001). Limitations It was not possible to determine the extent to which the M5 module was dysregulated in Rasgrf2−/− mice by perturbed mesolimbic

  19. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  20. Empathy Modulates the Rewarding Effect of Mimicry.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, J; Chakrabarti, B

    2016-01-01

    We tend to like those who mimic us. In this study we formally test if mimicry changes the reward value of the mimicker, using gaze bias as a proxy for reward. Previous research has demonstrated that people show gaze bias towards more rewarding targets, suggesting that gaze bias can be considered a proxy for relative reward value. Forty adults participated in a conditioning task, where they were mimicked by one face and 'anti-mimicked' by another. Subsequently, they were found to show gaze-bias towards faces that mimicked them compared to those that did not, in a preferential looking task. The strength of this effect correlated positively with individual levels of trait empathy. In a separate, similar task, these participants showed a gaze bias for faces paired with high vs low monetary rewards, thus validating the use of gaze bias as a proxy for learnt reward. Together, these results demonstrate that mimicry changes the reward value of social stimuli, and empathy influences the extent of this change. This can potentially inform conditions marked by deficits in forming social bonds, such as Autism. PMID:27297317

  1. Empathy Modulates the Rewarding Effect of Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, J.; Chakrabarti, B.

    2016-01-01

    We tend to like those who mimic us. In this study we formally test if mimicry changes the reward value of the mimicker, using gaze bias as a proxy for reward. Previous research has demonstrated that people show gaze bias towards more rewarding targets, suggesting that gaze bias can be considered a proxy for relative reward value. Forty adults participated in a conditioning task, where they were mimicked by one face and ‘anti-mimicked’ by another. Subsequently, they were found to show gaze-bias towards faces that mimicked them compared to those that did not, in a preferential looking task. The strength of this effect correlated positively with individual levels of trait empathy. In a separate, similar task, these participants showed a gaze bias for faces paired with high vs low monetary rewards, thus validating the use of gaze bias as a proxy for learnt reward. Together, these results demonstrate that mimicry changes the reward value of social stimuli, and empathy influences the extent of this change. This can potentially inform conditions marked by deficits in forming social bonds, such as Autism. PMID:27297317

  2. Academic careers: choice and activity of graduates of a pediatric residency program 1974-1986.

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, F. H.; Ledley, F. D.; Nathan, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    In summary, our data suggest that the playing field for academic medicine is changing. It is more patient care oriented, more multifaceted and supported more by clinical dollars than in the past. Greater flexibility in what constitutes "academic success" is necessary to assure a supportive environment in which tomorrow's academic faculty can develop and flourish. To accomplish these goals promotion systems that reward not only research but also teaching and clinical care accomplishments will be necessary. Clinicians will need to be compared with clinicians, teachers with teachers, clinical investigators with clinical investigators and basic investigators with basic investigators. Sources of support will need to be more clearly targeted along activity lines with clinical dollars supporting the clinician, medical education dollars supporting the teacher-educators and federal and foundation dollars supporting research. In our department, time and effort for research (45%) approximates dollar support for this activity (44%), while clinical dollars (43%) fund to a greater degree time and effort committed to clinical care (34%), and administration and teaching dollars (13%) under fund time and effort committed to these activities (21%). This suggests the need to identify increased funding to support teaching and education. Promotion expectations for women will need to be more flexible and adjusted to family responsibilities and demands. Most of all, however, we academic faculty must support enthusiastically the importance and joy of our work. We must be encouraging to our colleagues and our students and continue to recognize that for all of the difficulties and challenges, academic life is a rewarding and fulfilling enterprise. PMID:1343441

  3. MOSAIC for multiple-reward environments.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Norikazu; Haruno, Masahiko; Doya, Kenji; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2012-03-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) can provide a basic framework for autonomous robots to learn to control and maximize future cumulative rewards in complex environments. To achieve high performance, RL controllers must consider the complex external dynamics for movements and task (reward function) and optimize control commands. For example, a robot playing tennis and squash needs to cope with the different dynamics of a tennis or squash racket and such dynamic environmental factors as the wind. In addition, this robot has to tailor its tactics simultaneously under the rules of either game. This double complexity of the external dynamics and reward function sometimes becomes more complex when both the multiple dynamics and multiple reward functions switch implicitly, as in the situation of a real (multi-agent) game of tennis where one player cannot observe the intention of her opponents or her partner. The robot must consider its opponent's and its partner's unobservable behavioral goals (reward function). In this article, we address how an RL agent should be designed to handle such double complexity of dynamics and reward. We have previously proposed modular selection and identification for control (MOSAIC) to cope with nonstationary dynamics where appropriate controllers are selected and learned among many candidates based on the error of its paired dynamics predictor: the forward model. Here we extend this framework for RL and propose MOSAIC-MR architecture. It resembles MOSAIC in spirit and selects and learns an appropriate RL controller based on the RL controller's TD error using the errors of the dynamics (the forward model) and the reward predictors. Furthermore, unlike other MOSAIC variants for RL, RL controllers are not a priori paired with the fixed predictors of dynamics and rewards. The simulation results demonstrate that MOSAIC-MR outperforms other counterparts because of this flexible association ability among RL controllers, forward models, and reward

  4. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Increases Reward Responsiveness in Individuals with Higher Hedonic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Duprat, Romain; De Raedt, Rudi; Wu, Guo-Rong; Baeken, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been documented to influence striatal and orbitofrontal dopaminergic activity implicated in reward processing. However, the exact neuropsychological mechanisms of how DLPFC stimulation may affect the reward system and how trait hedonic capacity may interact with the effects remains to be elucidated. Objective: In this sham-controlled study in healthy individuals, we investigated the effects of a single session of neuronavigated intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on reward responsiveness, as well as the influence of trait hedonic capacity. Methods: We used a randomized crossover single session iTBS design with an interval of 1 week. We assessed reward responsiveness using a rewarded probabilistic learning task and measured individual trait hedonic capacity (the ability to experience pleasure) with the temporal experience of pleasure scale questionnaire. Results: As expected, the participants developed a response bias toward the most rewarded stimulus (rich stimulus). Reaction time and accuracy for the rich stimulus were respectively shorter and higher as compared to the less rewarded stimulus (lean stimulus). Active or sham stimulation did not seem to influence the outcome. However, when taking into account individual trait hedonic capacity, we found an early significant increase in the response bias only after active iTBS. The higher the individual's trait hedonic capacity, the more the response bias toward the rich stimulus increased after the active stimulation. Conclusion: When taking into account trait hedonic capacity, one active iTBS session over the left DLPFC improved reward responsiveness in healthy male participants with higher hedonic capacity. This suggests that individual differences in hedonic capacity may influence the effects of iTBS on the reward system. PMID:27378888

  5. Statistical Mechanics of the Delayed Reward-Based Learning with Node Perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroshi Saito,; Kentaro Katahira,; Kazuo Okanoya,; Masato Okada,

    2010-06-01

    In reward-based learning, reward is typically given with some delay after a behavior that causes the reward. In machine learning literature, the framework of the eligibility trace has been used as one of the solutions to handle the delayed reward in reinforcement learning. In recent studies, the eligibility trace is implied to be important for difficult neuroscience problem known as the “distal reward problem”. Node perturbation is one of the stochastic gradient methods from among many kinds of reinforcement learning implementations, and it searches the approximate gradient by introducing perturbation to a network. Since the stochastic gradient method does not require a objective function differential, it is expected to be able to account for the learning mechanism of a complex system, like a brain. We study the node perturbation with the eligibility trace as a specific example of delayed reward-based learning, and analyzed it using a statistical mechanics approach. As a result, we show the optimal time constant of the eligibility trace respect to the reward delay and the existence of unlearnable parameter configurations.

  6. A genetic polymorphism of the endogenous opioid dynorphin modulates monetary reward anticipation in the corticostriatal loop.

    PubMed

    Votinov, Mikhail; Pripfl, Juergen; Windischberger, Christian; Kalcher, Klaudius; Zimprich, Alexander; Zimprich, Fritz; Moser, Ewald; Lamm, Claus; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOP-R) system has been shown to play a role in different types of behavior regulation, including reward-related behavior and drug craving. It has been shown that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype) of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR) functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin (PDYN) gene are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype). We used fMRI on N = 71 prescreened healthy participants to investigate the effect of this polymorphism on cerebral activation in the limbic-corticostriatal loop during reward anticipation. Individuals with the HH genotype showed higher activation than those with the LL genotype in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) when anticipating a possible monetary reward. In addition, the HH genotype showed stronger functional coupling (as assessed by effective connectivity analyses) of mOFC with VMPFC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum during reward anticipation. This hints at a larger sensitivity for upcoming rewards in individuals with the HH genotype, resulting in a higher motivation to attain these rewards. These findings provide first evidence in humans that the PDYN polymorphism modulates neural processes associated with the anticipation of rewards, which ultimately may help to explain differences between genotypes with respect to addiction and drug abuse. PMID:24587148

  7. Reward and Novelty Enhance Imagination of Future Events in a Motivational-Episodic Network

    PubMed Central

    Bulganin, Lisa; Wittmann, Bianca C.

    2015-01-01

    Thinking about personal future events is a fundamental cognitive process that helps us make choices in daily life. We investigated how the imagination of episodic future events is influenced by implicit motivational factors known to guide decision making. In a two-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we controlled learned reward association and stimulus novelty by pre-familiarizing participants with two sets of words in a reward learning task. Words were repeatedly presented and consistently followed by monetary reward or no monetary outcome. One day later, participants imagined personal future events based on previously rewarded, unrewarded and novel words. Reward association enhanced the perceived vividness of the imagined scenes. Reward and novelty-based construction of future events were associated with higher activation of the motivational system (striatum and substantia nigra/ ventral tegmental area) and hippocampus, and functional connectivity between these areas increased during imagination of events based on reward-associated and novel words. These data indicate that implicit past motivational experience contributes to our expectation of what the future holds in store. PMID:26599537

  8. Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denyer, G. S.; Hancock, D.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent the reward of plagarism. The manuscript also discusses the advantages of having a graded marking system for the elimination of ambiguities, use in multi-step calculation questions, and questions that require extrapolation or reasoning. The advantages of the scrambling strategy, which maintains the same question order, is discussed with reference to student equity. The system provides a non-confrontational mechanism for dealing with cheating in large-class multiple-choice examinations, as well as providing a reward for problem solving over surface learning.

  9. Extending overjustification: the effect of perceived reward-giver intention on response to rewards.

    PubMed

    Forehand, M R

    2000-12-01

    The perceived intention model incorporates a new moderator, beliefs about reward-giver intention, into the overjustification paradigm. In 2 simulated shopping studies featuring products paired with promotional rewards, consumers who believed the marketer was promotion focused (reward used to encourage purchase) reported lower purchase intentions and brand attitudes for promoted products after promotion, whereas consumers who believed the marketer was reward focused (promotion used to distribute the reward) showed no attitude change. Promotion-focus beliefs lowered attitudes by heightening the contingency between the promotion and purchase and thereby increasing the perceived causal role of the reward. This effect was contingent on initial behavior--postpromotion attitude change occurred for consumers who actively engaged in product decisions but not for consumers who passively observed the choice sets. PMID:11125656

  10. CLEANing the Reward: Counterfactual Actions to Remove Exploratory Action Noise in Multiagent Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HolmesParker, Chris; Taylor, Mathew E.; Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Learning in multiagent systems can be slow because agents must learn both how to behave in a complex environment and how to account for the actions of other agents. The inability of an agent to distinguish between the true environmental dynamics and those caused by the stochastic exploratory actions of other agents creates noise in each agent's reward signal. This learning noise can have unforeseen and often undesirable effects on the resultant system performance. We define such noise as exploratory action noise, demonstrate the critical impact it can have on the learning process in multiagent settings, and introduce a reward structure to effectively remove such noise from each agent's reward signal. In particular, we introduce Coordinated Learning without Exploratory Action Noise (CLEAN) rewards and empirically demonstrate their benefits

  11. Prior fear conditioning and reward learning interact in fear and reward networks

    PubMed Central

    Bulganin, Lisa; Bach, Dominik R.; Wittmann, Bianca C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt responses to changes in the environment is important for survival. Previous research in humans separately examined the mechanisms underlying acquisition and extinction of aversive and appetitive conditioned responses. It is yet unclear how aversive and appetitive learning interact on a neural level during counterconditioning in humans. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the interaction of fear conditioning and subsequent reward learning. In the first phase (fear acquisition), images predicted aversive electric shocks or no aversive outcome. In the second phase (counterconditioning), half of the CS+ and CS− were associated with monetary reward in the absence of electric stimulation. The third phase initiated reinstatement of fear through presentation of electric shocks, followed by CS presentation in the absence of shock or reward. Results indicate that participants were impaired at learning the reward contingencies for stimuli previously associated with shock. In the counterconditioning phase, prior fear association interacted with reward representation in the amygdala, where activation was decreased for rewarded compared to unrewarded CS− trials, while there was no reward-related difference in CS+ trials. In the reinstatement phase, an interaction of previous fear association and previous reward status was observed in a reward network consisting of substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), where activation was increased by previous reward association only for CS− but not for CS+ trials. These findings suggest that during counterconditioning, prior fear conditioning interferes with reward learning, subsequently leading to lower activation of the reward network. PMID:24624068

  12. The differential influences of positive affect, random reward, and performance-contingent reward on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive affect and reward have differential effects on cognitive control. So far, however, these effects have never been studied together. Here, the authors present one behavioral study investigating the influences of positive affect and reward (contingent and noncontingent) on proactive control. A modified version of the AX-continuous performance task, which has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to reward and affect manipulations, was used. In a first phase, two experimental groups received either neutral or positive affective pictures before every trial. In a second phase, the two halves of a given affect group additionally received, respectively, performance-contingent or random rewards. The results replicated the typical affect effect, in terms of reduced proactive control under positive as compared to neutral affect. Also, the typical reward effects associated with increased proactive control were replicated. Most interestingly, performance-contingent reward counteracted the positive affect effect, whereas random reward mirrored that effect. In sum, this study provides first evidence that performance-contingent reward, on the one hand, and positive affect and performance-noncontingent reward, on the other hand, have oppositional effects on cognitive control: Only performance-contingent reward showed a motivational effect in terms of a strategy shift toward increased proactive control, whereas positive affect alone and performance-noncontingent reward reduced proactive control. Moreover, the integrative design of this study revealed the vulnerability of positive affect effects to motivational manipulations. The results are discussed with respect to current neuroscientific theories of the effects of dopamine on affect, reward, and cognitive control. PMID:24659000

  13. Academically at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist high school biology pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Heidi

    Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.

  14. The Brain Reward Circuitry in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are common and debilitating conditions characterized in part by profound deficits in reward-related behavioral domains. A recent literature has identified important structural and functional alterations within the brain’s reward circuitry —particularly in the ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens pathway — that are associated with symptoms such as anhedonia and aberrant reward-associated perception and memory. This review synthesizes recent data from human and rodent studies from which emerges a circuit-level framework for understanding reward deficits in depression. We also discuss some of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this framework, ranging from adaptations in glutamatergic synapses and neurotrophic factors to transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23942470

  15. Discounting of sequences of delayed rewards of different amounts.

    PubMed

    Białaszek, Wojciech; Ostaszewski, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the magnitude effect is present in cases where delayed sequences of rewards are discounted. The magnitude effect refers to the inverse relationship between the amount of a reward and the steepness of temporal discounting. This study was conducted with a computer program to estimate the indifference points, which served as indicators of the present subjective value of delayed sequences of small and large rewards. In the indifference point the subjective value of a single, immediate reward was equal to the subjective value of the delayed sequence (or to the value of a single delayed reward). As a control condition, we added an experimental task involving choices between single immediate and single delayed rewards. The experiment showed that the sequences of large rewards are discounted less steeply than are the sequences of small rewards. This finding suggests that the magnitude effect is present within the delayed sequences of rewards. In addition, when outcomes are relatively large, the results suggest that a single reward is discounted less steeply than the sequence of a total nominal value equal to this single reward. However, for relatively small rewards, the difference is not statistically significant. The less steep discounting of sequences of large rewards may explain the reward-bundling effect, which refers to less steep discounting of longer sequences than of shorter ones: longer sequences usually have greater overall nominal value. The present study was conducted on hypothetical rewards, and the results should be validated using real rewards. PMID:22062547

  16. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning" Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning". The study examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and White students. The research…

  17. WWC Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning" examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and white students. The study analyzed data on 75 African-American and 57 white fourth- and fifth-grade students from urban schools in…

  18. Motivating interdependent teams: individual rewards, shared rewards, or something in between?

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Christian, Michael S; Ellis, Aleksander P J

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose in this study was to extend theory and research regarding the motivational process in teams by examining the effects of hybrid rewards on team performance. Further, to better understand the underlying team level mechanisms, the authors examined whether the hypothesized benefits of hybrid over shared and individual rewards were due to increased information allocation and reduced social loafing. Results from 90 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported the hypotheses. Hybrid rewards led to higher levels of team performance than did individual and shared rewards; these effects were due to improvements in information allocation and reductions in social loafing. PMID:20085415

  19. Segregated encoding of reward-identity and stimulus-reward associations in human orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam Cornelia; Barron, Helen Catharine; Brodersen, Kay Henning; Dolan, Raymond J; Behrens, Timothy Edward John

    2013-02-13

    A dominant focus in studies of learning and decision-making is the neural coding of scalar reward value. This emphasis ignores the fact that choices are strongly shaped by a rich representation of potential rewards. Here, using fMRI adaptation, we demonstrate that responses in the human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) encode a representation of the specific type of food reward predicted by a visual cue. By controlling for value across rewards and by linking each reward with two distinct stimuli, we could test for representations of reward-identity that were independent of associative information. Our results show reward-identity representations in a medial-caudal region of OFC, independent of the associated predictive stimulus. This contrasts with a more rostro-lateral OFC region encoding reward-identity representations tied to the predicate stimulus. This demonstration of adaptation in OFC to reward specific representations opens an avenue for investigation of more complex decision mechanisms that are not immediately accessible in standard analyses, which focus on correlates of average activity. PMID:23407973

  20. Dorsomedial striatum lesions affect adjustment to reward uncertainty, but not to reward devaluation or omission.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carmen; Glueck, Amanda C; Conrad, Shannon E; Morón, Ignacio; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-09-22

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping. However, they showed normal negative contrast, acquisition under continuous reinforcement (CR), appetitive extinction, and response facilitation in early extinction trials. Open-field testing also indicated normal motor behavior. Thus, DMS lesions selectively affected the behavioral adjustment to a situation involving reward uncertainty, producing a behavioral reorganization according to which goal tracking (goal entries) became predominant at the expense of sign tracking (lever pressing). This pattern of results shows that the function of the DMS in situations involving reward loss is not general, but restricted to reward uncertainty. We suggest that a nonassociative, drive-related process induced by reward uncertainty requires normal output from DMS neurons. PMID:27365171

  1. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function.

    PubMed

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria G; Tucci, Paolo; Bove, Maria; Schiavone, Stefania; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming androgen anabolic steroids (AAS). These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, their off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combinations of different steroids and doses generally higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. The frequency of side effects is higher among AAS abusers, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because data collection is very difficult due to the subjects' reticence and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in the reward process, leading to increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The goal of this article is to review the literature on steroid abuse and changes to the reward system in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26379484

  2. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function

    PubMed Central

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria G.; Tucci, Paolo; Bove, Maria; Schiavone, Stefania; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming androgen anabolic steroids (AAS). These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, their off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combinations of different steroids and doses generally higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. The frequency of side effects is higher among AAS abusers, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because data collection is very difficult due to the subjects' reticence and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in the reward process, leading to increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The goal of this article is to review the literature on steroid abuse and changes to the reward system in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26379484

  3. The Circadian Clock, Reward, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Urs

    2011-01-01

    During our daily activities, we experience variations in our cognitive performance, which is often accompanied by cravings for small rewards, such as consuming coffee or chocolate. This indicates that the time of day, cognitive performance, and reward may be related to one another. This review will summarize data that describe the influence of the circadian clock on addiction and mood-related behavior and put the data into perspective in relation to memory processes. PMID:22084628

  4. A Systems Engineering Framework for Implementing a Security and Critical Patch Management Process in Diverse Environments (Academic Departments' Workstations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hadi

    Use of the Patch Vulnerability Management (PVM) process should be seriously considered for any networked computing system. The PVM process prevents the operating system (OS) and software applications from being attacked due to security vulnerabilities, which lead to system failures and critical data leakage. The purpose of this research is to create and design a Security and Critical Patch Management Process (SCPMP) framework based on Systems Engineering (SE) principles. This framework will assist Information Technology Department Staff (ITDS) to reduce IT operating time and costs and mitigate the risk of security and vulnerability attacks. Further, this study evaluates implementation of the SCPMP in the networked computing systems of an academic environment in order to: 1. Meet patch management requirements by applying SE principles. 2. Reduce the cost of IT operations and PVM cycles. 3. Improve the current PVM methodologies to prevent networked computing systems from becoming the targets of security vulnerability attacks. 4. Embed a Maintenance Optimization Tool (MOT) in the proposed framework. The MOT allows IT managers to make the most practicable choice of methods for deploying and installing released patches and vulnerability remediation. In recent years, there has been a variety of frameworks for security practices in every networked computing system to protect computer workstations from becoming compromised or vulnerable to security attacks, which can expose important information and critical data. I have developed a new mechanism for implementing PVM for maximizing security-vulnerability maintenance, protecting OS and software packages, and minimizing SCPMP cost. To increase computing system security in any diverse environment, particularly in academia, one must apply SCPMP. I propose an optimal maintenance policy that will allow ITDS to measure and estimate the variation of PVM cycles based on their department's requirements. My results demonstrate that

  5. The D2 dopamine receptor gene as a determinant of reward deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, K; Sheridan, P J; Wood, R C; Braverman, E R; Chen, T J; Cull, J G; Comings, D E

    1996-01-01

    The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been profoundly implicated in reward mechanisms in the brain. Dysfunction of the D2 dopamine receptors leads to aberrant substance seeking behaviour (alcohol, drug, tobacco, and food) and other related behaviours (pathological gambling, Tourette's syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). We propose that variants of the D2 dopamine receptor gene are important common genetic determinants of the 'reward deficiency syndrome'. PMID:8774539

  6. Brain structural substrates of reward dependence during behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Hamann, Janne M; Averbeck, Bruno B; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-12-01

    Interindividual differences in the effects of reward on performance are prevalent and poorly understood, with some individuals being more dependent than others on the rewarding outcomes of their actions. The origin of this variability in reward dependence is unknown. Here, we tested the relationship between reward dependence and brain structure in healthy humans. Subjects trained on a visuomotor skill-acquisition task and received performance feedback in the presence or absence of reward. Reward dependence was defined as the statistical trial-by-trial relation between reward and subsequent performance. We report a significant relationship between reward dependence and the lateral prefrontal cortex, where regional gray-matter volume predicted reward dependence but not feedback alone. Multivoxel pattern analysis confirmed the anatomical specificity of this relationship. These results identified a likely anatomical marker for the prospective influence of reward on performance, which may be of relevance in neurorehabilitative settings. PMID:25471581

  7. Characterising reward outcome signals in sensory cortex☆

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Reward outcome signalling in the sensory cortex is held as important for linking stimuli to their consequences and for modulating perceptual learning in response to incentives. Evidence for reward outcome signalling has been found in sensory regions including the visual, auditory and somatosensory cortices across a range of different paradigms, but it is unknown whether the population of neurons signalling rewarding outcomes are the same as those processing predictive stimuli. We addressed this question using a multivariate analysis of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in a task where subjects were engaged in instrumental learning with visual predictive cues and auditory signalled reward feedback. We found evidence that outcome signals in sensory regions localise to the same areas involved in stimulus processing. These outcome signals are non-specific and we show that the neuronal populations involved in stimulus representation are not their exclusive target, in keeping with theoretical models of value learning. Thus, our results reveal one likely mechanism through which rewarding outcomes are linked to predictive sensory stimuli, a link that may be key for both reward and perceptual learning. PMID:23811411

  8. Modulation of frontostriatal interaction aligns with reduced primary reward processing under serotonergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abler, Birgit; Grön, Georg; Hartmann, Antonie; Metzger, Coraline; Walter, Martin

    2012-01-25

    Recently, functional interactions between anteroventral prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been shown to relate to behavior counteracting reward-desiring (Diekhof and Gruber, 2010). Downregulation of the reward system by serotonin has also been suggested as the mode of action accounting for unsatisfactory effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as insufficient alleviation or even increase of anhedonia, and loss of interest. However, understanding of the in vivo mechanisms of SSRI-related alteration of the human reward system is still incomplete. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within a double-blind cross-over within-subjects study design and administering the SSRI paroxetine, the dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor bupropione, and placebo for 7 d each, we investigated a group of 18 healthy male subjects. Under paroxetine, subjects showed significantly decreased activation of the bilateral NAcc during processing of primary rewards (erotic videos), but not under bupropion. Similar to the previous study, analysis of psychophysiological interactions revealed that this downregulation relied on negative interactions between left and right NAcc fMRI signals and the bilateral anteroventral prefrontal cortex that now were significantly enhanced under paroxetine and reduced under bupropion. Individual drug-dependent modulations of interacting brain regions were significantly associated with individual expressions of impulsivity as a personality trait. Our results corroborate and extend previous insights on interregional crosstalk from secondary to primary rewards and demonstrate parallels between active inhibitory control of and serotonergic effects on the dopaminergic reward system's activity. PMID:22279217

  9. Altered Striatal Response to Reward in Bulimia Nervosa After Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Angela; Aizenstein, Howard; Venkatraman, Vijay K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Fudge, Julie; May, J. Christopher; Frank, Guido K.; Bailer, Ursula F.; Fischer, Lorie; Putnam, Karen; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is possible that disturbances of systems modulating reward may contribute to a vulnerability to develop an eating disorder. Method This hypothesis was tested by assessing functional magnetic resonance brain imaging response to a monetary reward task known to activate the anterior ventral striatum (AVS), a region implicated in motivational aspects toward stimuli. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, 10 women who had recovered from bulimia nervosa (BN) were compared with 10 healthy comparison women (CW). Results For the AVS, CW distinguished positive and negative feedback, whereas recovered BN women had similar responses to both conditions. In addition, these groups had similar patterns of findings for the dorsal caudate. Discussion We have previously shown that individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN) also had altered striatal responses and difficulties in differentiating positive and negative feedback. Thus BN and AN individuals may share a difficulty in discriminating the emotional significance of a stimulus. PMID:19434606

  10. Predictions and the brain: how musical sounds become rewarding.

    PubMed

    Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zald, David H; Zatorre, Robert J; Dagher, Alain; McIntosh, Anthony Randal

    2015-02-01

    Music has always played a central role in human culture. The question of how musical sounds can have such profound emotional and rewarding effects has been a topic of interest throughout generations. At a fundamental level, listening to music involves tracking a series of sound events over time. Because humans are experts in pattern recognition, temporal predictions are constantly generated, creating a sense of anticipation. We summarize how complex cognitive abilities and cortical processes integrate with fundamental subcortical reward and motivation systems in the brain to give rise to musical pleasure. This work builds on previous theoretical models that emphasize the role of prediction in music appreciation by integrating these ideas with recent neuroscientific evidence. PMID:25534332

  11. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  12. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  13. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  14. Reaffirming the Role of Faculty in Academic Advising. Monograph Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gary L., Ed.

    The six papers of this monograph discuss the role of faculty in campus academic advising programs in discussions of training, accountability, evaluation, and recognition and reward. The first paper, "Redefining Faculty Roles for Academic Advising" (Gary L. Kramer) defines three attributes of successful advising programs: as an integral component…

  15. Academic Incentives for Students Can Increase Participation in and Effectiveness of a Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVahl, Julie; King, Richard; Williamson, Jon W.

    2005-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether a greater academic incentive would improve the effectiveness and student adherence to a 12-week voluntary exercise program designed to decrease students' percentage of body fat. They randomly assigned 210 students to 1 of 2 groups with different academic reward structures. The group with the greater reward…

  16. Emotion Regulation and Test Anxiety: The Contribution of Academic Delay of Gratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer; McKeachie, Wilbert J.; Lin, Yi-Guang

    The ability to delay gratification among learners could serve as an effective learning strategy useful to diminish the detrimental effect of test anxiety. Academic delay of gratification refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing chosen important academic rewards or goals that…

  17. The Tab: How Connecticut Can Fix Its Dysfunctional Education Spending System to Reward Success, Incentivize Choice and Boost Student Achievement. A ConnCAN/Public Impact Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Bryan C.; Doyle, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the Connecticut Supreme Court forced our state to take stock of its system for funding schools. Our poorest towns had thousands of dollars less per child to spend. Today, our poorest districts spend roughly the same as our richest, but Connecticut's poor children still score far below their wealthy peers. Our school finance…

  18. Staff Preparation, Reward, and Support: Are Quality Rating and Improvement Systems Addressing All of the Key Ingredients Necessary for Change? Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Lea J. E.; Whitebook, Marcy; Connors, Maia; Darrah, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting the growing momentum in support of quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) as a key strategy to improve early care and education quality, significant amounts of public dollars have been devoted to their development and implementation. In this brief, the authors report on their investigation of both quality rating and improvement…

  19. Reward sensitivity for a palatable food reward peaks during pubertal developmental in rats.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for the initiation of drug use and abuse. Because early drug use onset often accounts for a more severe progression of addiction, it is of importance to understand the underlying mechanisms and neurodevelopmental changes during puberty that are contributing to enhanced reward processing in teenagers. The present study investigated the progression of reward sensitivity toward a natural food reward over the whole course of adolescence in male rats (postnatal days 30-90) by monitoring consummatory, motivational behavior and neurobiological correlates of reward. Using a limited-free intake paradigm, consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM) was measured repeatedly in adolescent and adult rats. Additionally, early- and mid-pubertal animals were tested in Progressive Ratio responding for SCM and c-fos protein expression in reward-associated brain structures was examined after odor conditioning for SCM. We found a transient increase in SCM consumption and motivational incentive for SCM during puberty. This increased reward sensitivity was most pronounced around mid-puberty. The behavioral findings are paralleled by enhanced c-fos staining in reward-related structures revealing an intensified neuronal response after reward-cue presentation, distinctive for pubertal animals. Taken together, these data indicate an increase in reward sensitivity during adolescence accompanied by enhanced responsiveness of reward-associated brain structures to incentive stimuli, and it seems that both is strongly pronounced around mid-puberty. Therefore, higher reward sensitivity during pubertal maturation might contribute to the enhanced vulnerability of teenagers for the initiation of experimental drug use. PMID:20700386

  20. Frontal glutamate and reward processing in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gleich, Tobias; Lorenz, Robert C; Pöhland, Lydia; Raufelder, Diana; Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas; Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The fronto-limbic network interaction, driven by glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, represents a core mechanism of motivated behavior and personality traits. Reward seeking behavior undergoes tremendous changes in adolescence paralleled by neurobiological changes of this network including the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala. Since fronto-limbic dysfunctions also underlie major psychiatric diseases beginning in adolescence, this investigation focuses on network characteristics separating adolescents from adults. To investigate differences in network interactions, the brain reward system activity (slot machine task) together with frontal glutamate concentration (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) was measured in 28 adolescents and 26 adults employing functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. An inverse coupling of glutamate concentrations in the ACC and activation of the ventral striatum was observed in adolescents. Further, amygdala response in adolescents was negatively correlated with the personality trait impulsivity. For adults, no significant associations of network components or correlations with impulsivity were found. The inverse association between frontal glutamate concentration and striatal activation in adolescents is in line with the triadic model of motivated behavior stressing the important role of frontal top-down inhibition on limbic structures. Our data identified glutamate as the mediating neurotransmitter of this inhibitory process and demonstrates the relevance of glutamate on the reward system and related behavioral traits like impulsivity. This fronto-limbic coupling may represent a vulnerability factor for psychiatric disorders starting in adolescence but not in adulthood. PMID:25009315

  1. Journal Impact Factor Shapes Scientists’ Reward Signal in the Prospect of Publication

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rademacher, Lena; Schäfer, Theo Alexander Jose; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The incentive structure of a scientist’s life is increasingly mimicking economic principles. While intensely criticized, the journal impact factor (JIF) has taken a role as the new currency for scientists. Successful goal-directed behavior in academia thus requires knowledge about the JIF. Using functional neuroimaging we examined how the JIF, as a powerful incentive in academia, has shaped the behavior of scientists and the reward signal in the striatum. We demonstrate that the reward signal in the nucleus accumbens increases with higher JIF during the anticipation of a publication and found a positive correlation with the personal publication record (pJIF) supporting the notion that scientists have incorporated the predominant reward principle of the scientific community in their reward system. The implications of this behavioral adaptation within the ecological niche of the scientist’s habitat remain unknown, but may also have effects which were not intended by the community. PMID:26555725

  2. Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Baler, R.D.

    2011-10-01

    The ability to resist the urge to eat requires the proper functioning of neuronal circuits involved in top-down control to oppose the conditioned responses that predict reward from eating the food and the desire to eat the food. Imaging studies show that obese subjects might have impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated with reward sensitivity, conditioning and control. It is known that the neuropeptides that regulate energy balance (homeostatic processes) through the hypothalamus also modulate the activity of dopamine cells and their projections into regions involved in the rewarding processes underlying food intake. It is postulated that this could also be a mechanism by which overeating and the resultant resistance to homoeostatic signals impairs the function of circuits involved in reward sensitivity, conditioning and cognitive control.

  3. Women, Leadership, and Equality in Academe: Moving beyond Double Binds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frechette, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Although gender discrimination in all of its manifestations is often thought to be absent from higher education, academic institutions are hierarchical organizations that offer rewards, status and privilege, thereby rendering the status of women within these institutions politically and economically vulnerable. With each generation of female…

  4. Diazepam and decision making in the rat: negative evidence for reduced tolerance to reward delay.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, T

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory decision-making paradigm was developed in which changes in behavioural planning in response to delays in reward delivery could be studied in the rat. The problem given was to choose between three behavioural options, lever-pressing or running into one of two arms fitted to the experimental chamber, in order to obtain rewards (water). Basically, the animal received rewards with a certain probability when pressing the lever. At certain random intervals, reward delivery by lever-presses was stopped. To restart the system, the animal had to abandon lever-pressing and run out into one of the arms. The arm lengths could be varied, and a time-delay for restarting the system could be introduced into one of the arms. These manipulations changed the arm preference so that a long arm, or an arm with a time delay, was avoided. It was specifically investigated whether the benzodiazepine diazepam selectively lowered the tolerance to accept reward delay. Such an effect of benzodiazepines has previously been proposed. After diazepam 1 mg/kg, the number of lever-presses before running into an arm and number of behavioural interruptions were increased, and interpreted to show a deficit in information processing and/or decision making. No evidence for a selective effect of diazepam to reduce tolerance to reward delays could be detected. PMID:2392499

  5. Involvement of μ- and δ-opioid receptor function in the rewarding effect of (±)-pentazocine.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yoshizawa, Kazumi; Ise, Yuya; Mizuo, Keisuke; Saeki, Tomoya; Komiya, Sachiko; Masukawa, Daiki; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2015-07-01

    Most opioid receptor agonists have abuse potential, and the rewarding effects of opioids can be reduced in the presence of pain. While each of the enantiomers of pentazocine has a differential pharmacologic profile, (±)-pentazocine has been used clinically for the treatment of pain. However, little information is available regarding which components of pentazocine are associated with its rewarding effects, and whether the (±)-pentazocine-induced rewarding effects can be suppressed under pain. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of pain on the acquisition of the rewarding effects of (±)-pentazocine, and to examine the mechanism of the rewarding effects of (±)-pentazocine using the conditioned place preference paradigm. (±)-Pentazocine and (-)-pentazocine, but not (+)-pentazocine, produced significant rewarding effects. Even though the rewarding effects induced by (±)-pentazocine were significantly suppressed under pain induced by formalin, accompanied by increase of preprodynorphin mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens, a high dose of (±)-pentazocine produced significant rewarding effects under pain. In the normal condition, (±)-pentazocine-induced rewarding effects were blocked by a low dose of naloxone, whereas the rewarding effects induced by high doses of pentazocine under pain were suppressed by naltrindole (a δ-opioid receptor antagonist). Interestingly, (±)-pentazocine did not significantly affect dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that the rewarding effects of (-)-pentazocine may contribute to the abuse potential of (±)-pentazocine through μ- as well as δ-opioid receptors, without robust activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. We also found that neural adaptations can reduce the abuse potential of (±)-pentazocine under pain. PMID:25065832

  6. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  7. Monetary reward suppresses anterior insula activity during social pain.

    PubMed

    Cristofori, Irene; Harquel, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Social pain after exclusion by others activates brain regions also involved in physical pain. Here we evaluated whether monetary reward could compensate for the negative feeling of social pain in the brain. To address this question we used the unique technique of intracranial electroencephalography in subjects with drug resistant epilepsy. Specifically, we recorded theta activity from intracranial electrodes implanted in the insular cortex while subjects experienced conditions of social inclusion and exclusion associated with monetary gain and loss. Our study confirmed that theta rhythm in the insular cortex is the neural signature of social exclusion. We found that while monetary gain suppresses the effect of social pain in the anterior insula, there is no such effect in the posterior insula. These results imply that the anterior insula can use secondary reward signals to compensate for the negative feeling of social pain. Hence, here we propose that the anterior insula plays a pivotal role in integrating contingencies to update social pain feelings. Finally, the possibility to modulate the theta rhythm through the reward system might open new avenues of research for treating pathologies related to social exclusion. PMID:25964499

  8. Dopamine reverses reward insensitivity in apathy following globus pallidus lesions

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Robert; Leff, Alexander; Sinha, Nihal; Turner, Christopher; Bays, Paul; Draganski, Bogdan; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Apathy is a complex, behavioural disorder associated with reduced spontaneous initiation of actions. Although present in mild forms in some healthy people, it is a pathological state in conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease where it can have profoundly devastating effects. Understanding the mechanisms underlying apathy is therefore of urgent concern but this has proven difficult because widespread brain changes in neurodegenerative diseases make interpretation difficult and there is no good animal model. Here we present a very rare case with profound apathy following bilateral, focal lesions of the basal ganglia, with globus pallidus regions that connect with orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) particularly affected. Using two measures of oculomotor decision-making we show that apathy in this individual was associated with reward insensitivity. However, reward sensitivity could be established partially with levodopa and more effectively with a dopamine receptor agonist. Concomitantly, there was an improvement in the patient's clinical state, with reduced apathy, greater motivation and increased social interactions. These findings provide a model system to study a key neuropsychiatric disorder. They demonstrate that reward insensitivity associated with basal ganglia dysfunction might be an important component of apathy that can be reversed by dopaminergic modulation. PMID:22721958

  9. Reproductive isolation and pollination success of rewarding Galearis diantha and non-rewarding Ponerorchis chusua (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Qin; Huang, Bao-Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Kou, Yong; An, De-Jun; Luo, Yi-Bo; Ge, Song

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing evidence challenges the conventional perception that orchids are the most distinct example of floral diversification due to floral or prezygotic isolation. Regarding the relationship between co-flowering plants, rewarding and non-rewarding orchids in particular, few studies have investigated whether non-rewarding plants affect the pollination success of rewarding plants. Here, floral isolation and mutual effects between the rewarding orchid Galearis diantha and the non-rewarding orchid Ponerorchis chusua were investigated. Methods Flowering phenological traits were monitored by noting the opening and wilting dates of the chosen individual plants. The pollinator pool and pollinator behaviour were assessed from field observations. Key morphological traits of the flowers and pollinators were measured directly in the field. Pollinator limitation and interspecific compatibility were evaluated by hand-pollination experiments. Fruit set was surveyed in monospecific and heterospecific plots. Key Results The species had overlapping peak flowering periods. Pollinators of both species displayed a certain degree of constancy in visiting each species, but they also visited other flowers before landing on the focal orchids. A substantial difference in spur size between the species resulted in the deposition of pollen on different regions of the body of the shared pollinator. Hand-pollination experiments revealed that fruit set was strongly pollinator-limited in both species. No significant difference in fruit set was found between monospecific plots and heterospecific plots. Conclusions A combination of mechanical isolation and incomplete ethological isolation eliminates the possibility of pollen transfer between the species. These results do not support either the facilitation or competition hypothesis regarding the effect of nearby rewarding flowers on non-rewarding plants. The absence of a significant effect of non-rewarding P. chusua on

  10. Serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus encode reward signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Weixin; Wang, Daqing; Feng, Qiru; Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jia, Chunying; Hu, Fei; Zeng, Jiawei; Guo, Qingchun; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is involved in organizing reward-related behaviours; however, it remains unclear how genetically defined neurons in the DRN of a freely behaving animal respond to various natural rewards. Here we addressed this question using fibre photometry and single-unit recording from serotonin (5-HT) neurons and GABA neurons in the DRN of behaving mice. Rewards including sucrose, food, sex and social interaction rapidly activate 5-HT neurons, but aversive stimuli including quinine and footshock do not. Both expected and unexpected rewards activate 5-HT neurons. After mice learn to wait for sucrose delivery, most 5-HT neurons fire tonically during waiting and then phasically on reward acquisition. Finally, GABA neurons are activated by aversive stimuli but inhibited when mice seek rewards. Thus, DRN 5-HT neurons positively encode a wide range of reward signals during anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward responses. Moreover, GABA neurons play a complementary role in reward processing. PMID:26818705

  11. Serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus encode reward signals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Weixin; Wang, Daqing; Feng, Qiru; Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jia, Chunying; Hu, Fei; Zeng, Jiawei; Guo, Qingchun; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is involved in organizing reward-related behaviours; however, it remains unclear how genetically defined neurons in the DRN of a freely behaving animal respond to various natural rewards. Here we addressed this question using fibre photometry and single-unit recording from serotonin (5-HT) neurons and GABA neurons in the DRN of behaving mice. Rewards including sucrose, food, sex and social interaction rapidly activate 5-HT neurons, but aversive stimuli including quinine and footshock do not. Both expected and unexpected rewards activate 5-HT neurons. After mice learn to wait for sucrose delivery, most 5-HT neurons fire tonically during waiting and then phasically on reward acquisition. Finally, GABA neurons are activated by aversive stimuli but inhibited when mice seek rewards. Thus, DRN 5-HT neurons positively encode a wide range of reward signals during anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward responses. Moreover, GABA neurons play a complementary role in reward processing. PMID:26818705

  12. Rewarded visual items capture attention only in heterogeneous contexts.

    PubMed

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Brandhofer, Ruben; Schubö, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Reward is known to affect visual search performance. Rewarding targets can increase search performance, whereas rewarding distractors can decrease search performance. We used subcomponents of the N2pc in the event-related EEG, the NT (target negativity) and ND /PD (distractor negativity/positivity), in a visual search task to disentangle target and distractor processing related to reward. The visual search task comprised homogeneous and heterogeneous contexts in which a target and a colored distractor were embedded. After each correct trial, participants were given a monetary reward that depended on the color of the distractor. We found longer response times for displays with high-reward distractors compared to displays with low-reward distractors, indicating reward-induced interference, however, only for heterogeneous contexts. The NT component, indicative of attention deployment to the target, showed that target selection was impaired by high-reward distractors, regardless of the context homogeneity. Processing of distractors was not affected by reward in homogeneous contexts. In heterogeneous contexts, however, high-reward distractors were more likely to capture attention (ND ) and required more effort to be suppressed (PD ) than low-reward distractors. In sum the results showed that, despite the fact that target selection is impaired by high-reward distractors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous background contexts, high-reward distractors capture attention only in scenarios that foster attentional capture. PMID:26997364

  13. Listening to music in a risk-reward context: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2015-12-10

    Artificial rewards, such as visual arts and music, produce pleasurable feelings. Popular songs in the verse-chorus form provide a useful model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of artificial rewards, because the chorus is usually the most rewarding element of a song. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the stimuli were excerpts of 10 popular songs with a tensioned verse-to-chorus transition. We examined the neural correlates of three phases of reward processing: (1) reward-anticipation during the verse-to-chorus transition, (2) reward-gain during the first phrase of the chorus, and (3) reward-loss during the unexpected noise followed by the verse-to-chorus transition. Participants listened to these excerpts in a risk-reward context because the verse was followed by either the chorus or noise with equal probability. The results showed that reward-gain and reward-loss were associated with left- and right-biased temporoparietal junction activation, respectively. The bilateral temporoparietal junctions were active during reward-anticipation. Moreover, we observed left-biased lateral orbitofrontal activation during reward-anticipation, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated during reward-gain. The findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive and emotional aspects of reward processing. PMID:26499261

  14. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications. PMID:27306380

  15. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications. PMID:27306380

  16. Testing a Multi-Stage Screening System: Predicting Performance on Australia's National Achievement Test Using Teachers' Ratings of Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…

  17. Looking for reward in all the wrong places: dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms indirectly affect aggression through sensation-seeking.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Lynam, Donald R; Peters, Jessica R; Jiang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with genotypes that code for reduced dopaminergic brain activity often exhibit a predisposition toward aggression. However, it remains largely unknown how dopaminergic genotypes may increase aggression. Lower-functioning dopamine systems motivate individuals to seek reward from external sources such as illicit drugs and other risky experiences. Based on emerging evidence that aggression is a rewarding experience, we predicted that the effect of lower-functioning dopaminergic functioning on aggression would be mediated by tendencies to seek the environment for rewards. Caucasian female and male undergraduates (N = 277) were genotyped for five polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene; they reported their previous history of aggression and their dispositional reward-seeking. Lower-functioning DRD2 profiles were associated with greater sensation-seeking, which then predicted greater aggression. Our findings suggest that lower-functioning dopaminergic activity puts individuals at risk for violence because it motivates them to experience aggression's hedonically rewarding qualities. PMID:26592425

  18. Utilization of reward-prospect enhances preparatory attention and reduces stimulus conflict.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Berry; Krebs, Ruth M; Lorist, Monicque M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2014-06-01

    The prospect of gaining money is an incentive widely at play in the real world. Such monetary motivation might have particularly strong influence when the cognitive system is challenged, such as when needing to process conflicting stimulus inputs. Here, we employed manipulations of reward-prospect and attentional-preparation levels in a cued-Stroop stimulus conflict task, along with the high temporal resolution of electrical brain recordings, to provide insight into the mechanisms by which reward-prospect and attention interact and modulate cognitive task performance. In this task, the cue indicated whether or not the participant needed to prepare for an upcoming Stroop stimulus and, if so, whether there was the potential for monetary reward (dependent on performance on that trial). Both cued attention and cued reward-prospect enhanced preparatory neural activity, as reflected by increases in the hallmark attention-related negative-polarity ERP slow wave (contingent negative variation [CNV]) and reductions in oscillatory Alpha activity, which was followed by enhanced processing of the subsequent Stroop stimulus. In addition, similar modulations of preparatory neural activity (larger CNVs and reduced Alpha) predicted shorter versus longer response times (RTs) to the subsequent target stimulus, consistent with such modulations reflecting trial-to-trial variations in attention. Particularly striking were the individual differences in the utilization of reward-prospect information. In particular, the size of the reward effects on the preparatory neural activity correlated across participants with the degree to which reward-prospect both facilitated overall task performance (shorter RTs) and reduced conflict-related behavioral interference. Thus, the prospect of reward appears to recruit attentional preparation circuits to enhance processing of task-relevant target information. PMID:24820263

  19. Dopamine Depletion Reduces Food-Related Reward Activity Independent of BMI.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sabine; Veit, Ralf; Sauer, Helene; Enck, Paul; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Unholzer, Theresa; Bauer, Ute-Maria; Linder, Katarzyna; Heni, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and possible alterations in the dopaminergic-reward system are associated with obesity. We therefore aimed to investigate the influence of dopamine depletion on food-reward processing. We investigated 34 female subjects in a randomized placebo-controlled, within-subject design (body mass index (BMI)=27.0 kg/m(2) ±4.79 SD; age=28 years ±4.97 SD) using an acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion drink representing dopamine depletion and a balanced amino acid drink as the control condition. Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a 'wanting' and 'liking' rating of food items. Eating behavior-related traits and states were assessed on the basis of questionnaires. Dopamine depletion resulted in reduced activation in the striatum and higher activation in the superior frontal gyrus independent of BMI. Brain activity during the wanting task activated a more distributed network than during the liking task. This network included gustatory, memory, visual, reward, and frontal regions. An interaction effect of dopamine depletion and the wanting/liking task was observed in the hippocampus. The interaction with the covariate BMI was significant in motor and control regions but not in the striatum. Our results support the notion of altered brain activity in the reward and prefrontal network with blunted dopaminergic action during food-reward processing. This effect is, however, independent of BMI, which contradicts the reward-deficiency hypothesis. This hints to the hypothesis suggesting a different or more complex mechanism underlying the dopaminergic reward function in obesity. PMID:26450814

  20. Neural Reward Processing Mediates the Relationship between Insomnia Symptoms and Depression in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Keenan, Kate E.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Emerging evidence suggests that insomnia may disrupt reward-related brain function—a potentially important factor in the development of depressive disorder. Adolescence may be a period during which such disruption is especially problematic given the rise in the incidence of insomnia and ongoing development of neural systems that support reward processing. The present study uses longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that disruption of neural reward processing is a mechanism by which insomnia symptoms—including nocturnal insomnia symptoms (NIS) and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)—contribute to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Participants were 123 adolescent girls and their caregivers from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. NIS and NRS were assessed annually from ages 9 to 13 years. Girls completed a monetary reward task during a functional MRI scan at age 16 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed at ages 16 and 17 years. Multivariable regression tested the prospective associations between NIS and NRS, neural response during reward anticipation, and the mean number of depressive symptoms (omitting sleep problems). Results: NRS, but not NIS, during early adolescence was positively associated with late adolescent dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) response to reward anticipation and depressive symptoms. DMPFC response mediated the relationship between early adolescent NRS and late adolescent depressive symptoms. Conclusions: These results suggest that NRS may contribute to depression by disrupting reward processing via altered activity in a region of prefrontal cortex involved in affective control. The results also support the mechanistic differentiation of NIS and NRS. Citation: Casement MD, Keenan KE, Hipwell AE, Guyer AE, Forbes EE. Neural reward processing mediates the relationship between insomnia symptoms and depression in adolescence. SLEEP 2016;39(2):439–447

  1. Role of dopamine tone in the pursuit of brain stimulation reward.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Trujillo-Pisanty, Ivan; Cossette, Marie-Pierre; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Dopaminergic neurons contribute to intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and other reward-seeking behaviors, but it is not yet known where dopaminergic neurons intervene in the neural circuitry underlying reward pursuit or which psychological processes are involved. In rats working for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle, we assessed the effect of GBR-12909 (1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)-methoxy]ethyl]-4-[3- phenylpropyl]piperazine), a specific blocker of the dopamine transporter. Operant performance was measured as a function of the strength and cost of electrical stimulation. GBR-12909 increased the opportunity cost most subjects were willing to pay for a reward of a given intensity. However, this effect was smaller than that produced by a regimen of cocaine administration that drove similar increases in nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine levels in unstimulated rats. Delivery of rewarding stimulation to drug-treated rats caused an additional increase in dopamine concentration in the NAc shell in cocaine-treated, but not GBR-12909-treated, rats. These behavioral and neurochemical differences may reflect blockade of the norepinephrine transporter by cocaine but not by GBR-12909. Whereas the effect of psychomotor stimulants on ICSS has long been attributed to dopaminergic action at early stages of the reward pathway, the results reported here imply that increased dopamine tone boosts reward pursuit by acting at or beyond the output of the circuitry that temporally and spatially summates the output of the directly stimulated neurons underlying ICSS. The observed enhancement of reward seeking could be attributable to a decrease in the value of competing behaviors, a decrease in subjective effort costs, or an increase in reward-system gain. PMID:22875936

  2. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  3. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  4. Trading Later Rewards for Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Negash, Sesen; Sheppard, Nicole Van Ness; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Fincham, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    Internet pornography is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has grown increasingly accessible. Delay discounting involves devaluing larger, later rewards in favor of smaller, more immediate rewards. The constant novelty and primacy of sexual stimuli as particularly strong natural rewards make Internet pornography a unique activator of the brain's reward system, thereby having implications for decision-making processes. Based on theoretical studies of evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics, two studies tested the hypothesis that consuming Internet pornography would relate to higher rates of delay discounting. Study 1 used a longitudinal design. Participants completed a pornography use questionnaire and a delay discounting task at Time 1 and then again four weeks later. Participants reporting higher initial pornography use demonstrated a higher delay discounting rate at Time 2, controlling for initial delay discounting. Study 2 tested for causality with an experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to abstain from either their favorite food or pornography for three weeks. Participants who abstained from pornography use demonstrated lower delay discounting than participants who abstained from their favorite food. The finding suggests that Internet pornography is a sexual reward that contributes to delay discounting differently than other natural rewards. Theoretical and clinical implications of these studies are highlighted. PMID:26305628

  5. Developmental changes in brain function underlying the influence of reward processing on inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Geier, Charles F; Ordaz, Sarah J; Teslovich, Theresa; Luna, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by changes in motivational and cognitive brain systems. However, the development of the interactions between reward and cognitive control processing are just beginning to be understood. Using event-related functional neuroimaging and an incentive modulated antisaccade task, we compared blood-oxygen level dependent activity underlying motivated response inhibition in children, adolescents, and adults. Behaviorally, children and adolescents performed significantly worse than adults during neutral trials. However, children and adolescents showed significant performance increases during reward trials. Adults showed no performance changes across conditions. fMRI results demonstrated that all groups recruited a similar circuitry to support task performance, including regions typically associated with rewards (striatum and orbital frontal cortex), and regions known to be involved in inhibitory control (putative frontal and supplementary eye fields, and posterior parietal cortex, and prefrontal loci). During rewarded trials adolescents showed increased activity in striatal regions, while adults demonstrated heightened activation in the OFC relative to children and adolescents. Children showed greater reliance on prefrontal executive regions that may be related to increased effort inhibiting responses. Overall, these results indicate that response inhibition is enhanced with reward contingencies over development. Adolescents’ heightened response in striatal regions may be one factor contributing to reward-biased decision making and perhaps risk taking behavior. PMID:21966352

  6. Maternal Depression and Warmth During Childhood Predict Age 20 Neural Response to Reward

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Early parenting experiences likely shape children’s brain development, with consequences potentially extending into adulthood. Parents’ affective disorders and expressions of positive affect could exert an influence on affect-related circuitry. The current study evaluated how maternal depression and maternal warmth assessed in early childhood and early adolescence were related to boys’ reward function during early adulthood. Method Participants were 120 boys at socioeconomic risk for emotional problems. Mothers’ history of depression during the child’s lifetime was measured when boys were 42 months old and 10/11 years old. Maternal warmth was observed during mother–child interactions at 18 and 24 months and at 10 and 11 years. Results Maternal warmth during early childhood was associated with less activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when anticipating and experiencing reward loss. Maternal warmth during early adolescence was associated with less activation in the mPFC when winning rewards and greater activation in the caudate when experiencing loss. The association between maternal warmth during early childhood and early adolescence and reward function in the striatum and mPFC was stronger for boys exposed to maternal depression relative to boys who were not. Conclusions The experience of warmth and affection from mothers may be a protective factor for reward function in boys exposed to maternal depression, possibly by engaging vulnerable neural reward systems through affiliation. PMID:24342390

  7. The Social Brain and Reward: Social Information Processing in the Human Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Bhanji, Jamil P.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    In the highly social life of humans, rewards that are sought and experienced are intertwined with social relationships and interactions between people. Just as we value non-social rewards such as food or money, we also value social outcomes (e.g., praise from a superior). We use social information to evaluate and form expectations of others and to make decisions involving others. Here we review research demonstrating how the neural circuitry of reward, particularly the striatum, is also involved in processing social information and making decisions in social situations. This research provides an understanding of the neural basis for social behavior from the perspective of how we evaluate social experiences and how our social interactions and decisions are motivated. We review research addressing the common neural systems underlying evaluation of social and non-social rewards. The human striatum, known to play a key role in reward processing, displays signals related to a broad spectrum of social functioning, including evaluating social rewards, making decisions influenced by social factors, learning about social others, cooperating, competing, and following social norms. PMID:24436728

  8. Neural sensitivity to social reward and punishment anticipation in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Henk R.; Veer, Ilya M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance in the neural motivational system may underlie Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). This study examines social reward and punishment anticipation in SAD, predicting a valence-specific effect: increased striatal activity for punishment avoidance compared to obtaining a reward. Individuals with SAD (n = 20) and age, gender, and education case-matched controls (n = 20) participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a Social Incentive Delay (SID) task to measure the anticipation of social reward and punishment. The left putamen (part of the striatum) showed a valence-specific interaction with group after correcting for medication use and comorbidity. The control group showed a relatively stronger activation for reward vs. punishment trials, compared to the social anxiety group. However, post-hoc pairwise comparisons were not significant, indicating that the effect is driven by a relative difference. A connectivity analysis (Psychophysiological interaction) further revealed a general salience effect: SAD patients showed decreased putamen-ACC connectivity compared to controls for both reward and punishment trials. Together these results suggest that the usual motivational preference for social reward is absent in SAD. In addition, cortical control processes during social incentive anticipation may be disrupted in SAD. These results provide initial evidence for altered striatal involvement in both valence-specific and valence-nonspecific processing of social incentives, and stress the relevance of taking motivational processes into account when studying social anxiety. PMID:25601830

  9. The habenula governs the attribution of incentive salience to reward predictive cues

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Carey L.; Shepard, Paul D.; Elmer, Greg I.

    2013-01-01

    The attribution of incentive salience to reward associated cues is critical for motivation and the pursuit of rewards. Disruptions in the integrity of the neural systems controlling these processes can lead to avolition and anhedonia, symptoms that cross the diagnostic boundaries of many neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here, we consider whether the habenula (Hb), a region recently demonstrated to encode negatively valenced events, also modulates the attribution of incentive salience to a neutral cue predicting a food reward. The Pavlovian autoshaping paradigm was used in the rat as an investigative tool to dissociate Pavlovian learning processes imparting strictly predictive value from learning that attributes incentive motivational value. Electrolytic lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus (fr), the sole pathway through which descending Hb efferents are conveyed, significantly increased incentive salience as measured by conditioned approaches to a cue light predictive of reward. Conversely, generation of a fictive Hb signal via fr stimulation during CS+ presentation significantly decreased the incentive salience of the predictive cue. Neither manipulation altered the reward predictive value of the cue as measured by conditioned approach to the food. Our results provide new evidence supporting a significant role for the Hb in governing the attribution of incentive motivational salience to reward predictive cues and further imply that pathological changes in Hb activity could contribute to the aberrant pursuit of debilitating goals or avolition and depression-like symptoms. PMID:24368898

  10. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  11. The CB1 Receptor as an Important Mediator of Hedonic Reward Processing

    PubMed Central

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex—the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing. PMID:24718372

  12. The CB1 receptor as an important mediator of hedonic reward processing.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex-the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing. PMID:24718372

  13. ‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2009-01-01

    What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders. PMID:19336238

  14. [Influences on the amount of the reward: how five-year-old children distribute rewards].

    PubMed

    Tsutsu, Kiyomi

    2010-08-01

    Five-year-old children were presented two stories in which each of two characters made different numbers of Origami stars; the total number of stars was 16 in one story and 12 in the other. The children allocated rewards to the characters and justified their allocations. There were three conditions in which the total number of rewards was equal to (Middle-N), less than (Small-N), or more than (Large-N) the total number of stars in each story. Most children allocated the rewards equally to the two characters in the Small-N condition, while almost half of the children did not employ an equal allocation in the Middle-N and Large-N conditions. This suggests that in the Small-N condition, if an equity-like allocation were employed, children would feel sorry for the character given very few rewards, and therefore they distributed the rewards equally. On the other hand, in the Middle-N and Large-N conditions, even when one character received fewer rewards than the other, the children did not feel that the fewer rewards were too few. PMID:20845725

  15. Reward from bugs to bipeds: a comparative approach to understanding how reward circuits function.

    PubMed

    Scaplen, Kristin M; Kaun, Karla R

    2016-06-01

    In a complex environment, animals learn from their responses to stimuli and events. Appropriate response to reward and punishment can promote survival, reproduction and increase evolutionary fitness. Interestingly, the neural processes underlying these responses are remarkably similar across phyla. In all species, dopamine is central to encoding reward and directing motivated behaviors, however, a comprehensive understanding of how circuits encode reward and direct motivated behaviors is still lacking. In part, this is a result of the sheer diversity of neurons, the heterogeneity of their responses and the complexity of neural circuits within which they are found. We argue that general features of reward circuitry are common across model organisms, and thus principles learned from invertebrate model organisms can inform research across species. In particular, we discuss circuit motifs that appear to be functionally equivalent from flies to primates. We argue that a comparative approach to studying and understanding reward circuit function provides a more comprehensive understanding of reward circuitry, and informs disorders that affect the brain's reward circuitry. PMID:27328845

  16. Reward from bugs to bipeds: a comparative approach to understanding how reward circuits function

    PubMed Central

    Scaplen, Kristin M.; Kaun, Karla R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In a complex environment, animals learn from their responses to stimuli and events. Appropriate response to reward and punishment can promote survival, reproduction and increase evolutionary fitness. Interestingly, the neural processes underlying these responses are remarkably similar across phyla. In all species, dopamine is central to encoding reward and directing motivated behaviors, however, a comprehensive understanding of how circuits encode reward and direct motivated behaviors is still lacking. In part, this is a result of the sheer diversity of neurons, the heterogeneity of their responses and the complexity of neural circuits within which they are found. We argue that general features of reward circuitry are common across model organisms, and thus principles learned from invertebrate model organisms can inform research across species. In particular, we discuss circuit motifs that appear to be functionally equivalent from flies to primates. We argue that a comparative approach to studying and understanding reward circuit function provides a more comprehensive understanding of reward circuitry, and informs disorders that affect the brain’s reward circuitry. PMID:27328845

  17. MEASURING BELIEFS AND REWARDS: A NEUROECONOMIC APPROACH*

    PubMed Central

    Caplin, Andrew; Dean, Mark; Glimcher, Paul W.; Rutledge, Robb B.

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to the emerging discipline of neuroeconomics; it is hypothesized to encode the difference between expected and realized rewards and thereby to mediate belief formation and choice. We develop the first formal test of this theory of dopaminergic function, based on a recent axiomatization by Caplin and Dean [2008A]. These tests are satisfied by neural activity in the nucleus accumbens, an area rich in dopamine receptors. We find evidence for separate positive and negative reward prediction error signals, suggesting that behavioral asymmetries in response to losses and gains may parallel asymmetries in nucleus accumbens activity. PMID:25018564

  18. Employee benefits in a total rewards framework.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jane; Hein, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Benefits represent one of the largest investments a company makes in its talent. However, our tendency can be to design, deliver and communicate benefits programs independently, without fully considering how those programs fit within a bigger picture of total rewards. Sure, we need to manage and execute individual benefit programs--but not at the expense of getting a real return on our more significant investment in talent. This article provides employers with perspectives on the value of managing benefits within the broader framework of total rewards, why it works and, most importantly, how to make it work. PMID:23488085

  19. Long term voluntary wheel running is rewarding and produces plasticity in the mesolimbic reward pathway

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Foley, Teresa E.; Le, Tony V.; Strong, Paul V.; Loughridge, Alice B.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Fleshner, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders and is a potential target of plasticity underlying the stress resistance produced by repeated voluntary exercise. It is unknown, however, whether rats find long-term access to running wheels rewarding, or if repeated voluntary exercise reward produces plastic changes in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. In the current studies, young adult, male Fischer 344 rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for 6 weeks, but not 2 weeks, found wheel running rewarding, as measured by conditioned place preference (CPP). Consistent with prior reports and the behavioral data, 6 weeks of wheel running increased ΔFosB/FosB immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). In addition, semi quantitative in situ hybridization revealed that 6 weeks of wheel running, compared to sedentary housing, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), increased delta opioid receptor (DOR) mRNA levels in the Acb shell, and reduced levels of dopamine receptor (DR)-D2 mRNA in the Acb core. Results indicate that repeated voluntary exercise is rewarding and alters gene transcription in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. The duration-dependent effects of wheel running on CPP suggest that as the weeks of wheel running progress, the rewarding effects of a night of voluntary wheel running might linger longer into the inactive cycle thus providing stronger support for CPP. The observed plasticity could contribute to the mechanisms by which exercise reduces the incidence and severity of substance abuse disorders, changes the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, and facilitates successful coping with stress. PMID:21070820

  20. Academic medicine and the search for meaning and purpose.

    PubMed

    Souba, Wiley W

    2002-02-01

    The transformation of the health care industry into a marketplace governed by commercialism and free competition challenges the doctrine of medicine as a profession valuing service to the patient above financial reward. Many physicians have become disenchanted with their ability to serve as advocates for and provide care to their patients. Financial success, the measure of the marketplace, has become the dominant standard of measurement or "value" for most academic medical centers (AMCs). Many doctors report their work is less fulfilling. As a result, all three social missions-patient care, teaching, and research-are in jeopardy. The growth of modernism, preeminence of biomedical research, and dominance of a market-driven clinical enterprise will continue to pose challenges to the health care system in the United States. However, AMCs can provide the leadership and serve as the ambassadors through which the health care system can be renewed with a sense of direction and purpose. Renewal must begin with more open discourse about what we value in health care and what kind of medical profession we want to have, to include addressing questions such as: What does it mean to be an academic physician? What gives my work meaning and purpose? This kind of dialogue could easily be built into the medical students' curricula and residency training programs, with the faculty taking the lead. PMID:11841973